WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary landfills composting

  1. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  2. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  3. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  4. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  7. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  8. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  9. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  10. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  11. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  12. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  13. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  15. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  16. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  17. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  18. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  19. Evaluation of respiration in compost landfill biocovers intended for methane oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedicone, Alessio; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh

    2011-01-01

    will compete for O2 with other aerobic microorganisms. If the compost is not mature, a significant portion of the O2 diffusing into the compost layer will be consumed by non-methanotrophs, thereby limiting CH4 oxidation. The results of this study however also suggest that the consumption of O2 in the compost......A low-cost alternative approach to reduce landfill gas (LFG) emissions is to integrate compost into the landfill cover design in order to establish a biocover that is optimized for biological oxidation of methane (CH4). A laboratory and field investigation was performed to quantify respiration...... in an experimental compost biocover in terms of oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and emission rates. O2 consumption and CO2 production rates were measured in batch and column experiments containing compost sampled from a landfill biowindow at Fakse landfill in Denmark. Column gas...

  20. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia

    2006-01-01

    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  1. The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Park, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

  2. Phyto cover for Sanitary Landfill Sites: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya D. Shah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill gases (LFG are produced due to biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW when water comes in contact with buried wastes. The conventional clay cover is still practiced to mitigate the percolation of water in landfills in India. Gas extraction systems in landfill for gas collection are used but are much expensive. Thus, “Phytocapping” technique can be one of the alternatives to mitigate landfill gases and to minimize percolation of water into the landfill. Indian plants with locally available soil and municipal solid waste can be tested for the purpose of methane mitigation, heavy metals remediation from leachate. Methane oxidation due to vegetation can be observed compared to non-vegetated landfill. Root zone methane concentrations can be monitored for the plant species.

  3. Sanitary Landfilling – A Key Component of Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Fellner

    2013-01-01

    In many affluent countries waste management is experiencing a fast transition from landfilling to sophisticated recycling and waste to energy plants. Thus, landfilling of waste becomes less important in these countries. The present paper discusses whether a similar development will take place in transition economies, or waste management systems will mainly rely on landfilling in the near future. For this purpose, the current waste management practices and associated environmental impacts as w...

  4. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  5. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  8. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  9. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  10. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  11. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  12. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  13. Partial nitrification for nitrogen removal from sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Psaila, Giuliana; Rizzo, Andrea

    2014-09-19

    Biological nitrogen removal using nitrite as a shortcut has recently been proposed for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate. The aim of this study was to assess the application of the SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the partial nitrification of leachate generated in old landfills. Particular attention was given to the start-up phase of the process. This study demonstrated that partial nitrification can be obtained when treating raw leachate after biomass acclimation. Only a fraction (50-70%) of the ammonia present in the leachate can be oxidised due to a limited amount of alkalinity available. Stable nitritation was obtained by applying a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4-5 d, which is higher than the values proposed for the effluent of anaerobic digesters. This higher HRT could probably be allowed by the high concentration of free ammonia present in the leachate, which could severely inhibit the growth of nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  16. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  17. Biodegradation of Methane and Halocarbons in Simulated Landfill Biocover Systems Containing Compost Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Costa, G.

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation potential of methane (CH4) and of selected volatile organic Compounds (VOCs) was compared in four types of compost materials using dynamic flow column experiments over a period of 255 d. Garden waste compost mixed with wood chips showed the highest steady-state CH4 oxidation rate...... (161 g m(-2) d(-1)), followed by a commercial compost product Supermuld (110 g m(-2) d(-1)). In the column containing the highest fraction of compost (compost/sand mixed in 1: 1), CH4 oxidation declined significantly during the period of operation, probably due to clogging by formation of exopolymeric...... of the columns. Overall, the highest removal of VOCs was observed in the column containing the compost/ wood chip mixture. This study demonstrates that biocovers consisting of compost materials have the potential to attenuate trace gas emissions from landfills....

  18. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  19. Study on the Natural Soil Properties Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as Compacted Soil Liner for Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reviews and extends an understanding of a study on potential suitability of the natural soil in Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as a compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill. Since the demand for landfill system becomes obvious so that concerning construction and operation of landfills are increasing. A number of studies have been conducted for the liner system of landfill. Hence, study is required to choose the suitable type of material as liner barrier for the landfill system in term to achieve optimum long term performance. The sanitary landfill plays an important role in the framework of solid waste disposal. The compacted soil liner is a part of a liner structure for landfill to restrict leachate migration from facility into the environment. So that, if the landfill system is not well manage it will contaminate the soil and ground water, thus presenting a risk to human and environmental health. This study, natural soil will be taken from Endau Rompin National Park (PETA, Johor as soil sample for testing. Natural soil is an economy material as a liner system, and it does not decay easily from time to time. So it is an ideal material as a sanitary landfill liner system. In short, the purpose of this study is to compile and organize available information on the use of laboratory testing, as well as providing some guidance on the use of natural soil as barrier layer of landfill and also it suitability of physical and chemical properties natural soil as barrier layer of landfill. Based on the laboratory testing were conducted, found that soil sample taken form Endau Rompin National Park (PETA is suitable as compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill.

  20. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  2. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.

  3. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  5. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  6. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  8. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  9. Sanitary Landfill Leachate Recycle and Environmental Problems at Selected Army Landfills: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamlys, Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Irnstallations, !nterim Report N- 97/ADA097035...D. Smith, R. Pileccia, J. Handy, G. Gerdes, S. Kloster, G. Schanche, _. .1. fJanson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Characteri.tic.i Control, and...Learned N 1. Do not construct buildings on top of or close to a closed landfill until methane gas production has stopped.... - 2. Note that explosive

  10. Children living near a sanitary landfill have increased breath methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in their intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Filho, Humberto Bezerra; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Mello, Carolina Santos; Melli, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher (P landfill (3.16 × 10(7) CFU/g of feces), comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05 × 10(6) CFU/g of feces) and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93 × 10(5) CFU/g of feces). The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  11. Leachates control in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes in Gipuzkoa; Control de lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos urbanos de Gipuzkoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martin, M.A.; Antiguedad Auzmendi, I.

    1998-12-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the leachates from seven sanitary landfills in Gipuzkoa has been studied. Flow rate, temperature and electric conductivity were monitored on line in some cases too. HELP model and other classic methods were applicated to calculate exactly the water balance. The authors conclude suggesting that these studies are essentials to know if the landfills are really sanitary landfills. (Author) 14 refs.

  12. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  13. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario.

  14. Membrane Fouling in Microfiltration of Sanitary Landfill Leachate for Removals of Colour and Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad S.M.Ameen; Abdullrahim Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Razman Salim; Azmi Aris; Aznah Nor Anuar

    2013-01-01

    In this research,the treatability of solids from sanitary landfill leachate by microfiltration membrane was investigated and the fouling of the membrane was carefully studied.Continuous microfiltration process was carried out for 21 h in experimental system involved coagulation with Moringa oleifera followed by filtration using submerged hollow fibre microfiltration membrane (MFM).Coagulation with M.Oleifera,air diffusers and back flush technique were used for preventing or alleviating fouling of the membrane.The hollow fibre MFM showed high removals of 98%,91% and 99% for turbidity,colour and total suspended solids respectively.It was obtained at the beginning of the filtration.However,quality of the filtrate rapidly declined during the filtration process.Fouling was found to proceed according to the classical cake filtration model.Coagulation with M.Oleifera as well asthe back-flush technique could not fully restore the deterioration occurred to the membrane.

