WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary risks linked

  1. Wastes and health: representation of sanitary risks linked to wastes and to their processing modes; Dechets et sante: representations des risques sanitaires lies aux dechets et a leurs modes de traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuilier, D.; Cochin, Y.

    1999-10-01

    This research has for objective the analysis of perception of sanitary risks in relation with wastes and the waste processing facilities. This work in at the intersection of the sociological study and the psychologic one. (N.C.)

  2. Erika: evaluation of residual sanitary risks linked to the beaches-going after cleaning-up; Erika: evaluation des risques sanitaires residuels lies a la frequentation des plages apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sanitary risks for the populations frequenting the coast beaches affected by the fuel oils of the tanker Erika, after their cleaning up. This quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks is led according to a protocol developed jointly between the two institutes ( the national institute of industrial environment and risks, I.N.E.R.I.S., and the national institute of sanitary watch I.n.V.S.). It does not give the risks in function the residual pollution level of concerned beaches but supplies to the authorities elements of scientific information in order to allow them to choose criteria appropriate for the management of eventual residual risks. (N.C.)

  3. Ants avoid superinfections by performing risk-adjusted sanitary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pull, Christopher D; Metzler, Sina; Seif, Katharina; Naderlinger, Elisabeth; Grasse, Anna V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-03-13

    Being cared for when sick is a benefit of sociality that can reduce disease and improve survival of group members. However, individuals providing care risk contracting infectious diseases themselves. If they contract a low pathogen dose, they may develop low-level infections that do not cause disease but still affect host immunity by either decreasing or increasing the host's vulnerability to subsequent infections. Caring for contagious individuals can thus significantly alter the future disease susceptibility of caregivers. Using ants and their fungal pathogens as a model system, we tested if the altered disease susceptibility of experienced caregivers, in turn, affects their expression of sanitary care behavior. We found that low-level infections contracted during sanitary care had protective or neutral effects on secondary exposure to the same (homologous) pathogen but consistently caused high mortality on superinfection with a different (heterologous) pathogen. In response to this risk, the ants selectively adjusted the expression of their sanitary care. Specifically, the ants performed less grooming and more antimicrobial disinfection when caring for nestmates contaminated with heterologous pathogens compared with homologous ones. By modulating the components of sanitary care in this way the ants acquired less infectious particles of the heterologous pathogens, resulting in reduced superinfection. The performance of risk-adjusted sanitary care reveals the remarkable capacity of ants to react to changes in their disease susceptibility, according to their own infection history and to flexibly adjust collective care to individual risk.

  4. Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) Marine Safety Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    NMSRA National Maritime Strategic Risk Assessment NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking PFD Personal flotation device PIW Person in the water PWC...barriers’ purpose is to limit the spread of various nuisance species, with a more-recent emphasis on preventing the “lake-ward” influx of silver and...crewmembers at risk of falling overboard, anyone on open decks was required to wear a Type 1 personal flotation device (PFD). • Commercial towing vessels

  5. Nuclear power plants and prevention of sanitary risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    1977-01-01

    The radioprotection specialists know that people irradiation can cause fearful diseases even to their descendance. So they wanted to predict the upper limit of the damage that could be caused by irradiations at the limits of radioprotection doses of IRCP standards recommended for the whole population. For their previsional calculations, they admitted the proportionality between the most fearful risks and the accumulated individual dose, whatever the time is. According to such an hypothesis, the previsional damage would be proportional to the population dose. Observed damages on accidentally or experimentally irradiated population will be compared to the previsional damage, calculated from the values generally admitted for the risks. The author will consider the risks which are usually taken in account in the protection of people against the hazard of nuclear power plants such as: leukemia, thyroid cancer. Such comparisons will allow to propose, in the field of radioprotection: to abandon the hypothesis of proportionality between the risk and the dose; to admit a practical threshold dose for each of the most fearful effects; to admit the same radiation protection standards for eveyone; to try to interpret facts until then unnoticed, or when they have been seen, called 'paradoxical'; these facts may be due to the stimulating effect of a suitable dose of ionizing radiation. Such a stimulating effect is well known by the radiologists, but some of the latter are afraid of secondary delate effects. This new field of research may be as useful to radiotherapy as to radioprotection [fr

  6. Risk assessment of radionuclide discharges to sanitary sewers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galpin, F.L.; Merrell, G.; Rogers, V.C.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes the basic approach and conduct of a study of the possible risks and consequences of radionuclide discharges into a sewage treatment system. The study's objective was to determine if there were any possible significant exposures to either WSSC workers or the public form the discharge of radioactive material into the sewer system. The conduct of this study included a review of applicable regulations, and a case study of some past contamination events. The evaluation of potential occupational exposures involved measurements in the collection system were selected based on their location relative to potential dischargers. Measurement points at the treatment works were selected at points where biosolids might accumulate. Both passive, (TLD) and active, (scintillation detector) measurements were made. A limited number of samples were taken and analyzed. Potential doses to the public were estimated based on the possible pathways to man. Due both to limited resources and other project constraints several assumptions and bounding calculations were necessary to meet the objective. Although the study concluded that there were no present significant health concerns, followup evaluations were recommended. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicolella, A.

    2000-03-01

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  8. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, A.; Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.

    2010-01-01

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  9. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  10. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  12. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  14. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  15. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  17. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  18. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  19. Evaluation of the residual sanitary risk for people spending time on the beaches polluted by the Erika fuel, after the depollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dor, F.; Gourier-Frery, C.; Zmirou, D.; Cicolella, A.; Bonnard, R.; Dujardin, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the short dated and long dated sanitary risks for adults and children who are going to spend time on the beach affected by the Erika fuel, after the depollution. 36 beaches were selected and 7 beaches which were not polluted, were taking as a reference. The methodology, the analysis of the data and the results are described. (A.L.B.)

  20. The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: Using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Maud; Alarcon, Pablo; Karani, Maurice; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Onono, Joshua; Fèvre, Eric M; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Livestock food systems play key subsistence and income generation roles in low to middle income countries and are important networks for zoonotic disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use a value chain framework to characterize the broiler chicken meat system of Nairobi, its governance and sanitary risks. A total of 4 focus groups and 8 key informant interviews were used to collect cross-sectional data from: small-scale broiler farmers in selected Nairobi peri-urban and informal settlement areas; medium to large integrated broiler production companies; traders and meat inspectors in live chicken and chicken meat markets in Nairobi. Qualitative data were collected on types of people operating in the system, their interactions, sanitary measures in place, sourcing and selling of broiler chickens and products. Framework analysis was used to identify governance themes and risky sanitary practices present in the system. One large company was identified to supply 60% of Nairobi's day-old chicks to farmers, mainly through agrovet shops. Broiler meat products from integrated companies were sold in high-end retailers whereas their low value products were channelled through independent traders to consumers in informal settlements. Peri-urban small-scale farmers reported to slaughter the broilers on the farm and to sell carcasses to retailers (hotels and butcheries mainly) through brokers (80%), while farmers in the informal settlement reported to sell their broilers live to retailers (butcheries, hotels and hawkers mainly) directly. Broiler heads and legs were sold in informal settlements via roadside vendors. Sanitary risks identified were related to lack of biosecurity, cold chain and access to water, poor hygiene practices, lack of inspection at farm slaughter and limited health inspection in markets.
 Large companies dominated the governance of the broiler system through the control of day-old chick production. Overall government control was described as

  1. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  2. Solidarity: an innovative perspective in the management and organization of Sanitary Surveillance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This is a theoretical essay about the development of the concept of solidarity, a word used in the regulatory framework and in political proposals to reorient the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The methodology consisted of mapping authors addressing human action aspects related to this theme from Durkheim's tradition, linking them to his followers, like Marcel Mauss and authors from the "anti-utilitarianism" movement in social sciences. Solidarity is one way to express a "gift" and appears as a multidimensional action, where duty and freedom, instrumental interest and disinterest interpose and interlace. The planning and execution of sanitary surveillance (VISA) actions requires comprehension of organizational forms and solidary relationship management among agents involved in health risk control, transcending the strongly normative aspect of the prevailing supervision actions. The development of associative actions involving sanitary surveillance professionals, economic agents and consumers, aiming to share the responsibilities in the health risk control of products, services and environments subjected to Sanitary Surveillance action is suggested.

  3. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  4. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations; Evaluation des risques sanitaires et environnementaux resultant du naufrage de l'ERIKA et des operations de nettoyage des cotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicolella, A

    2000-03-15

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  5. The sanitary approach: risk assessment according to the usable drainage techniques; L'approche sanitaire: evaluation des risques selon les techniques d'evacuation utilisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouthon, G. [Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d' Alfort, 94 - Maison-Alfort (France)

    2003-02-01

    Sludges are by-products of waste water processing facilities. These sludges contain organic matter which can be valorized in agriculture, but they also contain microorganisms (parasites, bacteria, viruses, prions, dioxines), noxious compounds like heavy metals and persistent organic micro-pollutants. Valorization processes are developed to reduce the sanitary and environmental risks of sludges which are reviewed in this article: metal micro-pollutants (origin, physico-chemical state, transfer in the soil, accumulation in plants and soils, remobilization by erosion, French legislation about trace elements content); organic micro-pollutants (nature, public health risks, transfer in plants and environments, regulation); pathogenic microorganisms in sludges (content, abatement by spreading); valorization of urban and industrial sludges (disposal, spreading in agriculture, heavy metals elimination using Ondeo's 'Metix' process, incineration and valorization of combustion products); other valorization ways (biogas production, use as fuel for cement plants, phosphorous extraction). (J.S.)

  6. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks; Hydroelectricite: les risques sanitaires pour l'adduction d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, A. [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - AFSSA, DERNS - Unite d' Evaluation des Risques Lies a l' Eau - UERE, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B. [Comite d' Experts Specialise Eaux de l' AFSSA, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Fourrier, P. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire 75 - Paris (France); Levi, Y. [Paris-11 Univ., Faculte de Pharmacie, Lab. Sante Publique Environnement, 91 - Orsay (France); Potelon, J.L. [Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Sante Publique - EHESP, 35 - Rennes (France); Welte, B. [Eau de Paris, 75 (France)

    2010-11-15

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  7. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  8. Rosacea and Helicobacter pylori: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaridou E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Lazaridou,1 Chrysovalantis Korfitis,2 Christina Kemanetzi,1 Elena Sotiriou,1 Zoe Apalla,1 Efstratios Vakirlis,1 Christina Fotiadou,1 Aimilios Lallas,1 Demetrios Ioannides1 1First Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Dermatology, 401 General Army Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by facial erythema and telangiectasia. Despite the fact that many hypotheses have been proposed, its etiology remains unknown. In the present review, the possible link and clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of rosacea are being sought. A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed using the terms “rosacea”, “H.pylori”, “gastrointestinal disorders and H.pylori”, “microorganisms and rosacea”, “pathogenesis and treatment of rosacea”, and “risk factors of rosacea”, and selected publications were studied and referenced in text. Although a possible pathogenetic link between H. pylori and rosacea is advocated by many authors, evidence is still interpreted differently by others. We conclude that further studies are needed in order to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of rosacea. Keywords: eradication, Helicobacter pylori, pathogenesis, rosacea

  9. Compulsive exercise: links, risks and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mia Beck Lichtenstein,1 Cecilie Juul Hinze,2 Bolette Emborg,3 Freja Thomsen,2 Simone Daugaard Hemmingsen4 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, 2Research Unit for Telepsychiatry and E-mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Research Unit, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder in either International Classification of Diseases or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The aim of this literature review was to critically examine the research on links (comorbidity, risks (negative consequences, and challenges faced (problems in a treatment context. This review found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy. This review summarizes and discusses findings on links/comorbidity, risks/negative consequences, and treatment challenges. We suggest that future studies should pay attention to both prevention and counseling in sports settings, where compulsive exercise

  10. Problems and prospects for maintaining the register of sanitary and epidemiological objects of surveillance for the tasks of the transition to risk-oriented model of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the formation of regional databases of the objects of sanitary-epidemiological surveillance for the tasks of sequential evaluation of each object having the potential risk to the citizens of the affected areas of these objects, e.g. workers, consumers of products or services. The basic structure of the information system is demonstrated. The system is oriented to be used together with the DBMS MS Access. The system performs the manual quiding function for the register and implements the calculation algorithm of the health risk indicators and classification of the objects of surveillance. Approaches to the formation of the system have been tested in Perm, Lipetsk, Kaluga, Omsk regions as part of a pilot project of the Federal Service on Surveillance for Consumer rights protection and human well-being. The problems of the registers’ formation are in the fact of scares operational entering of the significant amount of information, that has been accumulated in Administration offices of Rospotrebnadzor, but do not exist in the form of electronic databases. The relevant issue is the development of guidance documents to ensure unified approaches to the registers’ formation and risk calculation in relation to population census under the influence of various activities.

  11. To estimation of health risks of workers during classification of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and planning of state control (by the example of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When estimating of health risks of workers for planning tasks of audits of compliance with health legislation on facilities of Moscow, it is found that most often non-compliances with requirements for working conditions are registered in industrial enterprises, among other, on wood-shaving material production facilities; air and water transport facilities, and in a number of communication facilities. The most serious consequences of breach of statutory requirements for working conditions are typical for activity in the sphere of motor transport and industrial production. It is defined by the structure of the types of deterioration of health among which there are traumas, diseases of a cardiovascular and nervous system. Analysis of more than 35.5 thousand facilities of sanitary and epidemiological supervision showed that the highest levels of health risks for workers are formed on industrial facilities (the risks are classified as “average”, “significant” and “high”, in construction («significant» or «moderate», on a number of manufacturing activities and in energy engineering. For the mentioned facilities the risks to workers can define the main class of an object based on the risk of infliction of harm, in general, the audits must be based on profound analysis of working conditions and include a complete complex of laboratory researches. When checking of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, carrying out such kinds of activity as chain retailing, provision of services health care, education, etc., the highest risks are formed for consumers of goods and services. On these facilities the control in the sphere of occupational hygiene can occupy a smaller share in a total volume of a scheduled activity. Relevant direction of further perfection of the risk-based surveillance is formation of an exhaustive list of the statutory requirements for working conditions with differentiation of these requirements on levels of severity

  12. Linking Measured Risk Aversion to Individual Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Jonker, N.

    2002-01-01

    From the stated price of a specified lottery in three unrelated surveys we deduce individuals' Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion. We find that risk aversion indeed falls with income and wealth. Entrepreneurs are less risk averse than employees, civil servants are more risk averse than private

  13. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  14. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill

  16. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  17. Substantiation of optimum fill rate of the groups according to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of preschool educational institutions and risks of violations of children's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Rakitskiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of children in groups of preschool educational institutions (PEI of more than 22 people is accompanied by a deterioration of sanitary and hygienic state of the premises of group cells by chemical, biological and physical indicators. In the densely populated groups the content of phenol and formaldehyde in the air of playing and sleeping rooms reaches 2.2–4.6 MAC daily average, for 30 % increases the air contamination by the conditionally pathogenic flora (St. aureus, the level of noise impact during gaming sessions is up to 80 dBA. Direct dependence between the increase of morbidity of children by the allergic diseases of the respiratory organs and the skin, functional gastrointestinal disorders, acute viral and bacterial diseases and urinary tract infections with the index of fill rate of PEI groups (R 2 = 0,32–0,89; r≤0,035–0,0001 has been correlated. The risk of violations of physical development and development delay of biological maturation of children is increased by more than 1.5–2.0 times (OR = 1,51–2,17; DI = 1,1–3,01; p = 0.01–0.03 and reduce of the adaptive reserve of the cardiovascular, respiratory and autonomic nervous system and the development of functional disorders, including cognitive, increases in 1,2–10,0 times (OR = 1,2–10,11; DI = 1,11–18,81; p = 0.01–0.04. Longtime combined effects of chemical, biological and physical factors determine the formation of chronic physiological distress syndrome in children, manifesting by a change in metabolism, haematopoiesis, decreased cellular activity and humoral immune response, a violation of the intracellular mechanisms of antioxidant protection (p = 0,0001–0,017. The results of sanitaryhygienic, clinical laboratory and mathematical methods of research have established that the optimum fill rate of groups of standard PEIs of general developmental orientation should not exceed 14–16 children and the standard of playing or sleeping

  18. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  19. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  20. [Sanitary control of food in Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, C; Vázquez-Barojas, S; Kawashima-Hashimoto, L; Farías-Rodríguez, A; García-Juárez, C

    1989-01-01

    This work was undertaken as to avoid health risks to tourism in the "XIIth Soccer World Cup, Mexico 86". The above project was carried out through proper quality control of foods, drinking water as well as a definite care of personal hygiene of all those involved in the catering business (132 restaurants were included). The mentioned report informs only of the work of the National Public Health Laboratory in the Sanitary Epidemiological Program. The following products were analyzed: 133 water samples, 272 animated and nonliving surfaces, and 399 foods. Twenty seven percent of water samples were rejected, as well as 85% of the different surfaces and 60% of the food samples. High counts of mesophilic aerobics, followed by coliforms, S. aureus and Salmonella sp., were the principal specimens encountered. Therefore, it was suggested the permanent development of a sanitary epidemiological program.

  1. Sanitary-epidemiologic service in Perm region: 95th anniversary (dedicated to Russian Sanitary-epidemiologic service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kostarev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the first stages of sanitary activities development in Perm region. We highlight the fact that it was Perm where I.I. Molessson, the first official sanitary inspector in Russia, worked. Here one of the first sanitary inspection of a whole region was performed and "Perm sanitary bulletin" was first published. It was in Perm, where the first sanitary office was established in 1890, and in 1898 the first bacteriological laboratory was organized. Bodies and institutions of Rospotrebnadzor in Perm region are known to be founded on September 15, 1922, when a Decree by Russian People's Commissars Council "On the Republic's sanitary bodies" was issued. A sanitary-hygienic faculty of Perm Medical Institute was set up in 1931 and it gave grounds for preparing qualified sanitary inspectors for state sanitary authorities. We described basic tasks which were tackled by sanitary inspectors during the Great Patriotic War and just after it. Rospotrebnadzor activities are proved to make for substantial improvements of sanitary-epidemiologic situation in the region. Currently more than 95 % of population are provided with drinking water which fully corresponds to the sanitary legislation requirements. We note constant improvements in catering objects quality and we also see that a quantity of food samples taken at such objects which don't correspond to hygienic standards remains stably low. A share of working places deviating from hygienic standards as per noise, vibration, and illumination, has reduced. Medical examinations are now available to 97.9 % of workers functioning under hazardous (dangerous working conditions. The lowest occupa-tional morbidity level over the last few years was registered in Perm region in 2016. The Service was among the first in the country to transfer to result-oriented budgeting and risk-oriented surveillance model. Organizational structure is constantly being developed; new legal, economic and organizational

  2. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  3. Biological, epidemiological, sanitary-hygienic, medical and behavioral occupational health risk factors for stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises, contacting brucellar animals and infected meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ereniev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied sanitary-hygienic characteristics of working conditions, charts with results of sanitary-epidemiologic examination performed in a zoogenous nidus, outpatient clinic cards and questionnaires filled in by 202 patients living in Omsk region and suffering from occupational brucellosis. The disease usually prevails among stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises. Our goal was to detect risks of occupational, production-induced and general pathology evolvement. Working conditions which all the examined people had to work in corresponded to hazardous (3.3 or even dangerous (4 category as per occurrence of contacts with infectious agents and parasites (biological risk. Apart from biological factor, a number of workers were under complex exposure to ammonia concentrations (higher than MPC, noise higher than MPL, vibration, cooling microclimate, uncomfortable lighting environment, labor process hardness and intensity. There were several factors causing epidemiologic risks as well. Disinfectants were absent or their quantity was not sufficient; industrial and amenity rooms were not well-organized; there was no central hot water supply or shower rooms, separate rooms for meals, specialized implements for removing abortus and stillborn fetuses and afterbirths, correctly organized burial grounds, or first aid kits. Hygienic health risks were caused by insufficient cleaning agents supply, absence of centralized protecting clothing laundering, and insufficient provision with personal protection means. Occupational health risks resulted from absence of preliminary medical examinations in standard recruitment procedures, irregularity and low quality of periodical medical examinations. Our qualitative assessment of behavioral health risks revealed that a lot of workers tended to have irresponsible medical and hygienic behavior, there were disorders in their work and rest regime (shift work with shifts rotation

  4. Recommendation of the 19 july 2000 ''sanitary risks control of the polluted soils by an industrial activity''; Recommandation du 19 juillet 2000 ''surveillance des risques sanitaires lies aux sols pollues par une activite industrielle''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Compare to the laws of the air and water domain, the soils appeared like an affected sector by the environmental policy. This paper proposes actions and elements taken into account concerning the polluted soils. The types of sites and the type of pollution, the good evaluation conditions of the sanitary risks and the general frame of the recommendation are presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. [Cannabis use and risk of psychosis, an etiological link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoux, Hélène; Tournier, Marie

    2004-04-24

    CANNABIS TO TREAT PSYCHOSIS: The nature of the link between cannabis use and psychosis remains to be clarified. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with psychosis use cannabis more often than other individuals in the general population. It has long been considered that this association was explained by the self-medication hypothesis, postulating that cannabis is used to self-medicate psychotic symptoms. This hypothesis has been recently challenged. PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS ENHANCED BY CANNABIS: Several prospective studies carried out in population-based samples, showed that cannabis exposure was associated with an increased risk of psychosis. A dose-response relationship was found between cannabis exposure and risk of psychosis, and this association was independent from potential confounding factors such as exposure to other drugs and pre-existence of psychotic symptoms. The brain mechanisms underlying the association have to be elucidated; they may implicate deregulation of cannabinoid and dopaminergic systems. A RISK FACTOR NOT TO BE NEGLECTED: Cannabis exposure may be a risk factor for psychotic disorders by interacting with a pre-existing vulnerability for these disorders. If further studies confirm that cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis, its impact on the population's mental health may not be negligible considering the growing number of adolescents exposed to this substance.

  6. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  7. Cannabis use and risk of psychosis: an etiological link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoux, Helene; Tournier, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the link between cannabis use and psychosis remains to be clarified. The paper reviews the evidence suggesting that cannabis may be a risk factor for psychosis onset. Cross-sectional and retrospective epidemiological studies show that individuals with psychosis use cannabis more often than other individuals in the general population. It has long been considered that this association is explained by the self-medication hypothesis, postulating that cannabis is used to self-medicate psychotic symptoms. This hypothesis has been recently challenged by several prospective studies carried out in population-based samples, showing that cannabis exposure is associated with an increased risk of psychosis, possibly by interacting with a pre-existing vulnerability for these disorders. A dose-response relationship was found between cannabis exposure and risk of psychosis, and this association was independent from potential confounding factors such as exposure to other drugs and pre-existence of psychotic symptoms. However, the diagnostic specificity is weak, as cannabis exposure may be a risk factor for the occurrence of a large spectrum of psychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to mood and anxiety disorders. Considering the growing number of adolescents exposed to cannabis, the impact of this substance on the population mental health should be further explored.

  8. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  9. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the residual sanitary risk for people spending time on the beaches polluted by the Erika fuel, after the depollution; Evaluation du risque sanitaire residuel pour les populations frequentant les plages polluees par le fioul rejete par l'ERIKA, apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor, F.; Gourier-Frery, C.; Zmirou, D. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cicolella, A.; Bonnard, R.; Dujardin, R. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

    2004-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the short dated and long dated sanitary risks for adults and children who are going to spend time on the beach affected by the Erika fuel, after the depollution. 36 beaches were selected and 7 beaches which were not polluted, were taking as a reference. The methodology, the analysis of the data and the results are described. (A.L.B.)

  11. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitary operations. 416.4 Section 416... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces of... compounds, sanitizing agents, processing aids, and other chemicals used by an establishment must be safe and...

  12. Law no. 2001-398 of the 9 may 2001 creating a french Agency of sanitary and environmental safety (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This law text indicates the goal and the missions of the french sanitary and environmental safety Agency, defined by the law no.2001-398: to assure the public health the Agency has to contribute to the the sanitary safety in the environment domain and to evaluate the risk bonded to the environment. (A.L.B)

  13. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  14. Actual situation of knowledge relative to the sanitary risks linked to the production, the transport and the use of various energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to optimize the energy production it is necessary to evaluate the effects of each energy sources on environment ( essentially pollution and greenhouse effect) and on health. It is the object of this colloquium. The energy sources are coal, petroleum, gas and nuclear power. The comparison is made on three levels: quality of epidemiological data, relevance of modeling, precision of results. It must lead to define studies that should be made to check the validity of hypothesis and models. (N.C.)

  15. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-01-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  16. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  17. Problems of sanitary-hygienic arrangements in case of emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Borisov, B.K.; Volkov, N.N.; Grachev, M.I.; Korostin, A.S.; Prostakishin, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The planning and carrying out sanitary-hygienic arrangements in emergency situation are based on scientific-research, organizing-methodical and practical trends of activities including: the necessity of taking into consideration the risk of sanitary-hygienic complications as a result of emergency situation; elaboration of criteria and classification of hazards potential danger of industrial plants and territories; the establishment of system of providing sanitary-hygienic measures in emergency situation; working out prophylactic measures for prevention, localization and liquidation of sanitary-hygienic after-effects of emergency situation; development of the system of control and express-analysis of hazardous factors; elaboration of rating-methodical base and arrangements aimed at protection of health and life of people. 5 refs

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  19. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Chaban; Z.I. Shevtsova; V.V. Gaponov

    2017-01-01

    The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Slovi...

  20. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandatory requirements of the economic entities, performing economic or other activities. The sanitary-epidemiological audit may be associated with a system of certification for compliance with sanitary requirements and may assume the documented confirmation of the compliance issued by the authorized persons. The sanitary-epidemiological audit and the compliance certification to mandatory sanitary requirements can make an alternative to the planned supervision activities on facilities attributed to the category of low and moderate risk of harm to human health. The Russian sanitary legislation does not recognize the sanitary-epidemiological audit as a form of conformity assessment. The analysis of the international experience shows that it is necessary to consolidate the general rules and regulations of the sanitary-epidemiological audit at the legislative level and to develop a set of sublegislative documents in order to implement these norms. The crucial is a creation of the national system capable to regulate the registration and functioning of the organization having a right to conduct the audit activities in the field of hygienic safety. It is reasonable to develop the regulation on the list-register of auditors and to create a special training system for the auditors, who possess the methodology for health risk assessment. The key aspect of the successful introduction of the audit is a granting of presences to the economic entities having compliance

  1. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  2. Do sanitary ceramic workers have a worse presentation of chest radiographs or pulmonary function tests than other ceramic workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Tsao

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that sanitary ceramic workers were at a similar risk to other ceramic workers for moderate to severe silicosis when older age and longer working duration were accounted for.

  3. Familial risk and sibling mentalization: Links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-09-01

    The current study explored whether older sibling mentalization moderated the relationship between familial risk for internalizing symptoms and the development of future internalizing problems in the younger siblings, referred to as target children. Data were collected on 397 older siblings at Time 1 (T1) when target children were newborn and their older siblings were on average 2.61 years old (SD = .75). Target children were on average 1.60 years old at Time 2 (T2). Internalizing problems were assessed via mother and partner reports. Familial risk was operationalized as the average of all older siblings' level of internalizing problems. Older sibling mentalization, indexed by internal state talk and reasoning, was observed and coded during a sibling pretend-play interaction at T2. Results revealed a significant interaction between familial risk of internalizing problems and older siblings' mentalizing abilities, showing that familial risk was related to target children's internalizing problems in the absence of sibling mentalization. Familial risk was not associated with target children's internalizing problems when siblings demonstrated mentalizing abilities. Findings support the need to consider sibling mentalization as a protective factor for children's internalizing problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Proposal for the reinforcement of the environmental sanitary safety; Proposition pour un renforcement de la securite sanitaire environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegrzulka, O; Aschieri, A [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    Facing the context of the public reliance crisis, the sanitary risks bound to the environment became more and more important. This report asked by the first Minister of France, takes stock on the government policy in this domain and the today institutions. The first part defines the problematic of the sanitary risks bound to the environment, the second one shows the non adapted answer offered by the actual government and the last one proposes new procedures and actions.

  5. Empirical Investigation of the Link Between Systematic Risk and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... relatively small shifts in beta around anticipated announcements of large firms. The opposite is true for small firms. We also document a positive association between the proxy for the precision of the announced news and the level of systematic risk around earnings and dividends released dates. African Journal of Finance ...

  6. Linking Risk Management Practices and Strategies to Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich. This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively. Purpose – The effects of supply chain risk management (SCRM) on the performance of a supply chain remain unexplored. It is assumed that SCRM helps supply chains to cope with...

  7. Linking indices for biodiversity monitoring to extinction risk theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT AND EXPERTISE: Biotechnology Risk Regulation in Europe: Linking Precaution with Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidow Les

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In the risk debate over genetically modified (GM crops, their status as ‘‘environmentally-friendly products’’ has been controversial. The 1990 precautionary legislation of the European Union was designed to anticipate potential harm from GMOs in advance. Yet the acceptability of harm - or even its definition - has been contentious in evaluating commercial products. The legislation has been interpreted in ways which implicitly link concepts of precaution and ‘‘sustainable development’’. In the mid-1990s risk regulation, the European Union framed ‘‘risk’’ within a commitment to intensive agriculture. Its familiar hazards were accepted as a normal baseline for evaluating the effects of GM crops. The regulatory procedure regarded choices of crop protection measures as irrelevant or interchangeable, and therefore regarded some future options as dispensible, regardless of whether they would be environmentally preferable. At least implicitly, safety claims presupposed environmental advantages of GM crops in reducing agrochemical usage. That risk-framing came under challenge from widespread protest and expert disagreements. In response, some governments applied more precautionary measures. They broadened the definition of the ‘‘adverse effects’’ which must be avoided, devised market-stage precautions for such effects, and increased the burden of evidence for demonstrating safety. Soon the EU-wide procedure began to formalize such approaches. In the contested definitions of relevant harm, there are deeper issues about the sort of environment which should be protected, sustained or created. Thus GM crops have become a test case for environmental norms, within a broader debate about how to construct a sustainable agriculture.

  10. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Chaban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Sloviansk resort, was the editor of a local newspaper. V.T. Skrylnikov is an author of many works on balneotherapy.

  11. [Evaluation of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in public and philanthropic daycare centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana de Novaes; Brasil, Anne Lise Dias; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo using a tool of easy application. Information on the hygienic-sanitary conditions was gathered observing the operational conditions of five public and philanthropic daycare centers in the city of São Paulo. A score was developed for classifying the risks of food contamination. The operational conditions in the kitchens of the studied philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo can result in contamination of the prepared food. Among the most important risk factors for food contamination is the behavior of the workers who handle the food. Training and continuous supervision of the involved personnel are the best and easiest alternatives for assuring the appropriate hygienic-sanitary conditions and quality of the food offered to the children in these daycare centers.

  12. Unraveling the link between managerial risk-taking and innovation: The mediating role of a risk-taking climate

    OpenAIRE

    García-Granero , Ana; Llopis , Óscar; Fernández-Mesa , Anabel; Alegre , Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Scholars have proposed that taking risks in organizations is important for explaining innovation performance. Scholars traditionally have analyzed this link from two unconnected perspectives. From a managerial perspective, entrepreneurial orientation and leadership theories have been used to explain the positive relation between risk taking and innovation. From an employee perspective, creativity theory suggests that a risk-taking climate helps to explain innovative be...