  15. Electrochemical treatment of concentrate from reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Fernandes, Annabel; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Conventional sanitary landfill leachate treatment has recently been complemented and, in some cases, completely replaced by reverse osmosis technology. Despite the good quality of treated water, the efficiency of the process is low and a large volume of reverse osmosis concentrate has to be either discharged or further treated. In this study, the use of anodic oxidation combined with electro-Fenton processes to treat the concentrate obtained in the reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated. The anodic oxidation pretreatment was performed in a pilot plant using an electrochemical cell with boron-doped diamond electrodes. In the electro-Fenton experiments, a boron-doped diamond anode and carbon-felt cathode were used, and the influence of the initial pH and iron concentration were studied. For the experimental conditions, the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3 had higher organic load removal levels, whereas the best nitrogen removal was attained when the electrochemical process was performed at the natural pH of 8.8. The increase in the iron concentration had an adverse impact on treatment under natural pH conditions, but it enhanced the nitrogen removal in the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3. The combined anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton process is useful for treating the reverse osmosis concentrate because it is effective at removing the organic load and nitrogen-containing species. Additionally, this process potentiates the increase in the biodegradability index of the treated effluent.

  16. Nitrogen removal optimization in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Lavagnolo, M Cristina; Scarpa, Carlotta; Vendrame, Paola; Rizzo, Andrea; Luccarini, Luca

    2007-05-01

    Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite may represent a promising process for the optimization of nitrogen removal, in particular in the presence of a low biodegradable COD/TKN ratio. In the present study a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was monitored for approximately 2 years to evaluate the use of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as monitoring parameters in order to optimize nitrogen removal via nitrite from leachate generated in old sanitary landfills. The SBR manifested a nitrification efficiency exceeding 99% whereas, due to the low biodegradability of the organic matter presents in the leachates, COD removal reached approximately 40% and the addition of external COD was required to accomplish denitrification process. Moreover, the results demonstrate that DO, pH and ORP are reliable parameters for use in the monitoring of nitritation and denitritation processes in SBRs treating landfill leachates. Through manual modification of the length of the SBR phases to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite, the nitritation and denitritation processes were rendered unstable leading to the saving of 20% in addition of external COD, almost half the theoretically achievable value. Furthermore, the low dissolved oxygen concentration applied during the oxic phases in an attempt to increase the nitritation process would appear to cause the settling characteristics of the activated sludge to deteriorate.

  17. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  18. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  19. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  20. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  1. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy forms the cornerstone of almost every economic, social and cultural sector in modern societies. Energy is regarded as an irreplaceable ingredient in such societies’ industrial development. The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada’s sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed of. Biogas estimates were conducted in two stages: a waste characterisation study followed by implementing the regulations proposed by SCS Engineers (SCS Engineers, 2009 regarding the Mexican biogas model (version 2.0. The results showed that a large quantity of organic matter (around 70% is a key element in anaerobic degradation of waste. As to energy generation, it is believed that a full 1.90 MW capacity will be reached in 2019. Such energy could increase Ensenada’s current electricity generation capacity by 3.46% and provide 60% of the energy needed for street lighting, thereby leading to USD $1.423 million in savings.

  2. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  3. Recycling potential of urban solid waste destined for sanitary landfills: the case of Indaiatuba, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Nogueira, Alex Rodrigues; Kagohara, Dennis Akira; Schwartzman, Jonas Age Saide; de Mattos, Tânia

    2007-12-01

    The urban solid waste of the city of Indaiatuba (pop. 175 000), located in the state of São Paulo, was characterized, focusing on the recycling potential. For this purpose, collected waste was subdivided into 27 items, classified by mass and volume. About 90% of this waste was found to be potentially recyclable and only 10% requiring landfilling. The compostable organic matter, in the form of food and garden waste, both with high moisture content (51 and 41%, respectively), represents 54% in mass and 21% in volume. The most common type of plastic in this waste is high density polyethylene, whose estimated disposal is about 5000kgday(-1). A socio-economic analysis of the waste generation indicates that low-income neighbourhoods discard relatively less packaging and more food waste, shoes and construction debris than middle and high income ones, which may be due to low purchasing power and schooling. Our findings indicate that more aluminium and uncoloured polyethylene terephthalate is discarded in the warmest months of the year, probably due to a greater consumption of canned and bottled drinks.

  4. The use of tritium content as an indicator of the groundwater contamination by sanitary landfills leachates in the region of Belo Horizonte City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, J V; Mingote, R M; Baptista, M B; Oliveira, D M; Lima, F P

    2008-01-01

    Tritium content in the leachate of sanitary landfills, in concentrations well above those observed in global precipitation, can be used as a tracer for the evaluation of the contamination of groundwater in piezometers of the landfills and in neighbouring tubular wells. This possibility was first investigated in Brazil for sanitary landfills in the region of Belo Horizonte City. Tritium levels together with the content of metals present in water and the measurement of soil electrical conductivity, proved to be valuable for these studies and also as a tracer for hydrodynamic studies of the surface water in the Ressaca creek.

  5. Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeawon, T; Beerachee, B

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the application of a multi-criteria analysis methodology - the analytical hierarchy process - for the locating of a sanitary landfill on the small island of Mauritius. Four candidate sites were assessed using three main criteria (environmental, technical and socio-economic) and twenty-one sub-criteria. Scores were assigned to each criterion and sub-criterion by stakeholders in the solid waste sector, based on the impact assessment of each site so as to obtain their relative importance. The analytical hierarchy process was then applied, which involved the combination of the weights obtained at the different stages of pair-wise comparisons. The candidate sites were finally ranked to obtain the optimum site. Because of political factors, the second best ranked site was chosen by the authorities for the location of a new landfill on the island. This technique provides a realistic approach for use by small island developing states such as Mauritius for choosing and justifying to all stakeholders the best location for a sanitary landfill site or any other waste management site.

  6. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  7. 简析生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场设计%Closure Design of Domestic Waste Sanitary Landfill Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健萍

    2011-01-01

    Functions of closure of domestic waste sanitary landfill sites were sketched. Main contents about closure design were analyzed, including landfill pile shaping, structure determining of closure cover system, collection and drainage of landfill gas, and collection and discharge of rainwater in landfill pile.%简述了生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场的作用,分析了封场设计中堆体整形、封场覆盖系统结构的确定、填埋气体的收集导排、垃圾堆体雨水的收集排放等主要内容.

  8. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  9. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < EF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < PEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) ≤ SPEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1), using the abovementioned conditions. While EF process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after

  10. Immobilization of Cd in landfill-leachate-contaminated soil with cow manure compost as soil conditioners: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhuwei; Wang, Jia; Wan, Rui; Xi, Shuang; Chen, Zhuqi; Chen, Zhulei; Yu, Yingjian; Long, Sijie; Wang, Huabin

    2016-12-01

    Introducing cow manure compost as an amendment in landfill-leachate-contaminated soils is proved to be an effective technique for the immobilization of Cd in this study. Landfill-leachate-contaminated soil was collected from an unlined landfill in China and amended with a different blending quantity of cow manure compost (0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 g per 200 g soil), which was made by mixing cow manure and chaff at a ratio of 1/1 and maturing for 6 months. pH values of five different blending quantity mixtures increased by 0.2-0.4, and the organic matter levels increased by 2.5-7%, during a remediation period of 5 weeks. Four fractions of Cd named exchangeable Cd, reducible Cd, oxidizable Cd, and residual Cd in soil were respectively analyzed by a sequential extraction procedure. Introducing the cow manure compost application resulted in more than 40% lower exchangeable Cd but a higher concentration of oxidizable Cd in soils, and mass balance results showed nearly no Cd absorption by applied material, indicating that transformation of exchangeable Cd into oxidization forms was the main mechanism of Cd immobilization when cow manure compost was used as an amendment. The Pearson correlation showed that increasing of pH values significantly improved the efficiency of Cd immobilization, with a correlation coefficiency of 0.940 (p compost, and findings of this work can be integrated to guide the application. Addition of cow manure compost (CMC) was effective in reducing exchangeable Cd in landfill-leachate-contaminated soils (LLCS). The immobilization effect of Cd was mainly assigned to the redistribution of labile soil Cd. Organic matter (OM) and pH value increased with CMC application. The pH values were more sensitive to Cd immobilization efficiency. It was proved that CMC can be safely and effectively used for the restoration of LLCS.

  11. Research, development and demonstration in the design of sanitary landfill to optimize the generation and capture of compressible gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, M. E.; Teeple, F. E.; Buesch, S. C.

    1982-02-01

    The influences of selected factors on the generation and recovery of methane gas from sanitary landfills were investigated. The factors included encapsulation, shredding, air classifying, moisture, and pH. Facilities consisting of six model sanitary landfill cells, each with a capacity of approximately 450 cubic yards of municipal waste, and auxiliary subsystems were constructed. Municipal waste in each cell is contained in a 30-mil thick polyvinly chloride plastic sheeting forming a virtually gas-tight envelope. Two cells were filled with as-collected urban waste, two with shredded waste, and two with shredded and air classified waste, constituting three pairs of cells. One of each pair is a control cell with the other used as an experimental variable. Systems were provided for adding measured amounts of water, removing and recirculating leachate, and for extracting gas and measuring gas flow. During testing, gas production and internal cell characteristics were measured to determine the effects of mechanical processing, moisture content, and leachate pH.

  12. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  13. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  14. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  15. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  16. Valuation of environmental problems in landfill deposition and composting - test of methodology; Verdsetting av miljoekonsekvenser av avfallsdeponering og kompostering - metodeutproeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leknes, Einar; Movik, Espen; Wiik, Ragnhild; Meissnes, Rudolf

    1995-08-01

    This study is aimed at the tests and design of methods for valuation of environmental problems associated with the landfill deposition of household waste. An extensive review of literature has been conducted with respect to the environmental impacts and valuation methods. Environmental impact assessment and valuation with respect to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG's), leachate and disamenity, have been performed for 4 Norwegian landfills. These differ in their approach towards waste treatment in terms of GHG-collection, briquette production and composting and also in their location in terms of proximity to residential areas and the quality of natural recipients. The study shows that the collection of methane and production of briquettes causes major reductions in the generation of GHG's, whereas composting brings significant reductions for all types of environmental impacts. (author)

  17. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  18. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  19. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  20. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  1. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  2. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  3. Applications of geotextiles in sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de geotextiles en vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca Lorenzo, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the applications of geo textiles in landfills with protection and filter functions. The usual way of design in many projects is revised in this paper and the needed properties to require to the geotextiles are showed too. Finally, a quality control of these properties which should be run to be sure that a good specified project is being fulfilled. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate and compost wastewater by irrigation of Populus and Salix: Biomass and growth response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Maja Zupancic; Pajk, Nastja; Zupanc, Vesna; Zupancic, Marija

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment is described with a fast-growing poplar clone and two native willows (Populus deltoides Bartr. cl. I-69/55 (Lux)), Salix viminalis L. and Salix purpurea L.), irrigated with landfill leachate and compost wastewater over a 1-year growing period. The use of leachate resulted in up to 155% increased aboveground biomass compared to control water treatments and in up to 28% reduced aboveground biomass compared to a complete nutrient solution. The use of compost wastewater resulted in up to 62% reduced aboveground biomass compared to the control treatments and in up to 86% reduced aboveground biomass compared to the complete nutrient solution. Populus was the most effective in biomass production due to the highest leaf production, whereas S. purpurea was the least effective in biomass accumulation, but less sensitive to high ionic strength of the irrigation water compared to S. viminalis. The results showed a high potential for landfill leachate application (with up to 2144 kg N ha(-1), 144 kg P ha(-1), 709 kg K ha(-1), 1010 kg Cl ha(-1), and 1678 kg Na ha(-1) average mass load in the experiment). High-strength compost wastewater demonstrated less potential for application as irrigation and fertilization source even in high water-diluted treatments (1:8 by volume). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Methodology for the determination of optimum power of a Thermal Power Plant (TPP) by biogas from sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Rodrigo; Barros, Regina Mambeli; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Dos Santos, Ivan Felipe Silva

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine theoretically, the electrical optimum power of LFG using the maximum net benefit (MNB) methodology, and taking into consideration the economic, demographic, and regional aspects of the Inter municipal Consortium of the Micro-region of the High Sapucaí for Sanitary Landfill (CIMASAS, as acronym in Portuguese), that is located in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To this end, the prognosis for a 20-year period of household solid waste generation in this region was estimated and quantified based on population data, in order to estimate the LFG production and the energy that can be generated. From this point, the optimum power for thermal power plant (TPP) by LFG was determined. The results indicated that the landfill in this region could produce more 66,293,282m(3)CH4 (with maximum power of 997kW in 2036) in twenty years and that there would be no economic viability to generate energy from LFG, because the Net Present Value (NPV) would not be positive. The smallest population to that can achieve a minimum attractiveness rate (MAR) of 15% should be 3,700,000 inhabitants under the conditions studied. Considering the Brazilian National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) Resolutions, it would be 339,000 inhabitants with an installed power of 440kW. In addition, the outcome of the CIMASAS case-study demonstrated the applicability of MNB methodology for the determination of TPP optimum power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of GIS/AHP in siting sanitary landfill: a case study in Northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Doratli, Naciye

    2012-09-01

    The present study utilized a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment to evaluate the suitability of potential landfill sites in Northern Cyprus. To determine the most suitable landfill site, one of the MCE techniques, called analytical hierarchy process (AHP), was combined with a GIS to examine 12 criteria: distance from waste generation centres; distance from roads; slope; distance from surface waters; distance from groundwater areas; distance from environmentally sensitive areas; vegetation types; soil productivity; soil permeability; distance from settlements; distance from cultural sites; distance from stone quarries. The relative importance weights of these criteria were estimated using AHP and criteria maps were developed by using GIS spatial analysis. At the final stage two different suitability maps were produced using two different groups of weights. The first group suitability map had 11 052 (ha) with high suitability class, whereas the high suitability areas decreased to 5982 (ha) in the second group. Moreover, the seven potential sites identified within the first group decreased to four in the second suitability map. However, potential sites such as Gungor, Degirmenlik, Kirklar and Cayonu had similarities with higher suitability values and these same locations were regarded as suitable according to the both first and second suitability map results.

  7. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng, E-mail: enewujh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  8. Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, A; Marsili-Libelli, S; Lavagnolo, M C

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale SBR was operated for almost three years in an attempt to optimise the treatment of leachates generated in old landfill. The results of the first two years were used to design a monitoring and control system based on artificial intelligence concepts. Nitrogen removal was optimized via the nitrite shortcut. Nitrification and N removal were usually higher than 98% and 90%, respectively, whereas COD (of the leachate) removal was approximately 30-40%. The monitoring and control system was demonstrated capable of optimizing process operation, in terms of phase length and external COD addition, to the varying loading conditions. Using the control system developed, a significant improvement of the process was obtained: COD and N load were increased (HRT decrease) and a significant decrease (approximately 34%) of the ratio of COD added to N leachate content was observed.

  9. Geotechnological characteristics of a sanitary land-fill:three years monitoring the sanitary landfills at Meruelo. Caracteristicas geotecnologicas de un vertedero controlado: tres aos de observacion de movimientos en el vertedero controlado de Meruelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alciturri, J.M.; Palma, J.H.; Sagaseta, M.; Caizal, J. (Universidad de Cantabria. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    As a part of research program on geotechnical problems involved in waste disposal, a sanitary landfill has been instrumented in Meruelo, in the region of Cantabria, Spain. It is located in a valley, with an initial retaining dyke whose height is increased by the ''upstream'' method up to a final value of 50 m. At present, the records of three years of monitoring are available, and they are analyzed in this paper. They include surface settlements in points with different thickness of waste (up to 16 m.) and horizontal and vertical movements of the front slope for stability assessment. (Author)

  10. Effects of ferric ions on the catalytic ozonation process on sanitary landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Borges Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leachates exhibiting an unstable ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD of approximately 0.45 are typical of new landfills in the City of Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. Although the organic matter portion is bio-treatable, the presence of refractory leached organic material requires unconventional effluent-treatment processes. Leachate treatment with ozone oxidation, in the presence of ferric ions, acts as catalyst in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ozone was obtained by corona-discharge from high-purity O2 gas. The treatment was performed in natura in a jacketed borosilicate glass reactor containing 900 ml of leachate. The analyzed response variable was expressed as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. In order to determine the optimal proportions to produce the greatest degradation rate for organic materials, variations in experimental O2 flow-fed to the generator, the Fe(iii concentration, and the output of the ozonator were conducted over two experimental runs. Experimental models showed a DOC degradation on the order of 81.25%.