  13. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  14. Linking Indices for Biodiversity Monitoring to Extinction Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009. Conectando Índices para el Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad con la Teoría de Riesgo de Extinción Resumen Los índices de biodiversidad combinan frecuentemente los datos de diferentes especies cuando se usan en los programas de monitoreo. Las propiedades heurísticas pueden sugerir índices preferidos, pero carecemos de medios objetivos para discriminar a los índices con propiedades heurísticas similares. Los índices de biodiversidad pueden evaluarse al determinar qué tan bien reflejan los objetivos de manejo que un programa de monitoreo busca apoyar. Por ejemplo, la Convención sobre la Diversidad Biológica requiere reportar las tasas de extinción, así que los

  15. The Weakest Link: The Risks Associated with Social Networking Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Lehrman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively rapid rise in popularity of social networking services is now well known. MySpace, Twitter, and Facebook have become well known sites and terms. According to the Web traffic tracking site Alexa.com, as of December 2009, Facebook had 350 million registered users, MySpace just under 475 million, and Twitter 44.5 million. Many people think very little of posting prodigious amounts of personal information on social networking sites, not realizing that this information puts them at risk. Specifically, those in the law enforcement and military communities may not realize that information posted on these sites can compromise operational security and potentially endanger lives. In July 2009, the Associated Press ran a story which was picked up by most major news outlets in the USA, in which it was reported that the wife of the incoming head of Britain's MI6 intelligence agency had posted pictures and family details on her Facebook page. Astonishingly, there were those that argued that this was not a security breach! Although it is true that, in general, photos of a vacationing family would not be considered sensitive, when you consider that the family taking the vacation includes the head of the British foreign intelligence service, it is easy to see how this kind of exposure could open the door to potential blackmail.We are all too aware of the possibility of terrorist "sleeper cells" living among typical American families under false identities. It is vital to understand how these individuals melt into the crowd, hiding their true identities while they hatch their nefarious plots. Recent events in Denver and New York City only serve to underscore the urgency of this need. This article will examine social networking in the context of social engineering. There are no easy or fast solutions to this problem, and this paper does not pretend to propose any. Rather, it is the purpose of this paper to enhance understanding of this very critical

  16. [Sanitary education of workers of bakeries and pastry enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'shchikov, M I; Nemets, M G; Novikova, O V; Gavrilenko, E V; Osipova, E M; Osinova, T I

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents experience with sanitary education of workers from food industrial enterprises. The study revealed a number of disadvantages of the methodological aspect of sanitary education of these workers. A sanitary education programme has been worked out for workers engaged in food and food processing industries (production of bread, baked goods, and confectionery) and approved by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department), Ministry of Health of Russia on March 1999.

  17. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35... is not considered water of a safe, sanitary quality as required for use in bottled water by paragraph... comply with bottled water quality standards (§ 165.110(b) of this chapter) and section 402(a)(1) and (a...

  18. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  19. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  20. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into the...

  1. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  2. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  3. Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaidy Suianny Rocha de Moura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Moura E.S.R., Abrantes M.R., Mendes C.G., Oliveira A.R.M, Souza E.S. & Silva J.B.A. [Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses.] Perfil higiênico-sanitário e perigos microbiológicos em abatedouros públicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:203-208, 2015. Departamento de Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: jeanberg@ufersa.edu.br The aim of this study was to evaluate hygienic and sanitary conditions of municipal slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Norte. Through a check list, hygienic conditions of establishments and handlers were observed and the percentage of compliance was rated excellent (≥ 80%, good (60 to 79.9%, regular (40 to 59.9% and poor (<40%, according to official standards established by Brazilian legislation. Ten water samples were collected to analyze total and thermotolerant coliforms; and 200 swab samples, including 150 from the utensils, equipment, handlers, and cattle carcasses were investigated for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteria, and 50 from the environment for Listeria sp. research. It was noted, through the check list, the existence of various inadequate parameters when compared to those established, and required by law. According to the percentage of compliance found in abattoirs during the assessment visits, no slaughterhouse was rated as excellent, only one was considered good, one was classified as regular and three were considered poor. As for the microbiological analyzes, the presence of coliforms was confirmed in water from two slaughterhouses. High bacteria counts were found in swabs from tools, handlers, and cattle carcasses, and the presence of Listeria sp. was observed in three slaughterhouses. Therefore, the precarious sanitary conditions of the municipal slaughterhouses studied in Rio Grande do Norte represent a risk to

  4. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  5. Discussion of a method for providing general risk information by linking with the nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Yokomizo, Shirou; Umezawa, Sayaka

    2004-06-01

    'Risk information navigator (http://www.ricotti.jp/risknavi/)', an internet tool for arousing public interest and fostering people's risk literacy, has been developed as the contents for the official website of Techno Community Square 'RICOTTI' (http://www.ricotti.jp) at TOKAI village. In this report we classified the risk information into the fields, Health/Daily Life', 'Society/Crime/Disaster' and Technology/Environment/Energy', for the internet tool contents. According to these categories we discussed a method for providing various risk information on general fields by linking with the information on nuclear field. The web contents are attached to this report with the CD-R media. (author)

  6. Frequency of anti hepatitis C virus antibodies amongst sanitary workers in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.Z.; Razzaq, K.; Ansari, J.K.; Niazzi, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti Hepatitis C Virus antibodies in sanitary workers at Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to identify additional risk factors in them for hepatitis C infection. Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Department of medicine, Military Hospital (M.H.), Rawalpindi, Pakistan over six months. Patients and Methods: All sanitary workers working at Military Hospital Rawalpindi were tested for anti HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA. Results: Six percent of the study population was found to be positive for anti HCV antibodies. Conclusion: The frequency of anti HCV antibodies is fairly high in sanitary workers, working in this tertiary care hospital studied. HCV infection is more frequent in those sanitary workers who have longer duration of service. (author)

  7. Linking Risk Management Practices and Strategies to Performance. Case Study: Ceramic and Tiles Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Khanzadeh Charkhab; Mohammad Reza Eslami; Hassan Dehghan Dehnavi

    2014-01-01

    The supply chain is a network of independent and linked organizations that cooperate in direction to controlling, managing and improving of material and information flow from suppliers to final consumers in order to meet satisfaction of client. Supply chain risk management (SCRM) is very important in industry especially that goes to long supply chains. SCRM process focus on recognition of existing risk and decrease of undesired effect in supply chains, it consists of recognition, assessment, ...

  8. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  9. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  10. A Framework for Linking Population Model Development with Ecological Risk Assessment Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of models that link organism‐level impacts to the responses of a population in ecological risk assessments (ERAs) has been demonstrated extensively over the past few decades. There is little debate about the utility of these models to translate multiple organism&#...

  11. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  12. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking...comprehensive evaluation of biological safety zones for diving marine mammals . In this way we intend to identify those marine mammal species or specific...improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring

  13. Health risk assessment linked with purified biogas injection in a natural gas distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, Carole; Modelon, Hugues; Rousselle, Christophe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Evanno, Sebastien

    2009-06-01

    This document provides for the opinion of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (Afsset) expressed after the collective expertise carried out for the evaluation of the health risk linked with biogas injection in the natural gas distribution system. Following the recommendations issued by the Afsset, works have been started in order to collect the sludge-derived biogas and to analyse its composition. These data will be used to assess accidental risks (resulting from biogas valorisation, pipeline transport, industrial and domestic energy valorisation) as well as health risks for users (resulting from the injection in the natural gas distribution system)

  14. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  15. [Pesticide exposure and its repercussion in the health of sanitary agents in the State of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estelita Pereira; Lopes, Suziy de Matos Bandeira; Amorim, Maria Iracema Mariano de; Araújo, Laura Helena Silva; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Maia, Evanira Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Sanitary agents are the most exposed ones to the effects of insecticides in eradication campaigns since its preparation until its application inside and outside houses. The lack of protection equipment and misinformation on how to use the material properly increase the risk of intoxication. The aim of this work was to analyze the occupational history of vector control sanitary agents in Ceará State, Brazil and its effects on their health. Individual recorded interviews were done with 10 agents who verbally described their life history. The content of these interviews were analyzed through the following categories: agent profile, endemic controls, work conditions, risks and health changes. Health risk situations were described from acute and chronic intoxication to problems with alcoholism. The research showed that sanitary agents have been disrespected as human beings as well as their labor rights, showing negligence by their employers.

  16. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  17. Florence Nightingale and the India sanitary reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C

    1989-09-01

    After the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale persisted in researching the health conditions of British troops throughout the Empire. Undaunted by geographic limitations, she surveyed and publicized data that documented the mismanagement of living conditions and health care among the occupational forces on the Indian continent. Nightingale proposed widespread changes in the reporting of military health status and biostatistics, in sanitary engineering, and in self-care activities. With dogged persistence, she continued to gather follow-up data to measure the changing health status of soldiers in a land she never saw.

  18. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linking rural community livelihoods to resilience building in flood risk reduction in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gwimbi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of disastrous flooding events and the mounting losses in both life and property values in Zimbabwe have drawn attention to the flooding situation in the country, especially the rural areas. This article explores the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to flood risks associated within increasingly frequent and severe events linked to climate change. Starting by reviewing the current literature on rural livelihoods, resilience and vulnerability research, the paper argues for a coordinated teamwork approach in flood risk mitigation in rural areas. The paper concludes with several recommendations for enhanced resilience to flood hazards.

  20. Explosion risks linked to red oils in the spent fuels reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the risk of explosion associated with reactions between tributyl phosphate (TBP) and its degradation products and nitrates from nitric acid or associated with heavy metals (uranium and plutonium); These reactions may lead to the formation of unstable compounds known as 'red oils'. The feedback explosions linked to the formation of such compounds occurring in spent fuel reprocessing plants round the world, is briefly discussed. The main measures to control these risks, implemented in French factories concerned are also presented. (N.C.)

  1. Gender differences in the link between childhood socioeconomic conditions and heart attack risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil-Luker, Jenifer; O'Rand, Angela M

    2007-02-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is predictive of disease risk in later life, with those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to experience poor adult-health outcomes. Most of these studies, however are based on middle-aged male populations and pay insufficient attention to the pathways between childhood risks and specific adult disorders. This article examines gender differences in the link between childhood SES and heart attack risk trajectories and the mechanisms by which early environments affect future disease risk. By using methods that model both latent and path-specific influences, we identify heterogeneity in early life conditions and human, social, and health capital in adulthood that contribute to diverse heart attack risk trajectories between and among men and women as they age into their 60s and 70s. We find that key risk factors for heart attack operate differently for men and women. For men, childhood SES does not differentiate those at low, increasing, and high risk for heart attack. In contrast, women who grew up without a father and/or under adverse economic conditions are the most likely to experience elevated risk for heart attack, even after we adjust for the unequal distribution of working and living conditions, social relationships, access to health care, and adult lifestyle behaviors that influence health outcomes.

  2. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 71.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary...

  3. The link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gavan

    2011-09-15

    Personality type has a very important impact on many occupations and on day-to-day life. A 2006 survey found that over 80% of all electricians have an extrovert profile which is related to risk-bearing (agreeableness) and risk-taking. Non-critical, occupational electrical and powerline accidents doubled from 1998 to 2006. Other trade workers (not electricians) suffer 80% of all occupational deaths due to electrical contact. And young, single, male, extroverted, electrical apprentices are the most vulnerable workers when around electricity. Electricians are vulnerable to electrical accidents. They lack in-depth, day-to-day, supervised training around electricity. By researching the link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury, we can determine which types of workers' profile we need on the job site. Training, education, communications and rehabilitation plans can be modified to safeguard workers' safety.

  4. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  5. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  7. Using risk maps to link land value damage and risk as basis of flexible risk management for brownfield redevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-02-01

    Brownfield redevelopment involves numerous uncertain financial risks associated with market demand and land value. To reduce the uncertainty of the specific impact of land value and social costs, this study develops small-scale risk maps to determine the relationship between population risk (PR) and damaged land value (DLV) to facilitate flexible land reutilisation plans. This study used the spatial variability of exposure parameters in each village to develop the contaminated site-specific risk maps. In view of the combination of risk and cost, risk level that most affected land use was mainly 1.00×10(-6) to 1.00×10(-5) in this study area. Village 2 showed the potential for cost-effective conversion with contaminated land development. If the risk of remediation target was set at 5.00×10(-6), the DLV could be reduced by NT$15,005 million for the land developer. The land developer will consider the net benefit by quantifying the trade-off between the changes of land value and the cost of human health. In this study, small-scale risk maps can illuminate the economic incentive potential for contaminated site redevelopment through the adjustment of land value damage and human health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O. E. Ebbesson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.

  9. [To the 90th anniversary of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service Formation in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, E N; Podunova, L G

    2012-01-01

    State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training of the Ministry of Health Care and Social Development Foundation of Russian Sanitary Epidemiologic Service dates back to September, 15, 1922, when a Decree on Sanitary Institutions of the Republic was signed. Afterwards the institutions of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service were improved: foundation of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1933-1951), approval of new concept of the Service and intensification of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1951-1991), foundation of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service, centralization of management and financing of the Service, formation of Sanitary Epidemiologic Legislation (1991-2004), further restructurization of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service in accordance with administrative changes in Russia (2004 until now).

  10. [Sanitary and epidemiological conditions in the Lodz region during the period of the second Polish Republic in the XIX and XX centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history of European agglomerations in the nineteenth and twentieth century the relation between expanding industry and worsening sanitary and epidemiological conditions was seen. These changes, having great impact on public health, were investigated in the present study. Problems related to sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz first emerged during the Russian occupation of Poland in the XIX century. The Russian Governing Council was not overseeing sanitary conditions of the city, and transferred this responsibility to the industrial bourgeoisie of Lodz. In this situation, uncontrolled development of the industry led to serious deterioration in natural environment and increase of risk for acute and chronic infectious diseases. Improvement of the sanitary situation in Lodz commenced in the period of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939). Sanitary Divisions were created at the Lodz Department of Public Health. Activities in this Department involved, among others, detailed epidemiological examination of potable water, the investigation of manufacturing processes, retail and wholesale groceries, hygienic conditions of public housing. The activity and interventions of Sanitary Divisions contributed substantially to a decrease of incidence of various diseases and improvement of living conditions of the Lodz populations. The improvement of sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz after 1918 was mainly related to the construction of water supply and sewage systems. This led to an approximation of the urban standards of this 500,000 population agglomeration to European standards.

  11. Linking Climate Risk, Policy Networks and Adaptation Planning in Public Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, M.; Schwartz, M.; Peters, C.

    2014-12-01

    Federal public land management agencies in the United States have engaged a variety of planning efforts to address climate adaptation. A major goal of these efforts is to build policy networks that enable land managers to access information and expertise needed for responding to local climate risks. This paper investigates whether the perceived and modeled climate risk faced by different land managers is leading to larger networks or more participating in climate adaptation. In theory, the benefits of climate planning networks are larger when land managers are facing more potential changes. The basic hypothesis is tested with a survey of public land managers from hundreds of local and regional public lands management units in the Southwestern United States, as well as other stakeholders involved with climate adaptation planning. All survey respondents report their perceptions of climate risk along a variety of dimensions, as well as their participation in climate adaptation planning and information sharing networks. For a subset of respondents, we have spatially explicity GIS data about their location, which will be linked with downscaled climate model data. With the focus on climate change, the analysis is a subset of the overall idea of linking social and ecological systems.

  12. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  13. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  14. Linking Classroom Environment with At-Risk Engagement in Science: A Mixed Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephen Craig

    This explanatory sequential mixed-method study analyzed how the teacher created learning environment links to student engagement for students at-risk across five science classroom settings. The learning environment includes instructional strategies, differentiated instruction, positive learning environment, and an academically challenging environment. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered in the form of self-reporting surveys and a follow-up interview. The researcher aimed to use the qualitative results to explain the quantitative data. The general research question was "What are the factors of the teacher-created learning environment that were best suited to maximize engagement of students at-risk?" Specifically explaining, (1) How do the measured level of teacher created learning environment link to the engagement level of students at-risk in science class? and (2) What relationship exists between the student perception of the science classroom environment and the level of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social engagement for students at-risk in science class? This study took place within a large school system with more than 20 high schools, most having 2000-3000 students. Participating students were sent to a panel hearing that determined them unfit for the regular educational setting, and were given the option of attending one of the two alternative schools within the county. Students in this alternative school were considered at-risk due to the fact that 98% received free and reduced lunch, 97% were minority population, and all have been suspended from the regular educational setting. Pairwise comparisons of the SPS questions between teachers using t-test from 107 students at-risk and 40 interviews suggest that each category of the learning environment affects the level of behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and social engagement in science class for students at-risk in an alternative school setting. Teachers with higher student perceptions of

  15. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrodin, Yves, E-mail: yves.perrodin@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Donguy, Gilles [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Emmanuel, Evens [Laboratoire de Qualité de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Université Quisqueya, BP 796 Port-au-Prince (Haiti); Winiarski, Thierry [Université de Lyon, ENTPE, UMR CNRS 5023, Laboratoire LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France)

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a “threshold effect” (risk quotient < 1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a “non-threshold effect”, with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10{sup −6}). - Highlights: • The release of polluted dredged seaport sediments into the sea must be avoided. • Their use after treatment for the filling-up of quarries is proposed by managers. • An original health risk assessment methodology was created to validate this option. • It includes the use of a lysimeter and a georadar for the exposure assessment stage. • The example studied concludes to a health risk linked to arsenic in the groundwater.

  16. Young people's beliefs about the risk of bowel cancer and its link with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Katie V; Cook, Chloe; Meisel, Susanne F; Webb, Thomas L; Fisher, Bernadette; Fisher, Abi

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective was to explore young people's risk appraisals of bowel cancer, including whether they had a coherent understanding of the protective effects of physical activity (PA). A secondary objective was to examine whether the illness risk representations (IRRs) framework could be used to understand beliefs underlying bowel cancer risk appraisals. Qualitative. Framework analysis of semi-structured interviews with 19 people aged 14-17 years. Participants judged their risk of getting bowel cancer as low. This was based on a lack of family history of cancer and their current lifestyle behaviours, which were viewed as having a protective effect, or because they planned on making change to their lifestyle in the future when disease risk became more relevant. Participants were not aware of, and struggled to understand, the link between PA and bowel cancer. They also lacked knowledge of the effects of, or treatments for, bowel cancer. Beliefs underlying judgements about the risk of bowel cancer fitted the IRR framework reasonably well. The present research suggests that interventions designed to increase PA with a view to reducing the risk of bowel cancer should aim to make the future risk of bowel cancer feel more tangible, help young people to understand the full range of consequences, explain how and why preventative behaviours such as PA are effective in reducing risk, and emphasize that the typical late presentation of symptoms, and therefore investigation by health care services, reduces treatability. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Physical activity (PA) performed throughout the lifespan can have a protective effect on bowel cancer, but levels of PA are low among young people. Changing beliefs about the risk of getting bowel cancer may be a useful strategy in motivating PA. What does this study add? Increased understanding of how young people think about bowel cancer and the relationship between PA and cancer

  17. Decentralised systems and fuel poverty: Are there any links or risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the possible links between the development of decentralised or distributed energy systems and the problem of fuel poverty in the UK. The discussion takes on board that decentralised energy systems can take many different forms, in the range of potential technologies that can be used for the local microgeneration of electricity and heat and in the range of ways in which the installation, ownership, operation, networking and maintenance of these technologies can be organised [Walker, G., Cass, N., 2007. Carbon reduction, 'the public' and renewable energy: engaging with sociotechnical configurations. Area 39(4), 458-469; Watson, J., Sauter, R., Bahaj, B., James, A., Myers, L., Wing, R., 2006. Unlocking the Power House: Policy and System Change for Domestic Microgeneration in the UK. SPRU, Brighton]. The focus is on housing and, in particular, on those forms of housing occupied by social groups vulnerable to fuel poverty. Both potential negative links (or risks) and positive links between decentralised generation and fuel poverty are considered. As this is a new area, there is comparatively little literature to draw on and there are significant gaps in knowledge, so some of the discussion is necessarily rather speculative

  18. Genetic moderation of multiple pathways linking early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources and life stressors are mediating pathways explaining socioeconomic variation in young adults' health risks. However, less research has examined both these pathways simultaneously and their genetic moderation. A nationally representative sample of 11,030 respondents with prospective data collected over 13 years from the National Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was examined. First, the association between early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' (ages 25-34) cardiometabolic disease risk, as measured by 10 biomarkers, through psychosocial resources (educational attainment) and life stressors (accelerated transition to adulthood) was examined. Second, moderation of these pathways by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) was examined. There was evidence for the association between early socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through educational attainment and accelerated transitions. These direct and mediating pathways were amplified by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. These findings elucidate how early adversity can have an enduring influence on young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through psychosocial resources and life stressors and their genetic moderation. This information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should focus on early adversity, youth educational attainment, and their transition to young adulthood.

  19. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  20. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Gastrointestinal symptoms and autism spectrum disorder: links and risks – a possible new overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasilewska J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jolanta Wasilewska, Mark Klukowski Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology and Allergology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental brain disorder presenting with restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities, or persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction. ASD is characterized by many different clinical endophenotypes and is potentially linked with certain comorbidities. According to current recommendations, children with ASD are at risk of having alimentary tract disorders – mainly, they are at a greater risk of general gastrointestinal (GI concerns, constipation, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. GI symptoms may overlap with ASD core symptoms through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include multilevel pathways in the gut–brain axis contributing to alterations in behavior and cognition. Shared pathogenetic factors and pathophysiological mechanisms possibly linking ASD and GI disturbances, as shown by most recent studies, include intestinal inflammation with or without autoimmunity, immunoglobulin E-mediated and/or cell-mediated GI food allergies as well as gluten-related disorders (celiac disease, wheat allergy, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, visceral hypersensitivity linked with functional abdominal pain, and dysautonomia linked with GI dysmotility and gastroesophageal reflux. Dysregulation of the gut microbiome has also been shown to be involved in modulating GI functions with the ability to affect intestinal permeability, mucosal immune function, and intestinal motility and sensitivity. Metabolic activity of the microbiome and dietary components are currently suspected to be associated with alterations in behavior and cognition also in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. All the above-listed GI factors may contribute to brain dysfunction and neuroinflammation depending upon

  2. Factors associated with sanitary conditions of food and drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Food borne illness has been a global challenge and it persisted as a ... an absence of sanitary facilities for waste management was major cause. ... inspection on the establishments to promote and ensure proper hygiene and ...

  3. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a “threshold effect” (risk quotient −6 ). - Highlights: • The release of polluted dredged seaport sediments into the sea must be avoided. • Their use after treatment for the filling-up of quarries is proposed by managers. • An original health risk assessment methodology was created to validate this option. • It includes the use of a lysimeter and a georadar for the exposure assessment stage. • The example studied concludes to a health risk linked to arsenic in the groundwater

  4. NPAS2 and PER2 are linked to risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Arpo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian circadian clocks control multiple physiological events. The principal circadian clock generates seasonal variations in behavior as well. Seasonality elevates the risk for metabolic syndrome, and evidence suggests that disruption of the clockwork can lead to alterations in metabolism. Our aim was to analyze whether circadian clock polymorphisms contribute to seasonal variations in behavior and to the metabolic syndrome. Methods We genotyped 39 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP from 19 genes which were either canonical circadian clock genes or genes related to the circadian clockwork from 517 individuals drawn from a nationwide population-based sample. Associations between these SNPs and seasonality, metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were analyzed using regression analysis. The p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Results Our findings link circadian gene variants to the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome, since Npas2 was associated with hypertension (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.0024 and Per2 was associated with high fasting blood glucose (P-value corrected for multiple testing = 0.049. Conclusion Our findings support the view that relevant relationships between circadian clocks and the metabolic syndrome in humans exist.

  5. Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition link vitamin B6 catabolism and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tell, Grethe S.; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but

  6. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but

  7. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  8. Variant in GALNT3 Gene Linked with Reduced Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liwei; Li, Duan; Li, Mengting; Li, Lin; Huang, Yanmei

    2017-07-01

    Our previous study found expression of GALNT3 gene was reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, and it contributed to endothelial injury by regulating apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. GALNT3 gene may be a potential target for future therapeutic intervention of CAD. However, none reports linking the GALNT3 gene to susceptibility of CAD. This study investigated the variant associations of GALNT3 gene and CAD. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in and around the GALNT3 gene were tagged and analyzed in CAD patients (n = 1515) and control individuals (n = 5019), and the SNPs with CAD were tested with multiple logistic regression analysis in an additive genetic model (with one degree of freedom) after adjusting for age and sex. Expression of GALNT3 gene was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. Luciferase reporter assays were used to detect the allele-specific effect of rs4621175 on transcriptional activity. Two GALNT3 markers, rs13427924 and rs4621175, were significantly associated with CAD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, p = 1.01 × 10 -3 and OR = 0.75, p = 2.51 × 10 -4 , respectively), and the risk A allele of rs4621175 was associated with lower GALNT3 expression in both mRNA and protein level; also, A allele showed decreased reporter activity. In addition, we found the level of GALNT3 negatively correlated with MMP-2 gene expression. This study identified GALNT3 as a novel gene that rendered patients susceptible to CAD, and the A allele of a disease-associated variant rs4621175 linked reduced CAD risk through decreased GALNT3 expression. These results confirmed the role of GALNT3 gene in CAD and provided new insights into the genetic regulation of the GALNT3 gene with respect to the pathogenesis of CAD.

  9. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  10. Organization of setting-up sanitary pass-control regime and sanitary treatment of injured persons in case of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, A.S.; Klochkov, V.N.; Yatsenko, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of sanitary pass-control regime is to prevent propagation of radioactive contamination outside the area of emergency-rescue works and guarantee of sanitary treatment of all persons having radioactive contamination. The paper has studied the questions of organization of sanitary pass-control regime, arrangement of sanitary treatment of the injured persons and rendering first aid in case of radioactive contamination of wounds. 5 refs

  11. Behavior of radionuclides in sanitary landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K C; Chian, E S; Pohland, F G; Cross, W H; Roland, L; Kahn, B

    1984-01-01

    his study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of disposing low-level radioactive waste in sanitary landfills with leachate containment to prevent environmental releases. To meet this objective, two simulated landfills, each 200 l. in volume and containing 55 kg of municipal refuse, were operated in the laboratory with simulated rainfall additions for a 9-month period to observe the extent to which radio-cobalt, -cesium, -strontium and tritium were leached into the liquid phase. One of the units was operated with leachate recycle, the other as a single pass control. Liquid samples were analyzed weekly for 3H, 58Co, 85Sr and 134Cs tracers. Weekly analyses were also performed for approximately 30 parameters to define the degree of stabilization of the waste. Major parameters included BOD, COD, pH and concentrations of specific organics, metals and gases. Concentrations of stable cobalt, strontium and cesium were also measured periodically. Soluble radioactivity levels in both systems were reduced by factors of 50 for 58Co, 5 for 85Sr and 7 for 134Cs, taking radioactive decay and dilution into account. Some radionuclide removal from the liquid phase was associated with major chemical changes in the landfills that occurred within 80 days for the control system and within 130 days for the recycle unit. Observed acid, sulfide, and CO2 concentrations suggested mechanisms for removing some of the radionuclides from leachate. Detection of 3H in the off-gas indicated that less than 1% of tritiated waste became airborne. The waste in the leachate recycle unit was more completely stabilized than in the control unit.

  12. Evaluación higiénica de riesgos biológicos del trabajo en estabulario de un centro de investigación sanitaria Biological risk assesment in animal facilities of a sanitary investigation centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Miraz Novás

    2008-12-01

    muy práctica a la hora de sistematizar evaluaciones de elevada complejidad dada por su característica de indeterminación de presencia de los agentes biológicos, si bien su aplicación se ve drásticamente mermada debido a la ausencia de datos estadísticos fiables sobre variables determinantes como duración de incapacidades temporales o tasas de incidencias para muchos agentes biológicos. El método proporciona orientación sobre el tipo de medidas preventivas a adoptar. Por otro lado se propone una ampliación en el "Formulario de Medidas Higiénicas Adoptadas" con la intención de recoger el hecho característico del trabajo con animales.Aims: The purpose of this study is to assess the biological risks to which workers in the animal facilities of the Health Research Unit are exposed in order to determine the need for preventive measures to control risk, determine those measures and test methodology chosen in the specific case of working with animals. Methods: BIOGAVAL evaluation methodology proposed by Office of Security and Hygiene in the Work of Valencia was used to evaluate the technician and veterinarian biological risks. The chosen methodology needs, for the determination of the risk level, identification of the involved microorganisms, damage to the health, routes of transmission, possibility of vaccination and percentage of vaccinated personnel and the hygienic existing measures in the moment to carry out the evaluation. Results: The results show the need of preventive measures, especially directed to the control of Leptospira and Brucella. Once adopted the measures, the risk level for all agents places in values lower than the level established by the method. It is stated the lack of determinant information for the numerical risk evaluation relative to some identified agents. The levels of risk came from the method could be superior to the real ones as in the «Form of hygienic adopted measures» there’re not considered those measures realized on the

  13. Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection linked to the consumption of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premarathne, J.M.K.J.K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food-borne pathogen that has resulted in numerous outbreaks around the world. Widespread distribution of the organism in various ecological niches impedes the control measures. This study aimed to detect and quantify E. coli O157:H7 in beef sold in wet markets and hypermarkets in Malaysia and to determine the risk of E. coli O157:H7 infection linked to consumption of beef. The rfbO157 and flicH7 primers targeted on somatic antigen (O157 and flagellar antigen (H7 respectively of E. coli O157:H7 was used for the MPN-PCR method. A total of 99 beef samples were collected from local wet markets and hypermarkets. The highest E. coli O157:H7 contamination rate was observed in beef samples collected from wet markets (89.50%, whereas the contamination rate in hyper market A and B were compratively low (35.35 and 20% respectively. However, the microbial load was highest in the beef samples from hypermarket A (1100 MPN/g while E. coli O157:H7 bacterial load in beef samples from hypermarket B and wet market ranged from 3 to 93 MPN/g and 3 to 240 MPN/g, respectively. Using the Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA approach the risk was estimated incorporating the findings of the prevalence study and predictions based on home storage, cooking and consumption patterns. Three different exposure pathways were investigated to estimate the risk associated with contaminated beef and Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the level of uncertainty. The developed model predicated that consumption of contaminated beef can be accountable for 1.83E+06 E. coli O157:H7 cases per year in Malaysia. The reliability of the model, data gaps and further research needs, is discussed. Through continuous improvement Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment provides valuable insight into controlling and prevention strategies.

  14. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  15. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  16. Parents of childhood X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: high risk for depression and neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratsubo, Izumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mental health in parents of patients with the childhood cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD) and to investigate factors relating to psychological problems in order to improve clinical management and quality of life. Sixteen fathers and 21 mothers of patients with CCALD completed a battery of psychological examinations including the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), the General Health Questionnaire 60 (GHQ60), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Three fathers and 11 mothers showed high scores on the BDI-II, suggesting that they were in a depressive state. Depression in the mothers was serious as compared with previous reports. Six fathers and 11 mothers were considered to be in a state of neurosis, according to the results of the GHQ60. Four fathers and 8 mothers showed high levels of anxiety on the STAI. Health and social status of the mothers correlated with their mental health, and younger mothers with young patients tended to be more depressed. Thus, parents of patients with CCALD have a high risk of depression and neurosis. Understanding the mental state of these parents and improvements in the social support system including mental counseling, home nursing care, supports in workplace and community are necessary to prevent and treat psychological problems. Especially, early intervention for mental health problems should be provided for younger mothers with few years since the child's diagnosis.

  17. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  18. Linking spring phenology with mechanistic models of host movement to predict disease transmission risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cole, Eric K.; Courtemanch, Alyson B.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Disease models typically focus on temporal dynamics of infection, while often neglecting environmental processes that determine host movement. In many systems, however, temporal disease dynamics may be slow compared to the scale at which environmental conditions alter host space-use and accelerate disease transmission.Using a mechanistic movement modelling approach, we made space-use predictions of a mobile host (elk [Cervus Canadensis] carrying the bacterial disease brucellosis) under environmental conditions that change daily and annually (e.g., plant phenology, snow depth), and we used these predictions to infer how spring phenology influences the risk of brucellosis transmission from elk (through aborted foetuses) to livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.Using data from 288 female elk monitored with GPS collars, we fit step selection functions (SSFs) during the spring abortion season and then implemented a master equation approach to translate SSFs into predictions of daily elk distribution for five plausible winter weather scenarios (from a heavy snow, to an extreme winter drought year). We predicted abortion events by combining elk distributions with empirical estimates of daily abortion rates, spatially varying elk seroprevelance and elk population counts.Our results reveal strong spatial variation in disease transmission risk at daily and annual scales that is strongly governed by variation in host movement in response to spring phenology. For example, in comparison with an average snow year, years with early snowmelt are predicted to have 64% of the abortions occurring on feedgrounds shift to occurring on mainly public lands, and to a lesser extent on private lands.Synthesis and applications. Linking mechanistic models of host movement with disease dynamics leads to a novel bridge between movement and disease ecology. Our analysis framework offers new avenues for predicting disease spread, while providing managers tools to proactively mitigate

  19. [The primary medical sanitary care and characteristics of drinking water supply of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, V S; Saurina, O S

    2016-01-01

    The article considers characteristics of organization ofprimary medical sanitary care on territory with carcinogenic risks related to drinking water supply as exemplified by the Orlovskaia oblast. The importance of registration by local health authorities the sources of permanent chemical pollution of drinking water. The analysis of the State program of the Orlovskaia oblast “The development of health care in the Orlovskaia oblast in 2013-2020". The necessity of additional inclusion of issue related to healthy drinking water supply of population to prevent development of malignant neoplasms and prevalence of oncologic morbidity on oblast territory.