  11. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC 60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  13. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed.

  14. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  15. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  16. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  17. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  18. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.OBJETIVO: Los compuestos odoríferos producidos en la Planta de Compostaje de Biosólidos de Bariloche (NO Patagonia atraen diferentes insectos, principalmente moscas (Orden Diptera. Con el objeto de caracterizarlas, se colectaron especímenes que fueron identificados taxonómicamente. Se describieron sus características comunitarias y se determinó su importancia

  19. Electrical Characters of Sanitary Landfill Border%卫生垃圾填埋场边界的地电特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶腾飞; 董路; 龚育龄; 汤洪志; 刘玉强

    2011-01-01

    研究卫生垃圾填埋场边界的地电特性,界定卫生垃圾填埋场边界有助于场地环境的维护和管理,采用电阻率二维层析成像技术中的3种装置排列(测深、温纳、偶极-偶极)对小型卫生垃圾填埋场模型进行对比测量,通过电阴率二维层析成像技术对填埋场边界的地电特性进行分析研究.研究结果表明,在测深和温纳两种装置排列,不能进行精确定位;而偶极-偶极的反演图象中可以界定垃圾填埋场的侧向和底部边界,其误差小于5%.%To determine the boundary of a sanitary landfill more accurately, this paper introduces a technology, namely 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT). Thus, a comparative survey was conducted, in which electrical characters of the landfill border were measured with three arrays such as sounding array, Wenner array and dipole-dipole array respectively. Result showed that dipole-dipole array is more accurate with an error lower than 5% in determining the landfill boundary,being useful in defining the landfill's lateral and bottom boundary.

  20. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: Effects of corrosion at the Mountain View, California landfill gas-recovery plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Corrosion of equipment has occurred at the Mountain View, California Landfill Gas Recovery Plant. Corrosion is most severe on compressor valve seats and cages, tubes in the first and second stages of the interstage gas cooler, and first and second stage piping and liquid separators. Corrosion occurs because the raw landfill gas contains water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Some corrosion may also result from trace concentrations of organic acids present in the landfill gas. Corrosion of the third stage compressor, cooler, and piping does not occur because the gas is dehydrated immediately prior to the third stage. Controlling corrosion is necessary to maintain the mechanical integrity of the plant and to keep the cost of the gas competitive with natural gas. Attempts to reduce corrosion rates by injecting a chemical inhibitor have proved only partially successful. Recommendations for dealing with corrosion include earlier dehydration of the gas, selection of special alloys in critical locations, chemical inhibition, and regular plant inspections.

  1. Study of biogas production parameters in the sanitary landfill; Estudio de los parametros que afectan la produccion de biogas en un vertedero controlado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Domenech, G.; Gordillo Bolasell, M. A.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2001-07-01

    The following article contents a study about some of the parameters affecting the evolution of the gas production in a sanitary landfill placed in the province of Barcelona. The work is focused on the quality of biogas produced, measured as the percentage of methane and thus its energy profitability. The parameters included in this paper are: -Situation of the gas extraction station -Age of the wastes. -Reinfiltration of concentrated liquid leachate in the considered cell. Among the previous factors, the situation of the gas station and the age of wastes showed a critical influence on the methane content, whereas the use of leachate reinfiltration did not produce significant differences in the quality of biogas in the short-term applications. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Bioreactor landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; XING Kai; Anthony Adzomani

    2004-01-01

    Following the population expansion, there is a growing threat brought by municipal solid waste (MSW) against environment and human health. Sanitary landfill is the most important method of MSW disposal in China. In contrast to the conventional landfill, this paper introduces a new technique named bioreactor landfill (BL). Mechanisms, operation conditions as well as the advantages and disadvantages of BL are also discussed in this paper.

  3. From phytoaccumulation to post-harvest use of water fern for landfill management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Kim, Dae Won; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-11-01

    We examined the potential of Azolla japonica as a remediating plant for leachate channels and post-accumulation use as fertilizer for landfill slope. The harvested biomass of Azolla after one month grown in leachate was 254% that of the initial biomass and the predicted annual harvestable biomass of Azolla using a growth model was 32 times that of the initial biomass. Na, Fe, Mn, Mg, and P were accumulated in Azolla at very high concentrations. Such rapid increase of biomass and high accumulation rates suggest that this plant could be an excellent remediating plant. The post-harvest use of Azolla as compost was studied for the management and use of phytoaccumulating Azolla. Metal contents of Azolla compost were below permissible limits for co-composting material. Nitrogen, organic matter, P, and Mg content of the Azolla compost improved the soil condition of the landfill and enhanced ecophysiological responses of the plants. The application of Azolla compost can improve management of sanitary landfills, including the restoration of vegetation. Considering its ease of harvesting, high accumulation rates, harvestable biomass and suitability for composting, Azolla can provide a suitable solution for sustainable management of leachate channels and landfill slopes.

  4. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: Investigation of effects of air inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen and oxygen on landfill gas operations are discussed. A combustible gas mixture composed of methane and carbon dioxide is generated in municipal solid waste landfills. A consequence of the collection of this fuel gas is the inclusion of some air in the collected product. The effects include increased collected and purification costs, reduction in the quality of the fuel gas produced, corrosion, explosion hazards, and interference with odorant systems. The scope of such effects was determined by using landfill data of a gas recovery site as a basis. Useful supplemental fuel gas may be recovered despite the inclusion of air. Recommendations are made for establishing limits for nitrogen and oxygen content and minimizing the costs associated with their presence.

  5. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  6. Municipal solid wastes composting: Estrela (Brasil); Compostaje de residuos solidos municipales: el ejemplo de Estrela, brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, O.; Bezama, A.; Navia, R.; Lorber, K. E.

    2002-07-01

    In Estrela, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, an improved separation system for the municipal solid wastes was implemented. The objective is to enhance the performance of the composting process of the solid wastes. In the original separation system, the fractions corresponding to organic matter, recyclable materials and the light-weight fraction (destined to sanitary landfill) were obtained, where the organic fraction reached a 70%. This fraction was destined to a composting process which after 80 days of processing was still in the thermophilic stage and had to be later stabilized through a worm composting process. In order to improve this situation, a modified system was proposed and implemented. In this way, four fractions were obtained during the separation process: a light fraction destined to sanitary land filling, a recyclable materials fraction and two organic fractions. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. Evolution of Biochemical Parameters During Composting of Various Wastes Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia the most treatment waste is landfill (50% of wastes were land filled and only 5% are composted. And since our soil become more and more poor in organic matter, green waste can be a significant source of organic matter; in parallel we cited the domestic waste and dead posodonia collected from beaches. All these wastes coming from various origins can be exploited to produce stable compost able to correct the deficiency of soil. Exploiting waste could lead at different quality of mature compost. We are not interested in only the quality of the mature compost but we are interested in the time of the composting cycle. The goals of this study were to characterize the maturity and the sanitary quality of compost in relation with the feed stock source (green waste (C1, green waste mixed with Posidonia (C2 and municipal solid waste (C3. The results obtained showed that the duration of the cycle of composting depends on the nature of the substrate. The longest cycle (200 days was observed with the feed stock source C3. The C/N ratios ranged between 22 and 27 at the beginning of the cycle of composting and decreased notably during time of composting. NH4-N decreased over the progress cycle and at the end of composting progress, all wastes presented a content of NH4-N not exceeding the maximal value recommended for mature compost (400 mg kg-1. The CO2 released by C1 was of approximately 6000 mg C-CO2 DM kg-1 at the start of the cycle and it reached at the end of the cycle of composting 2300 mg C-CO2 DM kg-1. Nevertheless, the deshydrogenase activity (DHA recorded was important during the thermophilous phase at the level of the three piles C1, C2 and C3, where it reached the respective values of 5.9; 6.2 and 4 TPFS/TPF/g of DM. Maturity stage showed the values of 0.3; 0.8 and 0.4 TPFS/TPF/g of DM, respectively. Salmonella appeared only at the level of the piles C2 et C3 at the beginning of composting. After 40th days composting these bacteria are

  8. Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-09-15

    In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

  9. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill.