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  3. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  7. Dietary inflammatory potential is linked to cardiovascular disease risk burden in the US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Kotsakis, Georgios A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Shivappa, Nitin; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-08-01

    Dietary guidelines are a key tool in the public health quiver. Single nutrients have been linked to cardiovascular diseases, but existing metrics do not capture the overall effect of diet on inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary inflammatory potential and cardiovascular diseases risk factors (CVD-RFs) in a nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized US adults using data from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2012). A sample of 7880 non-institutionalized US adults aged ≥20years provided data on dietary habits and CVD-RFs (obesity; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; hypercholesterolemia). The total number of CVD-RFs was summed for each individual to create a CVD-RF morbidity index (range 0-4) as the outcome variable, used both as ordinal and dichotomous (no CVD-RFs versus at least one CVD-RF) variables. The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and at least one CVD-RF was dose-dependent, with participants in the 3rd and 4th quartile of DII (i.e., more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) being 1.37 (95%CI=1.11-1.68) and 1.50 (95%CI=1.19-1.90) times more likely, respectively, to have at least one CVD-RF, as compared to participants in the 1st quartile of DII scores. Similar results were obtained for the ordinal logistic regression using the CVD-RF morbidity index as the outcome. Among US adults aged ≥20years, pro-inflammatory dietary patterns, as assessed by the DII, were associated with increased odds for CVD-RFs. Dietary guidelines aimed at lowering the DII may reduce the CVD-RF burden in US adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessment of safety data link and network communication in digital safety feature control system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Kwang Seop; Jung, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety data communication risk assessment framework and quantitative scheme were proposed. • Fault-tree model of ESFAS unavailability due to safety data communication failure was developed. • Safety data link and network risk were assessed based on various ESF-CCS design specifications. • The effect of fault-tolerant algorithm reliability of safety data network on ESFAS unavailability was assessed. - Abstract: As one of the safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs), the Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) employs safety data link and network communication for the transmission of safety component actuation signals from the group controllers to loop controllers to effectively accommodate various safety-critical field controllers. Since data communication failure risk in the ESF-CCS has yet to be fully quantified, the ESF-CCS employing data communication systems have not been applied in NPPs. This study therefore developed a fault tree model to assess the data link and data network failure-induced unavailability of a system function used to generate an automated control signal for accident mitigation equipment. The current aim is to provide risk information regarding data communication failure in a digital safety feature control system in consideration of interconnection between controllers and the fault-tolerant algorithm implemented in the target system. Based on the developed fault tree model, case studies were performed to quantitatively assess the unavailability of ESF-CCS signal generation due to data link and network failure and its risk effect on safety signal generation failure. This study is expected to provide insight into the risk assessment of safety-critical data communication in a digitalized NPP instrumentation and control system.

  9. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  10. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01).

  11. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  12. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  13. NORTH PORTAL - SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the three main sanitary sewer lines serving the Change House Facility No.5008, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  14. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  15. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  16. DESIGN MANUAL: SULFIDE CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One characteristic by which sanitary sewage is known to the public is its potential for creating odor nuisances. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the source is a wastewater treatment plant. Yet there are wastewater treat...

  17. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  18. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. 20.2003... Disposal § 20.2003 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. (a) A licensee may discharge licensed material into sanitary sewerage if each of the following conditions is satisfied: (1) The material is...

  19. An effective and comprehensive model for optimal rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, António Freire; Barros, Luís Tiago; Santos, Joana; Temido, Jorge Santos

    2018-01-15

    In the field of rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems, a large number of technical, environmental, and economic aspects are often relevant in the decision-making process, which may be modelled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Examples are those related with the operation and assessment of networks, optimization of structural, hydraulic, sanitary, and environmental performance, rehabilitation programmes, and execution works. In particular, the cost of investment, operation and maintenance needed to reduce or eliminate Infiltration from the underground water table and Inflows of storm water surface runoff (I/I) using rehabilitation techniques or related methods can be significantly lower than the cost of transporting and treating these flows throughout the lifespan of the systems or period studied. This paper presents a comprehensive I/I cost-benefit approach for rehabilitation that explicitly considers all elements of the systems and shows how the approximation is incorporated as an objective function in a general evolutionary multi-objective optimization model. It takes into account network performance and wastewater treatment costs, average values of several input variables, and rates that can reflect the adoption of different predictable or limiting scenarios. The approach can be used as a practical and fast tool to support decision-making in sewer network rehabilitation in any phase of a project. The fundamental aspects, modelling, implementation details and preliminary results of a two-objective optimization rehabilitation model using a genetic algorithm, with a second objective function related to the structural condition of the network and the service failure risk, are presented. The basic approach is applied to three real world cases studies of sanitary sewerage systems in Coimbra and the results show the simplicity, suitability, effectiveness, and usefulness of the approximation implemented and of the objective function proposed

  20. Risk of Foot-and-Mouth Disease spread due to sole occupancy authorities and linked cattle holdings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Orton

    Full Text Available Livestock movements in Great Britain are well recorded, have been extensively analysed with respect to their role in disease spread, and have been used in real time to advise governments on the control of infectious diseases. Typically, livestock holdings are treated as distinct entities that must observe movement standstills upon receipt of livestock, and must report livestock movements. However, there are currently two dispensations that can exempt holdings from either observing standstills or reporting movements, namely the Sole Occupancy Authority (SOA and Cattle Tracing System (CTS Links, respectively. In this report we have used a combination of data analyses and computational modelling to investigate the usage and potential impact of such linked holdings on the size of a Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD epidemic. Our analyses show that although SOAs are abundant, their dynamics appear relatively stagnant. The number of CTS Links is also abundant, and increasing rapidly. Although most linked holdings are only involved in a single CTS Link, some holdings are involved in numerous links that can be amalgamated to form "CTS Chains" which can be both large and geographically dispersed. Our model predicts that under a worst case scenario of "one infected - all infected", SOAs do pose a risk of increasing the size (in terms of number of infected holdings of a FMD epidemic, but this increase is mainly due to intra-SOA infection spread events. Furthermore, although SOAs do increase the geographic spread of an epidemic, this increase is predominantly local. Whereas, CTS Chains pose a risk of increasing both the size and the geographical spread of the disease substantially, under a worse case scenario. Our results highlight the need for further investigations into whether CTS Chains are transmission chains, and also investigations into intra-SOA movements and livestock distributions due to the lack of current data.

  1. Alcohol, Drugs, and Links to Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Virginia College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.; Wessel, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    This project was significant in that it administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS), a health risk assessment, to a sample of students at three public universities in Virginia. Virginia was never included in the original or subsequent nationwide assessments using this instrument. This health risk assessment is…

  2. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  3. Red meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases-is increased iron load a possible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat

  4. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the north Western mediterranean sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the north west mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, 106 Ru and from atmospheric fall out, 137 Cs and sup(239+240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 -5 ) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26 [fr

  5. Linking Early Life Stages: The First Step towards Lifecourse Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract is the overview of a workshop proposed for inclusion in 2015 Society of Toxicology annual meeting program. The workshop will introduce the audience to lifecourse theory and speakers will provide examples of using PBPK models to link exposures and outcomes resulting ...

  6. Risk bias and the link between motivation and new venture post-entry international growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Andreea N.; Williams, David W.; Houghton, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    We link research in international entrepreneurship and on behavioral decision making with the international business literature on firm degree of internationalization to advance an integrative model of new venture post-entry international growth. We test this model on a sample of 286 new ventures.

  7. Relationships and cardiovascular risk: perceived spousal ambivalence in specific relationship contexts and its links to inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, B.N.; Bosch, J.A.; Smith, T.W.; Carlisle, M.; Birmingham, W.; Bowen, K.S.; Light, K.C.; O'Hartaigh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although perceiving one’s social ties as sources of ambivalence has been linked to negative health outcomes, the more specific contexts by which such relationships influence health remain less studied. We thus examined if perceived spousal relationship quality in three theoretically

  8. Preliminary assessment of the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies consuming only ready-to-eat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The risk linked to furan ingestion has been assessed in previous papers for Belgian adults and children. The present paper focuses on infants consuming only ready-to-eat baby food. As there is no Belgian baby dietary database, the furan exposure assessment was carried out by using an Italian infant consumption database and Belgian contamination data. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was calculated according to a deterministic methodology. It involved 42 commercially available ready-to-eat baby food and 36 baby consumption records. The mean EDI was 1460 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ which is 3.8 times higher than the 381 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ reported for Belgian adults, and 3.5 times higher than the 419 ng*(kg(bw)*day)⁻¹ measured for Belgian children. To assess and characterise the risk for babies' exposure, the margin of exposure (MoE) was calculated. It highlighted that 74% of infants have a MoE < 1000, with a minimum of 140. However, these are only preliminary results as they were calculated from a very small dataset and the infant cytochrome P450 activity is significantly different compared with the adult's. Therefore, the risk linked to furan ingestion by babies should be assessed in a different manner. To this end, additional data regarding a baby diet as well as a better understanding of furan toxicity for babies are needed to characterise more accurately the risk for infants.

  9. From Thoughts To Action - Linking Practice, Science, Policy And Decision Making: Dissemination Activities Of The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Marc; Sutter, Corina; Ammann, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The world's growing population in combination with expanding urbanisation, globalisation and climate change has greatly aggravated the risk potential to all communities and nations. These increasing risks imply the intensification of worldwide disasters, hence collaborations and worldwide knowledge exchange to mitigate these negative impacts is mandatory. How can these exchange and collaboration activities take place? The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos addresses the variety of risks that face communities with a special focus on climate change, natural hazards, environmental degradation as well as technical, biological risks, pandemics and terrorism - all across different political institutions, national and international organisations, countries and business sectors. One of GRF's main goals is to bridge the gap between science and practice and to promote and accelerate the worldwide exchange of know-how and experience. GRF Davos aims at targeting solutions and promoting good practice in integral risk management and climate change adaptation.. The Forum also provides and manages a network for decision-makers, practitioners and experts from politics, government, IGOs, business, science, NGOs, media and the public and works on maintaining and expanding these networks constantly to enable the dissemination of disaster and risk reduction techniques. In order to link practice, science, policy and decision making, GRF Davos has three pillars, the Risk Academy, the International Disaster and Risk Conferences and Workshops (IDRC) as well as the online Platform for Networks. With its pillars, the GRFs aims at reducing vulnerability for all types of risks and disasters to protect life, property, environment, critical infrastructure and all means of business for the worldwide community on a sustainable basis.

  10. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  11. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: The Case of Mexican Avocados

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Nishita

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects on demand, supply, imports, and prices of partial easing of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers to trade in the U.S. market in the case of Mexican avocados. The SPS Agreement plays a role in the avocado market studied here through its implications for negotiations between countries that have not utilized the formal channels of the WTO for resolving disputes. A quarantine in place from 1914 until very recently banned entry of Mexican avocados into the...

  12. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  13. Cancer risks and immunohistochemical profiles linked to the Danish MLH1 Lynch syndrome founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Ladelund, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Founder mutations with a large impact in distinct populations have been described in Lynch syndrome. In Denmark, the MLH1 c.1667+2_1667_+8TAAATCAdelinsATTT mutation accounts for 25 % of the MLH1 mutant families. We used the national Danish hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer register...... to estimate the cumulative lifetime risks for Lynch syndrome-associated cancer in 16 founder mutation families with comparison to 47 other MLH1 mutant families. The founder mutation conferred comparable risks for colorectal cancer (relative risks, RR, of 0.99 for males and 0.79 for females) and lower risks...... in 68 % with extensive inter-tumor variability despite the same underlying germline mutation. In conclusion, the Danish MLH1 founder mutation that accounts for a significant proportion of Lynch syndrome and is associated with a lower risk for extracolonic cancers....

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  15. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  16. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Di Maria, Francesco; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m 3 . The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed

  17. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, Umberto E-mail: umberto.desideri@unipg.it; Di Maria, Francesco E-mail: fdm@unipg.it; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-07-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m{sup 3}. The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed.

  18. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  19. A sequential model to link contextual risk, perception and public support for flood adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Small, Mitchell J

    2017-10-01

    The economic damage from coastal flooding has dramatically increased over the past several decades, owing to rapid development in shoreline areas and possible effects of climate change. To respond to these trends, it is imperative for policy makers to understand individuals' support for flood adaptation policy. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data on flood risk, this study investigates coastal residents' support for two adaptation policy measures: incentives for relocation and funding for educational programs on emergency planning and evacuation. Specifically, this study explores the interactive relationships among contextual flood risks, perceived flood risks and policy support for flood adaptation, with the effects of social-demographic variables being controlled. Age, gender, race and partisanship are found to significantly affect individuals' policy support for both adaptation measures. The contextual flooding risks, indicated by distance from the coast, maximum wind speed and peak height of storm surge associated with the last hurricane landfall, and percentage of high-risk flood zone per county, are shown to impact one's perceptions of risk, which in turn influence one's support for both policy measures. The key finding -risk perception mediates the impact of contextual risk conditions on public support for flood management policies - highlights the need to ensure that the public is well informed by the latest scientific, engineering and economic knowledge. To achieve this, more information on current and future flood risks and options available for mitigation as well as risk communication tools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining the link between adolescent brain development and risk taking from a social-developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Good, Marie; Adachi, Paul J C; Hamza, Chloe; Tavernier, Royette

    2013-12-01

    The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the affective/approach and cognitive control brain systems, as well as the ongoing maturation of neural connectivity are thought to lead to increased vulnerability for risk taking in adolescence. A critical analysis of the frequency of risk taking behaviors, as well as mortality and morbidity rates across the lifespan, however, challenges the hypothesis that the peak of risk taking occurs in middle adolescence when the asynchrony between the different developmental time courses of the affective/approach and cognitive control systems is the largest. In fact, the highest levels of risk taking behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, often occur among emerging adults (e.g., university/college students), and highlight the role of the social context in predicting risk taking behavior. Moreover, risk taking is not always unregulated or impulsive. Future research should broaden the scope of risk taking to include risks that are relevant to older adults, such as risky financial investing, gambling, and marital infidelity. In addition, a lifespan perspective, with a focus on how associations between neural systems and behavior are moderated by context and trait-level characteristics, and which includes diverse samples (e.g., divorced individuals), will help to address some important limitations in the adolescent brain development and risk taking literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking predator risk and uncertainty to adaptive forgetting: a theoretical framework and empirical test using tadpoles

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Brown, Grant E.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have examined how prey animals assess their risk of predation. These studies work from the basic tennet that prey need to continually balance the conflicting demands of predator avoidance with activities such as foraging and reproduction. The information that animals gain regarding local predation risk is most often learned. Yet, the concept of ‘memory’ in the context of predation remains virtually unexplored. Here, our goal was (i) to determine if the memory window associ...

  3. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  4. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Landslide risk assessment and landslide disaster risk management: on the missing link between scientific knowledge, decision making and practice (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2016-04-01

    Different investigations have been developed to address the uncertainty and quality evaluations leading to improve landslide hazard and risk assessment. With no doubt, and by using a wide range of scientific and technical approaches, they have contributed to a major extent to the understanding of the dynamics of landslide processes at different scales. Nonetheless, in a similar fashion than other hazards, it has been rather difficult to assess in a precise manner the multi-dimensions of their associated vulnerability and what is more, to effectively link risk assessments with disaster risk management. Owing to the double-character of landslide events, as natural and socio-natural hazards, mass movements turn out to be very complex processes, as their occurrence is also enhanced by population growth, socio-economic inequality, urbanization processes, land-degradation, unsustainable practices and mounting hazard exposure. Disaster Risk Management rope in the actions to attain Disaster Risk Reduction. The latter aims at decreasing existing hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, in addition to strengthening resilience, and very importantly, avoiding the construction of future disaster risk (UNISDR, 2015a). More specifically, and along the same line of ideas, the new-fangled Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 (UNISDR, 2015b) points towards reducing disaster risk and losses by engaging in a series of actions at local, national and global levels. Among them and of utterly significance are those initiatives related to the need of moving from risk assessment into disaster risk management. Consequently, and beyond championing scientific and technical capacity to strengthen landslide knowledge to assess vulnerability, hazard exposure and disaster risks, the challenge remains in the realm of promoting and improving permanent communication, dialogue and partnership among the science and technology communities, policymakers and other stakeholders

  6. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrodin, Yves, E-mail: perrodin@entpe.fr [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Donguy, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Bazin, Christine [INSAVALOR, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain [Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, CNRS, UMR 5023 LEHNA, 2 rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); INRA, USC IGH, UMR LEHNA, 2, rue Maurice Audin, 69518 Vaulx-en-Velin (France); Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert [INSAVALOR, 20 avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2012-08-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the 'substances' approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the 'matrix' approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, Horizontal-Ellipsis ). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments '1' and '2' presented a low risk for

  7. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the “substances” approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the “matrix” approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments “1” and “2” presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while

  8. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A risk assessment of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis linked to chicken meals prepared in households in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Garin, Benoit; Ravaonindrina, Noro; Diop, Kane; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ramanantsoa, Domoina; Rocourt, Jocelyne

    2012-10-01

    We used a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to describe the risk of Campylobacter and Salmonella infection linked to chicken meals prepared in households in Dakar, Senegal. The model uses data collected specifically for this study, such as the prevalence and level of bacteria on the neck skin of chickens bought in Dakar markets, time-temperature profiles recorded from purchase to consumption, an observational survey of meal preparation in private kitchens, and detection and enumeration of pathogens on kitchenware and cooks' hands. Thorough heating kills all bacteria present on chicken during cooking, but cross-contamination of cooked chicken or ready-to-eat food prepared for the meal via kitchenware and cooks' hands leads to a high expected frequency of pathogen ingestion. Additionally, significant growth of Salmonella is predicted during food storage at ambient temperature before and after meal preparation. These high exposures lead to a high estimated risk of campylobacteriosis and/or salmonellosis in Dakar households. The public health consequences could be amplified by the high level of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and Campylobacter observed in this setting. A significant decrease in the number of ingested bacteria and in the risk could be achieved through a reduction of the prevalence of chicken contamination at slaughter, and by the use of simple hygienic measures in the kitchen. There is an urgent need to reinforce the hygiene education of food handlers in Senegal. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Ecotoxicological risk assessment linked to infilling quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Bazin, Christine; Volatier, Laurence; Durrieu, Claude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain; Abdelghafour, Mohammed; Moretto, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The dredged sediments of polluted seaports now raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. This results in the need to manage them on land, raising other types of technical, economic and environmental problems. Regarding the technical and economic dimensions, traditional waste treatment methods have proved to be poorly adapted, due to very high costs and low absorbable volumes. In this context, filling quarries in coastal areas with treated sediments could represent an interesting alternative for these materials. Nevertheless, for the environmental dimension, it is necessary to demonstrate that this possibility is harmless to inland ecosystems. Consequently, a specific ecotoxicological risk assessment methodology has been formulated and tested on three sediments taken from seaboards of France, in view to providing an operational and usable tool for the prior validation of any operation to fill quarries with treated seaport sediments. This method incorporates the formulation of a global conceptual model of the scenario studied and the definition of protocols for each of its steps: the characterisation of exposures (based on a simulation of sediment deposit), the characterisation of effects (via the study of sediments ecotoxicity), and the final ecotoxicological risk assessment performed as a calculation of a risk quotient. It includes the implementation in parallel of two types of complementary approach: the "substances" approach derived from the European methodology for assessing new substances placed on the market, and the "matrix" approach which is similar to methods developed in France to assess ecological risks in other domains (waste management, polluted site management, …). The application of this dual approach to the three sediments tested led to conclude with reliability that the project to deposit sediments "1" and "2" presented a low risk for the peripheral aquatic ecosystems while sediment "3

  11. Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martrat, G.; Maxwell, C.A.; Tominaga, E.; Porta-de-la-Riva, M.; Bonifaci, N.; Gomez-Baldo, L.; Bogliolo, M.; Lazaro, C.; Blanco, I.; Brunet, J.; Aguilar, H.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; Seal, S.; Renwick, A.; Rahman, N.; Kuehl, J.; Neveling, K.; Schindler, D.; Ramirez, M.J.; Castella, M.; Hernandez, G.; Easton, D.F.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C.T.; Frost, D.; Platte, R.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Eeles, R.; Izatt, L.; Chu, C.; Davidson, R.; Ong, K.R.; Cook, J.; Douglas, F.; Hodgson, S.; Brewer, C.; Morrison, P.J.; Porteous, M.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Roversi, G.; Barile, M.; Viel, A.; Pasini, B.; Ottini, L.; Putignano, A.L.; Savarese, A.; Bernard, L.; Radice, P.; Healey, S.; Spurdle, A.; Chen, X.; Beesley, J.; Rookus, M.A.; Verhoef, S.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.A.; Vreeswijk, M.P.; van Asperen, C.J.; Bodmer, D.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; van Os, T.A.; Blok, M.J.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.J.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Goldgar, D.E.; Buys, S.; John, E.M.; Miron, A.; Southey, M.; Daly, M.B.; Harbst, K.; Borg, A.; Rantala, J.; Barbany-Bustinza, G.; Ehrencrona, H.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M.; Kaufman, B.; Laitman, Y.; Milgrom, R.; Friedman, E.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Johannsson, O.T.; Couch, F.J.; Wang, X.; Fredericksen, Z.; Cuadras, D.; Moreno, V.; Pientka, F.K.; Depping, R.; Caldes, T.; Osorio, A.; Benitez, J.; Bueren, J.; Heikkinen, T.; Nevanlinna, H.; Hamann, U.; Torres, D.; Caligo, M.A.; Godwin, A.K.; Imyanitov, E.N.; Janavicius, R.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Verny-Pierre, C.; Castera, L.; de Pauw, A.; Bignon, Y.J.; Uhrhammer, N.; Peyrat, J.P.; Vennin, P.; Ferrer, S.F.; Collonge-Rame, M.A.; Mortemousque, I.; McGuffog, L.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Pereira-Smith, O.M.; Antoniou, A.C.; Ceron, J.; Tominaga, K.; Surralles, J.; Pujana, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical

  12. Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martrat, G.; Maxwell, C.M.; Tominaga, E.; Porta-de-la-Riva, M.; Bonifaci, N.; Gomez-Baldo, L.; Bogliolo, M.; Lazaro, C.; Blanco, I.; Brunet, J.; Aguilar, H.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; Seal, S.; Renwick, A.; Rahman, N.; Kuhl, J.; Neveling, K.; Schindler, D.; Ramirez, M.J.; Castella, M.; Hernandez, G.; Easton, D.F.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C.T.; Frost, D.; Platte, R.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Eeles, R.; Izatt, L.; Chu, C.; Davidson, R.; Ong, K.R.; Cook, J.; Douglas, F.; Hodgson, S.; Brewer, C.; Morrison, P.J.; Porteous, M.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Roversi, G.; Barile, M.; Viel, A.; Pasini, B.; Ottini, L.; Putignano, A.L.; Savarese, A.; Bernard, L.; Radice, P.; Healey, S.; Spurdle, A.; Chen, X.; Beesley, J.; Rookus, M.A.; Verhoef, S.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.A.; Vreeswijk, M.P.; Asperen, C.J. van; Bodmer, D.; Ausems, M.G.; Os, T.A. van; Blok, M.J.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Goldgar, D.E.; Buys, S.; John, E.M.; Miron, A.; Southey, M.; Daly, M.B.; Harbst, K.; Borg, A.; Rantala, J.; Barbany-Bustinza, G.; Ehrencrona, H.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M.; Kaufman, B.; Laitman, Y.; Milgrom, R.; Friedman, E.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Johannsson, O.T.; Couch, F.J.; Wang, X.; Fredericksen, Z.; Cuadras, D.; Moreno, V.; Pientka, F.K.; Depping, R.; Caldes, T.; Osorio, A.; Benitez, J.; Bueren, J.; Heikkinen, T.; Nevanlinna, H.; Hamann, U.; Torres, D.; Caligo, M.A.; Godwin, A.K.; Imyanitov, E.N.; Janavicius, R.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Verny-Pierre, C.; Castera, L.; Pauw, A. de; Bignon, Y.J.; Uhrhammer, N.; Peyrat, J.P.; Vennin, P.; Ferrer, S.F.; Collonge-Rame, M.A.; Mortemousque, I.; McGuffog, L.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Pereira-Smith, O.M.; Antoniou, A.C.; Ceron, J.; Tominaga, K.; Surralles, J.; Pujana, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical

  13. Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martrat, Griselda; Maxwell, Christopher M.; Tominaga, Emiko; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Bonifaci, Núria; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Bogliolo, Massimo; Lázaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Brunet, Joan; Aguilar, Helena; Fernández-Rodríguez, Juana; Seal, Sheila; Renwick, Anthony; Rahman, Nazneen; Kühl, Julia; Neveling, Kornelia; Schindler, Detlev; Ramírez, María J.; Castellà, María; Hernández, Gonzalo; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Brewer, Carole; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Ottini, Laura; Putignano, Anna Laura; Savarese, Antonella; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Healey, Sue; Spurdle, Amanda; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Rookus, Matti A.; Verhoef, Senno; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine A.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.; Asperen, Christi J.; Bodmer, Danielle; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Os, Theo A.; Blok, Marinus J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa; Daly, Mary B.; Harbst, Katja; Borg, Ake; Rantala, Johanna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Ehrencrona, Hans; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Friedman, Eitan; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Johannsson, Oskar Thor; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Cuadras, Daniel; Moreno, Víctor; Pientka, Friederike K.; Depping, Reinhard; Caldés, Trinidad; Osorio, Ana; Benítez, Javier; Bueren, Juan; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Godwin, Andrew K.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Castera, Laurent; de Pauw, Antoine; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Vennin, Philippe; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Mortemousque, Isabelle; McGuffog, Lesley; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Cerón, Julián; Tominaga, Kaoru; Surrallés, Jordi; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2011-01-01

    Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical interaction

  14. Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Martrat (Griselda); C.A. Maxwell (Christopher); E. Tominaga (Emiko); M. Porta-de-la-Riva (Montserrat); N. Bonifaci (Núria); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); M. Bogliolo (Massimo); C. Lázaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); J. Brunet (Joan); H. Aguilar (Helena); J. Fernández-Rodríguez (Juana); S. Seal (Sheila); A. Renwick (Anthony); N. Rahman (Nazneen); J. Kühl (Julia); K. Neveling (Kornelia); D. Schindler (Detlev); M.J. Ramírez (María); M. Castellà (María); G. Hernández (Gonzalo); D.F. Easton (Douglas); S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); C.T. Oliver (Clare); D. Frost (Debra); R. Platte (Radka); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L. Izatt (Louise); C. Chu (Chengbin); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); K. Ong; F. Douglas (Fiona); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); C. Brewer (Carole); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (Daniela); G. Roversi (Gaia); M. Barile (Monica); A. Viel (Alessandra); B. Pasini (Barbara); L. Ottini (Laura); A.L. Putignano; A. Savarese (Antonella); L. Bernard (Loris); P. Radice (Paolo); S. Healey (Sue); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); J. Beesley (Jonathan); M.A. Rookus (Matti); S. Verhoef; M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); D. Bodmer (Danielle); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); M.J. Blok (Marinus); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); M.C. Southey (Melissa); M.J. Daly (Mark); K. Harbst (Katja); Å. Borg (Åke); J. Rantala (Johanna); G. Barbany-Bustinza (Gisela); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); B. Kaufman (Bella); Y. Laitman (Yael); R. Milgrom (Roni); E. Friedman (Eitan); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xing); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); D. Cuadras (Daniel); V. Moreno (Víctor); F.K. Pientka (Friederike); R. Depping (Reinhard); T. Caldes (Trinidad); A. Osorio (Ana); J. Benítez (Javier); J. Bueren (Juan); T. Heikinen (Tuomas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); M.A. Caligo (Maria); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); C. Verny-Pierre (Carole); L. Castera (Laurent); A. de Pauw (Antoine); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); N. Uhrhammer (Nancy); J.-P. Peyrat; P. Vennin (Philippe); S.F. Ferrer; M.-A. Collonge-Rame; I. Mortemousque (Isabelle); L. McGuffog (Lesley); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); O.M. Pereira-Smith (Olivia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); J. Cerón (Julián); J. Surrallés (Jordi); M.A. Pujana (Miguel); C.J. van Asperen (Christi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein

  15. Lifetime Sexual Victimization and Poor Risk Perception: Does Emotion Dysregulation Account for the Links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…

  16. Education for disaster risk reduction : linking theory with practice in Ghana´s basic schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apronti, Priscilla; Saito, Osamu; Otsuki, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306279258; Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR) concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the

  17. The role of ecological models in linking ecological risk assessment to ecosystem services in agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galic, N.G.; Schmolke, A.; Forbes, V.; Baveco, J.M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural practices are essential for sustaining the human population, but at the same time they can directly disrupt ecosystem functioning. Ecological risk assessment (ERA) aims to estimate possible adverse effects of human activities on ecosystems and their parts. Current ERA practices,

  18. Child maltreatment and social connectedness among high-risk youth: Links with depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft, I.; Finkenauer, C.; Verbruggen, J.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between child maltreatment and negative adult outcomes is well established. Child maltreatment is associated with depression and decreased well-being in adulthood. However, a growing body of literature suggests that the risk of depression varies as a function of subtype,

  19. Supply Chain Visibility with Linked Open Data for Supply Chain Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current customs applications are declaration based to support the various customs procedures based on (inter)national laws and regulations. To be able to perform a proper supply chain risk analysis, customs requires to have all data in supply chains. The current declaration procedures are not

  20. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  1. Evidence for increased SOX3 dosage as a risk factor for X-linked hypopituitarism and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijke; Frints, Suzanna G; Van Esch, Hilde; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Baldewijns, Marcella M; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Genomic duplications of varying lengths at Xq26-q27 involving SOX3 have been described in families with X-linked hypopituitarism. Using array-CGH we detected a 1.1 Mb microduplication at Xq27 in a large family with three males suffering from X-linked hypopituitarism. The duplication was mapped from 138.7 to 139.8 Mb, harboring only two annotated genes, SOX3 and ATP11C, and was shown to be a direct tandem copy number gain. Unexpectedly, the microduplication did not fully segregate with the disease in this family suggesting that SOX3 duplications have variable penetrance for X-linked hypopituitarism. In the same family, a female fetus presenting with a neural tube defect was also shown to carry the SOX3 copy number gain. Since we also demonstrated increased SOX3 mRNA levels in amnion cells derived from an unrelated t(X;22)(q27;q11) female fetus with spina bifida, we propose that increased levels of SOX3 could be a risk factor for neural tube defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Are physical activity levels linked to nutrient adequacy? Implications for cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Kelemen, Linda E; Speidel, Thomas; Yuan, Yan; Dale, Laura C; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a healthy body mass index, physical activity, and nutrient intake from food rather than supplements. Sedentary individuals may restrict energy intake to prevent weight gain and in so doing may compromise nutritional intake. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine if adequacy of micronutrients is linked to physical activity levels (PALs) in healthy-weight adults. Tomorrow Project participants in Alberta, Canada (n = 5333), completed past-year diet and physical activity questionnaires. The percent meeting Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) was reported across low and high PAL groups, and the relation between PAL and percent achieved DRI was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. Overall, genders (P physical activity to include having a more favorable impact on nutrient adequacy.

  3. Sanitary survey of the drinking water supply of Kombinati suburb-Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angjeli, V; Reme, B; Leno, L; Bukli, R; Bushati, G

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological pollution of drinking water is a major health problem in the suburbs of the Albanian capital. Intermittent supply and contamination, resulting in several gastrointestinal manifestations, are the main concerns for the population and health workers. The risk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases is high. Pollution originates from contamination of drinking water with domestic sewage. This research investigated the drinking water cycle from its natural source to the consumer, analysing samples and verifying pollution levels in the microbiological and chemical setting. The most important pollution sources were found in the distribution network, due to cross-contamination with sewers and illegal connections. The second pollution source was found around the extraction wells. This is related to abusive constructions within the sanitary zone around the wells and maybe the highly sewage-contaminated river water which feeds the aquifer.