  11. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium.

  12. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  13. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  14. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  15. Sustainable Approach for Landfill Management at Final Processing Site Cikundul in Sukabumi City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Darwati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of landfill management in Indonesia is the difficulty in getting a location for Final Processing Sites (FPS due to limited land and high land prices. Besides, about 95% of existing landfills are uncontrolled dumping sites, which could potentially lead to water, soil and air pollution. Based on data from the Ministry of Environment (2010, The Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 Year 2008 Concerning Solid Waste Management, prohibits open dumping at final processing sites and in ratification, the Local Governments have to convert the open dump sites into controlled or sanitary landfill. The Research Institute for Human Settlements has been conducting multi-year researches related to the rehabilitation of dumpsites toward sustainable landfill. The research methods are literature reviews, experiments, laboratory analysis and field observations. A pilot model of dumpsite rehabilitation was carried out in 2010 at the Final Processing Site at Cikundul in Sukabumi City, consisting of (1 mining landfill (2 construction of landfill cells in a former mining area with a semi aerobic landfill and an anaerobic landfill and (3 landfill operations using decomposed material from landfill mining as a soil cover. The purpose of the study is to develop a sustainable approach for landfill management and rehabilitation through landfill mining and implementation of semi aerobic landfill. Findings in the construction of landfill mining indicate that (1 the construction of landfill mining is constrained by leachate that is trapped in a pile of waste, therefore, the leachate needs to be pumped to leachate treatment installations, (2 the volume of waste excavation is expanding due to the high plastic content of about 26% in landfills (3 the potency of decomposed materials from landfill mining is 40–83% for landfill operations or greening.. The performance of landfill systems shows that leachate quality of semi aerobic landfill tends to be lower

  16. Estimation of the mass-balance of selected metals in four sanitary landfills in Western Norway, with emphasis on the heavy metal content of the deposited waste and the leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygard, Joar Karsten; Måge, Amund; Gjengedal, Elin

    2004-07-01

    A worst-case simulation of the mass-balance for metals in the waste deposited during 1 year and the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) in the leachate was calculated for four sanitary landfills in Western Norway. Estimates of the levels of metal content in mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) were found by using recent literature values calculated in a mass-balance study at a Norwegian waste incinerator plant. Leachate from the landfills were sampled and analyzed monthly during 1 year, and from these measurements the total annual discharge of the selected metals through the leachate was determined. The levels of the measured heavy metals in the leachate were low. For Cd less than 0.06%, for Pb less than 0.01% and for Hg less than 0.02% of the estimated year's deposited mass of metals were leached from the landfills during the year of investigation. The high retention of these metals are most likely due to sulfide precipitation, but also due to the immobile condition of the metals in their original deposited solid state (plastics, ceramics, etc.). The percentage of Cr leached was relatively higher, but less than 1.0% per year. The mass balance of Fe suggests that this element is more mobile under the prevailing conditions. The percentage of Fe leached varied and was estimated to be between 1.9% and 18%. The present study clearly supports the theory that MSW only to a small extent will lead to discharge of metals if deposited at well-constructed sanitary landfills with top layers.

  17. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  18. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  19. Experimental Study on Compactness of Clay Liners in Sanitary Landfill%卫生填埋场黏土衬层密实性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚育龄; 叶腾飞; 董路; 汤洪志

    2011-01-01

    开展卫生填埋场中的黏土衬层密实性试验研究对填埋场的工程设计和后期运营具有现实意义.黏土压实的直接影响之一就是孔隙率的减小,并改变黏土的电阻率,为高密度电阻率法在衬层密实性中的调查研究提供了前提条件和物理基础.文章采用高密度电阻率法三种装置(测深、温纳、偶极-偶极)进行对比测量,通过电阻率成像技术对压实黏土的电性特征进行分析研究,确定了偶极-偶极装置反演精度较高.研究结果表明,渗透系数K为1.0×10-6cm/s的电阻率为40 Ω·m左右;K为1.0×10-6 cm/s的电阻率为30 Ω·m左右;K为1.0×10-7 cm/s的电阻率为20 Ω·m左右.%The study on density of clay liners is helpful for design and post-operation of the sanitary landfill. Resistivity change is one of direct impacts of decreasing porosity in compacted clay. The difference of resistivity would provide preconditions and physical basis for high density resistivity method. Three arrays including sounding array, Wenner array and dipole-dipole array were implemented and compared using electrical resistivity tomography technology. Electrical character of the compacted clay was investigated through the performance of resistivity tomography technology, and the inverse results of dipole-dipole array are more accurate. Results indicate that resistivity is about 40 ft'm at hydraulic conductivity of l.OxlO^cm/s, resistivity is about 30 ft*m at hydraulic conductivity of l.OxlO"6 cm/s and resistivity is about 20 ft*m at hydraulic conductivity of 1.0x10-7 cm/s.

  20. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LANDFILLING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most important method of municipalsolid waste disposal in China. Landfill sites are always set up in mountain valley, on plain or beside seashore. A complete landfill consists of base system, cover system, and leachate collection and gas extraction system. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art landfilling technology in China and collection discusses research projects for engineers.

  1. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  2. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills; Caracterizacao ambiental de areias descartadas de fundicao utilizadas na cobertura de residuos em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S., E-mail: lucienegferrari@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  3. Coupling ARB-based biological and photochemical (UV/TiO2 and UV/S2O8(2-)) techniques to deal with sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Fei; Wu, Dong; Hussain, Asif; Xie, Bing

    2016-09-12

    The aim of this study was to provide an alternative way to remove bio-refractory organics and ammonical-nitrogen from mature municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate by combining biological and photochemical processes. To achieve this objective, the effectiveness of anoxic aged refuse-based bioreactor (ARB) for biological leachate pretreatment followed by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV) and persulfate (S2O8(2-)) oxidation were tested. The results obtained after ARB based pre-treatment demonstrated a mean 72%, 81% and 92% degradation of COD, NH4N and TN, respectively. However, this treated leachate cannot be discharged without another treatment; hence, it was further treated by UV-mediated TiO2 photocatalysis and S2O8(2-) oxidation. An average 82% of COD was abated at optimum condition (1gL(-1) TiO2; pH 5) whereas, using an optimum 1.5gL(-1) persulfate at pH 5, 81% COD reduction occurred. Acidic and alkaline pH favored COD and NH4N removal respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that coupling ARB with AOPs is potentially applicable process to deal with bio-recalcitrant compounds present in mature landfill leachate.