  4. How to model a negligible probability under the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Since the 1997 EC--Hormones decision, World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Panels have wrestled with the question of what constitutes a negligible risk under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. More recently, the 2010 WTO Australia--Apples Panel focused considerable attention on the appropriate quantitative model for a negligible probability in a risk assessment. The 2006 Australian Import Risk Analysis for Apples from New Zealand translated narrative probability statements into quantitative ranges. The uncertainty about a "negligible" probability was characterized as a uniform distribution with a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 10(-6) . The Australia - Apples Panel found that the use of this distribution would tend to overestimate the likelihood of "negligible" events and indicated that a triangular distribution with a most probable value of zero and a maximum value of 10⁻⁶ would correct the bias. The Panel observed that the midpoint of the uniform distribution is 5 × 10⁻⁷ but did not consider that the triangular distribution has an expected value of 3.3 × 10⁻⁷. Therefore, if this triangular distribution is the appropriate correction, the magnitude of the bias found by the Panel appears modest. The Panel's detailed critique of the Australian risk assessment, and the conclusions of the WTO Appellate Body about the materiality of flaws found by the Panel, may have important implications for the standard of review for risk assessments under the WTO SPS Agreement. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Building on the links between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available countries, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been embraced to address challenges of low productivity and related occurrences of food insecurity; but that adaptation to climate change may be seen as placing an increased risk on genetic diversity... and terrestrial ecosystems. This is because it can “out-compete” other varieties locally, reducing species composition and thus the gene pool; but also because forces such as wind dispersal and erosion mean that containing the effects of GMOs in one area...

  6. Mediators Linking Childhood Adversities and Trauma to Suicidality in Individuals at Risk for Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicidality is highly prevalent in patients at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis. Childhood adversities and trauma are generally predictive of suicidality. However, the differential effects of adversity/trauma-domains and CHR-criteria, i.e., ultra-high risk and basic symptom criteria, on suicidality remain unclear. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms and, thus, worthwhile targets for suicide-prevention are still poorly understood. Therefore, structural equation modeling was used to test theory-driven models in 73 CHR-patients. Mediators were psychological variables, i.e., beliefs about one’s own competencies as well as the controllability of events and coping styles. In addition, symptomatic variables (depressiveness, basic symptoms, attenuated psychotic symptoms were hypothesized to mediate the effect of psychological mediators on suicidality as the final outcome variable. Results showed two independent pathways. In the first pathway, emotional and sexual but not physical adversity/trauma was associated with suicidality, which was mediated by dysfunctional competence/control beliefs, a lack of positive coping-strategies and depressiveness. In the second pathway, cognitive basic symptoms but not attenuated psychotic symptoms mediated the relationship between trauma/adversity and suicidality. CHR-patients are, thus, particularly prone to suicidality if adversity/trauma is followed by the development of depressiveness. Regarding the second pathway, this is the first study showing that adversity/trauma led to suicidality through an increased risk for psychosis as indicated by cognitive basic symptoms. As insight is generally associated with suicidality, this may explain why self-experienced basic symptoms increase the risk for it. Consequently, these mediators should be monitored regularly and targeted by integrated interventions as early as possible to enhance resilience against suicidality.

  7. Analysis of risk factors linked to social educator profession in different residential settings of Alicante Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Heliz Llopis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important professions in the field of intervention with underage at social risk that are cared for in different residential settings is, undoubtedly, that of the social educator. In that sense, although there are many professionals involved with these underage (psychologists, social workers, psychiatrists, teachers, etc., social educators are the ones who, through the carrying out of functions specific to their profession, often work as the "front line" of action, given that they are the ones who are more in touch with the underage and therefore the most likely to be exposed to different variables that could eventually put them in a situation of risk of psycho-social problems related to their work. Hence, the task of identifying the risk variables related to the teaching profession becomes a key objective in order to prevent the occurrence of likely problems that could undermine their psychosocial health. Therefore, through this communication we intend to expose the results that we obtained with a sample of 50 educators who perform their work in different residential-type services in the province of Alicante.

  8. Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ≥6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient.

  9. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid

    2016-01-01

    , including fasting serum triglyceride (β = 0.98% mmol/L, P = 3.33 × 10(-) (8) ) and Matsuda index (β = -0.74%, P = 1.29 × 10(-) (4) ). No similar associations for Clusters 2 and 3 were found. The three clusters showed different patterns of association with waist circumference, hip circumference, and height......OBJECTIVE: Forty-nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (WHRadjBMI) were recently suggested to cluster into three groups with different associations to cardiometabolic traits. Genetic risk scores of the clusters...... risk scores and anthropometry and blood samples at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test were tested. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: Cluster 1 associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR = 1.05, P = 2.74 × 10(-) (4) ) and with a poor metabolic profile...

  10. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R T [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  11. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  12. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  13. Gender inequality in the risk of violence: material deprivation is linked to higher risk for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Inas; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Jones, Sarah; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the association between material deprivation and injury sustained in violence by adolescents aged 11-17 years. Computerised data relating to gender, attendance date and resident postcode of all patients aged 11-17 years who received treatment for violence-related injuries at seven emergency departments (ED) in South Wales over 12 months, 1 October 2005 to 30 September 2006, were studied. The resident populations, by electoral division of three unitary authorities in Wales, Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, were obtained from the NHS administrative register. The relationships between demographic variables and material deprivation as measured by the Townsend deprivation index were analysed. Altogether 699 (475 boys; 224 girls) adolescents aged 11-17 years resident in Cardiff, Swansea and Newport attended ED in South Wales following violence. Boys and girls living in the most deprived areas had higher assault injury rates compared with those living in the most affluent areas. In the context of sustaining violence-related injury, material deprivation affected girls aged 11-17 years to a much greater extent (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 6.31, Swansea 10.11, Newport 2.90) than boys of the same age group (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 2.02, Swansea 7.74, Newport 1.74). Material deprivation was associated with a higher risk of violence-related injury for adolescent girls compared with adolescent boys. Risk-taking behaviour for adolescent boys and girls may be different under different socioeconomic conditions. Violence prevention efforts should focus more on tackling neighbourhood inequalities, particularly those related to material deprivation in adolescent girls.

  14. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard.

  15. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  16. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  17. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay) or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane). They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also ...

  18. Quality prediction of a leached produced in a sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto; Garcia R, Francisco Fernando; Rivera Mesa, Carolina

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed with the purpose of predicting the concentration of pollutants in the leached produced by the biological degradation of the solid wastes disposed in sanitary landfills. The model consists in a kinetic equation of first level, able to describe the degradation of the organic matter being the solid residuals. This model was calibrated using the results obtained from six laboratory scale lysimeters operated under different conditions. The model predicted the concentration of the pollutants in the leached with an accuracy of 94%

  19. Maternal hemodynamics early in labor: a possible link with obstetric risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B

    2018-04-01

    To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  20. The link between hypomania risk and creativity: The role of heightened behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bin-Na; Kwon, Seok-Man

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between bipolar disorder (BD) and creativity is well-known; however, relatively little is known about its potential mechanism. We investigated whether heightened behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity may mediate such relationship. Korean young adults (N=543) completed self-report questionnaires that included the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), the Behavioral Activation System(BAS) Scale, the Everyday Creativity Scale (ECS), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM). Correlational, hierarchical regression and mediation analyses using bootstrap confidence intervals were conducted. As predicted, BAS sensitivity was associated with self-reported creativity as well as hypomania risk and symptoms. Even when positive affect was controlled, BAS sensitivity predicted incrementally significant variance in explaining creativity. In mediation analysis, BAS sensitivity partially mediated the relation between hypomania risk and creativity. Reliance on self-report measures in assessing creativity and usage of non-clinical sample. BAS sensitivity was related not only to mood pathology but also to creativity. As a basic affective temperament, BAS sensitivity may help explain incompatible sides of adaptation associated with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking brain electrical signals elicited by current outcomes with future risk decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eZhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of current outcomes influences future decisions in various ways. The neural mechanism of this phenomenon may help to clarify the determinants of decision-making. In this study, thirty-nine young adults finished a risky gambling task by choosing between a high- and a low-risk option in each trial during electroencephalographic data collection. We found that risk-taking strategies significantly modulated mean amplitudes of the event-related potential (ERP component P3, particularly at the central scalp. The event-related spectral perturbation and the inter-trial coherence measurements of the independent component analysis (ICA data indicated that the stay vs. switch electrophysiological difference associated with subsequent decision-making was mainly due to fronto-central theta and left/right mu independent components. Event-related cross-coherence results suggested that the neural information of action monitoring and updating emerged in the fronto-central cortex and propagated to sensorimotor area for further behavior adjustment. Based on these findings of ERP and event-related oscillation (ERO measures, we proposed a neural model of the influence of current outcomes on future decisions.

  2. Can family risk-factors moderate the link between psychopathy and life-history strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.

  3. Modeling the Link between Left Ventricular Flow and Thromboembolic Risk Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen May-Newman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A thrombus is a blood clot that forms on a surface, and can grow and detach, presenting a high risk for stroke and pulmonary embolism. This risk increases with blood-contacting medical devices, due to the immunological response to foreign surfaces and altered flow patterns that activate the blood and promote thromboembolism (TE. Abnormal blood transport, including vortex behavior and regional stasis, can be assessed from Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS. LCS are flow structures that bound transport within a flow field and divide the flow into regions with maximally attracting/repelling surfaces that maximize local shear. LCS can be identified from finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE fields, which are computed from velocity field data. In this study, the goal was to use FTLE analysis to evaluate LCS in the left ventricle (LV using velocity data obtained from flow visualization of a mock circulatory loop. A model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM was used to investigate the effect of left ventricular assist device (LVAD support on diastolic filling and transport in the LV. A small thrombus in the left ventricular outflow tract was also considered using data from a corresponding LV model. The DCM LV exhibited a direct flow of 0.8 L/cardiac cycle, which was tripled during LVAD support Delayed ejection flow was doubled, further illustrating the impact of LVAD support on blood transport. An examination of the attracting LCS ridges during diastolic filling showed that the increase is due primarily to augmentation of A wave inflow, which is associated with increased vortex circulation, kinetic energy and Forward FTLE. The introduction of a small thrombus in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT of the LV had a minimal effect on diastolic inflow, but obstructed systolic outflow leading to decreased transport compared with the unobstructed LVOT geometry. Localized FTLE in the LVOT increased dramatically with the small thrombus model, which reflects

  4. Elevated serum advanced glycation endproducts in obese indicate risk for the metabolic syndrome: a link between healthy and unhealthy obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Cai, Weijing; Woodward, Mark; Tripp, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Laurie; Pyzik, Renata; Yee, Kalle; Tansman, Laurie; Chen, Xue; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A; Vlassara, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Although obesity can predispose to the metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, not all obese subjects develop MS, hence the need for new indicators of risk for this syndrome. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with factors involved in the MS, including inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Because AGEs can be derived from food and are modifiable, it is important to determine whether they are a risk factor for MS. The objective of this study was to assess the association of endogenous and exogenous AGEs with MS criteria. The following data were collected in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without the MS: serum AGEs (sAGEs) and mononuclear cell AGEs, metabolites, pro- and antiinflammatory markers, body fat mass measures, including abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and caloric and dietary AGE (dAGE) consumption. The study was conducted in the general community. Participants included 130 MS and 139 non-MS subjects of both sexes, older than 50 years. sAGEs ((ϵ)N-carboxymethyllysine, methylglyoxal) were markedly elevated in obese persons with more than one other MS criteria but not in obese without MS criteria. sAGEs directly correlated with markers of IR (HOMA) and inflammation (leptin, TNFα, RAGE) and inversely with innate defenses (SIRT1, AGE receptor 1 [AGER1], glyoxalase-I, adiponectin). sAGEs correlated with dAGEs but not with calories, nutrient consumption, or fat mass measures. Consumption of dAGE, but not of calories, was markedly higher in MS than in non-MS. High sAGEs, a modifiable risk factor for IR, may indicate risk for the MS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. High dietary AGE consumption and serum AGE levels may link healthy obesity to at-risk obesity.

  5. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and infection risk in the era of targeted therapies: Linking mechanisms with infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Talal; Gea Banacloche, Juan C; Leis, Jose F

    2018-03-16

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the world. Patient with CLL are at particular risk for infections due to inherent disease-related immune dysfunction in addition to the effect of certain systemic therapies on the immune system. The advent of B-cell receptor (BCR) inhibitors such as ibrutinib and idelalisib has led to a practice change that utilizes these targeted agents in the treatment of CLL, either in place of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) or in later line settings. In this paper, we review the pathophysiology of immune dysfunction in CLL, the spectrum of immunodeficiency with the various therapeutic agents along with prevention strategies with a focus on targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The health risk linked to oil activities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: From alerts to decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissardon, Pauline; Becerra, Sylvia; Maurice, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the long and difficult process of demonstrating the health impact associated with environmental contamination caused by the oil exploration and production underway in the Ecuadorian Amazon for the past 40 years. Contamination in the areas affected by oil activities is both accidental and chronic. The latter is more complex to perceive and demonstrate, due to the lack of visual evidence of oil products. Currently, the health consequences to local populations of environmental exposures have neither been described with precision, nor managed by public authorities. The history of governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon helps to illuminate the pathway that weak signals of environmental contamination and their health consequences have travelled through the public space, as well as the political conditions which explain the negligible impact. We demonstrate that public policy remains limited to repairing the social and environmental impact of oil contamination and that the health risks have not yet reached the political agenda despite their recent legal recognition. (authors)

  7. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  8. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number reaches 10 7 per liter. Neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover, Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. Sanitizing of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. The sanitary effect of pasteurisation and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge was investigated. For this the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants was examined. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and sometimes 500 krad. A linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae was achieved with increasing radiation doses. A dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae. Less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gramm were found in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The effect found in the above mentioned model experiments could be perfectly confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by Enterobacteriaceae reduction, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurisation. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  10. Linking snake habitat use to nest predation risk in grassland birds: the dangers of shrub cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Page E; Jackrel, Sara L; With, Kimberly A

    2010-03-01

    Extremes in rangeland management, varying from too-frequent fire and intensive grazing to the suppression of both, threaten rangeland ecosystems worldwide. Intensive fire and grazing denude and homogenize vegetation whereas their suppression increases woody cover. Although habitat loss is implicated in grassland bird declines, degradation through intensive management or neglect also decreases breeding habitat and may reduce nesting success through increased rates of nest predation. Snakes are important nest predators, but little is known about how habitat use in snakes relates to predation risk for grassland birds nesting within tallgrass prairie subjected to different grazing and fire frequencies. We evaluated nest survival in the context of habitat used by nesting songbirds and two bird-eating snakes, the eastern yellowbelly racer Coluber constrictor flaviventris and Great Plains ratsnake Pantherophis emoryi. Daily nest survival rates decreased with increasing shrub cover and decreasing vegetation height, which characterize grasslands that have been neglected or intensively managed, respectively. Discriminant function analysis revealed that snake habitats were characterized by higher shrub cover, whereas successful nests were more likely to occur in areas with tall grass and forbs but reduced shrub cover. Because snakes often use shrub habitat, birds nesting in areas with increased shrub cover may be at higher risk of nest predation by snakes in addition to other predators known to use shrub habitat (e.g., mid-sized carnivores and avian predators). Depredated nests also occurred outside the discriminant space of the snakes, indicating that other predators (e.g., ground squirrels Spermophilus spp. and bullsnakes Pituophis catenifer) may be important in areas with denuded cover. Targeted removal of shrubs may increase nest success by minimizing the activity of nest predators attracted to shrub cover.

  11. Linking meteorological drivers of spring-summer drought regimes to agricultural drought risk in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L.; Wright, J. S.; Yu, C.; Huang, W. Y.

    2017-12-01

    As a drought prone country, China has experienced frequent severe droughts in recent decades. Drought frequency and severity are projected to increase in China under climate change. An understanding of the physical processes that contribute to extreme droughts is essential for seasonal forecasting, but the dominant physical mechanisms responsible for droughts in most parts of China are still unclear. Moreover, despite numerous studies on droughts in China, there are few clear connections between the meteorological and climatological drivers of extreme droughts and the associated agricultural consequences. This knowledge gap limits the capacity for decision-making support in drought management. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify robust spring-summer drought regimes over China, (2) to investigate the physical mechanisms associated with each regime, and (3) to better clarify connections between meteorological drought regimes and agricultural drought risk. First, we identify six drought regimes over China by applying an area-weighted k-means clustering technique to spatial patterns of spring-summer Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) obtained from the ten-member ERA-20CM ensemble for 1900-2010. Second, we project these drought regimes onto agricultural drought risk maps for the three major cereal crops (rice, maize, and wheat) in China. Taking into account historical harvest areas for these crops, we then evaluate the potential impact of each drought regime on agricultural production. Third, the physical mechanisms and meteorological context behind each drought regimes are investigated based on monthly outputs from ERA20CM. We analyze the preceding and concurrent atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with each regime, and propose mechanistic explanations for drought development. This work provides a new perspective on diagnosing the physical mechanisms behind seasonal droughts, and lays a foundation for improving seasonal drought prediction and

  12. Developmental neurotoxicity and autism: A potential link between indoor neuroactive pollutants and the curious birth order risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wesley A; Billock, Vincent A

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological and demographic studies find an increased risk of autism among first-borns. Toxicological studies show that some semi-volatile substances found in infant products produce adverse effects in neural and endocrine systems of animals, including behavioral and developmental effects. Several factors elevate the exposure of human infants to these chemicals. The highest exposures found in infants are comparable to the exposures that induce neural toxicity in animals. A review of these literatures suggests a linking hypothesis that could bridge the epidemiological and toxicological lines of evidence: an infant's exposure to neuroactive compounds emitted by infant products is increased by product newness and abundance; exposure is likely maximized for first-born children in families that can afford new products. Exposure is reduced for subsequently-born children who reuse these now neuroactive-depleted products. The presence of neuroactive chemical emissions from infant products has implications for birth-order effects and for other curious risk factors in autism, including gender, socioeconomic status, and season-of-birth risk factors. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visceral fat mass: is it the link between uric acid and diabetes risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Sadjadi, Neda; Berg, Jade; Bilgin, Ayse A; Grant, Ross

    2017-07-24

    Uric acid (UA) has been suggested as a novel risk factor for diabetes. However, its definite role in this prevalent disease is still the subject of much discussion because it is always accompanied with other major risk factors such as obesity and high visceral adiposity. In order to clarify the role of UA in diabetes, this study aimed to investigate the associations between plasma UA and fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and inflammatory markers after accounting for the contribution of other diabetes risk factors such as BMI and VAT fat mass. In the present cross-sectional study, 100 non-diabetic middle-aged males (n = 48) and females (n = 52) were recruited. Central fat distribution measures including android to gynoid fat ratio, VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) fat mass were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Biochemical analysis was done using methods well established for clinical and research laboratories. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to analyse the association between plasma UA and the biochemical and central fat distribution measures. UA was positivly associated with body mass index (BMI) (r (98) = 0.42, P ≤ 0.001), android to gynoid fat ratio (r (98) = 0.62, P ≤ 0.001) and VAT fat mass (r (96) = 0.55, P ≤ 0.001). UA was also positively associated with plasma glucose (r (98) = 0.33, P ≤ 0.001), hemoglobin A1c (r (93) = 0.25, P = 0.014), plasma triglyceride (r s (95) = 0.40, P ≤ 0.001), HDL cholesterol (r (98) = - 0.61, P ≤ 0.001) and CRP (r s (98) = 0.23, P = 0.026). However, these associations were no longer significant after accounting for BMI or/and VAT fat mass. No significant association was observed between UA and SAT fat mass (r (97) = 0.02, P ≥ 0.05), Total cholesterol (r (98) = 0.03, P ≥ 0.05), LDL cholesterol (r (98) = 0.13, P ≥ 0.05), TNF-α (r (97) = 0.12, P ≥ 0.05) and IL-6 (r (96) = -0.02, P ≥ 0

  14. Education for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR: Linking Theory with Practice in Ghana’s Basic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla T. Apronti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the need for disaster education to address the causes and effects, prevention and response, and management and recovery from disaster events. The educational process must include diverse and practical techniques that reinforce disaster knowledge and builds a culture of safety and resilience amongst students. Drawing on syllabus content analysis and field research in two rural communities in semi-arid Northern Ghana, this study explored the presence and nature of DRR within the syllabi of the basic school system. By comparing the result of the content analysis with results from interviews and questionnaires completed by teachers and students, significant gaps were identified between the disaster pedagogy outlined in the syllabi (theory and that which occurs in the classroom (practice. It was realized that while the theory outlines active and innovative techniques for teaching, learning, and evaluating DRR lessons, various challenges hinder the practical application of these techniques in the classroom. The study concludes that a lack of teacher training and professional development, and inadequate teaching and learning materials, generally account for these results. A new and consolidated effort is required from all stakeholders to train teachers and to provide the appropriate learning materials to improve on the current DRR education.

  15. Morality Principles for Risk Modelling: Needs and Links with the Origins of Plausible Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    In comparison with the foundations of probability calculus, the inescapable and controversial issue of how to assign probabilities has only recently become a matter of formal study. The introduction of information as a technical concept was a milestone, but the most promising entropic assignment methods still face unsolved difficulties, manifesting the incompleteness of plausible inference theory. In this paper we examine the situation faced by risk analysts in the critical field of extreme events modelling, where the former difficulties are especially visible, due to scarcity of observational data, the large impact of these phenomena and the obligation to assume professional responsibilities. To respond to the claim for a sound framework to deal with extremes, we propose a metafoundational approach to inference, based on a canon of extramathematical requirements. We highlight their strong moral content, and show how this emphasis in morality, far from being new, is connected with the historic origins of plausible inference. Special attention is paid to the contributions of Caramuel, a contemporary of Pascal, unfortunately ignored in the usual mathematical accounts of probability.

  16. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  17. Knowledge apartheid in disaster risk management discourse: Is marrying indigenous and scientific knowledge the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundi Mutasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK is a key component of disaster risk management (DRM and development planning, yet it is often overlooked, with practitioners preferring to use scientific knowledge. Critics of IK have termed it archaic, primitive, a constraint to development and inferior to scientific knowledge, which has contributed to its widespread marginalisation. However, smallholder farmers in rural Zimbabwe have utilised IK for generations, especially in predicting rainfall patterns and managing drought conditions, showing that IK can be a useful tool in DRM. This article presents findings from research on drought vulnerability and coping conducted in Zimbabwe’s Buhera and Chikomba districts in 2009, particularly relating to utilisation of IK in smallholder farming communities, and argues that unless IK is documented and preserved, its marginalisation will persist. The research followed a mixed-methods approach whereby both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed. Whilst smallholder respondents were randomly selected for household surveys, snowball sampling was employed for key informant interviews. Respondents indicated that they utilised some indigenous rainfall pattern predictions gained from observing and interpreting plant and animal behaviour. Some cultural practices that were critical to development and utilisation of certain IK were also threatened with extinction. The article argues for ’marrying’ IK and scientific knowledge, in the hope that the two will offset each other’s weaknesses, resulting in some kind of hybrid knowledge that will be critical for promoting sustainable agricultural production in Zimbabwe. However, this is not for disregard the challenges associated with knowledge hybridisation, as these two types of knowledge are grounded on differing foundations.

  18. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, Kyle S; Nelson, Kara L; Clasen, Thomas; Rose, Joan B; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-05-01

    Intervention trials are used extensively to assess household water treatment (HWT) device efficacy against diarrheal disease in developing countries. Using these data for policy, however, requires addressing issues of generalizability (relevance of one trial in other contexts) and systematic bias associated with design and conduct of a study. To illustrate how quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can address water safety and health issues, we analyzed a published randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the LifeStraw Family Filter in the Congo. The model accounted for bias due to (1) incomplete compliance with filtration, (2) unexpected antimicrobial activity by the placebo device, and (3) incomplete recall of diarrheal disease. Effectiveness was measured using the longitudinal prevalence ratio (LPR) of reported diarrhea. The Congo RCT observed an LPR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.14). Our model predicted LPRs, assuming a perfect placebo, ranging from 0.50 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.33, 0.77) to 0.86 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.68, 1.09) for high (but not perfect) and low (but not zero) compliance, respectively. The calibration step provided estimates of the concentrations of three pathogen types (modeled as diarrheagenic E. coli, Giardia, and rotavirus) in drinking water, consistent with the longitudinal prevalence of reported diarrhea measured in the trial, and constrained by epidemiological data from the trial. Use of a QMRA model demonstrated the importance of compliance in HWT efficacy, the need for pathogen data from source waters, the effect of quantifying biases associated with epidemiological data, and the usefulness of generalizing the effectiveness of HWT trials to other contexts. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. Sports and energy drink consumption are linked to health-risk behaviours among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    National data for the USA show increases in sports and energy drink consumption over the past decade with the largest increases among young adults aged 20-34 years. The present study aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and health-risk behaviours associated with sports and energy drink consumption among young adults. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the third wave of a cohort study (Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Regression models stratified on gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations of sports and energy drink consumption with eating behaviours, physical activity, media use, weight-control behaviours, sleep patterns and substance use. Participants completed baseline surveys in 1998-1999 as students at public secondary schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, USA and the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008-2009. The sample consisted of 2287 participants (55% female, mean age 25·3 years). Results showed 31·0% of young adults consumed sports drinks and 18·8% consumed energy drinks at least weekly. Among men and women, sports drink consumption was associated with higher sugar-sweetened soda and fruit juice intake, video game use and use of muscle-enhancing substances like creatine (P≤0·01). Energy drink consumption was associated with lower breakfast frequency and higher sugar-sweetened soda intake, video game use, use of unhealthy weight-control behaviours, trouble sleeping and substance use among men and women (Psports and energy drink consumption with other unhealthy behaviours in the design of programmes and services for young adults.

  20. Young men's suicidal behavior, depression, crime, and substance use risks linked to childhood teasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Gini, Gianluca; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2017-05-01

    The consequences in adulthood of bullying, teasing, and other peer victimization experiences in childhood rarely have been considered in prospective studies. Studies of peer victimization are mixed regarding whether negative outcomes are explained by pre-existing child vulnerabilities. Furthermore, replication of prior studies with broader definitions and other methods and demographic groups is needed. Based on mother, father, and teacher reports at ages 10-12 years, we classified American boys (n=206) from higher delinquency neighborhoods as perpetrators of teasing, victims, perpetrator-victims, or uninvolved (n=26, 35, 29, and 116, respectively). Family income, parent and child depressive symptoms, and child antisocial behavior served as controls. Boys were assessed to age 34 years for suicide-attempt history (including death) and adult (ages 20-32 years) suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, patterned tobacco and illicit drug use, and arrest. Relative to uninvolved boys, means or odds were higher for: suicide attempt among perpetrator-victims; all three groups for depressive symptoms and clinically significant symptoms; arrest for perpetrators and perpetrator-victims; number of arrests and violent arrest among perpetrator-victims; and patterned tobacco use among perpetrators and perpetrator-victims. With childhood vulnerabilities controlled, however, odds remained higher only for suicide attempt among perpetrator-victims, and criminal arrest and patterned tobacco use among perpetrators. Overall, childhood involvement in teasing predicted serious adverse outcomes in adulthood, in some cases beyond childhood risks. Programs that prevent peer victimization and identify already involved individuals for additional services may have positive impacts on the diverse public health problems of suicide, crime, depression, and tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Genome Wide Association Study Links Glutamate Receptor Pathway to Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Bishop, Matthew T.; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Calero, Miguel; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Ladogana, Anna; Boyd, Alison; Lewis, Victoria; Ponto, Claudia; Calero, Olga; Poleggi, Anna; Carracedo, Ángel; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ströbel, Thomas; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Haïk, Stéphane; Combarros, Onofre; Berciano, José; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Collins, Steven J.; Budka, Herbert; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Laplanche, Jean Louis; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Zerr, Inga; Knight, Richard S. G.; Will, Robert G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study in 434 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and 1939 controls from the United Kingdom, Germany and The Netherlands. The findings were replicated in an independent sample of 1109 sCJD and 2264 controls provided by a multinational consortium. From the initial GWA analysis we selected 23 SNPs for further genotyping in 1109 sCJD cases from seven different countries. Five SNPs were significantly associated with sCJD after correction for multiple testing. Subsequently these five SNPs were genotyped in 2264 controls. The pooled analysis, including 1543 sCJD cases and 4203 controls, yielded two genome wide significant results: rs6107516 (p-value=7.62x10-9) a variant tagging the prion protein gene (PRNP); and rs6951643 (p-value=1.66x10-8) tagging the Glutamate Receptor Metabotropic 8 gene (GRM8). Next we analysed the data stratifying by country of origin combining samples from the pooled analysis with genotypes from the 1000 Genomes Project and imputed genotypes from the Rotterdam Study (Total n=12967). The meta-analysis of the results showed that rs6107516 (p-value=3.00x10-8) and rs6951643 (p-value=3.91x10-5) remained as the two most significantly associated SNPs. Rs6951643 is located in an intronic region of GRM8, a gene that was additionally tagged by a cluster of 12 SNPs within our top100 ranked results. GRM8 encodes for mGluR8, a protein which belongs to the metabotropic glutamate receptor family, recently shown to be involved in the transduction of cellular signals triggered by the prion protein. Pathway enrichment analyses performed with both Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and ALIGATOR postulates glutamate receptor signalling as one of the main pathways associated with sCJD. In summary, we have detected GRM8 as a novel, non-PRNP, genome-wide significant marker associated with heightened disease risk, providing additional evidence supporting a role of glutamate receptors in sCJD pathogenesis. PMID:25918841

  2. Beyond human error taxonomies in assessment of risk in sociotechnical systems: a new paradigm with the EAST 'broken-links' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Harvey, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Risk assessments in Sociotechnical Systems (STS) tend to be based on error taxonomies, yet the term 'human error' does not sit easily with STS theories and concepts. A new break-link approach was proposed as an alternative risk assessment paradigm to reveal the effect of information communication failures between agents and tasks on the entire STS. A case study of the training of a Royal Navy crew detecting a low flying Hawk (simulating a sea-skimming missile) is presented using EAST to model the Hawk-Frigate STS in terms of social, information and task networks. By breaking 19 social links and 12 task links, 137 potential risks were identified. Discoveries included revealing the effect of risk moving around the system; reducing the risks to the Hawk increased the risks to the Frigate. Future research should examine the effects of compounded information communication failures on STS performance. Practitioner Summary: The paper presents a step-by-step walk-through of EAST to show how it can be used for risk assessment in sociotechnical systems. The 'broken-links' method takes a systemic, rather than taxonomic, approach to identify information communication failures in social and task networks.

  3. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Konkina, L.F.; Shishenina, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  4. On the use of a risk ladder: Linking public perception of risks associated with indoor air with cognitive elements and attitudes toward risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Chang, P. E.