  4. On optimization design for a flood intercepting trench of solid waste sanitary landfill in Shaanxi province%陕西省某生活垃圾卫生填埋场泄洪沟设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰毅; 张莉平; 曹叶; 文国庆; 袁莹

    2012-01-01

    西北地区山谷形垃圾填埋场一般具有汇水面积大、土质疏松、易发生山体垮塌等特点,因而需进行降水拦截导排。以实际工程设计为基点,结合当地条件进行了基本参数的选取、断面比选、出口形式选择、消力区段设计计算等。针对场区地形高差大、坡度陡实际情况,给出了陡坡段消力设计计算的一般方法。%Valley-shaped solid waste sanitary landfill in northwest has generally the characteristics of large catchment area, loose soil and high incidence of mountain collapse, therefore, it is required to discharge the rainfall humanly. Based on the actual engineering design and combined with the local conditions, the selection of basic parameters, the choice of the section, outlet of the ditches and the calculation of hydraulic drop pipeline are discussed. According to the actual situation of high level difference and slope, general design and calculate method on hydraulic drop pipeline in slope area is given, and as well as a summary.

  5. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  6. 高安屯卫生填埋场刚性调节池除臭新工艺的应用%Application of Deodorant Technology in Regulating Pond of Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志茹; 彭旭阳; 任丽梅

    2012-01-01

    介绍了北京市朝阳区高安屯填埋场调节池除臭新工艺,即在原有设备基础上增加调节池密闭性,并抽出调节池内部臭气作为火炬助燃空气对调节池臭气进行除臭,实践证明该工艺可有效解决调节池除臭问题,满足GB14554-1993排放要求;且系统运行安全有效、成本较低.%The deodorant technology of regulating pond in Chaoyang District Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site of Beijing was introduced. That is to say, the deodorant technology improved the leakproofness of regulating pond based on existing deodorant equipment, and extracted the air inside the regulation pond as combustion air for small torch system to deodorant. The project has been proved that it can effectively solve the deodorant problem for regulation ponds, and meet the emission requirements of GB 14554-1993. The system is safe and effective, and has low costs.

  7. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium); Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-11-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs.

  8. Methane emissions from sanitary landfills in Italy. Evaluation and forecasting; Le emissioni di metano dalle discariche di rifiuti in Italia: stima e scenari futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombari, F.; De Lauretis, R.; De Stefanis, P.; Gaudioso, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The report estimates the methane emissions from landfills by three different methodologies derived from IPCC experiences. A detailed evaluation of solid waste production (MSW) composition is shown in order to update results obtained from old researches. Finally it shows a prediction of MSW production from 1996 to 2011 in different scenarios related to MSW management strategies. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza la stima della quantita' di metano generato dalle discariche di rifiuti utilizzando tre differenti metodologie di calcolo, derivanti dalle conoscenze scientifiche dell'IPCC, dopo aver approfondito la composizione dei rifiuti. Riporta infine per il periodo 1996-2011, la stima della produzione e dello smaltimento dei rifiuti e la predisposizione di diversi scenari futuri di emissione del metano, relativi a differenti scelte all'interno del sistema di gestione dei rifiuti.

  9. Treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate using combined solar photo-Fenton and biological immobilized biomass reactor at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Rocha, Elisangela M R; Mota, Francisco S; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2011-04-01

    A solar photo-Fenton process combined with a biological nitrification and denitrification system is proposed for the decontamination of a landfill leachate in a pilot plant using photocatalytic (4.16 m(2) of Compound Parabolic Collectors - CPCs) and biological systems (immobilized biomass reactor). The optimum iron concentration for the photo-Fenton reaction of the leachate is 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1). The organic carbon degradation follows a first-order reaction kinetics (k = 0.020 L kJ(UV)(-1), r(0) = 12.5 mg kJ(UV)(-1)) with a H(2)O(2) consumption rate of 3.0 mmol H(2)O(2) kJ(UV)(-1). Complete removal of ammonium, nitrates and nitrites of the photo-pre-treated leachate was achieved by biological denitrification and nitrification, after previous neutralization/sedimentation of iron sludge (40 mL of iron sludge per liter of photo-treated leachate after 3 h of sedimentation). The optimum C/N ratio obtained for the denitrification reaction was 2.8 mg CH(3)OH per mg N-NO(3)(-), consuming 7.9 g/8.2 mL of commercial methanol per liter of leachate. The maximum nitrification rate obtained was 68 mg N-NH(4)(+) per day, consuming 33 mmol (1.3 g) of NaOH per liter during nitrification and 27.5 mmol of H(2)SO(4) per liter during denitrification. The optimal phototreatment energy estimated to reach a biodegradable effluent, considering Zahn-Wellens, respirometry and biological oxidation tests, at pilot plant scale, is 29.2 kJ(UV) L(-1) (3.3 h of photo-Fenton at a constant solar UV power of 30 W m(-2)), consuming 90 mM of H(2)O(2) when used in excess, which means almost 57% mineralization of the leachate, 57% reduction of polyphenols concentration and 86% reduction of aromatic content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; CHEN Wan-zhi; SONG Fu-zhong; LI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The results of laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste(MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature can used to decompose MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the simulators of the leachate-recirculated landfill and conservative sanitary landfill. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown, and heavy metals concentration was observed. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from simulator of conservative sanitary landfill(CSL), to that of leachate-recirculated landfill(LRL) and to that of conditioned bioreactor landfill(CBL) would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio.

  11. Process of composting; Proceso de compostaje envital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, D.; Ibanez, E.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-12-31

    Update, the european region uses three methods for Municipal Solid Wastes treatment: landfilling, incineration with energy recovery and composting. This last one is being used more and more lately. This is because of the separated collection that makes easier to give an adequate treatment to the organic fraction of MSW, like composting. (Author)

  12. Effect on biodegradation and nitrogen holding property from temperature during aerobic composting for sanitary disposal of human feces%粪便好氧堆肥过程中温度对有机物的降解和氮的保持特性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白帆; 王晓昌

    2011-01-01

    It would be favorable to improve biodegradation of feces and hold more nitrogen in compost if the effect on biodegradation and nitrogen holding property from temperature was found out during aerobic composting in bio-toilet for sanitary disposal of human feces.In this study, batch experiments were conducted using a closed aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as the bulky matrix to simulate the condition of a bio-toilet for sanitary disposal of human feces.Attention was paid to the effect on biodegradation and nitrogen holding property from temperature.Under a controlled condition of temperature at 60℃ and 35℃, moisture content at 60%, and continuous air supply, more than 70% fecal organic removal was obtained with merely 17% fecal nitrogen loss observed at 60℃ in a two-week composting period, while more than 63% fecal organic removal with 31.4% fecal nitrogen loss at 35℃.Compost maturity period decreased from 10 ~ 12 days at 35℃ to 6 ~8 days at 60℃.The nitrogen loss ( 17% ) was found to occur mainly in the first day with quick depletion of inorganic nitrogen, but almost unchanged organic nitrogen content at 60℃.While the nitrogen loss ( 31.4% ) was mainly in the first 4 days from both inorganic nitrogen and organic nitrogen content at 35℃.The result showed that temperature has obviously effect on composting, controlling temperature could improve compost effect, shorten eomposting maturity period, decreased fecal nitrogen loss, keep high organic nitrogen content in the composts for better fertilizer utilization.%研究堆肥过程温度对有机物的降解,尤其是氮的迁移转化的影响,对于提高堆肥效率和保持更多的氮在产物中具有重要意义.本研究采用密闭式好氧堆肥反应器,模拟高温(60℃)和中温(35℃)两种典型的堆肥温度,以新鲜锯末为空白载体,在含水率60%以及连续强制供气的条件下,进行了为期两周的试验,评估温度对于粪便中有机物的降

  13. Management of Leadchate from Army Sanitary Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    C0ONTAINNENT X x X X X COLLECTION SYSTEM LEACHATE TREATMENTxx -PROCESSES A GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS x x x GROUNDWATER RENOVATION TECHNOLOGIES x x x x 28 5 LEACHATE...Horace R. Collins Director Ohio Div. of Geol. Survey Servicio Geologico de P.R. Fountain Square, Bldg. B Dept. de Recursos Naturales Columbus, OH

  14. Availability and properties of materials for the Fakse Landfill biocover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane produced in landfills can be oxidized in landfill covers made of compost; often called biocovers. Compost materials originating from seven different sources were characterized to determine their methane-oxidizing capacity and suitability for use in a full-scale biocover at Fakse Landfill...... in Denmark. Methane oxidation rates were determined in batch incubations. Based on material availability, characteristics, and the results of batch incubations, five of the seven materials were selected for further testing in column incubations. Three of the best performing materials showed comparable...... average methane oxidation rates: screened garden waste compost, sewage sludge compost, and an unscreened 4-year old garden waste compost (120, 112, and 108 g m2 d1, respectively). On the basis of these results, material availability and cost, the unscreened garden waste compost was determined...