    In recent years a number of building managers have invested small amounts of money to measure indoor air quality in offices and other non-industrial buildings. Their objective is to reduce the number of occupant complaints, and not necessarily to reduce the risk associated with such complaints. Clearly, reduction of the risk would require greater investment of funds and effort. This paper focuses on individuals and the amount of money they are willing to invest in order to reduce risks associated with indoor air pollution in their home. Psychologists assert that lay judgement of risks are influenced by cognitive biases and attitudes. This study investigates the possibility that cognitive elements and general attitudes influence not only the perceived risk associated with exposures to indoor air pollutants, but also the willingness of individuals to invest in order to reduce the risk. A three-stage study was performed to determine some of the factors that influence public decisions to control the quality of the air inside their home. The study is focused on the design of a risk ladder, and the survey of 400 randomly selected individuals in the Chicago metropolitan area. The survey was designed to determine if demographics, smoking, education, or income influence the desire of individuals to invest in order to reduce indoor air pollution. The following conclusions were reached: (i) public awareness of indoor air pollution is high; (ii) media campaigns on indoor air pollution affect the determination of the specific pollutant the public perceives as important, but do not influence the public's desire to invest larger amounts of money to reduce risks from exposures to air pollutants in the residential environment; (iii) the public is not willing to spend large amounts of money to reduce indoor residential air pollution; (iv) education does not affect the level of awareness regarding indoor air pollution, but it increases the willingness to invest in an effort to reduce

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among shopkeepers/salesman at model town link road, lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Taufiq, F.; Hassan, T.U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find the prevalence and intensity of low back pain (LBP) among shopkeepers and their associated risk factors and to determine working postures and activities of shopkeepers which make them vulnerable to low back pain. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at Model Town Link Road, Lahore, Pakistan for a period of five months. 96 shopkeepers were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Prevalence was measured by modified Nordic questionnaire and intensity of pain by Visual Analog Scale. Results: Prevalence of LBP was 56.25%. Of these, 81(84.38%) were male and 15(15.63%) were female. LBP was most common in age group 18-24 years. 58.8% of them had difficulty at job due to LBP. More working hours and prolonged standing or sitting in poor postures were associated with LBP. Conclusion: About half of the shopkeepers (56.25%) suffered from LBP. Working hours and poor posture were risk factors. Therefore, ergonomic advice is needed to prevent from low back pain. (author)

  6. Control and management of the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection across French nuclear fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, Mersiha; Dzemidzic Aida; Dijoux, Michel; Pages, Danielle; Rigal, Jean-Francois; Boize, Magali

    2012-09-01

    Across the EDF nuclear fleet, the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection has received much attention in the past decades. Since 1997, continuous investigation into the substitution of dangerous and carcinogenic chemicals has been conducted and regularly updated by EDF. As a downstream user of hydrazine hydrate, EDF is concerned by REACH legislation, in force since 1 June 2007. As part of the compliance process with REACH, EDF provided its hydrazine hydrate suppliers with information regarding the uses of the chemical. This was done by the end of 2008, as per REACH deadline. On the other hand, EDF contributed throughout European Chemicals Agency consultation phase by submitting data relating to hydrazine hydrate uses across nuclear sites. The absence of a suitable hydrazine hydrate replacement product, able to satisfy the entirety of technical requirements, entails rigorous arrangements to be implemented in order to segregate the zones where use of hydrazine is made and therefore eradicate the risk to personnel regarding hydrazine effects. Consequently, a number of engineering changes and modifications are to be carried out on the chemical injection systems of 58 French nuclear power plants over the next few years as part of the EDF Hydrazine Fleet Programme. (authors)

  7. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  8. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    barriers of the sanitary landfill, and the potential risk of contamination of the groundwater were evaluated. The migration of contaminants through the zone of aeration and the engineering barriers are modeled with 2D models, and their potential distribution in groundwater - with 3D models. The models simulate the behavior of highly mobile and less mobile contaminants by the example of chloride and ammonium ions (Cl-and NH4 +).The mechanism of mass transfer is set in its full form: convective transport, accompanied by reversible elimination (sorption), mechanical dispersion (longitudinal and transverse), molecular diffusion and dilution. The concentration of the infiltrating under the bottom of the dump unit pollutants is set to exponentially decreasing function, determined by data from the monitoring. Two-dimensional models are developed using the computer program VS2DTI - v.1.3, and three-dimensional models by Modflow and MT3D-MS.dimensional models by Modflow and MT3D-MS.

  9. Phyto sanitary Treatment at SINAGAMA: Experience Sharing and Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Jamilah Karim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Hasan Sham; Mohd Khairul Azfar Ramli

    2012-01-01

    After more than 22 years involved in sterilization and decontamination of products like medical devices, foods and herbs, Sinagama with the cooperation of SSDL, BAB, MARDI and Malaysia Department of Agriculture has make another step ahead by helping the local fruits farmers on phyto sanitary treatment in order to help them exporting their crops to United States. This report was prepared to discuss the challenges that have been faced by Sinagama during registration and certification process from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The challenges that Sinagama have to faced include Minimum Irradiation Dose, Dose Mapping Process, Biological Control, Training Records, Working Procedures and requirements that needed by Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Officer. All these challenged has been faced by Sinagama in order to make sure the ambition of our nation to help farming sector become reality. (author)

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  11. Sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Our investigations prove that sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number of organisms was 10 7 per litre. One of our most important findings was the fact that neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover we found that Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. The increasing number of Salmonella carriers among our herds of cattle and their striking accumulation during the grazing period demonstrate that such transmission represents a growing danger. Sanitation of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. In our investigation of the sanitary effect of pasteurization (70degC for 30 min) and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge, we examined the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and also 500 krad. We found a linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with increasing doses; a dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae; and there were less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gram in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The results of these model experiments could be completely confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurization. (author)

  12. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonirritating cleansing agent shall be provided for use at each shower. (2) Sanitary flush toilet facilities. (i..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.402 Minimum requirements for...

  13. Health behaviors and quality of life predictors for risk of hospitalization in an electronic health record-linked biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi,1,2 Euijung Ryu,3 Janet E Olson,3 Erin M Winkler,4 Matthew A Hathcock,3 Ruchi Gupta,3 Jeff A Sloan,3 Jyotishman Pathak,3 Suzette J Bielinski,3 James R Cerhan3 1Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Health Sciences Research, 4Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Background: Hospital risk stratification models using electronic health records (EHRs often use age and comorbid health burden. Our primary aim was to determine if quality of life or health behaviors captured in an EHR-linked biobank can predict future risk of hospitalization. Methods: Participants in the Mayo Clinic Biobank completed self-administered questionnaires at enrollment that included quality of life and health behaviors. Participants enrolled as of December 31, 2010 were followed for one year to ascertain hospitalization. Data on comorbidities and hospitalization were derived from the Mayo Clinic EHR. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI were used, adjusted for age and sex. We used gradient boosting machines models to integrate multiple factors. Different models were compared using C-statistic. Results: Of the 8,927 eligible Mayo Clinic Biobank participants, 834 (9.3% were hospitalized. Self-perceived health status and alcohol use had the strongest associations with risk of hospitalization. Compared to participants with excellent self-perceived health, those reporting poor/fair health had higher risk of hospitalization (HR =3.66, 95% CI 2.74–4.88. Alcohol use was inversely associated with hospitalization (HR =0.57 95% CI 0.45–0.72. The gradient boosting machines model estimated self-perceived health as the most influential factor (relative influence =16%. The predictive ability of the model based on comorbidities was slightly higher than the one based on the self-perceived health (C-statistic =0.67 vs 0.65. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that self

  14. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.

  15. Detailed test plan on co-disposal of deminumum levels of LLRW and sanitary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, E.S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The major objectives of this investigation are: (1) to study the attenuation mechanisms for radionuclides (LLRW) in simulated sanitary landfills with and without leachate recycle; and (2) to determine the complexation potential of ligands (viz., sulfides, humic substances) present in the leachate during different stages of landfill stabilization. Since the major emphasis of this research is on containment and isolation of LLRW within a sanitary landfill the following key elements have been incorporated into the design of the simulated pilot-scale sanitary landfills: (1) containment of LLRW within the landfills by placing the municipal refuse and LLRW in polymeric membrane-lined cells (30-mil, HDA, Gundline liner, Gundle, TX) with a leachate collection system; (2) enhancement of stabilization by leachate recycle; and (3) recovery of the gas produced from the sanitary landfills. The proposed research program addresses the fate of LLRW in municipal sanitary landfills thereby, establishing a data base to predict radionuclide pathways in sanitary landfills and to aid in assessing the environmental impacts of codisposal of LLRW within sanitary landfills. The outcome of this study may also serve to alleviate the current concern of unnecessary filling of limited space in existing licensed shallow-land burial sites. 4 figures, 1 table

  16. Seasonal trends in vegetation and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and PBDEs near a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Annick D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Blais, Jules M.

    Spruce needle and atmospheric (gaseous and particulate-bound) concentrations were surveyed near a sanitary landfill from February 2004 to June 2005. The influence of several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, as well as increased domestic heating during the winter was assessed. In general, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in spruce needles increased over time and decreased following snowmelt with a minimum coinciding with bud burst of deciduous trees. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDE and PAH, both particulate-bound and gaseous phase, were linked to daily weather events and thus showed more variability than those in spruce needles. Highest PAH concentrations were encountered during the winter, likely reflecting increased emission from heating homes. Pseudo Clausius-Clapeyron plots revealed higher PBDE gaseous concentrations with increasing temperature, but showed no correlation between PAH gaseous concentrations and temperature as this effect was obscured by seasonal emission patterns. Finally, air mass back trajectories and local wind directions revealed that particulate-bound PBDEs, along with both gaseous and particulate-bound PAHs were from local sources, whereas gaseous PBDEs were likely from distant sources.

  17. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  18. [Using modern information technology in the practice of the sanitary-epidemiological surveiliance during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Kuzkin, B P; Demina, Yu V; Dubyansky, V M; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Shayakhmetov, O Kh; Semenko, O V; Nazarenko, Yu V; Agapitov, D S; Mezentsev, V M; Kharchenko, T V; Efremenko, D V; Oroby, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaya, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Tesheva, S Ch; Rafeenko, G K

    2015-01-01

    To improve the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance at the Olympic Games has developed a system of GIS for monitoring objects and situations in the region of Sochi. The system is based on software package ArcGIS, version 10.2 server, with Web-java.lang. Object, Web-server Apach, and software developed in language java. During th execution of the tasks are solved: the stratification of the region of the Olympic Games for the private and aggregate epidemiological risk OCI various eti- ologies, ranking epidemiologically important facilities for the sanitary and hygienic conditions, monitoring of infectious diseases (in real time according to the preliminary diagnosis). GIS monitoring has shown its effectiveness: Information received from various sources, but focused on one portal. Information was available in real time all the specialists involved in ensuring epidemiological well-being and use at work during the Olympic Games in Sochi.

  19. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.; Cucereanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  20. Public health assessment for Freeway Sanitary Landfill, Burnsville, Dakota County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND038384004. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Freeway Sanitary Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site in Burnsville, Minnesota is situated in the Lower Minnesota River Valley. Shallow groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of volatile organic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Under current conditions, no human exposures to site-related contaminants are known to occur at levels of health concern. Based on currently available information, the Minnesota Department of Health concludes that the site poses an indeterminate public health hazard under current conditions because exposure to volatile gases released to the air is possible, but cannot be evaluated from the very limited information available. There are also a few physical hazards on the site which pose a risk of accident or injury if trespassing occurs. Otherwise, there are no indications that people have been, or are being, exposed to site-related contaminants at levels that would be of health concern. The Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Health Activities Recommendation Panel has evaluated the Freeway Sanitary Landfill Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up activities. The Panel has recommended that health education be considered to assist site workers in better understanding their potential for exposure to landfill gases

  1. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  2. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  3. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  4. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  5. Analytical solutions of linked fault tree probabilistic risk assessments using binary decision diagrams with emphasis on nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusbaumer, O. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    This study is concerned with the quantification of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) using linked Fault Tree (FT) models. Probabilistic Risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) complements traditional deterministic analysis; it is widely recognized as a comprehensive and structured approach to identify accident scenarios and to derive numerical estimates of the associated risk levels. PRA models as found in the nuclear industry have evolved rapidly. Increasingly, they have been broadly applied to support numerous applications on various operational and regulatory matters. Regulatory bodies in many countries require that a PRA be performed for licensing purposes. PRA has reached the point where it can considerably influence the design and operation of nuclear power plants. However, most of the tools available for quantifying large PRA models are unable to produce analytically correct results. The algorithms of such quantifiers are designed to neglect sequences when their likelihood decreases below a predefined cutoff limit. In addition, the rare event approximation (e.g. Moivre's equation) is typically implemented for the first order, ignoring the success paths and the possibility that two or more events can occur simultaneously. This is only justified in assessments where the probabilities of the basic events are low. When the events in question are failures, the first order rare event approximation is always conservative, resulting in wrong interpretation of risk importance measures. Advanced NPP PRA models typically include human errors, common cause failure groups, seismic and phenomenological basic events, where the failure probabilities may approach unity, leading to questionable results. It is accepted that current quantification tools have reached their limits, and that new quantification techniques should be investigated. A novel approach using the mathematical concept of Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is proposed to overcome these deficiencies

  6. Evidence for increased SOX3 dosage as a risk factor for X-linked hypopituitarism and neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauters, M.; Frints, S.G.; Esch, H. van; Spruijt, L.; Baldewijns, M.M.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Fryns, J.P.; Marynen, P.; Froyen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic duplications of varying lengths at Xq26-q27 involving SOX3 have been described in families with X-linked hypopituitarism. Using array-CGH we detected a 1.1 Mb microduplication at Xq27 in a large family with three males suffering from X-linked hypopituitarism. The duplication was mapped from

  7. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article investigates the formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. The relevance of this article due to the need to systematize the individual areas of water law, including the protection of water and sanitation of the twentieth century. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The article devoted to the study of formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. Paper objective. The relevance of this article due to the need to identify viable methods and instruments of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water during the formation of the main areas of water legislation of Ukraine in the twentieth century. Terms used in the legal protection of water, sanitary water use rules, the bodies of sanitary supervision, the state sanitary inspection. Conclusions. Research in the field of water legislation, and therefore the individual concerned and its protection issues, many scientists were engaged as ecologists and environmentalists. However, the special historical and legal work in a range twentieth century. no. This gap makes it difficult to analyze the current state of affairs in the field of sanitary protection of water. Detection of historical stages of development of water legislation in this area, identifying the main patterns and dynamics of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water in specific historical circumstances will improve the current regime of water protection. The author analyzes the main laws and regulations in the field of materials of

  8. FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 2. COUNTIES: BROWARD, CALHOUN, CHARLOTTE, CITRUS, CLAY, COLLIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

  9. Domestic hot water storage: Balancing thermal and sanitary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability

  10. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  11. [The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomarev, A M; Vaĭsman, Ia I; Zaĭtseva, T A; Glushankova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

  12. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  13. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  14. Linking the Prevention of Problem Behaviors and Positive Youth Development: Core Competencies for Positive Youth Development and Risk Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a brief review of the developmental literature linking healthy adjustment to five core competencies: (1) positive sense of self, (2) self-control, (3) decision-making skills, (4) a moral system of belief, and (5) prosocial connectedness. A central premise of this chapter and the rest of the volume is that promoting…

  15. Markers of human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk individuals seronegative by first generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Lauritzen, E

    1989-01-01

    -linked immunoassay (ELISA). Seventy-four of the serum samples had been obtained from 40 sexual partners of HIV antibody positive individuals. Two of the samples were reactive for p24 in immunoblot, but no other markers of HIV infection were found. From 80 sexually active male homosexuals, 117 serum samples were...

  16. Using exposure prediction tools to link exposure and dosimetry for risk based decisions: a case study with phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Population Life-course Exposure to Health Effects Modeling (PLETHEM) platform being developed provides a tool that links results from emerging toxicity testing tools to exposure estimates for humans as defined by the USEPA. A reverse dosimetry case study using phthalates was ...

  17. Quantifying links between stroke and risk factors: a study on individual health risk appraisal of stroke in a community of Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yamin; Yi, Dong

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors of stroke in a community in Chongqing by setting quantitative criteria for determining the risk factors of stroke. Thus, high-risk individuals can be identified and laid a foundation for predicting individual risk of stroke. 1,034 cases with 1:2 matched controls (2,068) were chosen from five communities in Chongqing including Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Tianxingqiao, Yubei Road and Ciqikou. Participants were interviewed with a uniform questionnaire. The risk factors of stroke and the odds ratios of risk factors were analyzed with a logistic regression model, and risk exposure factors of different levels were converted into risk scores using statistical models. For men, ten risk factors including hypertension (5.728), family history of stroke (4.599), and coronary heart disease (5.404), among others, were entered into the main effect model. For women, 11 risk factors included hypertension (5.270), family history of stroke (4.866), hyperlipidemia (4.346), among others. The related risk scores were added to obtain a combined risk score to predict the individual's risk of stoke in the future. An individual health risk appraisal model of stroke, which was applicable to individuals of different gender, age, health behavior, disease and family history, was established. In conclusion, personal diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc., were very important to the prevalence of stoke. The prevalence of stroke can be effectively reduced by changing unhealthy lifestyles and curing the positive individual disease. The study lays a foundation for health education to persuade people to change their unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors, and could be used in community health services.

  18. FORMATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF META-DATA ASSOCIATED WITH ESTIMATES OF «ONCO-» RISKS LINKED TO MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Vostrikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to formation of the integrated scientific foundation based on the data of different statistical publications (meta data that are linked to «onko-« risks associated with meat products. In October 2015, World Health Organization (WHO published a report, in which red meat was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In addition, the WHO experts made a conclusion about carcinogenicity of processed meat (meat that has been processed by smoking, salting, fermentation or other processes to extend storage. However, globally, there is no standardized method for reviewing the vast amount of studies on the mechanisms, by which lifestyle factors can cause cancer. At present, the work was begun on the development and testing of new methodology for performing systematic reviews of mechanistic investigations associated with a diet, nutrition, physical activity, and the development and progression of different types of cancer.A topical analysis of research in this direction will allow formation of basic meta data associated with «onko-» risks, linked to meat products, detection of basic and accompanying factors influencing «onko-» risks. The obtained information will enable the creation of a scientific reserve for further work on studying an effect of components entering into or developing in meat products associated with «onko-» risks.

  19. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places

  20. IS THERE A LINK BETWEEN MONETARY POLICY AND RISK PERCEPTION IN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IMPLEMENTING INFLATION TARGETING REGIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Kansu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent financial crisis of August 2007 in US, economists and policy makers hold the view that monetary policy may have an effect on real economic activity through ‘risk taking channel’ which indicates the risk behavior of economic agents and the linkages between monetary policy and perception of risk. In this study, we examine whether changes in monetary policy stance influence the risk perceptions and generates any impact on the real side of the economy in Czech Republic, Poland, Russian Federation and Turkey implementing inflation targeting. In the context of a SVAR model, we find that monetary policy does not affect risk perception reflected by stock price variability and any attempt by central banks to stimulate real economic activity through monetary policy also appears to be ineffective in these countries.

  1. Sanitary services in the perm region during the Great Patriotic war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Horoshavin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the formation of the Medical Service of the (Molotov region during the war. We describe the problems encountered sanitary doctors in the war years, the direction of the main measures to address these problems. It is shown that the organizers of the health service – A.V. Kostina, V.A. Ryazanov, their colleagues have made every effort to prevent epidemics and save health of both local and evacuees. It is showed the role of volunteers, doctors of medical units at the plants, the Department of Health Medical Institute to improve the sanitary conditions in the region.

  2. Evidence for a link between changes to gaze behaviour and risk of falling in older adults during adaptive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that gaze stabilization with respect to footfall targets plays a crucial role in the control of visually guided stepping and that there are significant changes to gaze behaviour as we age. However, past research has not measured if age-related changes in gaze behaviour are associated with changes to stepping performance. This paper aims to identify differences in gaze behaviour between young (n=8) adults, older adults determined to be at a low-risk of falling (low-risk, n=4) and older adults prone to falling (high-risk, n=4) performing an adaptive locomotor task and attempts to relate observed differences in gaze behaviour to decline in stepping performance. Participants walked at a self-selected pace along a 9m pathway stepping into two footfall target locations en route. Gaze behaviour and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an ASL 500 gaze tracker interfaced with a Vicon motion analysis system. Results showed that older adults looked significantly sooner to targets, and fixated the targets for longer, than younger adults. There were also significant differences in these measures between high and low-risk older adults. On average, high-risk older adults looked away from targets significantly sooner and demonstrated less accurate and more variable foot placements than younger adults and low-risk older adults. These findings suggest that, as we age, we need more time to plan precise stepping movements and clearly demonstrate that there are differences between low-risk and high-risk older adults in both where and when they look at future stepping targets and the precision with which they subsequently step. We propose that high-risk older adults may prioritize the planning of future actions over the accurate execution of ongoing movements and that adoption of this strategy may contribute to an increased likelihood of falls. Copyright 2005 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Long Term assessment of the dose registered by the Sanitary workers of a mutual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anies Escartin, J.; Perramon Llado, A.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a long time period of time (about 17 years) of the professional exposure to ionising radiation of the workers of an accidents Mutual, that has its own personal Dosimetry Service, allows to establish a relation between the showed global reduction of the registered doses of the people exposed and the circumstances and actions that did it possible. The fact to carry out a dosimetric control is an essential factor directed to accomplish the objective of holding the doses as low as achievable, joined with the fact of passing more strict law. Those factors that fixed a reduction of the doses inherited by the sanitary exposed workers whose relation are demonstrated in this study. The collective dose inherited by the bunch of people exposed is the parameter suitable to measure and assess the time history at medium and long term of the exposure conditions of the workers, and identify the more relevant characteristics of the risk by ionising radiation at workplace. The conclusion of the time history analysis of the quantity shows that the total collective dose for more than a thousand people group, are strongly affected by the doses corresponding to less than a 1,5 % of the users. The number of people that have a value dose higher that the average, and the high value of the dose in some periods because of their activity lead to changes of the value of the collective doses that can be higher than 100%. This great uncertainty in the measured value needs more than ten months of control to guarantee the lowering of doses received. The decreasing doses observed are strongly related with the reduction of this relative short number of cases with incidences in the doses registered. An important part of the work is related to identifying the incidences registered, noticing the evolution and checking the most suitable actions to lower it. (Author) 4 refs

  4. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  5. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  6. Sanitation Health Risk and Safety Planning in Urban Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    affordable drinking-water and sanitation for ... systems are expensive and most communities in developing countries ... To appraise the techniques of sanitary risk assessment ..... contribution to decision making is limited to the extent that it can ...

  7. A study of the presence of methane and other gases at the Pulau Burung sanitary landfill site, Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslanzairi Mostapa; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Lakam Mejus; Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza

    2006-01-01

    This paperwork explains the investigation and measurement of the presence of the landfill gases that is methane (CH 4 ) and other gases that include oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), chlorine (Cl 2 ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) that were carried out at the Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill disposal site, Penang on the month of March and June 2005. The objectives of this study are to investigate the presence of methane which could contribute to the safety aspect on explosion hazard and discuss briefly the viability of methane for power generation. For this purpose, direct gas measurements were taken from 31 gas wells from the first phase of the landfill. Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill which is located in the state of Penang, Malaysia with the amount of design volume capacity of 0.85 million m3 and received approximately 350 ton of solid waste per day. From the study, it was found that the concentration of CH 4 averagely ranges from 3.66 % vol to 65.96 % vol. Other gases concentrations are; CO 2 (1.46 %vol - 39.66 % vol), O 2 (0.4 %vol - 14.2 %vol), SO 2 (1.8 ppm - 8.6 ppm), NO x (0.14 ppm - 0.46 ppm), Cl 2 (0.1 ppm - 0.58 ppm), HCN (1 ppm - 138.4 ppm) and H 2 S (0.4 ppm - 140 ppm). Methane dilution down to Explosion Limit (EL) levels that is between 5% (Lower Explosion Limit, LEL) and 15% (Upper Explosion Limit, UEL) is always possible and could poses explosion risk at the site. The viability of power generation from methane gas depends on many factors which will be discussed further in this paper. Most of these factors will rely on the nature of the operation by the landfill operator. (Author)

  8. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... steady sound level which in 8 hours would contain the same acoustic energy as the time-varying sound... changed regularly. 7. Lavatories. (a) Lavatories should be made available to all rail employees housed in... sanitary condition. (e) Sanitary storage. No food or beverages should be stored in toilet rooms or in an...

  10. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  11. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    King, Thomas F J

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.

  12. Coordination of short-term and long-term mitigation measures of hydro-meteorological risks: the importance of establishing a link between emergency management and spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin; Cortes, V. Juliette; Aye, Zar Chi; Sprague, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The management of natural hazards involves, as generally known, the four stages of the risk management cycle: Prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Accordingly, the mitigation of disasters can be performed in terms of short-term and long-term purposes. Whereas emergency management or civil protection helps to strengthen a community's capacity to be better prepared for natural hazards and to better respond in case a disaster strikes, thus addressing the short-term perspective, spatial planning serves long-term planning goals and can therefore implement long-term prevention measures. A purposefully applied risk mitigation strategy requires coordination of short-term and long-term mitigation measures and thus an effective coordination of emergency management and spatial planning. Several actors are involved in risk management and should consequently be linked throughout the whole risk management cycle. However, these actors, partly because of a historically fragmented administrative system, are hardly connected to each other, with spatial planning only having a negligible role compared to other actors1, a problem to which Young (2002) referred to as the "problem of interplay". In contrast, information transfer and decision-taking happen at the same time and are not coordinated among different actors. This applies to the prevention and preparedness phase as well as to the recovery phase, which basically constitutes the prevention phase for the next disaster2. Since investments in both risk prevention and emergency preparedness and response are considered necessary, a better coordination of the two approaches is required. In this regard, Decision Support Systems (DSS) can be useful in order to provide support in the decision-making aspect of risk management. The research work currently undertaken examines the problem of interplay in the four case study areas of the Marie Curie ITN, CHANGES3. The link between different risk management actors will be explored

  13. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  14. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  15. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the

  16. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces - an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=-2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ (2)=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ (2)=42.92, p=0.0005×10(-7)) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to empower women, avert further health risks, and

  17. Effect of hopelessness on the links between psychiatric symptoms and suicidality in a vulnerable population at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the risks linked with natural refrigerating fluids; Evaluation des risques lies aux fluides frigorigenes naturels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilpart, J. [Centre National Machiniste Agricole du Genie Rural des Eaux et des Forets, (Cemagref), 35 - Rennes (France). Div. Genie des Procedes Frigorifiques

    1999-07-01

    Because of their environmental impact, halogenated refrigerants are more and more replaced by `natural` refrigerants in vapor compression cycle refrigerating machineries. However, technological risks exist with these substitution fluids due to their flammability, explosibility or toxicity. Major risks can be encountered at the industrial scale and thanks to experience feedback and to several studies, a rigorous approach was settled and included in the legislative texts relative to classified installations and environment protection. Risks also exist at the scale of refrigerating installations with the use of hydrocarbon and ammonia refrigerants. This paper presents an evaluation of risks both at the industrial and at the installation scale: 1 - definition and approach of industrial risks: scenarios of major industrial accidents (boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE), toxic gases emission); evaluation of accident effects (thermal, mechanical, noxious); 2 - calculation methods applicable to industrial installations: thermal effects (radiation intensity, exposure duration, mass of flammable product involved in the phenomenon), mechanical effects (TNT equivalent method, rupture of pressurized reservoirs), noxious effects (leaks, atmospheric dispersion); 3 - application to refrigerating installations: case of hydrocarbons (dimensioning scenarios and simplified formulae, admissible scenarios), case of ammonia. (J.S.) 20 refs.

  19. The sanitary officer: first aid coordinator on EDF nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The internal organisation for first aid to the injured in case of an accident on E.D.F. nuclear power plant calls for the immediate assistance of a first aid team, consisting of five workers, under the direction of a principal first aid officer; one of the first aid workers, the sanitary officer who instructs the first aid workers intervention awaiting the arrival of an external medical. When the 'Sanitary on-site Emergency Plan' was up' dated, twenty medical doctors and seventy members of staff from five different sites were questioned as to the function of the sanitary officer. The conclusions revealed a notable difference of training amongst the different sites, and concerning first aid organisation, difference of priority of actions, extent of their participation once the medical team arrives and their participation in case of decontamination treatment. The medical doctors and staff lay a particular stress on importance of defining on a national scale the limits of role and responsibilities of the sanitary officer and establish a more specific training in this field, consequently motivating commitment and professionalism involvement. There is a great difference between the training and coaching of the first aid assistance and fire protection teams. To conclude, we propose that the first aid officer be known as first aid coordinator and the qualification of 'Certificat de Formation aux Premiers Secours en Equipe' in compliance with the current legislation together with a specific nuclear module and they should undergo regular on-site drills. (author)

  20. Evolution of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland in the years 1944-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Grabowski

    2017-11-01

    The pre-accession preparation to the European Union (EU strongly accelerated the development of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has promoted the implementation of the WHO document “Health for All in the 21st Century” and the reduction of “health inequalities”.

  1. Extra environmental impact assessment and recommendable measures for their minimization in arranging sanitary inspection room site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rud'ko, V.M.; Batij, V.G.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Paskevich, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments during the works for preparation of sanitary inspection room site are presented. A range of measures to minimize environmental impact from the works to be implemented,is offered. Impacts on such environmental components as soil,air and aqueous medium,are considered

  2. Design of manuals sanitary landfills (II). Diseo de rellenos sanitarios manuales (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This period includes engineering projects, landscape and details of building; taking into account the circumstances that govern them, it must be made looking at the simplicity and quickness required to these type of works and trying to respect sanitary requirements. (Author)

  3. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR MITIGATION PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...

  5. NORTH PORTAL-SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  6. Attitudes towards the Use of the Medical and Sanitary Services in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Manouchehr

    1977-01-01

    Describes research methodology and findings of a survey in Iran to determine relationships between educational level, age, residence, and other variables involved in attitudes regarding the use of medical and sanitary services. Public health education is seen to be needed. For journal availability, see SO 506 019. (Author/AV)

  7. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... maintained sanitary sewer systems are meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into them... sewage from these overflows can contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. It can... influent flows to exceed the treatment capacity of existing secondary treatment units. Known as ``peak...

  8. Flooding the sanitary city : Planning discourse and the materiality of urban sanitation in Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban water flows are constitutive elements of Hanoi’s morphology. Regular floods across the city illustrate that Hanoi’s amphibious character is a central impediment to the installa- tion of a ‘dry and sanitary city’, the global modernist ideal of a separation of urban waste- water flows from

  9. Innovative in situ treatment approach for DOE Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.; Suer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Pursuant to a settlement agreement reached between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site will be closed. This paper addresses the approach used to select the innovative in situ treatment alternative for the groundwater and the vadose zone associated with the landfill

  10. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY.... Construction on Barrier IIB has been completed. Operational and safety testing was conducted in February 2011... dispersal barrier IIA and IIB. This safety zone will be enforced daily from 7 a.m. to 11 a.m. and from 1 p.m...

  11. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... installations and at the surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of...

  12. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements. 71.500 Section 71.500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  13. The future of monitoring in clinical research - a holistic approach: linking risk-based monitoring with quality management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Eva B; Hecht, Arthur; Henn, Doris K; Leptien, Sabine; Stelzer, Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Since several years risk-based monitoring is the new "magic bullet" for improvement in clinical research. Lots of authors in clinical research ranging from industry and academia to authorities are keen on demonstrating better monitoring-efficiency by reducing monitoring visits, monitoring time on site, monitoring costs and so on, always arguing with the use of risk-based monitoring principles. Mostly forgotten is the fact, that the use of risk-based monitoring is only adequate if all mandatory prerequisites at site and for the monitor and the sponsor are fulfilled.Based on the relevant chapter in ICH GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use - Good Clinical Practice) this publication takes a holistic approach by identifying and describing the requirements for future monitoring and the use of risk-based monitoring. As the authors are operational managers as well as QA (Quality Assurance) experts, both aspects are represented to come up with efficient and qualitative ways of future monitoring according to ICH GCP.

  14. Linking Self-Regulation and Risk Proneness to Risky Sexual Behavior: Pathways through Peer Pressure and Early Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…

  15. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour

  16. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  17. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu...... levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater...... response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk...

  18. Probablistic approach to the assessment of the long-term risk linked to the disposal of radioactive waste in geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, G; D' Alessandro, M [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1982-12-01

    A probabilistic approach is described for the assessment of the risk linked to the underground disposal of radioactive materials. Risk quantification is split into the assessment of radioactivity release probabilities and the corresponding consequences. Both probabilities and consequences may be quantified through the use of models which, because of unavoidable uncertainties in input data, are implemented in a probabilistic way. For any uncertain parameter a probability distribution must be defined, in order that the model results reflect the uncertainties of the input data. The probability distribution of the results can be obtained by using analytical codes as well as with Monte Carlo simulations. A simple application of the methodology is given to show what kind of information can be drawn.

  19. Executive function and falls in older adults: new findings from a five-year prospective study link fall risk to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelman, Anat; Herman, Talia; Brozgol, Marina; Dorfman, Moran; Sprecher, Elliot; Schweiger, Avraham; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that executive function (EF) plays a critical role in the regulation of gait in older adults, especially under complex and challenging conditions, and that EF deficits may, therefore, contribute to fall risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate if reduced EF is a risk factor for future falls over the course of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary objectives were to assess whether single and dual task walking abilities, an alternative window into EF, were associated with fall risk. We longitudinally followed 256 community-living older adults (age: 76.4±4.5 yrs; 61% women) who were dementia free and had good mobility upon entrance into the study. At baseline, a computerized cognitive battery generated an index of EF, attention, a closely related construct, and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed during single and dual task conditions. Falls data were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Negative binomial regression quantified risk ratios (RR). After adjusting for age, gender and the number of falls in the year prior to the study, only the EF index (RR: .85; CI: .74-.98, p = .021), the attention index (RR: .84; CI: .75-.94, p = .002) and dual tasking gait variability (RR: 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23; p = .027) were associated with future fall risk. Other cognitive function measures were not related to falls. Survival analyses indicated that subjects with the lowest EF scores were more likely to fall sooner and more likely to experience multiple falls during the 66 months of follow-up (pfalls was predicted by performance on EF and attention tests conducted 5 years earlier. The present results link falls among older adults to cognition, indicating that screening EF will likely enhance fall risk assessment, and that treatment of EF may reduce fall risk.

  20. Transport Assessment and Risk Analysis: the case of the 2nd fixed link across the Danube River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Mudova, Nedyalka

    2009-01-01

    of construction costs and the overestimation of travel time savings. By extending this principle into stochastic modelling in terms of quantitative risk analysis (QRA), so-called feasibility risk assessment is provided by moving from point (deterministic CBA) to interval (stochastic QRA) results. Hereby, decision......The scope of this paper is to present a new methodology for appraising transport infrastructure projects. Conventionally, transport infrastructure appraisal is conducted by the use of cost-benefit analyses (CBA) in order to produce aggregated single point estimates (DMT, 2003). However, new...... research has proved that the embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of high significance. The paper investigates the latter two impacts in terms of the Optimism Bias principle which is used to take account of the underestimation...

  1. Reducing Tick-Borne Disease in Alabama: Linking Health Risk Perception with Spatial Analysis Using the NASA Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S.; Renneboog, N.; Firsing, S.; Capilouto, E.; Harden, J.; Hyden, R.; Tipre, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) accounts for most vector-borne disease reports in the U.S., and although its existence in Alabama remains controversial, other tick-borne illnesses (TBI) such as Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness (STARI) pose a health concern in the state. Phase One of the Marshall Space Flight Center-UAB DEVELOP study of TBI identified the presence of the chain of infection for LD (Ixodes scapularis ticks carrying Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria) and STARI (Amblyomma americanum ticks and an as-yet-unconfirmed agent) in Alabama. Both LD and STARI are associated with the development of erythema migrans rashes around an infected tick bite, and while treatable with oral antibiotics, a review of educational resources available to state residents revealed low levels of prevention information. To improve prevention, recognition, and treatment of TBI in Alabama, Phase Two builds a health communication campaign based on vector habitat mapping and risk perception assessment. NASA Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery identified likely tick habitats using remotely sensed measurements of vegetation vigor (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and soil moisture. Likely tick habitats, identified as those containing both high vegetation density and soil moisture, included Oak Mountain State Park, Bankhead National Forest, and Talladega National Forest. To target a high-risk group -- outdoor recreation program participants at Alabama universities -- the study developed a behavior survey instrument based on existing studies of LD risk factors and theoretical constructs from the Social Ecological Model and Health Belief Model. The survey instrument was amended to include geographic variables in the assessment of TBI knowledge, attitudes, and prevention behaviors, and the vector habitat model will be expanded to incorporate additional environmental variables and in situ data. Remotely sensed environmental data combined with

  2. Factors associated with monozygosity in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies and the risk of recurrence using linked cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B; Wantman, Ethan; Stern, Judy E

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate factors associated with monozygosity (MZ) (number of fetal heartbeats on early ultrasound greater than the number of embryos transferred) and the risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies using a national assisted reproduction database. Historical cohort study. Clinic-based data. 197,327 pregnancies (including 2,824 with evidence of MZ) from cycles reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) between 2004 and 2010. None. Evidence of MZ, adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals computed from logistic regression models. In the univariate analysis, the risk of MZ was increased with ovulation disorders, donor oocytes, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) suppression, assisted hatching (AZH), and day 5-6 transfer, and was decreased with higher follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) doses (≥3,000 IU). In the multivariate analysis, the risk of MZ was increased with GnRH-a suppression, AZH, and decreased with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and higher FSH dose. The interaction showed that although MZ was more likely with day 5-6 embryos, AZH had a minimal nonsignificant effect, whereas in day 2-3 embryos, AZH had a substantial statistically significant effect. Only one woman had a recurrence of MZ in a subsequent assisted reproduction pregnancy, which is consistent with randomness. The risk of MZ was higher with fresh day 5-6 embryos, donor oocytes, GnRH-a suppression, lower FSH doses, and AZH (particularly with day 2-3 embryos). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-12-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', which was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message-framing research for the better part of two decades and has enduring appeal to researchers and practitioners. It has found its way into several health communication handbooks and is communicated to the general public. The present article examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis anew by providing a review of the health message-framing literature. In spite of its ongoing appeal, we conclude that the hypothesis has severe theoretical flaws. In addition, we find that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and inconsistent. It seems that, in applying prospect theory's tenets to a health-promotion context, some of the theory's key aspects have been lost in translation. At the close of the article, we offer a research agenda for the future, arguing that, above all, new methodology is needed to bring the message-framing literature further.

  5. Linking infant-directed speech and face preferences to language outcomes in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six infants were tested at ages 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Infants heard 2 ID and 2 adult-directed (AD) speech passages paired with either a checkerboard or a face. The authors assessed expressive language at 12 and 18 months and general functioning at 12 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen, 1995). Both infant groups preferred ID to AD speech and preferred faces to checkerboards. SIBS-TD demonstrated higher expressive language at 18 months than did SIBS-A, a finding that correlated with preferences for ID speech at 12 months. Although both groups looked longer to face stimuli than to the checkerboard, the magnitude of the preference was smaller in SIBS-A and predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months in this group. Infants' preference for faces contributed to risk-group membership in a logistic regression analysis. Infants at heightened risk of ASD differ from typically developing infants in their preferences for ID speech and faces, which may underlie deficits in later language development and social communication.

  6. Integrated analysis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma identifies key variants and pathways linked to risk habits, HPV, clinical parameters and tumor recurrence [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC are a homogeneous group of tumors characterized by aggressive behavior, early spread to lymph nodes and a higher rate of regional failure. Additionally, the incidence of OTSCC among younger population (<50yrs is on the rise; many of whom lack the typical associated risk factors of alcohol and/or tobacco exposure. We present data on single nucleotide variations (SNVs, indels, regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH, and copy number variations (CNVs from fifty-paired oral tongue primary tumors and link the significant somatic variants with clinical parameters, epidemiological factors including human papilloma virus (HPV infection and tumor recurrence. Apart from the frequent somatic variants harbored in TP53, CASP8, RASA1, NOTCH and CDKN2A genes, significant amplifications and/or deletions were detected in chromosomes 6-9, and 11 in the tumors. Variants in CASP8 and CDKN2A were mutually exclusive. CDKN2A, PIK3CA, RASA1 and DMD variants were exclusively linked to smoking, chewing, HPV infection and tumor stage. We also performed a whole-genome gene expression study that identified matrix metalloproteases to be highly expressed in tumors and linked pathways involving arachidonic acid and NF-k-B to habits and distant metastasis, respectively. Functional knockdown studies in cell lines demonstrated the role of CASP8 in a HPV-negative OTSCC cell line. Finally, we identified a 38-gene minimal signature that predicts tumor recurrence using an ensemble machine-learning method. Taken together, this study links molecular signatures to various clinical and epidemiological factors in a homogeneous tumor population with a relatively high HPV prevalence.

  7. Understanding the Links Between Self-Report Emotional Intelligence and Suicide Risk: Does Psychological Distress Mediate This Relationship Across Time and Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Mérida-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to examining psychological resources that might contribute to our understanding of suicide risk. Although Emotional Intelligence (EI is one dimension that has been linked with decreased suicidal ideation and behaviors, we detected several gaps in the literature in this area regarding the research designs and samples involved. In this research, we aimed to test a mediator model considering self-report EI, psychological distress and suicide risk across samples adopting both cross-sectional and prospective designs in two independent studies.Method: In Study 1, our purpose was to examine the potential role of psychological distress as a mediator in the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk in a community sample comprised of 438 adults (270 women; mean age: 33.21 years. In Study 2, we sought to examine the proposed mediator model considering a 2-month prospective design in a sample of college students (n = 330 in T1; n = 311 in T2; 264 women; mean age: 22.22 years.Results: In Study 1, we found that psychological distress partially mediated the effect of self-report EI on suicide risk. More interestingly, findings from Study 2 showed that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between self-report EI and suicide risk at Time 2.Conclusion: These results point out the role of psychological distress as a mediator in the association between self-report EI and suicide risk. These findings suggest an underlying process by which self-report EI may act as a protective factor against suicidal ideation and behaviors. In line with the limitations of our work, plausible avenues for future research and interventions are discussed.

  8. Effect of linear alkylbenzene mixtures and sanitary sewage in biochemical and molecular responses in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bicego, Márcia C; Melo, Cláudio M R; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2015-11-01

    Urban effluents are rich in nutrients, organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hydrocarbons, surfactants, and others. Previous studies have shown that oysters Crassostrea gigas accumulate significant levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sanitary sewage contaminated sites, but there is little information about its toxicological effects in marine bivalves. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription of genes in two tissues of C. gigas exposed for 12, 24, and 36 h to LABs or sanitary sewage. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes was measured in oysters exposed for 36 h in all groups. Oysters exposed to LABs and oysters exposed to sanitary sewage showed different patterns of transcriptional responses. LAB-exposed oysters showed lower level of biological responses than the oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Despite the ability of the oyster C. gigas to accumulate LABs (28-fold), the data indicate that these contaminants are not the cause for the transcriptional responses observed in oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Possibly, the biological changes observed in the sanitary sewage-exposed oysters are associated with the presence of other contaminants, which might have caused synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. The results show that FABP-like and GST-ω-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a rapid response in tissues of oyster C. gigas exposed to sanitary sewage, suggesting a possible protective response and a role in maintaining homeostasis of these organisms.

  9. Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: Linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENOIT eJAGU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behaviour has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis and the degradation of ion channel α-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking.

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas F J; Bergin, David A; Kent, Etaoin M; Manning, Fiona; Reeves, Emer P; Dicker, Patrick; McElvaney, Noel G; Sreenan, Seamus; Malone, Fergal D; McDermott, John H

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in mothers of low-birthweight infants. This was a prospective cohort study in a general antenatal department of a university maternity hospital. Twenty-three mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight mothers of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (birthweight ≥ 10th centile) were recruited. Maternal EPC number and function, conventional cardiovascular risk markers, and cord blood adiponectin were measured. Median EPC count was lower (294 vs. 367, P = 0.005) and EPC migration was reduced (0.91 vs. 1.59, P < 0.001) in SGA compared with AGA infants, with no difference in EPC adhesion (0.221 vs. 0.284 fluorescence units, P = 0.257). Maternal triglyceride levels were higher in SGA than AGA infants (0.98 vs. 0.78 mmol/liter, P = 0.006), but there was no difference in cholesterol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, adiponectin, or blood pressure. There was a moderate monotone (increasing) relationship between birthweight and umbilical cord blood adiponectin (r = 0.475, P = 0.005). Giving birth to an SGA infant was associated with lower maternal EPC number and reduced migratory function. Cord blood adiponectin was significantly correlated with birthweight.

  11. Longitudinal pathways linking family factors and sibling relationship qualities to adolescent substance use and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2005-12-01

    This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

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    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  13. Recommendation for sanitary waste water system replacement, 222-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    The 2607-W6 septic system is not approved by the Washington State Department of Health. The system is over 40 years old and is operating at greater than 200% capacity. Under these conditions the system is subject to imminent failure and is not adequately treating the septic waste. This poses a potential personnel health risk. It is recommended that this system be upgraded by installation of a new drain field similar to the modification of the 2607-W1 system

  14. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  15. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-Yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease.

  16. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  17. Linked spaces of vulnerability: HIV risk amongst migrant Dai women and their left-behind husbands in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rui; Lyttleton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In one county of Southwest China bordering Myanmar, large numbers of minority Dai women leave to work in southern Thailand. Many are married and they leave behind husbands and children, sending remittances and returning home intermittently. These women commonly establish relations with Chinese/Malaysian men in their worksites--massage parlours in the tourist sites near the Malaysian border. These men become second husbands just as the Dai women become second wives. This paper examines the complicated set of HIV risks and assumptions that emerge from the circular Dai exodus to Thailand and the manner in which transnational employment networks impact on domestic and sexual relationships for women and their non-migrant husbands back home.

  18. Executive function and falls in older adults: new findings from a five-year prospective study link fall risk to cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Mirelman

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that executive function (EF plays a critical role in the regulation of gait in older adults, especially under complex and challenging conditions, and that EF deficits may, therefore, contribute to fall risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate if reduced EF is a risk factor for future falls over the course of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary objectives were to assess whether single and dual task walking abilities, an alternative window into EF, were associated with fall risk.We longitudinally followed 256 community-living older adults (age: 76.4±4.5 yrs; 61% women who were dementia free and had good mobility upon entrance into the study. At baseline, a computerized cognitive battery generated an index of EF, attention, a closely related construct, and other cognitive domains. Gait was assessed during single and dual task conditions. Falls data were collected prospectively using monthly calendars. Negative binomial regression quantified risk ratios (RR. After adjusting for age, gender and the number of falls in the year prior to the study, only the EF index (RR: .85; CI: .74-.98, p = .021, the attention index (RR: .84; CI: .75-.94, p = .002 and dual tasking gait variability (RR: 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23; p = .027 were associated with future fall risk. Other cognitive function measures were not related to falls. Survival analyses indicated that subjects with the lowest EF scores were more likely to fall sooner and more likely to experience multiple falls during the 66 months of follow-up (p<0.02.These findings demonstrate that among community-living older adults, the risk of future falls was predicted by performance on EF and attention tests conducted 5 years earlier. The present results link falls among older adults to cognition, indicating that screening EF will likely enhance fall risk assessment, and that treatment of EF may reduce fall risk.

  19. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  20. Dyslexia risk variant rs600753 is linked with dyslexia-specific differential allelic expression of DYX1C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Müller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.

  1. The process of biosorption of heavy metals in bioreactors loaded with sanitary sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Morais Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work on the process of biosorption of nickel and chromium in an ascendant continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor of sanitary sewage sludge was conducted in a search for solutions to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the absorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of the heavy metals studied at about 9.0 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of over 90.0% for the two metals. Chemometric study results demonstrated that 20 days of the experimental system function were sufficient for achieving the maximum efficiency of sorption of the heavy metals studied by the sanitary sewage sludge employed.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994

  3. Hygienic assessment of habitat adverse social and sanitary factors in the Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ushakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The materials on health status, socio-economic, sanitary living conditions of the population of the Altai Krai have been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the conditions of life and health outcomes in urban and rural settlements’ population has been performed. The estimation of health indicators’ correlation has been carried out in children of age group 0-1 years, children of age group 0-14 years, teens of age group 15-17 years and adults of age group over 18 years, depending on the type (urban or rural of settlement with indicators of social and sanitary environmental factors. Regression equations for the health outcomes of different age groups on the level of hygiene and social environmental factors are set, regional critical (reference values are justified. The hygienic assessment of unfavorable social, health and sanitation of the environment on the health of the population in the Altai Krai is provided.

  4. Relativistic electron influence on sanitary-model microorganisms and antibiotics in model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.S.; Berezhna, I.V.; Kovpik, O.F.; Babych, E.M.; Voliansky, Yu.L.; Sklar, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    A series of the investigations of the electron beam influence on sanitary-model test cultures and antibiotics in model solutions has been carried out. For each of the test objects, the authors have found the boundary doses of the absorbed radiation. The higher doses cause the sharp increase in the bactericidal influence, which becomes complete. The sanitary-bactericidal indices of the water samples remain sable during 6 days. The samples of antibiotics in various concentrations (from 100 UA) have been irradiated. It is proved that the substratum processing by the beam (in the regimes 30 kGy) causes diminution and complete neutralization of the antibacterial activity in all probes of the samples

  5. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  6. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF SANITARY-HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTILAYER POLYMER FILMS USED FOR VACUUM PACKAGING MODIFIED BY NATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research works related to investigation of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of multilayer polymer film materials where the inner layer contacting directly with food product is modified by native antimicrobial components.

  8. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  9. An overview of techniques for linking high-dimensional molecular data to time-to-event endpoints by risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Porzelius, Christine; Schumacher, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Analysis of molecular data promises identification of biomarkers for improving prognostic models, thus potentially enabling better patient management. For identifying such biomarkers, risk prediction models can be employed that link high-dimensional molecular covariate data to a clinical endpoint. In low-dimensional settings, a multitude of statistical techniques already exists for building such models, e.g. allowing for variable selection or for quantifying the added value of a new biomarker. We provide an overview of techniques for regularized estimation that transfer this toward high-dimensional settings, with a focus on models for time-to-event endpoints. Techniques for incorporating specific covariate structure are discussed, as well as techniques for dealing with more complex endpoints. Employing gene expression data from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, some typical modeling issues from low-dimensional settings are illustrated in a high-dimensional application. First, the performance of classical stepwise regression is compared to stage-wise regression, as implemented by a component-wise likelihood-based boosting approach. A second issues arises, when artificially transforming the response into a binary variable. The effects of the resulting loss of efficiency and potential bias in a high-dimensional setting are illustrated, and a link to competing risks models is provided. Finally, we discuss conditions for adequately quantifying the added value of high-dimensional gene expression measurements, both at the stage of model fitting and when performing evaluation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A workplace email-linked website intervention for modifying cancer-related dietary and lifestyle risk factors: rationale, design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y K; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S

    2013-04-01

    The use of email and website as channels for workplace health information delivery is not fully explored. This study aims to describe the rationale, design, and baseline findings of an email-linked website intervention to improve modifiable cancer risk factors. Employees of a Malaysian public university were recruited by systematic random sampling and randomised into an intervention (n = 174) or control group (n = 165). A website was developed for the intervention and educational modules were uploaded onto the website. The intervention group received ten consecutive weekly emails with hypertext links to the website for downloading the modules and two individual phone calls as motivational support whilst the control group received none. Diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, psychosocial factors and stages of change related to dietary fat, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity were assessed. Participants were predominantly female and in non-academic positions. Obesity was prevalent in 15% and 37% were at risk of co-morbidities. Mean intake of fats was 31%, fruit was -1 serving/day and vegetable was < 1 serving/day. Less than 20% smoked and drank alcohol and about 40% were physically inactive. The majority of the participants fell into the Preparation stage for decreasing fat intake, eating more fruit and vegetables, and increasing physical activity. Self-efficacy and perceived benefits were lowest among participants in the Precontemplation/Contemplation stage compared to the Preparation and Action/Maintenance stages. Baseline data show that dietary and lifestyle practices among the employees did not meet the international guidelines for cancer prevention. Hence the findings warrant the intervention planned.

  11. Veterinary-sanitary supervision of food from radiation-hygienic aspect in border crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.; Vicentijevic, M.; Kljajic, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we presented the result of radiation control for imported food under the veterinary-sanitary supervision with radiation-hygienic aspect. The activity level of 137 Cs was from background to 18,8 Bq/kg and determined by gamma spectrometry. We discussed about results because 137 Cs relevance for radiation-hygienic certification and some samples of food was not satisfied maximum permitted levels. (author)

  12. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Otacílio Antunes Santana; José Imanã Encinas; Rodrigo Studart Corrêa; Antônio Felipe Couto Júnior

    2008-01-01

    This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB) on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrat...

  13. Biogas recuperation in sanitary landfills; Recuperacao de biogas em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luiz Mario Queiroz [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work shoes a retrospective about recovering biogas activity in sanitary landfill, where in the genesis of methane is emphasized. Also, a conceptual review was made and discussed focusing the technological aspects of the landfill methods. Further, two important aspects of the genesis of methane were discussed: the enhancement mechanisms for acceleration of the formation of methane and the production of biological input from leachate in landfill. (author) 36 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Flooding the sanitary city : Planning discourse and the materiality of urban sanitation in Hanoi

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban water flows are constitutive elements of Hanoi’s morphology. Regular floods across the city illustrate that Hanoi’s amphibious character is a central impediment to the installa- tion of a ‘dry and sanitary city’, the global modernist ideal of a separation of urban waste- water flows from public space through their redirection into large underground networks. Currently, the first attempt by the city government to construct a citywide sewerage network since the colonial period is taking p...

  15. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Salimi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Afsane Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS) based on the Oleckno index method (OIM). Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Resul...

  16. Discussion of 10 CRF 20 rules for waste of effluents in sanitary sewerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.

    1986-12-01

    An interpretation of the Code of Federal Regulations, volume 10 part 20 (10 CFR 20) from Nuclear Regulatory Commission is proposed, aiming at his easier use in waste of radioactive liquid effluents to the environment, by sanitary sewerage. The study is based on recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICPR 2) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection). (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Kênia Machado de; André,Maria Cláudia Porfirio; Campos,Maria Raquel Hidalgo; Díaz,Mário Ernesto Piscoya

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. Th...

  18. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Actual situation of knowledge relative to the sanitary risks linked to the production, the transport and the use of various energy sources; Etat actuel des connaissances concernant les risques sanitaires associes a la production, au transport et a l'utilisation des diverses sources d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Faculte de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In order to optimize the energy production it is necessary to evaluate the effects of each energy sources on environment ( essentially pollution and greenhouse effect) and on health. It is the object of this colloquium. The energy sources are coal, petroleum, gas and nuclear power. The comparison is made on three levels: quality of epidemiological data, relevance of modeling, precision of results. It must lead to define studies that should be made to check the validity of hypothesis and models. (N.C.)

  20. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  1. Mineralogy and microstructure of hydrated phases during the pozzolanic reaction in the sanitary ware waste/Ca(OH)2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, César; Sáez del Bosque, Isabel F.; Asensio, Eloy; Frías, Moisés; Sánchez de Rojas, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological improvements in its production process, the sanitary ware industry inevitably generates a certain volume of discards, products whose quality is not up to standard. The present paper is the first to scientifically explore claybased sanitary ware waste (SW) with a view to its valorization as an addition in the design of new, more environmentally friendly cements. The focus is on characterization of the waste and its pozzolanicity, as well as the struct...

  2. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site

  3. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  4. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  5. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  6. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  7. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  8. Estimation of the collective sanitary impact of the land contamination by the radioactivity found at Gif sur Yvette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The company 'Societe Nouvelle du Radium' extracted radium and produced radium needles in Gif-sur-Yvette (Essonne) from 1904 to 1957. In 1959, this site was converted into a habitable zone. Since then, this district called the 'Petite Coudraie' has been going through several radioactivity measurements and decontamination works. In 2000, the detection of very high levels of radon above sanitary recommendations in one house encouraged the local authorities to launch a systematic investigation and risk analysis in order to take the necessary measures against radiological risks for the whole concerned district. The 'Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales' (D.D.A.S.S.), the French Institute of Public Health (InVS) and the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Security (I.P.S.N.) conducted a health impact assessment of the pollution in this area. The Office for the Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.) and the I.P.S.N. first measured the radioactivity found on the surface area. The I.P.S.N. then conducted a dosimetric study based on the measurement results and realistic exposure scenarios of adults and children present in the area. Finally, on the base of these results, the InVs did a quantitative risk assessment of cancer due to exposure to the radioactive residuals from the past industrial activities which is the subject of this report. This assessment allows to estimate the extent of this potential health impact due to the contamination of the area with the current scientific knowledge. It assesses the contribution of the various sources ways of exposure to risk and therefore directs the measures of management priority. Finally, it also allows to appreciate the relevance of an epidemiological study on the population who was present in this area. (author)

  9. The role of DSM-5 borderline personality symptomatology and traits in the link between childhood trauma and suicidal risk in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Fjeldsted, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood traumas appear to be linked to suicidal behavior. However, the factors that mediate between these two phenomena are not sufficiently understood. Recent findings suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) may explain some of the association. The present study investigated the potential mediating role of BPD symptomatology and traits between reported childhood trauma and suicidal risk in adult psychiatric outpatients ( N  = 124). BPD symptomatology was measured with DSM-5 Section II criterion-counts (SCID-II; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II), whereas BPD traits were measured with specified DSM-5 Section III traits (PID-5; Personality Inventory for DSM-5). Childhood traumas were self-reported (CTQ; Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), whereas level of suicidal risk was measured with a structured interview (MINI Suicidality Module; Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Mediation effects were tested by bias-corrected (10.000 boot-strapped samples) confidence intervals. BPD features account for a considerable part of the cross-sectional association between childhood trauma and level of suicidal risk, even when controlling for the influence of gender, age, and educational level. This finding remained stable when testing the model without the suicidality-related BPD criterion and PID-5 items. DSM-5 Section II BPD criterion-counts explained 67% of the total effect, whereas DSM-5 Section III BPD traits accounted for 82% of the total effect. The specific DSM-5 Section III trait facets of "Depressivity" (52%) and "Perceptual Dysregulation" (37%) accounted for most of this effect. The findings provide preliminary support for the proposed mediation model indicating that BPD features may help explain relations between childhood trauma and elevated suicidal risk in adult life, in particular for DSM-5 Section III personality traits of depressivity (e.g., pessimism, guilt, and shame) and perceptual dysregulation (e.g., dissociation). To

  10. PCA-based polling strategy in machine learning framework for coronary artery disease risk assessment in intravascular ultrasound: A link between carotid and coronary grayscale plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Jain, Pankaj K; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventional procedures need advance planning prior to stenting or an endarterectomy. Cardiologists use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for screening, risk assessment and stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that plaque components are vulnerable to rupture due to plaque progression. Currently, there are no standard grayscale IVUS tools for risk assessment of plaque rupture. This paper presents a novel strategy for risk stratification based on plaque morphology embedded with principal component analysis (PCA) for plaque feature dimensionality reduction and dominant feature selection technique. The risk assessment utilizes 56 grayscale coronary features in a machine learning framework while linking information from carotid and coronary plaque burdens due to their common genetic makeup. This system consists of a machine learning paradigm which uses a support vector machine (SVM) combined with PCA for optimal and dominant coronary artery morphological feature extraction. Carotid artery proven intima-media thickness (cIMT) biomarker is adapted as a gold standard during the training phase of the machine learning system. For the performance evaluation, K-fold cross validation protocol is adapted with 20 trials per fold. For choosing the dominant features out of the 56 grayscale features, a polling strategy of PCA is adapted where the original value of the features is unaltered. Different protocols are designed for establishing the stability and reliability criteria of the coronary risk assessment system (cRAS). Using the PCA-based machine learning paradigm and cross-validation protocol, a classification accuracy of 98.43% (AUC 0.98) with K=10 folds using an SVM radial basis function (RBF) kernel was achieved. A reliability index of 97.32% and machine learning stability criteria of 5% were met for the cRAS. This is the first Computer aided design (CADx) system of its kind that is able to demonstrate the ability of coronary

  11. Effects of supplement with sanitary landfill leachate in gas exchange of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Junior, Francisco H; Freitas, Valdineia S; Mesquita, Rosilene O; Braga, Brennda B; Barbosa, Rifandreo M; Martins, Kaio; Gondim, Franklin A

    2017-10-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is one of the major problems arising from disposal of urban waste. Sanitary landfill leachate may, however, have use in agriculture. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze initial plant growth and gas exchange in sunflower seedlings supplemented with sanitary landfill leachate and subjected to drought stress through variables of root fresh mass (RFM), shoot fresh mass (SFM), total fresh mass (TFM), relative chlorophyll content (CL), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (A), ratio of internal to external CO 2 concentration (Ci/Ca),water use efficiency (EUA), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), and electron transport rate (ETR). The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 (irrigated and non-irrigated) × 4 (sand, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 organic fertilizer, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate, and sand + 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate) factorial with five replicates. Under drought stress conditions, leachate treatment supplemented with 100 kg N ha -1 exhibited higher plant fresh weights than those of the treatment containing 150 kg N ha -1 . Increases in fresh mass in plant treatments supplemented with 100 and 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate were related to higher photosynthetic rates.

  12. Food Safety and Sanitary Practices of Selected Hotels in Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis of Proposed Enhancement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province as basis of proposed enhancement measures. The study utilized descriptive method to describe food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province with a total of 8 hotels (256 respondents. Purposive sampling was used in the study. The questionnaires were designed using the provision of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, validated and finalized to come up with legitimate results. The study showed that there were eight (8 hotel respondents classified as two, three, four star with considerable years of experience and adequate number of employees. The hotels demonstrated the food safety and sanitary practices always in the areas of restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service. The significant pair-wise comparison for restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service shows that 2 star hotels greatly differs. The researcher recommends that the management should maintain high standard of food safety and sanitary practices among its staff, upgrade the food safety and sanitary practices for food safety accreditation, continuous training of the hotel managers/employees on food safety and sanitary practices.

  13. Role of ICSU Rolac on Disaster Risk Management Link to Food Production Prof. Manuel Limonta Director of ICSU Rolac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    The 85% of people exposed to earthquakes, cyclones, floods and droughts live in developing countries. The enormous cost of disasters threatens the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, especially the first objective: to reduce poverty half by 2015. The Disaster risk reduction is vital to secure one of the most fundamental human rights. The right to be free from hunger. Each year, Latin America and the Caribbean countries are affected by natural disasters, such as droughts, floods, hurricanes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, which are added to epidemics and socio-economic crises. These events result in loss of lives, property and livelihoods, and therefore undermine the food security and nutritional status of vulnerable populations. While in the region geophysical disasters caused most deaths and economic lost. The result has been lives lost in Haiti and the destruction of valuable infrastructure in Chile. Bearing mind also that the largest number of disasters were caused by climatic impacts. The 2010 hurricane season in the Atlantic was the most active since 2005 and experienced its worst rainy season in the last 50 years in Central America. ICSU, ICSU ROLAC, DISASTERS AND FOOD SECURITY ICSU ICSU's mission is to strengthen international science for the benefit of society. To do this, ICSU mobilizes the knowledge and resources of the international science community to: Identify and address major issues of Importance to science and society. Facilitate interaction amongst scientists across all disciplines and from all countries. Promote the participation of all scientists-regardless of race, citizenship, language, political stance, or gender-in the international scientific endeavour. ICSU ROLAC The mission of the ICSU Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean is to ensure that the Regional Priorities are reflected in the ICSU Strategic Plan to develop sound regional and scientific programs. The ICSU ROLAC scientific priority areas are

  14. Sanitary and hygienic assessment of polyurethane foam compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Putilina, O.N. (Donetskii NII Gigieny Truda i Professional' nykh Zabolevanii (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Describes and presents the results of a long-term study performed by the Skochinski Institute and DonUGI into the suitability of various Soviet and foreign polyurethane foams as rock strengtheners in coal mines. Concludes that although further research is needed to clarify the effect of polyurethane absorbed by coal particles and on pneumoconioses, the industrial use of injectable polyisocyanite-based polyurethanes in amounts of up to 1 t/shift and with a minimum air exchange rate of 300 m{sup 3}/min is feasible as long as the safety laws are strictly observed. Those working with this material should be given a medical examination at least once a year. If the substance comes into contact with the skin or eyes, they should be washed with a 1-3% solution of sodium bicarbonate and then pure water; if it contaminates protective clothing this should be degassed in a 5-10% solution of ammonia for 24 hours and then washed. Due to the risk of toxic substances being released from the components of the polyurethane in the event of an endogenic fire, all workers should be equipped with their own personal breathing apparatus.

  15. Risk assessment of listeriosis linked to the consumption of two soft cheeses made from raw milk: Camembert of Normandy and Brie of Meaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaa, Moez; Coroller, Louis; Cerf, Olivier

    2004-04-01

    This article reports a quantitative risk assessment of human listeriosis linked to the consumption of soft cheeses made from raw milk. Risk assessment was based on data purposefully acquired inclusively over the period 2000-2001 for two French cheeses, namely: Camembert of Normandy and Brie of Meaux. Estimated Listeria monocytogenes concentration in raw milk was on average 0.8 and 0.3 cells/L, respectively, in Normandy and Brie regions. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for the time-temperature history of the milk and cheeses from farm to table. It was assumed that cell progeny did not spread within the solid cheese matrix (as they would be free to do in liquid broth). Interaction between pH and temperature was accounted for in the growth model. The simulated proportion of servings with no L. monocytogenes cell was 88% for Brie and 82% for Camembert. The 99th percentile of L. monocytogenes cell numbers in servings of 27 g of cheese was 131 for Brie and 77 for Camembert at the time of consumption, corresponding respectively to three and five cells of L. monocytogenes per gram. The expected number of severe listeriosis cases would be Camembert of Normandy, respectively.