  15. Study of the environmental effects of sanitary landfill in Pinto, Madrid (Spain); Estudio de la influencia del vertedero de residuos solidos urbanos de Pinto (Comunidad de Madrid) y su entorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorronsoro, J.L.; Carreras, N.; Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.; Sanchez, M.; Herranz, I.; Fernandez, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Here we report the results obtained in the studies of the environmental affection of a municipal solid waste (MSW) Landfill (Pinto, spain). For this purpose samples of waters, soils, sediments, vegetation and leachates were analyzed during three years (1990-1993). The results do not indicate environmental affection, due to the favourable situation (low permeability and runoff and low population density) of the landfill.

  16. Methodology for environmental diagnosis of sanitary landfills: Data during 2003; Metodologia de diagnostico ambiental de vertederos como herramienta en la planificacion ambiental. Datos obtenidos en el Observatorio sobre Vertederos de residuos de 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte, J.

    2003-07-01

    Lack of data regarding environmental matters in relation to the great majority of MSW landfills throughout Spanish territory makes it difficult to consider them suitable for exploitation or territorial expansion required for different activities demanded by society. The environmental risk of a landfill must be minimised with the help of environmental planning tools. One of these tools is based on the environmental diagnosis and characterisation of the areas affected by the solid waste deposit.. Diagnosis by means of quantifiable environmental indexes helped us in our work to determine the priorities for the environmental control of certain Spanish landfills. This diagnosis was used for creating the Observatory on Solid Waste Landfills, organized by ATEGRUS (Spanish Technical Association for Waste Management) in 2003 and presented at ATEGRUS 30th Annual conference on Controlled Landfills. (Author)

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  18. Experiences of closing in sanitary landfills with geosynthetics clay liners and geocomposites drainage products in Spain and Portugal; Experiencias de sellado de vertederos con geocompuestos impermeabilizantes y drenantes en Espana y Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, P. L.

    2002-07-01

    Since the EC presents the Directive 1999/31 in reference with waste disposal, most of od landfills are closing and new landfills according with this directive are constructing. For this landfill closures, the best experienced solution, not only technically, even financially, is the use of geo synthetics clay liners and geo composites drainage products. Installation facilities are cheaper and the installation times are reduced, even slope stability are improved with this solution. The experience obtained during last years in Spain and Portugal are the purpose of this article. (Author)

  19. Composting: a solution for reduction of environmental impacts caused by waste disposal pruning of AES Eletropaulo concession area; Compostagem: a solucao para diminuicao dos impactos ambientais causados pela destinacao dos residuos de poda da area de concessao da AES Eletropaulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, C.L.; Coelho, S.T.; Grisoli, R.P.S.; Gavioli, F.; Gobatto, D. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carmelo, S. [AES Eletropaulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Considering environmental issues, the increasing production of solid residues is important due to scarcity of methods and solution for their management. This article presents a project that aims to research the impacts caused by residues of urban pruning generated by the AES Eletropaulo Energy Distribution Company, and also to develop the standardization of this residues composting, finalizing the management of this operation. The obtained results refer to the research done in the areas under AES concession, regarding the collection and the destination of these residues. It has been observed that 50% of the municipalities dispose their residues in dumps or sanitary landfills, while only 8% compost them. Based on environmental and social responsibility concepts, it is expected that the conclusion of this work can assist the civil, public and private sectors to contribute to the sustainable development. (author)

  20. DETERMINATON OF ORGANIC MATTER PRESENT IN URBAN WASTE RESIDUE FROM A SANITARY LANDFILL USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CURVES: THE CASE OF SÃO CARLOS = DETERMINAÇÃO POR TERMOGRAVIMETRIA (TG DA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA PRESENTE EM AMOSTRA DE RESÍDUO SÓLIDO URBANO DE ATERRO SANITÁRIO: O CASO DE SÃO CARLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Schalch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of household waste produced by the population is generally deposited in sanitary landfills. Most of this waste is composed of organic matter, followed by paper and cardboard, plastic, metal and others. After the waste is covered with soil in the landfill, the organic matter begins to decompose, producing several organic compounds, among them the organic acids and acetates. Thermal analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, which are Analytic Chemistry resources, as well as the dust x-rays method of analysis, were used in this study to identify the amount of organic matter, the kind of residue, and the metals present in a sample from a sanitary landfill. The results of the Thermogravimetric (TG analysis curves generated information about dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition, and the amount of organic matter present in urban solid waste that had been deposited in the landfill for four years. = A quantidade excessiva de resíduo sólido domiciliar gerado pela população é em geral disposta em aterros sanitários. A maior parte desse resíduo é constituída de matéria orgânica seguido de papel e papelão, plástico, metal e outros. Após a cobertura do lixo com terra nos aterros, a matéria orgânica começa a se decompor gerando diversos compostos entre eles os ácidos orgânicos e acetatos. A Análise Térmica e a Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica, que são recursos da Química Analítica, bem como a análise de raios X método de pó foram usadas neste trabalho, visando identificar a quantidade de matéria orgânica, o tipo de resíduo final e a presença de metais em amostra retirada de aterro sanitário. O resultado da análise Termogravimétrica (TG forneceu informações sobre a desidratação, estabilidade térmica, decomposição térmica e a quantidade de matéria orgânica presente no resíduo sólido urbano (RSU, após quatro anos de disposição no aterro sanitário de São Carlos, SP.

  1. Mathematical modelization of physical process of biogas migration in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes; Modelizacion matematica del proceso fisico de migracion del biogas en vertederos controlados de R.S.U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Maison, E.; Sastre Andres, H.; Martin Gonzalez, S.

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of the laws that govern the biogas movements inside the landfill is carried out. The mathematical equations needed to resolve the problem are studied. Then, a model is defined and used to calculate the biogas movements in several situations. The results obtained are contrasted with data from the bibliography and with tests carried out at the La Zoreda, Landfill (Asturias Spain). (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  3. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Application of urban waste water sludge in revegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingelmo Sanchez, F.; Garcia Camarero, J.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.

    2000-07-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in the re-vegetation of a closed urban landfill which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with urban anaerobic sewage sludges. In this work we expose the firsts results of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by the company Gestion Integral de Residuos in a collaborative research among the Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion, the Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and the company Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, busch and trees) after incorporation into the degraded soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. (Author) 3 refs.

  5. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  6. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  7. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  8. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... constructing and operating a solid waste landfill, recycling facility, and composting facility. In 1989, the... be required to comply with 40 CFR part 258 (Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills). Because... 258. For municipal solid waste landfills in Indian Country, the EPA must makes...

  9. Ammonia release and conversion in bioreactor landfill simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubberding, H.; Valencia, R.; Salazar, R.; Lens, P.