  16. Leisure-time aerobic physical activity, muscle-strengthening activity and mortality risks among US adults: the NHANES linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S; Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao Jun; Balluz, Lina S

    2014-02-01

    Regular physical activity elicits multiple health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the mortality risks associated with levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans among US adults. We analysed data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with linked mortality data obtained through 2006. Cox proportional HRs with 95% CIs were estimated to assess risks for all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity. Of 10 535 participants, 665 died (233 deaths from CVD) during an average of 4.8-year follow-up. Compared with participants who were physically inactive, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.79) among those who were physically active (engaging in ≥150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.97) among those who were insufficiently active (engaging in >0 to benefits among insufficiently active adults.

  17. The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children's psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Fischer, Cristina; Cierpka, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Difficult conditions during childhood can limit an individual's development in many ways. Factors such as being raised in an at-risk family, child temperamental traits or maternal traits can potentially influence a child's later behaviour. The present study investigated the extent of regulatory problems in 6-month-old infants and their link to temperamental traits and impact on externalizing and internalizing problems at 36 months. Moderating effects of maternal distress and maternal depressive symptoms were tested as well. In a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, a sample of 185 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was investigated at 6 months with SFS (infants' regulatory problems) and at 3 years with CBCL (children's behavioural problems), EAS (children's temperament), ADS (maternal depressive symptoms) and PSI-SF (maternal stress). A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant association between infants' regulatory problems and both externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems at age 3 (accounting for 16% and 14% variance), with both externalizing and internalizing problems being linked to current maternal depressive symptoms (12 and 9% of the variance). Externalizing and internalizing problems were found to be related also to children's temperamental difficulty (18 and 13% of variance) and their negative emotionality. With temperamental traits having been taken into account, only feeding problems at 6 months contributed near-significant to internalizing problems at 3 years. Our results underscore the crucial role of temperament in the path between early regulatory problems and subsequent behavioural difficulties. Children's unfavourable temperamental predispositions such as negative emotionality and generally "difficult temperament" contributed substantially to both externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems in the high-risk sample. The decreased predictive power of regulatory problems following the inclusion of

  18. Sanitary quality of the rivers in the Communities of Manguinhos´ Territory, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Berendonk Handam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation actions are rare in the communities of Manguinhos, so evaluation of the sanitary conditions of the river waters and the peridomestic soils of the communities allows the diagnosis of the risk of contamination. This study evaluated coliform levels (total coliforms and Escherichia coli by the filter membrane method, and parasitological (by adapted Lutz and Baermann-Moraes methods in the waters and soils of the Faria-Timbó, Jacaré and Canal do Cunha Rivers that pass through the communities of the Territory of Manguinhos, RJ, according to the standards established in Brazilian legislation. In all points of the rivers, the water was unfit, with an average level of Escherichia coli 3,800 times higher than that standardized in CONAMA Resolution No. 274/2000. Larvae, helminths eggs and protozoan oocysts were observed. Soil samples were also unfit, with mean total coliform level 77,000 times higher than that considered acceptable by SMAC Resolution 468/2010. The Escherichia coli average level was 53,000 times higher than that permitted by the legislation. However, helminths eggs were found in only one soil sample. It was concluded that the lack of sanitation in this locality results in the high coliform and parasitological levels of the river waters and in the peridomestic soils, and that immediate modifications are needed to the Brazilian environmental paradigm, which uses its water bodies as sewage disposal ditches.

  19. Using geographical information systems (GIS to examine sanitary implications of rubbish dump locations at human activity centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenos Koku Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate health risks that refuse dump locations have on people. The global positioning systems (GPS were used to take location coordinates of 28 rubbish dump centers and human activity centers (clinics, restaurants, markets etc spread across a university campus in Ghana. The ArcGIS software was used to plot the coordinates and draw a buffer of 50 meters around the rubbish dump locations (RDL to show the closeness between the dump sites and the human activity centers (HAC, and the sanitary implications of the closeness. More than 90% of the HACs fell within the 50 meters buffer zone of the rubbish dump sites. The findings indicated that some sensitive HACs like food joints, laundries etc. were less than 15 meters from rubbish dump sites. The findings confirmed that the location of rubbish dump sites pose serious threat to the health of the human community in the university. The findings of this study can be used to make evidence- based decisions about possible relocation of rubbish dump containers in the university. This study is also an initiative to set the tone for more detailed research work on the health implications of rubbish disposal management on Ghanaians.

  20. Biological and sanitary effects of non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugere, H.; Hours, M.; Seze, R. de; Bernier, M.; Letertre, Th.; Aurengo, A.; Burais, N.; Bedja, M.; Merckel, O.; Decat, G.; Lagroye, I.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Aurengo, A.; Souques, M.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lagroye, I.; Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this day was to encourage the collaborations, especially multidisciplinary, on the biological, clinical, epidemiological and dosimetry aspects. The different presentations are as follow: the magneto reception among animals; the health and radio frequencies foundation; expo-metry to radio frequency fields: dosemeters evaluation; the electro-optical probes as tool of hyper frequency dosimetry; characterisation of emissions produced by the low consumption fluo-compact lamps in the perspective of persons exposure; strong and weak points of epidemiology; numerical dosimetry in low frequency magnetic and/or electric field; exposure of the French population to the 50 Hz magnetic field: first results for the Ile-de-france and Rhone alpes areas; characterisation of the exposure to the very low frequency magnetic fields in the town of Champlan; measurement of the residential exposure of children to the extremely low frequency, very low frequency and radiofrequency (E.L.F., V.L.F. and R.F.) fields and modeling of the high voltage magnetic field face to the child leukemia; effects of radiofrequency signals of wireless communications on the young animals; study of combined effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves and a known mutagen on DNA by two different approaches; effects on the oxidizing stress of nervous cells exposure to an (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) E.D.G.E. signal; is environmental epidemiology still a science; cardiac implants and exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in occupational environment; the tanning by artificial UV radiation: norms and legislation; mobiles phones, Wi Fi and other wireless communications; effects on health of 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields; natural and artificial ultraviolet radiations: a proved risk. (N.C.)

  1. Risk factors associated with taeniasis-cysticercosis in Lagamar, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vergara, M L; Prata, A; Netto, H V; Vieira, C de O; Castro, J H; Micheletti, L G; Otaño, A S; Franquini Júnior, J

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was carried out in 3,344 people of an urban town in Lagamar, Minas Gerais, Brazil--during 1992-1993, to evaluate the main risk factors related to taeniasis and cysticercosis. A total number of 875 (78.9%) houses were visited and 1080 (32.3%) subjects were clinically examined. Poor sanitary conditions were positively associated with former history of taeniasis or seizures in households (p < 0.05). It was remarkable the positive relationship between taeniasis and seizures when households were questioned and subjects were clinically evaluated (p < 0.05). The relative risk of seizures was 2.3 between households and 1.7 for individuals clinically examined respectively. The breeding of swine nearby and the chronic carriers of taeniasis are determinant factors in the maintenance of the epidemiological link between taeniasis and cysticercosis in endemic areas.

  2. Risk factors associated with taeniasis-cysticercosis in Lagamar, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Vergara Mario León

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was carried out in 3,344 people of an urban town in Lagamar, Minas Gerais, Brazil - during 1992-1993, to evaluate the main risk factors related to taeniasis and cysticercosis. A total number of 875 (78.9% houses were visited and 1080 (32.3% subjects were clinically examined. Poor sanitary conditions were positively associated with former history of taeniasis or seizures in households (p < 0.05. It was remarkable the positive relationship between taeniasis and seizures when households were questioned and subjects were clinically evaluated (p < 0.05. The relative risk of seizures was 2.3 between households and 1.7 for individuals clinically examined respectively. The breeding of swine nearby and the chronic carriers of taeniasis are determinant factors in the maintenance of the epidemiological link between taeniasis and cysticercosis in endemic areas.

  3. The future of host cell protein (HCP) identification during process development and manufacturing linked to a risk-based management for their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, Daniel G; Francis, Richard; Smales, C Mark

    2015-09-01

    The use of biological systems to synthesize complex therapeutic products has been a remarkable success. However, during product development, great attention must be devoted to defining acceptable levels of impurities that derive from that biological system, heading this list are host cell proteins (HCPs). Recent advances in proteomic analytics have shown how diverse this class of impurities is; as such knowledge and capability grows inevitable questions have arisen about how thorough current approaches to measuring HCPs are. The fundamental issue is how to adequately measure (and in turn monitor and control) such a large number of protein species (potentially thousands of components) to ensure safe and efficacious products. A rather elegant solution is to use an immunoassay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) based on polyclonal antibodies raised to the host cell (biological system) used to synthesize a particular therapeutic product. However, the measurement is entirely dependent on the antibody serum used, which dictates the sensitivity of the assay and the degree of coverage of the HCP spectrum. It provides one summed analog value for HCP amount; a positive if all HCP components can be considered equal, a negative in the more likely event one associates greater risk with certain components of the HCP proteome. In a thorough risk-based approach, one would wish to be able to account for this. These issues have led to the investigation of orthogonal analytical methods; most prominently mass spectrometry. These techniques can potentially both identify and quantify HCPs. The ability to measure and monitor thousands of proteins proportionally increases the amount of data acquired. Significant benefits exist if the information can be used to determine critical HCPs and thereby create an improved basis for risk management. We describe a nascent approach to risk assessment of HCPs based upon such data, drawing attention to timeliness in relation to biosimilar

  4. [Epidemiological actualization of the avian influenza. New analysis of sanitary risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    A review has been made of the present epidemics of Avian Influenza, which originated in the year 2003 in Southeast Asia, and expanded thereafter to 60 countries in three continents (Asia, Africa and Europe), with more than 3000 outbreaks and millions of affected poultry, and 80% mortality. Special emphasis is made on the genetic variability of the etiological agent, the Orthomyxovirus A H5N1, which may accumulate point mutations in several genes distributed in eight segments, and especially in the gene which encodes the hemagglutinin (HA). Stress is made in a recent mutation in the gene which encodes polymerase PB2, which determines the substitution of one amino acid, and is associated to the virulence of the virion, enabling it to adapt to the upper human respiratory tract and to replicate in this area. This mutation dangerously approaches the virus A H5N1 to a possible interhuman transmission and to become a pandemic virus, possibly in the near future. The present knowledge and the social structure would permit to content and control the pandemic state with the due speed and efficacy.

  5. Risk of Post-Discharge Venous Thromboembolism and Associated Mortality in General Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using Linked Hospital and Primary Care Data in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouras, George; Burns, Elaine Marie; Howell, Ann-Marie; Bottle, Alex; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Trends towards day case surgery and enhanced recovery mean that postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) may increasingly arise after hospital discharge. However, hospital data alone are unable to capture adverse events that occur outside of the hospital setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has suggested the use of primary care data to quantify hospital care-related VTE. Data in surgical patients using these resources is lacking. The aim of this study was to measure VTE risk and associated mortality in general surgery using linked primary care and hospital databases, to improve our understanding of harm from VTE that arises beyond hospital stay. This was a longitudinal cohort study using nationally linked primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, CPRD), hospital administrative (Hospital Episodes Statistics, HES), population statistics (Office of National Statistics, ONS) and National Cancer Intelligence Network databases. Routinely collected information was used to quantify 90-day in-hospital VTE, 90-day post-discharge VTE and 90-day mortality in adults undergoing one of twelve general surgical procedures between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2012. The earliest postoperative recording of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in CPRD, HES and ONS was counted in each patient. Covariates from multiple datasets were combined to derive detailed prediction models for VTE and mortality. Limitation included the capture of VTE presenting to healthcare only and the lack of information on adherence to pharmacological thromboprophylaxis as there was no data linkage to hospital pharmacy records. There were 981 VTE events captured within 90 days of surgery in 168005 procedures (23.7/1000 patient-years). Overall, primary care data increased the detection of postoperative VTE by a factor of 1.38 (981/710) when compared with using HES and ONS only. Total VTE rates ranged between 3.2/1000 patient-years in haemorrhoidectomy to 118

  6. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  7. Risk of placenta praevia is linked to endometrial thickness in a retrospective cohort study of 4537 singleton assisted reproduction technology births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombauts, L; Motteram, C; Berkowitz, E; Fernando, S

    2014-12-01

    Is endometrial thickness measured prior to embryo transfer associated with placenta praevia? Following IVF, the risk of placenta praevia is increased 4-fold in women with an endometrial thickness of >12 mm compared with women with an endometrial thickness of IVF treatment but it remains unknown what factors contribute to that increased risk. Retrospective cohort study involving 4007 women who had 4537 singleton assisted reproduction technology (ART) births occurring between January 2006 and June 2012 with no loss to follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the diagnosis of placenta praevia, made by the treating obstetrician on a transvaginal ultrasound in the third trimester. Women who had singleton births following single embryo transfer performed at Monash IVF in Melbourne, Australia were included. Of the 4537 cycles leading to a singleton ART birth, 2951 were stimulated cycles with fresh embryo transfers; 355 were hormone replacement therapy frozen embryo transfers and 1231 were natural cycles with frozen embryo transfers. The dataset was analysed using binary logistic general estimating equations to calculate odds ratios for placenta praevia adjusted (aOR) for known confounders. The study groups did not differ significantly in age, BMI and aetiologies of infertility prior to IVF treatment. When compared with stimulated cycles, placenta praevia was less common in women undergoing natural cycles with frozen embryo transfers (OR 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.70, P 12 mm had an aOR of 3.74 (95% CI 1.90-7.34, P IVF patients and their offspring. The fact that the observed increased risk is not linked to the type of embryo transfer (fresh/frozen) but to the type of endometrial preparation, suggests that the risk of placenta praevia in ART can be reduced by considering an elective frozen embryo transfer in a natural cycle, especially given the growing evidence that this strategy also provides a number of other maternal and neonatal benefits. No funding

  8. Risk of Post-Discharge Venous Thromboembolism and Associated Mortality in General Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using Linked Hospital and Primary Care Data in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bouras

    Full Text Available Trends towards day case surgery and enhanced recovery mean that postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE may increasingly arise after hospital discharge. However, hospital data alone are unable to capture adverse events that occur outside of the hospital setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has suggested the use of primary care data to quantify hospital care-related VTE. Data in surgical patients using these resources is lacking. The aim of this study was to measure VTE risk and associated mortality in general surgery using linked primary care and hospital databases, to improve our understanding of harm from VTE that arises beyond hospital stay.This was a longitudinal cohort study using nationally linked primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, CPRD, hospital administrative (Hospital Episodes Statistics, HES, population statistics (Office of National Statistics, ONS and National Cancer Intelligence Network databases. Routinely collected information was used to quantify 90-day in-hospital VTE, 90-day post-discharge VTE and 90-day mortality in adults undergoing one of twelve general surgical procedures between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2012. The earliest postoperative recording of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in CPRD, HES and ONS was counted in each patient. Covariates from multiple datasets were combined to derive detailed prediction models for VTE and mortality. Limitation included the capture of VTE presenting to healthcare only and the lack of information on adherence to pharmacological thromboprophylaxis as there was no data linkage to hospital pharmacy records.There were 981 VTE events captured within 90 days of surgery in 168005 procedures (23.7/1000 patient-years. Overall, primary care data increased the detection of postoperative VTE by a factor of 1.38 (981/710 when compared with using HES and ONS only. Total VTE rates ranged between 3.2/1000 patient-years in haemorrhoidectomy to 118

  9. Municipal solid wastes (RSU) treatment in land filled controlled: Of its sanitary problems to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urzola C, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Excessive world wastes production generates constant preoccupations with relation to its management. The methods of classic elimination as sanitary landfill controlled as compared to controvertible incineration and gasification plants as well as expectations created in connection with practices of recycling, its are intensive discussions motive between town halls, technical specialists, ecologists and general public. What is certain is that wastes in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today the wastes are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the recycling line because they see an excellent business. All methods of residues elimination produce at same time other wastes. Solid nature wastes generally end in the landfill and semi-liquid waste are dehydrated with same objective. In the present Thesis, without intending to say that the landfill processing will be the better option, is outlined the form of optimizing the utilization of same. It's demonstrated that landfill, furthermore to fulfil its sanitary function, are converted into an energetic alternative with utilization of flammable gas generated in them, something which represents an interesting value added if is converted into source of welfare for social and economically kernels, as happens in peripheries of the sanitary landfill at large Latin American cities. Of other side are considered principal aspects that intervene in methane gas generation and quality and utilization alternatives. Finally it is made emphasis in environmental situation at European and international level about the landfill gases, how is outlined greenhouse effect topic, what are environmental actions for year 2000 and are related some biogas utilization experiences at Europe

  10. Prospective technologies and equipment for sanitary hygienic measures for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary hygienic conditions is a prerequisite for good health and performance of crews on extended space missions. There is a rich assortment of associated means, methods and equipment developed and experimentally tested in orbital flights. However, over a one-year period a crew of three uses up about 800 kg of ground-supplied wet wipes and towels for personal needs. The degree of closure of life support systems for long-duration orbital flights should be maximized, particularly for interplanetary missions, which exclude any possibility of re-supply. Washing with regenerated water is the ultimate sanitary hygienic goal. That is why it is so important to design devices for crew bathing during long-term space missions. Investigations showed that regeneration of wash water (WW) using membrane processes (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.), unlike sorption, would not require much additional expendables. A two-stage membrane recovery unit eliminated >85% of permeate from real WW with organic and inorganic selectivity of 82 95%. The two-stage WW recovery unit was tested with artificial and real WW containing detergents available for space crews. Investigations into the ways of doing laundry and drying along with which detergents will be the best fit for space flight are also planned. Testing of a technology for water extraction from used textiles using a conventional period of contact of 1 s or more, showed that the humidity of the outgoing air flow neared 100%. Issues related to designing the next generation of space life support systems should consider the benefits of integrating new sanitary hygienic technologies, equipment, and methods.

  11. A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuting Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The NRF2/sMAF protein complex regulates the oxidative stress response by occupying cis-acting enhancers containing an antioxidant response element (ARE. Integrating genome-wide maps of NRF2/sMAF occupancy with disease-susceptibility loci, we discovered eight polymorphic AREs linked to 14 highly ranked disease-risk SNPs in individuals of European ancestry. Among these SNPs was rs242561, located within a regulatory region of the MAPT gene (encoding microtubule-associated protein Tau. It was consistently occupied by NRF2/sMAF in multiple experiments and its strong-binding allele associated with higher mRNA levels in cell lines and human brain tissue. Induction of MAPT transcription by NRF2 was confirmed using a human neuroblastoma cell line and a Nrf2-deficient mouse model. Most importantly, rs242561 displayed complete linkage disequilibrium with a highly protective allele identified in multiple GWASs of progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson’s disease, and corticobasal degeneration. These observations suggest a potential role for NRF2/sMAF in tauopathies and a possible role for NRF2 pathway activators in disease prevention.

  12. [Malaria in the southern sanitary district of Dakar (Senegal). 2. Entomologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Konate, L; Faye, O; Ndir, O; Faye, M; Gueye, A; Diouf, M

    1998-01-01

    To complete a parasitological survey, entomological prospections were carried out in the southern sanitary District of Dakar, the most urbanized of the city and which includes the city centre and the oldest administrative districts. The prospections took place between June 1994 and May 1995 in sites 1.5 km apart, and distributed in such a manner that they covered the entire area. On a monthly basis, female Culicidae were collected in each site at night on human volunteers, followed the next day by the collection of early morning residual fauna in 10 bedrooms located in district concessions. For a total of 308 collections at night on human volunteers and from 1,510 rooms for the residual fauna, 22,901 female Culicidae were caught of which 167 anopheles, corresponding to 0.7%, the remaining 98.5% being Culex quinquefasciatus. This was the species that thus explained the mosquito-nuisance of which the inhabitants of the southern District complained during the period of survey. The female anopheles collected belonged to 2 species, An. arabiensis for 97.6% of those caught and An. pharoensis for 2.4%. An. arabiensis were very slightly represented in the southern District with a density of aggressive females of 0.26 bite/man/night (B/M/N) and a density per room of 0.05 female. The aggressive populations appeared to be relatively important only at the end of the rainy season (September-October) with an average of 0.65 B/M/N in sites located at the periphery of the district with a maximum of 1.33 B/M/N. The highest density of endophilic females registered at the end of the rainy season was 0.1 and its highest value in a given site was 0.36 female/room. The parturity rate of aggressive females was 43.5% and those collected in houses of 84% with an anthropophilic index of 0.98. None of the dissected An. arabiensis females (77.3% of those collected) was a carrier of Plasmodium sporozoites and the circum-sporozoite antigen was not found. A very weak density of An. arabiensis

  13. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  14. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  15. Realization of sanitary requirements concerning standardization of rare radioactive gas effluents at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshenko, G.G.; Panchenko, S.V.; Chudajkin, O.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is aimed at determination of ways for practical realization of main sanitary requirements concerning environment and population protection under NPP operation. The idea of the requirements is reduced to not increasing permissible limits for radiation doses, minimum irradiation of population and decrease of unjustified irradiation of personnel. The given problem may be fully solved only in case of studying real chacteristics of operating reactors, taking into account statistic nature of effluents of inert radioactive gases (IRG). Methods of developing a system of working and reference standards of IRG effluents at NPPs are suggested. The considered approach may be realized in practice as the All-Union state on branch standards

  16. Project of law relative to the sanitary consequences of French nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    In order to make easy the indemnifications and to include the persons having participate to nuclear weapons tests (Sahara and French Polynesia) and populations leaving in the concerned areas, the project of law relative to the repair of sanitary consequences of nuclear weapons tests proposes to create a right to integral repair of prejudices for the persons suffering of a radioinduced disease coming from these tests. The American example and the British example are given for comparison. The modalities of financing are detailed as well as the social economic and administrative impacts. (N.C.)

  17. Environmental review report of an electrical generation facility to be located at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.; Ross, J.; Mountain, D.; Kahal, M.

    1998-05-01

    The Bentech Group, Inc. (Bentech) applied for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) to construct and operate an electric generating system at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill in Laytonsville, Maryland. The focus of the environmental review is to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed electric generation system to air quality, noise, terrestrial, ecological, ground water, surface water, socioeconomic, aesthetic, and cultural resources. This document presents the results of the environmental review analysis, and includes the State's recommended license conditions for operating the electric generating system, which the PSC incorporated into the CPCN

  18. Environmental and sanitary evaluation of electro-nuclear sites: methodological research and application to prospective scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the radioactive wastes disposal of the law of 1991, an exchange forum constituted by ANDRA, CEA, COGEMA, EdF, Framatome-ANP and IRSN implemented an environmental and sanitary evaluation of the different methods of radioactive wastes management. This report presents the six studies scenarios, the proposed methodology, the application to the six scenarios and the analysis of the results which showed the efficiency of the different recycling options towards the electronuclear cycle impacts limitation, and a technical conclusion illustrated by improvement possibilities of the methodology. (A.L.B.)

  19. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  20. Aspects regarding the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of certain dental medicine cabinets in Iasi County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Indrei, L L

    2013-01-01

    This baseline study aims to find out the evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets through the verification of certain hygienic aspects. The study conducted consists in monitoring the hygienic/sanitary conditions at the level of 68 dental medicine cabinets (40 private cabinets and 28 school/university dental cabinets in Iasi county), using sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions adapted from the control sheets of existing dental medicine cabinets at the level of DSP (Public Health Department) Iasi. The sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions were evaluated by a specialized team and the results were i llustrated in the specific charts. At the level of all the dental cabinets the study revealed nonconformities regarding the means to carry out cleaning, disinfection operations, including the management of perilous waste, the control of medical personnel. An optimization of the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets is still necessary, through participation to the activity of personnel training, who is directly involved in dental medical assistance.

  1. Pesticide exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A case-control study using a geographic information system (GIS) to link SEER-Medicare and California pesticide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Ruddell, Darren; Hart, Jaime E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is associated with low survival. U.S. studies examining self-reported pesticide exposure in relation to HCC have demonstrated inconclusive results. We aimed to clarify the association between pesticide exposure and HCC by implementing a novel data linkage between Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare and California Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data using a geographic information system (GIS). Controls were frequency-matched to HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in California by year, age, race, sex, and duration of residence in California. Potential confounders were extracted from Medicare claims. From 1974 to 2008, pounds (1 pound represents 0.45 kg) of applied organophosphate, organochlorine, and carbamate pesticides provided in PURs were aggregated to the ZIP Code level using area weighting in a GIS. ZIP Code exposure estimates were linked to subjects using Medicare-provided ZIP Codes to calculate pesticide exposure. Agricultural residents were defined as living in ZIP Codes with a majority area intersecting agricultural land cover according to the 1992, 2001, and 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) rasters. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between pesticide exposure and HCC. Among California residents of agriculturally intensive areas, previous annual ZIP Code-level exposure to over 14.53 kg/km(2) of organochlorine pesticides (75(th) percentile among controls) was associated with an increased risk of HCC after adjusting for liver disease and diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 2.99; p=0.0085). ZIP Code-level organochlorines were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC among males (adjusted OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.58, 4.82; p=0.0004), but not associated with HCC among females (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.35, 1.93; p=0.6600) (interaction p=0.0075). This is

  2. About the tasks of the state sanitary-epidemiological service in public health protection and sanitary-epidemiological well-being of population and environment in case of radiation emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perminova, G.S.; Tuchkevich, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper has stated the role of the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Service in the controlled radiation-emergency process on large, medium and small scale. The study reviews the phase character of radiation-emergency process, some typical features of their contents and the actions of the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Service, including non-radiation hygienic aspects; the characteristic features of supervision in case of small accidents are pointed out. Several scientific and practical problems on the raised subject which regarded to be urgent in the opinion of the authors are offered for consideration. 13 refs

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  4. Analysis of glycerin waste in A-Area sanitary treatment facility material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    TNX has a large supply of 55 gallon drums containing pure glycerin and glycerin with additives. The glycerin drums were procured to simulate the glass stream in a pilot-scale melter process at TNX. Since the glycerin was not used for this process, TNX is looking at disposing the material in a sanitary waste treatment facility onsite. The effect of adding the contents of the drums to sewage bacteria was tested. A drum of pure glycerin and a drum of glycerin mixed with lithium chloride were tested. The test consisted of mixing sanitary sludge material with the glycerin material. The purpose of the test was to determine if the glycerin impacted the aerobic bacterial population. The bacterial densities were determined by taking samples from the sludge/glycerin mixtures and using aerobic plate count methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) levels were measured before and after testing. The results indicate that the cell density of the aerobic bacteria increased with the addition of glycerin and the glycerin mixture and the TOC removal rate was different for all tests. Disposal of glycerin in the wastewater treatment facilities should pose no problems. Additional testing and analysis of the mixed samples should be done before its disposal in a waste water treatment facility

  5. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999

  6. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Machado de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. The study variables were classified as compliant or noncompliant with the regulations passed by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: Noncompliances were found in all study food services, especially with respect to food service conditions, and the wiring and plumbing in the food preparation area. In this section, 62.7 to 95.9% of the food services did not comply with nine out of the thirteen study items. The main problems were: poorly cleaned external areas, deteriorated walls, floors, ceilings, roofs, drains, and roof gutters; and unscreened doors and windows, allowing the entrance of insects; among others. The main noncompliance regarding processes and procedures was the uncontrolled temperature of the ready-to-eat foods. CONCLUSION: The conditions of the study food services are unsatisfactory for the production of safe meals, possibly compromising meal quality, food safety, and the effectiveness of the School Food Program.

  7. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  8. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  9. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  10. Sanitary landfill leachate as a source of nutrients on the initial growth of sunflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. Nunes Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under different concentrations of sanitary landfill leachate, considering the feasibility of its use as source of nutrients for agricultural production. Biometric and vigor variables were analyzed through the measurements of collar diameter, shoot height, number of leaves and shoot and root fresh and dry matters, from January to February 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme: five leachate concentrations (0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg N ha-1 x four harvest periods (14, 21, 25 and 29 days after sowing, with five replicates each containing two plants. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression, and the results of the last harvest (29 DAS were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The use of sanitary landfill leachate increased all analyzed variables in sunflower plants when compared to the control plants (without leachate, especially in the treatment of 100 kg N ha-1. There was no inhibitory effect of the leachate on the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under adopted experimental conditions.

  11. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  12. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  13. The health of hospitals and lessons from history: public health and sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Geraghty, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to examine, critically, 19th century hospital sanitary reform with reference to theories about infection and contagion. In the nineteenth century, measures to control epidemic diseases focused on providing clean water, removing waste and isolating infected cases. These measures were informed by the ideas of sanitary reformers like Chadwick and Nightingale, and hospitals were an important element of sanitary reform. Informed by the paradigmatic tradition of social history, the study design was a historical analysis of public health policy. Using the methods of historical research, documentary primary sources, including official reports and selected hospital archives and related secondary sources, were consulted. Emerging theories about infection were informing official bodies like the Board of Superintendence of Dublin Hospitals in their efforts to improve hospital sanitation. The Board secured important reforms in hospital sanitation, including the provision of technically efficient sanitary infrastructure. Public health measures to control epidemic infections are only as effective as the state of knowledge of infection and contagion and the infrastructure to support sanitary measures. Today, public mistrust about the safety of hospitals is reminiscent of that of 150 years ago, although the reasons are different and relate to a fear of contracting antimicrobial-resistant infections. A powerful historical lesson from this study is that resistance to new ideas can delay progress and improved sanitary standards can allay public mistrust. In reforming hospital sanitation, policies and regulations were established--including an inspection body to monitor and enforce standards--the benefits of which provide lessons that resonate today. Such practices, especially effective independent inspection, could be adapted for present-day contexts and re-instigated where they do not exist. History has much to offer contemporary policy development and practice reform and

  14. A novel embryological theory of autism causation involving endogenous biochemicals capable of initiating cellular gene transcription: a possible link between twelve autism risk factors and the autism 'epidemic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chiara R

    2011-05-01

    Human alpha-fetoprotein is a pregnancy-associated protein with an undetermined physiological role. As human alpha-fetoprotein binds retinoids and inhibits estrogen-dependent cancer cell proliferation, and because retinoic acid (a retinol metabolite) and estradiol (an estrogen) can both initiate cellular gene transcription, it is hypothesized here that alpha-fetoprotein functions during critical gestational periods to prevent retinoic acid and maternal estradiol from inappropriately stimulating gene expression in developing brain regions which are sensitive to these chemicals. Prenatal/maternal factors linked to increased autism risk include valproic acid, thalidomide, alcohol, rubella, cytomegalovirus, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autoimmune disease, stress, allergic reaction, and hypothyroidism. It will be shown how each of these risk factors may initiate expression of genes which are sensitive to retinoic acid and/or estradiol - whether by direct promotion or by reducing production of alpha-fetoprotein. It is thus hypothesized here that autism is not a genetic disorder, but is rather an epigenetic disruption in brain development caused by gestational exposure to chemicals and/or conditions which either inhibit alpha-fetoprotein production or directly promote retinoic acid-sensitive or estradiol-sensitive gene expression. This causation model leads to potential chemical explanations for autistic brain morphology, the distinct symptomatology of Asperger's syndrome, and the differences between high-functioning and low-functioning autism with regard to mental retardation, physical malformation, and sex ratio. It will be discussed how folic acid may cause autism under the retinoic acid/estradiol model, and the history of prenatal folic acid supplementation will be shown to coincide with the history of what is popularly known as the autism epidemic. It is thus hypothesized here that prenatal folic acid supplementation has contributed to the

  15. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  16. Analytical solutions of linked fault tree probabilistic risk assessments using binary decision diagrams with emphasis on nuclear safety applications[Dissertation 17286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusbaumer, O. P. M

    2007-07-01

    This study is concerned with the quantification of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) using linked Fault Tree (FT) models. Probabilistic Risk assessment (PRA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) complements traditional deterministic analysis; it is widely recognized as a comprehensive and structured approach to identify accident scenarios and to derive numerical estimates of the associated risk levels. PRA models as found in the nuclear industry have evolved rapidly. Increasingly, they have been broadly applied to support numerous applications on various operational and regulatory matters. Regulatory bodies in many countries require that a PRA be performed for licensing purposes. PRA has reached the point where it can considerably influence the design and operation of nuclear power plants. However, most of the tools available for quantifying large PRA models are unable to produce analytically correct results. The algorithms of such quantifiers are designed to neglect sequences when their likelihood decreases below a predefined cutoff limit. In addition, the rare event approximation (e.g. Moivre's equation) is typically implemented for the first order, ignoring the success paths and the possibility that two or more events can occur simultaneously. This is only justified in assessments where the probabilities of the basic events are low. When the events in question are failures, the first order rare event approximation is always conservative, resulting in wrong interpretation of risk importance measures. Advanced NPP PRA models typically include human errors, common cause failure groups, seismic and phenomenological basic events, where the failure probabilities may approach unity, leading to questionable results. It is accepted that current quantification tools have reached their limits, and that new quantification techniques should be investigated. A novel approach using the mathematical concept of Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is proposed to overcome these

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  19. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  20. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV ... Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of drug use for ... Resource Center (NWHRC) Mujeres Unidas Contra el SIDA New Mexico AIDS Services African Advocates Against AIDS The ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of ... Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise Awareness of Our Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making ... and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risky behavior. Drug misuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for ... The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between drug misuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  9. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  10. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  11. Characteristic dosimetric as of the material thermoluminescent LIF:Mg, Cu, and P for their use in sanitary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X.; Duch, M.A.; Sanchez-Reyes, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the characteristics dosimetric of the LiF:Mg, Cu, P obtained for its use in the sanitary field, fundamentally in radiotherapy. The analyzed parameters are sensitivity, reproducibility of the measures, limit inferior of detection, answer energy, linearity of the answer in function of the received dose and the influence of the temperature in the material

  12. 33 CFR 165.T09-1080 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. 165.T09-1080 Section 165.T09-1080 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  13. 75 FR 36288 - Amended Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Coast Guard is revising its safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This revised temporary interim rule reduces the areas covered by the safety zone and RNA, and places additional restrictions on vessels that may transit the RNA.

  14. 77 FR 65760 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the Reports on Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Technical Barriers to Trade (2012 TBT Report) respectively. The TPSC invites written comments from the public on issues that USTR should examine in preparing the SPS and TBT Reports. DATES: Public comments..., Director of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Affairs, USTR (202-395-6127). Questions regarding the TBT Report or...

  15. Radioisotope devices and sanitary control over its application in the units and institutions of Army and Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, E.V.; Rymarchuk, A.A.; Shishkanov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Sanitary control over the use of radioisotope devices (RID) is considered. To avoid losses of radioactive sources, an attention is paid to the order of RID account, their storage and issue, writing off unfit devices and sources and their burial. The role of military medical personnel grows. They must provide efficiency of safety of radioactive substance use in the units of Army and Navy

  16. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  17. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

  18. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrations in soil were sampled in landfill adjacent area. The significant, crescent and directly proportional relationship (R2 > 0.80; p < 0.001 were observed between the elements concentration analyzed in soil with the leaves tissues. Therefore, the studied landfill presences increased nutrients and metals concentrations in soil and leaf tissue, fact that did not occur in the control area.

  19. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  20. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  1. Use of Nuclear Techniques to Plan Sanitary Strategies in the Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Catasus, Judith; Borroto Portela, Jorge; Hernandez Garces, Anel; Santiago, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The Almendares river, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the management of wastewater contamination to predict the effectiveness of control options to improve water quality to desired levels. In the present work, the advective, steady- state, one-dimensional Streeter and Phelps model, calibrated and validated was used to elaborate environment strategies to improve the water quality of the Almendares river. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamina WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modelling purposes. (Author)

  2. Problems of optimization of activities of sanitary and epidemiological stations on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of activity optimization of the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES) concerning state inspection of for radiation source application are considered to improve the effort efficiency of the radiological subdivisions. The necessity to specify the inspection objects is shown. Inspection of all the stages of creation, introduction and application of radioactive substances and other sources, as well as, of radioactive waste utilization remains urgent problem. Determination of internal and external radiation doses to population in different regions as well as, radiation protection of personnel and patients in nuclear medicine are vital problems as well. Justification of the necessity to enlist specialists in different fields, to determine rationally their functional duties presents sufficient component of the SES activity optimization. Usage optimization of dosimetric and radiometric devices, laboratory equipment and instruments is a vital problem

  3. [Legal and sanitary aspects conditioning access to medicines in Brazilian courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Mércia; Delduque, Maria Célia; Amaral, Rita Goreti

    2012-01-01

    The search for having access to health care and medicines right granted through Judicial Courts has increased in Brazil. What has been nominated "health judicialization" is a multidimensional phenomenon, a need for dealing with it in a multidisciplinary way involving legal-judicial, political-institutional and sanitary approaches has raised. The Health is recognized as a fundamental human right in the Brazilian Constitution giving it a different legal protection under the legal-constitutional order and the country guarantees the right to health are not only the Constitution and the law strictly, but mainly in an normative infralegal arc that define the goals and outcomes to be achieved by public policy. The lawsuits by drugs may be a reflection of the difficulty of access to health services, to empty and downgrading of health care. Therefore, this turns out to affect the judicialization of pharmaceutical care in Brazil.

  4. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  5. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  6. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Hill, R.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Norton, M.V.; Aaberg, R.L.; Stetar, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  7. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  9. SANITARY-HYGIENIC ASPECTS IN COMMERCIALIZATION IN FISH MARKET IGARAPÉ DAS MULHERES, MACAPÁ-AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Souza Silva Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being highly perishable, the fish requires special care from capture to arrival at the consumer's home. However, after the capture, the microbiota is altered at all stages. This study aimed to assess the sanitary conditions of marketing of fish in the Fish Friday, Macapá-AP, in order to identify critical points of the process. We used the direct observational method with the application of a checklist, based on the RDC nº216, items for building, equipment / instruments, utensils and hygiene, clothing, hygienic habits, personal protective equipment and quality raw material. The fair in question was rated in Group 2, failing to meet the requirements of industry topics Organization (marketing space extremely limited, national manager indefinite absence of good practice manual, along with the standard operating procedures; hygiene observation site (fish is exposed without ice, ice used only for storage, water use without treatment, and cleaned the handler (clothing unsatisfactory, tobacco consumption during marketing, simultaneous manipulation of money and food, no clean hands when handling food thus does not meet the provisions of the legislation. Such unconformities compromise the quality of products and endangers the health of the consumer, demonstrating that only the drafting of laws is not sufficient to ensure food safety without intense scrutiny in conjunction with the drafting resolutions appropriate to the reality of each region and training programs aimed at promoting recycling and the production of safe food hygiene and sanitary conditions in the question that reality cannot be changed. Keywords: marketing of fish; conditions of merchantability; market.

  10. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  11. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and food safety: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siméon, M

    2006-08-01

    Because of fast-growing demand, export markets can absorb high value added products and offer high returns; for many developing countries export market development is thus a key requirement for rural income generation and rural growth. Although developing countries face increasingly strict sanitary and phytosanitary standards in their export markets, they can maintain and improve market access--and improve domestic food safety and agricultural productivity--by adopting a strategic approach to food safety, agricultural health and trade. High-income countries should increase development flows to help developing countries build the capacity to plan and execute the necessary strategies. The first proposal in this paper is to make two existing sets of guidelines widely available to interested parties, in particular through the World Bank and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The first covers the broad process of problem assessment, strategy development and action plan formulation; the second set deals with institutional analysis and training of staff of the official sanitary control services. The second proposal is that interested countries and donors should speed up the ongoing development of guidelines, computer software tools and training material to help countries quantify the importance and impact of food safety issues. The focus here is on a 'multipurpose agricultural data analysis and modelization system'. The third proposal is to carry out a case study to help demonstrate that a number of animal health issues related to food safety should be treated as relating to 'global public goods' and thus require intervention on a global scale. Possible candidates are foot and mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

  12. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  13. Individually Linked Household and Health Facility Vaccination Survey in 12 At-risk Districts in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: Methods and Metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Eleanor; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ngoie Mwamba, Guillaume; Yolande, Masembe; Guylain, Kaya; Muriel, Nzazi Nsambu; Cathy, Nzuzi; Patrice, Tshekoya; Wilkins, Karen; Yoloyolo, Norbert

    2017-07-01

    Health facility (HF) and household (HH) data can complement each other to provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to vaccination status. In 12 zones with low vaccination coverage within Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, we conducted 2 surveys: (1) a linked HH and HF survey among 6-11-month-old infants, and (2) a HH survey among 12-23-month-old children. Linked survey objectives were to identify factors associated with vaccination status and to explore methodological considerations for linked survey implementation. To provide linked HH and HF data, we enrolled 6-11-month-old infants in HH clusters in each zone and then surveyed HFs located within the 12 zones and cited by caregivers of the enrolled infants as the most recent HF visited for vaccination or curative care. To provide vaccination coverage estimates for the 12-zone area, we enrolled 12-23-month-old children in every fourth HH. Of the HHs with a child aged 6-23 months, 16% were ineligible because they had resided in the neighborhood for one of the 182 surveyed HFs. For the coverage survey, 710 children aged 12-23 months participated. Home-based vaccination cards were available for 1210 of 1934 children (63%) surveyed. The surveys were successful in assessing HH information for 2 age groups, documenting written vaccination history for a large proportion of 6-23-month-old children, linking the majority of infants with their most recently visited HF, and surveying identified HFs. The implementation of the individually linked survey also highlighted the need for a comprehensive list of HFs and an analysis plan that addresses cross-classified clusters with only 1 child. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. [In silico evaluation of an aviar influenza AH5N1 virus outbreak with human to human transmission: effects of sanitary measures in Valencia, Venezuela, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggeti, Mariana; Romero, Emilse; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    There is a risk for an avian influenza AH5N1 virus pandemia. To estimate the magnitude and impact of an AH5N1 pandemic in areas of Latin-America in order to design interventions and to reduce morbidity-mortality. The InfluSim program was used to simulate a highly pathogenic AH5N1 aviar virus epidemic outbreak with human to human transmission in Valencia, Venezuela. We estimated the day of maximal number of cases, number of moderately and severely ill patients, exposed individuals, deaths and associated costs for 5 different interventions: absence of any intervention; implementation of antiviral treatment; reduction of 20% in population general contacts; closure of 20% of educational institutions; and reduction of 50% in massive public gatherings. Simulation parameters used were: population: 829.856 persons, infection risk 6-47%, contagiousness Index Rh o 2,5; relative contagiousness 90%, overall lethality 64,1% and, costs according to the official basic budget. For an outbreak lasting 200 days direct and indirect deaths by intervention strategies would be: 29,907; 29,900; 9,701; 29,295 and 14,752. Costs would follow a similar trend. Reduction of 20% in general population contacts results in a significant reduction of up to 68% of cases. The outbreak would collapse the health care system. Antiviral treatment would not be efficient during the outbreak. Interpersonal contact reduction proved to be the best sanitary measure to control an AH5N1 theoretical epidemic outbreak.

  15. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  16. Integração laboratórios-vigilância sanitária: uma revisão | Integration laboratories-sanitary surveillance: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Gomes Alves Lopes

    2017-05-01

    : type of academic production (masters, doctorate or scientific article, year and institution of origin, and theme focused. Master’s degree theses (64,7% from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (36,5% were predominant, from which 90% were elaborated at the Foundation’s National Institute for Quality Control in Health. The quality control of products is an important area of publications (71,0%, including food, medicines and vaccines. Studies related to public policies and health surveillance included: generic drugs; pharmaceutical equivalence studies; food and nutrition; and integration of the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency with other actors in vaccine innovation and in the Brazilian Network of Analytical Laboratories in Health. Integration was expressed through cooperative activities between laboratories and services, and it remains to be improved in view of the fact that, in Brazil, the laboratories and the surveillance services are differentiated and are linked to different governmental entities.

  17. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  18. Present and prospective developments in health science and sanitary supervision relative to use of atomic energy in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyarskij, P.P.; Mojsejtsev, P.I.; Vasil'ev, G.

    1977-01-01

    The discoveries and inventions made over the last two decades have substantially enlarged the scope of contacts between man and sources of ionizing radiation. Scientific developments raising energy yield from nuclear processes have been reflected in a growing nuclear power industry as well as expanding use of radioactive substances or radiation sources in various areas of human endeavor, and have become a potent factor in technological progress, mechanization and automation. No such tempestuous expansion of applications of nuclear physics achievements would have been possible without the concurrent development and further synchronous advances in relevant fields of health science, with research achievements promptly introduced into sanitary supervision practice. The paper summarizes major results of research in radiation hygiene; outlines the impact of their application to sanitary supervision practice in principal operational sectors; identifies and motivates further lines of injury as well as prospects for developing up-to-date supervision schemes and for reasonable unification of measurement and monitoring techniques. (author)

  19. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  20. [V.P. Kravkov as a sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army (to centenary of beginning of the First World War)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, D G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents for the first time the description of life story and service of V.P. Kravkov (1859-1920)--participant of Russian-Japanese war and the First World War, doctor of medicine, sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army and author of number of books and articles on preventive medicine. During these two wars, V.P. Kravkov organized sanitary epidemiological service in fronts. He kept diary regularly reflecting conditions of sanitary epidemiological service during this period, describing one's own observations and assessing survived events. The manuscripts of diaries are stored in the Russian state library. The diaries made great input into summarizing of experience of the Russian military sanitary service and became valuable monument of military memoirs' literature.

  1. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  2. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helf, M.; Cassadou, S.

    2005-01-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  3. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    OpenAIRE

    S. Umamaheswari; Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retentio...

  4. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  5. Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems based on conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkai; Liu, Yanchen; Cheng, Xun; Zhu, David Z.; Shi, Hanchang; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) in a sanitary sewer is difficult when RDII and overflow occur simultaneously. This study proposes a novel conductivity-based method for estimating RDII. The method separately decomposes rainfall-derived inflow (RDI) and rainfall-induced infiltration (RII) on the basis of conductivity data. Fast Fourier transform was adopted to analyze variations in the flow and water quality during dry weather. Nonlinear curve fitting based on the least squares algorithm was used to optimize parameters in the proposed RDII model. The method was successfully applied to real-life case studies, in which inflow and infiltration were successfully estimated for three typical rainfall events with total rainfall volumes of 6.25 mm (light), 28.15 mm (medium), and 178 mm (heavy). Uncertainties of model parameters were estimated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method and were found to be acceptable. Compared with traditional flow-based methods, the proposed approach exhibits distinct advantages in estimating RDII and overflow, particularly when the two processes happen simultaneously.

  6. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  8. Electro-Fenton oxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate from sanitary landfill leachate: Evaluation of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Annabel; Labiadh, Lazhar; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2017-10-01

    The electro-Fenton oxidation of a concentrate from reverse osmosis of a sanitary landfill leachate, with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 42 g L -1 , was carried out using a carbon-felt cathode and a boron doped diamond anode. The influence of the applied current intensity, initial pH and dissolved iron initial concentration on the electro-Fenton process was assessed. For the experimental conditions used, results showed that the initial pH is the parameter that more strongly influences the current efficiency of the electro-Fenton process, being this influence more pronounced on the oxidation rate than on the mineralization rate of the organic matter. The increase in iron initial concentration was found to be detrimental, since the natural amount of iron present in the effluent, 73 mg L -1 of total iron and 61 mg L -1 of dissolved iron, was sufficient to ensure the electro-Fenton process at the applied intensities - 0.2-1.4 A. For the more favourable conditions studied, initial pH of 3 and natural iron concentration, it was found an increase in the organic load and nitrogen removals with the applied current intensity. For the highest current intensity applied, a COD removal of 16.7 g L -1 was achieved after 8-h experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  10. [Sanitary service of girl guides during the 2nd World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    From the very beginning of the scout organization one of its main trends was the Samaritan service consisting in giving medical help to victims of disasters and acts of God. It became a domain of girls guide mainly. The articles describes a great commitment of the Polish girls guide in the medical assistance offered to their compatriots during the September campaign of 1939 and during the years of occupation from 1939 to 1945. It shows the education and training methods that prepared the girls to work with great dedication. From the first days of the war the girl guides started to work as nurses and orderlies in civil and military hospitals. They organized also their own hospitals and numerous first aid stations in bombed localities and roads frequented by fugitives escaping from the west parts of the country to the eastern territories. Under occupation, the girl guides organized their own underground medical service that collaborated strictly with military organization fighting for independence. Assisted by doctors they organized medical trainings for the members, collected medicines and sanitary materials, preparing themselves for the fights of the last part of the war. The girl guides organized groups of medical assistance of the National Army, which constituted a core of the organization medical service. During the "Storm" action several thousands of girls worked as orderlies that belonged to the combat troops of the National Army. The Warsaw insurrection was the greatest battle of soldiers of the National Army. The girls offered their help to thousands of soldiers and civilian victims.

  11. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  12. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  13. [Patients' perception on attention received from Health Centres non-sanitary staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moral, R; Alba Dios, A; Jiménez García, C; González Neubauer, V; García Torres, M; Pérula de Torres, L A; Barrios Blasco, L

    2011-01-01

    To know patients' perceptions about relational aspects and technical procedures when they are attended by the administrative staff in Health Centres. To assess the utility of two ways for measuring satisfaction. Cross-sectional study carried out in people attending the administrative sections of Health Centres for diverse reasons. Just after the interaction with the administrative they were interviewed using two different questions for assessing their opinions and satisfaction with communicational and technical aspects related with their demands. Descriptive analysis. Significant differences among mean was explored by χ(2) test. Open-ended questions were grouped in categories in a process involving three researchers independently. Over than 90% (360) of the attendees declared to be satisfied or very satisfied with the service received from the staff personal. Nevertheless, among 18-36% gave suggestions for improving the service after their consultation. Independently the domain explored, people suggested the communicational, personal capability, quality and quantity of explanations and waiting time as the main aspects to be improved. Surveys with open-ended questions are more useful to assess the quality of the attention the citizens receive from no-sanitary staff in Health Centres. These type of questions are also more useful for detecting problems and planning new interventions. Relational and informative issues seem to be the most prioritary areas to improve in this section of Health Centres. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  15. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  16. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  17. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  18. The occurrence and prevention of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in rainbow trout fish farms: the importance of improved sanitary practices

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM REXHEPI; KURTESH SHERIFI; PETER SCHEINERT; LINDA GRAPCI-KOTORRI

    2014-01-01

    The viral diseases of rainbow trout are of worldwide concern including infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN). On this study good sanitary practices are applied to prevent outbreaks and minimize losses caused from IPN disease. To highlight importance of improvements on sanitary practices in IPN prevention were compared results from two studies, first conducted in year 2006-2009 with results from one year later study conducted in 2010. In year 2010, samples of organs are collected from 260 fish ...

  19. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  20. An Analysis of the Sanitary and Welfare Conditions of Tourism Centers in Lorestan Province: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Saki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the rapid growth of tourism industry, appropriate management and supervision of tourism centers by improving the sanitary, welfare and security situation of these centers is essential. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sanitary and welfare status of tourism centers in Lorestan province. Material and Methods: This research is a qualitative study conducted through semi-structured Interview with tourists. Data analysis was done using content analysis. After collecting and analyzing data, findings were classified into themes and sub-themes. Results: The findings were categorized into 6 main themes and 24 sub-themes. The main themes were general sanitary conditions, welfare facilities, transportation, healthcare services, security, and management and supervision. Conclusion: According to the findings and participants’ points of view, tourists are not satisfied with health care status of tourist centers. Therefore, in order to minimize the health problems of tourism centers and maximize attracting tourists, short-term and long-term plans should be put on the agenda of tourism managers and stakeholders of the Lorestan province.

  1. The Use of Heat-Resistant Concrete Made with Ceramic Sanitary Ware Waste for a Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ogrodnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the concrete made of aggregate obtained from wastes of sanitary ceramics. Previous examinations proved high in strength and durability of concrete of this type, and it showed a resistance to high temperatures. The material was classified as a fireproof concrete. While searching for the optimal applications of such concrete, a series of examinations and analyses on its thermal energy storage (TES properties were performed. This paper describes the two-stage experiment on the thermal behavior of the concrete made with sanitary ceramic wastes during cooling processes in comparison to different building materials subjected to the same thermal conditions. On the basis of the thermal, infrared analysis, and suitable calculations, the thermal power and the ability of the composite to store thermal energy was estimated. Finally, it was stated that the concrete made of sanitary ceramic waste aggregate and alumina cement can be recommended as a heat-accumulating material, and in combination with high durability can be used, e.g., for the construction of fireplace bodies.

  2. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Avignon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in seven cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Vaucluse (Avignon, Le Pontet, Morieres les Avignon, Sorgues and Vedene) and two cities of the Gard department (les Angles and Villeneuve les Avignon) representing a study population of 153,624 inhabitants. Two period of study have been defined: period 1999-2000 for short and long term evaluations on the mortality and the year 2001 for the morbidity analysis. This study rests on methodological principles of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) of urban air pollution whom methodology is in four steps: identification of dangers, exposure estimation, choice of exposure-risk relationship and risk characterisation. The pollutions indicators are built from four pollutants nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and PM{sub 10}. The exposure-risk relationships used come from epidemiological studies realised in general population, by preferring the multi centers studies and European ones. The number of deaths by year due to air pollution is 23, whom 10 by cardiovascular diseases, 2 by respiratory diseases. The most efficient scenario are these ones corresponding to air pollution decreases of 25% in the considered pollutant. About the long term sanitary benefits, the different scenario show that the European norm forecasted for 2005 is respected. The respect of the European norm expected for 2010 should allow to avoid 10 deaths on the totality of registered

  3. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  6. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This studydetermined the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among school-aged children. ... Using logistic regression, the following factors showed significant effect (p<0.05) as predisposing factors to intestinal helminth infections: water treatment, sanitary habits, refuse disposal, parental ...

  7. Reducing the Risk of Postoperative Genital Complications in Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossanova, ?ssem; Lozovoy, Vasiliy; Wood, Dan; ??nekenova, ?enzhekyz; Botabayeva, ?igul; Dossanov, Bolatbek; Lozovaya, Yelena; ?marov, ?algat

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive system of adolescents is exposed to a high risk of anomalies. In spite of the successes of surgical correction, the percentage of postoperative complications remains high. Special attention should be paid to circumcision, which is regarded as a religious tradition in many countries and carried out with sanitary violations. This…

  8. Estimation of risks associated to land transport of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Tomachevsky, E.

    1987-01-01

    The system analysed concerns the packaging 48Y containing about 12 tons of hexafluoride, 1000 tons/year are forecasted for 1990 on the 900 km road Pierrelatte-Le Havre (France). Probabilities are given by the accident file, container failure by impact or fire and sanitary consequences are analysed. Risk is evaluated and discussed [fr

  9. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  10. Effect of preparation variables of plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Ochoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of various preparation conditions for making plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware. We investigated the relationships between the processing conditions, microstructure, and final properties of the plaster molds. The results showed that the rheological behavior, and hence, the time during which the plaster suspension is pourable for making the plaster molds (before an important increase in viscosity due to the precipitation of gypsum crystals were dependent on the preparation conditions. Variations in the chemical composition, pore size distribution, and microstructure explained the statistically significant effect of preparation variables (including the mixing time, water temperature, and water quality. Preparation conditions that promoted high initial viscosity of the plaster suspension (accelerative effect of the setting time developed less porous structure in the mold that principally increased the compressive strength (16%, deionized water instead of tap water and the casting rate (9%, water at 25 °C instead of 38 °C. According to the results are proposed optimum conditions to make the molds while avoiding unnecessary energy use. Resumen: Mediante un diseño factorial completo se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de preparación de moldes de yeso para colado tradicional de muebles sanitarios. Se investigó la relación entre procesamiento, microestructura y propiedades del molde. Los resultados mostraron que el comportamiento reológico y por lo tanto el tiempo durante el cual la suspensión de yeso se puede verter para conformar los moldes (antes de un incremento importante de viscosidad debido a la formación de cristales de yeso fueron dependientes de las condiciones de preparación. Variaciones en composición química, distribución de tamaño de poro y microestructura explicaron el efecto estadísticamente significativo de las variables de preparación (que incluyeron

  11. Characterization of Concrete made with Recycled Aggregate from Ceramic Sanitary Ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility of reusing the ceramic wastes of sanitary ware as coarse aggregate, in partial substitution (15, 20 y 25 % of natural coarse aggregates. Firstly, the characterization of recycled coarse ceramic aggregate was carried out subsequently proceeded to establish the parameters of dosage and manufacture of different concretes. Lastly, tests were conducted using these mixes to characterize physical and mechanical, and a study was carried out to identify the crystalline phases. Results showed that as the substitution proportion increased, the mechanical properties of the concrete improved, whilst physical properties remained practically constant. In view of these results, we conclude that it is possible to use this type of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate when mixing concrete destined for structural purposes.

    En este estudio se plantea la posibilidad de reutilizar los residuos cerámicos de sanitarios como árido grueso sustituyendo de forma parcial (15, 20 y 25 % al árido grueso natural. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la caracterización del árido cerámico reciclado y posteriormente se procedió a establecer los parámetros de dosificación y fabricación de los distintos hormigones. Finalmente, se realizó sobre los mismos unos ensayos de caracterización de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, y un estudio de las fases cristalinas. Los resultados indican que a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de sustitución se ven mejoradas las propiedades mecánicas de estos, mientras que las propiedades físicas se mantienen prácticamente constantes. A la vista de estos resultados se puede concluir que es posible la utilización de este tipo de residuo cerámico como árido grueso en la elaboración de hormigones con fines estructurales.

  12. Sanitary-epidemiological assessment of quality of atmospheric air in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the comparative assessment of the sanitary and epidemiological quality of the ambient air in Moscow and the Russian Federation, that demonstrate a decrease of the air pollution level in 2014 in comparison with 2012, both in Moscow and in the Russian Federation, are presented in this study. It has been noted that most of the excess of hygienic air quality standards in the areas of Russian cities are recorded on stationary observation stations situated close to the motorway, located in residential areas, and in Moscow – in the zones of industrial enterprises’ impact. It has been revealed that the tendency to the reduction of the negative impact from industrial enterprises on air pollution is registered in the whole of the Russian Federation and in Moscow. It is demonstrated that the high-priority contaminating agents, the content of which for the year 2014 in the Russian Federation exceeded the hygienic daily average standards in 5 and more times, are mainly: benzo (a pyrene, suspended substances, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. To assess the quality of the ambient air in Moscow, the method of "inverse distance" and inter- and extrapolation of the data obtained from the observation stations on the whole territory of Moscow has been used. The study shows that the air quality of the individual administrative districts of Moscow varies considerably, and is determined by the traffic load level as well as by the volume of emissions of the industrial enterprises and the wind rose. As high-priority contaminating agents affecting the air quality, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, benzene, suspended substances, ozone and formaldehyde are distinguished. It is noted that close to the highway near Moscow there is an excessive concentration of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, phenol, and carbon monoxide, and in areas close to industrial zones – nitrogen dioxide, phenol formaldehyde and benzo (a

  13. The Treatment Of The RSU In Controlled Drains: Their Sanitary Problem To The Production Of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    The limitless world production of residuals generates constant concerns with relationship to its administration. The classic elimination methods as the drains controlled in front of the controversial incineration plants and gasification as well as the expectations created around the recycle practices, are reason of intense debates among city councils, specialist, environmentalist technicians and the public in general. The certain thing is that the residuals in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today in day the residuals are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the line of the recycle because they come them an excellent business. All the methods of elimination of residuals produce in turn others. Those of solid nature in general go to the drain, the semi-liquids becomes dehydrated for the same end. Presently work, without seeking to say that the employment of the drains is the best option, thinks about how it has more than enough they are possible to optimize its use. Showing beside their eminently sanitary vocation an energy alternative that allows the use of the combustible gas that is generated in them. An added value that is interesting if this it becomes source of well-being for social excluded nuclei and economically like it happens for example in the peripheries of the drains of the big Latin American cities. They are considered which are the main aspects that intervene in the generation, production and quality of the gas methane of the drains. Their reception methods and their use alternatives. Lastly emphasis is made in the environmental situation to European and international level about the gases of the drain, how it thinks about the topic of the greenhouse effect and which are the actions for the horizon of the year 2000. They are related some experiences in Europe on the use of the biogas

  14. Utilisation of forage grasses for decontamination of spray-irrigated leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Winant, W.M.; Bennett, O.L.; Lundberg, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Spray irrigation was used to test the survival and efficiency of forage grasses as a concentrating mechanism for the inorganic waste elements in leachate from a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Lime (0.67 metric tonnes ha), rock phosphate, and superphosphate (each at 11.2 metric tonnes ha) were applied in a randomised complete block design to reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L., tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb., cv. Ky31, orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus inermis Leyss., and bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cvs. Midland and Tufcote. Leachate was applied by overhead rotary sprinklers in weekly 8-h applications from 22 October 1974 to 28 April 1975. The total application averages about 155 cm. Sprayed leachate contained about 500 ppM of Ca, 150 to 200 ppM of Na, Fe, and Cl, 50 to 100 ppM of Mn, K, Mg, and N, 2 to 5 ppM of Al, Sr, Zn, and P, and less than 0.5 ppM of Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from approximately 7500 mg liter in water emerging from landfill drains to 5000 mg litre in sprayed leachate. Electroconductivity ranged from 3000 to 4000 ..mu..mhos cm and pH from 5.3 to about 5.5. Leachate irrigation appreciably increased Na, Fe, Mn, Cl, and S levels in all forages except orchardgrass. Lime significantly prevented Mn accumulation and benefited forage grass persistence. Reed canarygrass generally contained the highest levels of most elements and along with Tufcote bermudagrass was more leachate-tolerant than other grasses. Seasonal factors affected the uptake of several elements, e.g. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, K and Co were significantly lower in regrowth cuttings as compared with first cuttings of Midland bermudagrass and reed canarygrass.

  15. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  16. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A.

    1984-01-01

    In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author)

  17. Characterization and anaerobic treatment of the sanitary landfill leachate in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, B; Calli, B; Saatci, A

    2000-01-01

    In this study, characterization and anaerobic treatability of leachate from Komurcuoda Sanitary Landfill located on the Asian part of Istanbul were investigated. Time based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored for an 8 month period. Samples were taken from a 200 m3 holding tank located at the lowest elevation of the landfill. COD concentrations have ranged between 18,800 and 47,800 mg/l while BOD5 between 6820 and 38,500 mg/L. COD and BOD5 values were higher in summer and lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. On the other hand, it was quite interesting that such a dilution effect was not observed for ammonia. The highest ammonia concentration, 2690 mg/L was in November 1998. BOD5/COD ratio was larger than 0.7 for most samples indicating high biodegradability, and acidic phase of decomposition in the landfill. For anaerobic treatability, three different reactors, namely an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor, an anaerobic upflow filter and a hybrid bed reactor, were used. The anaerobic reactors were operated for more than 230 days and were continuing operation when this paper was prepared. Organic loading was increased gradually from 1.3 kg COD/m3.day to 8.2 kg COD/m3.day while hydraulic retention time was reduced from 2.4 days to 2.0 days. All the reactors showed similar performances against organic loadings with efficiencies between 80% and 90%. However the reactors have experienced high ammonia concentrations several times throughout the experimental period, and showed different inhibition levels. Anaerobic filter was the least affected reactor while UASB was the most. Hybrid bed reactor has exhibited a similar performance to anaerobic filter although not to the same degree.

  18. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  19. Serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) influences decision making under ambiguity and risk in a large Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi; Lei, Xuemei; Ding, Ni; Li, Jin; Li, He; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jun; Moyzis, Robert K; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-11-01

    Risky decision making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intelligence and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision making under ambiguity and risk, and shed additional lights on how decision making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision making in healthy subjects may allow us to better identify at-risk individuals, and better target the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serotonin Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Influences Decision Making under Ambiguity and Risk in a Large Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi; Lei, Xuemei; Ding, Ni; Li, Jin; Li, He; Chen, Chunhui; Li, Jun; Moyzis, Robert K.; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Risky decision-making is a complex process that involves weighing the probabilities of alternative options that can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. Individuals vary greatly in how they make decisions either under ambiguity and/or under risk. Such individual differences may have genetic bases. Based on previous studies on the genetic basis of decision making, two decision making tasks [i.e., Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Loss Aversion Task (LAT)] were used to test the effect of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on decision making under ambiguity and under risk in a large Han Chinese sample (572 college students, 312 females). Basic intelligence and memory tests were also included to control for the influence of basic cognitive abilities on decision making. We found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism significantly influenced performance in both IGT and LAT. After controlling for intellectual and memory abilities, subjects homozygous for s allele had lower IGT scores than l carriers in the first 40 trials of the IGT task. They also exhibited higher loss aversion than l carriers in the LAT task. Moreover, the effects of 5-HTTLPR were stronger for males than for females. These results extend the literature on the important role of emotion in decision under ambiguity and risk, and provide additional lights on how decision-making is influenced by culture as well as sex differences. Combining our results with existing literature, we propose that these effects might be mediated by a neural circuitry that comprises the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and insular cortex. Understanding the genetic factors affecting decision in healthy subjects may allow us better identify at-risk individuals, and target better the development of new potential treatments for specific disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. PMID:20659488