    2009-07-01

    Bioreactor landfills are considered to be an improvements to normal sanitary landfills, because the Municipal Solid Waste is stabilised faster and the biogas is produced in a shorter period of time (Valencia et al 2008a, b). In spite of these advantages, it is still difficult to reach within 30 years a safe status of the landfill due to the elevated NH{sub 4}{sup +} levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate. (Author)

  10. Energetic use of biogas from sanitary landfill in Brazil: a technical feasibility study, economic and environmental; Do aproveitamento energetico do biogas em aterros sanitarios no Brasil: um estudo de viabilidade tecnica, economica e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Fabio Viana de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation through biogas in landfills is a production of clean and renewable energy in order to minimize the global impacts generated by the burning of municipal solid waste. In this article, the operational conditions of biogas are defined, and analyzed the appropriate areas and minimum flow of biogas, in m{sup 3}/h, to enable this type of project. The most significant environmental contribution of this project is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), by converting the methane into carbon dioxide. According to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), called developed countries can buy carbon credits from developing countries to meet their environmental goals. This alternative of raising revenue is one of the objects of this study. Are studied energy conversion technologies, with analysis of the best alternative for the conversion of landfill biogas energy. Comparative studies are presented and the results showed that the generating sets, using internal combustion engines (Otto or Diesel cycles) are more viable both technically and economic bias for energy conversion of landfill gas in Brazil through thermoelectric units.

  11. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  12. Compost: Brown gold or toxic trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  13. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  14. Design of Cut-off Ditch at Valley-type Small Waste Sanitary Landfill Site in Southwest China%西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹许鑫; 吕燕; 尹滔

    2012-01-01

    对西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计展开探讨,结合相关规范优选适用于西南地区的截洪沟设计充满度、设计流速、径流系数等关键设计参数,对截洪沟的流量计算、断面选择、沟壁沟底材料及基础设计、出水口及转弯段的设计、整体平面布置等进行讨论,提出三种优化截洪沟断面.通过截洪沟的优化设计可实现清污分流,降低渗滤液产量,减少雨水对垃圾渗滤液收集及处理系统的冲击,降低垃圾渗滤液处理成本,确保垃圾填埋场正常、安全运行.%The design of cut-off ditch at valley-type small landfill site in the southwest China is explored. The design parameters of cut-off ditch applicable to the southwest China, such as design filling degree, design flow, runoff coefficient and other key design parameters are selected according to the related codes. The flow calculation, cross section selection, materials and foundation design for the ditch walls and bottom, design of outlet and curved segment and overall layout are discussed. Three kinds of optimized cross sections of cut-off ditch are proposed. The optimization design of cut-off dilch can achieve the separation of rainwater and sewage, reduce the leachate production, mitigate the impact of rainwater on collection and treatment systems of landfill leachate, thus reducing the treatment cost of landfill leachate and ensuring the normal and safe operation of landfill site.

  15. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  16. Effects of filling material and depth on the removal of hydrogen sulfide in landfill gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkoong, W.; Park, J.S.; Seok, C.Y. [Kon-Kuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C.H. [Environmental Technology Team, Samsung Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    Bio filtration has been used successfully to control odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a variety of `industrial sources in European countries and USA. This study was performed to investigate H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies during landfill mining with several bio filter filling materials and filling depths. Extracted landfill gases including H{sub 2}S at Nanjido landfill site were injected into bio filter reactors after mixing with air. H{sub 2}S inlet concentration was in the range of 15 ppm to 20 ppm. Experiments were performed in a incubator being set to 20 deg. C. Landfill cover soil, compost, landfill cover soil mixed with compost, and compost mixed with wood chip were used as filling materials. H{sub 2}S was monitored at the depths of 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm from the bottom of the reactor. H{sub 2}S removal efficiency was the highest when landfill cover soil mixed with 10% compost by dry weight basis was used as filling material. In order to remove more than 98% of inlet H{sub 2}S concentration, landfill cover soil and landfill cover soil containing 10% compost required about 100 cm and only 25 cm depth, respectively. In spite of pH drop of bio filter drainage during the operation for 2 months, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency was not decreased. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The biological degradation as an energy option, determination of the effects of the aerobic phase on the subsequent production of biogas in a sanitary landfill; La degradacion biologica como una opcion energetica, determinacion de los efectos de la fase aerobia sobre la subsecuente produccion de biogas en un relleno sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Juarez, Oscar [Asesoria de Servicios Ambientales del Bajio (ASSB), (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The present work deals with the energy evaluation of biological processes as energy source and is based on works concerning laboratory, pilot and field research. The objective of the research is to integrate the effect of the aerobic phase during the process of degradation of organic residues (basically the organic fraction of domestic residues), where the last aim is the biogas production. The usefulness of the results is reflected in the suitable estimation of the filling of a sanitary landfill considering the composition of the residues deposited and the effects that this management will have on the run-up time of the same and the velocity of biogas production. Finally, integrates a reflection on the intrinsic energy implications of the process and of the biogas yielding, which is evaluated as well as energy source. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre la valoracion energetica de procesos biologicos como fuente de energia y se basa en trabajos de investigacion a nivel de laboratorio, piloto y de campo. El objetivo de la investigacion es integrar el efecto de la fase aerobia durante el proceso de degradacion de residuos organicos (basicamente la fraccion organica de residuos domesticos), donde el fin ultimo es la produccion de biogas. La utilidad de los resultados se refleja en la estimacion adecuada del llenado de un relleno sanitario considerando la composicion de los residuos ahi depositados y los efectos que tendra esta gestion sobre el tiempo de estabilizacion de los mismos y la velocidad de produccion de biogas. Finalmente, se integra una reflexion sobre las implicaciones energeticas intrinsecas al proceso y del rendimiento de biogas, el cual a su vez es valorizado como fuente de energia.

  19. Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Silva, M Elisabete F; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2013-10-15

    A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment

  20. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  1. Numerical Model Study on Working Performance of Seepproof Liner in Sanitary Landfill%卫生填埋场防渗层工作性能的数值模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭发; 张鹏伟; 胡黎明

    2012-01-01

    The anti-seepage and absorption ability of clay layer are main factors influencing landfill liner working performance. A ID convection-dispersion model was proposed to analyze the influence of permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient, infiltration intensity, and absorption ability on the breakthrough time and leaching quantity. A 2D numerical model considering soil stratification, inhomogeneity, underground water motion and macro-dispersivity was introduced to reflett practical complex conditions, and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted. The results show that keeping a relatively low leachate head is of great importance to obtaining well anti-seepage performance and durability of clay liner. The permeability coeffisient of clay liner varies within extensive range because of variation in material character and quality control during construction and the breakthrough time decrease sharply when the permeability coefficient increase by one order of magnitude. A nearly linear relation between breakthrough time and retardation factor can be obtained when the permeability keeps constant. Underground water can severely influence the transportation and distribution of pollutant. The results show that pollutant transport occures mainly in vertical direction when the water level is low. The pollutant concentration in lower layer soil and underground water is much lower because of intense absorption in unsaturated soil above the water level.%粘土衬垫的防渗性能和吸附阻滞性能对卫生填埋场防渗系统工作性能有着重要影响.通过建立一维对流-弥散模型,分析了渗透系数、扩散系数、入渗强度、吸附能力对渗漏量及衬垫击穿时间的影响.考虑实际工程的复杂性,建立能反映土体分层、土体非均质性、地下水运动及宏观弥散等复杂因素影响的污染物运移二维分析模型,并对各参数的敏感性进行分析.计算结果表明,保持填埋场在低渗滤液水位下运

  2. Performance of compostable baby used diapers in the composting process with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Joan; Mestre-Montserrat, Maria; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    In modern societies, disposable diapers constitute a significant percentage of municipal solid wastes. They have been traditionally landfilled or incinerated as only limited recycling processes are being implemented in some parts of Europe. With the implementation of separated collection systems for the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSWs) and the need to preserve the environment, compostable diapers have appeared in the market to avoid the main environmental impacts associated to non-biodegradable disposable diapers. In this study, a full-scale composting of door-to-door collected OFMSW with a 3% (w/w) of compostable diapers has also been carried out. Previously, lab-scale experiments confirmed that almost 50% of carbon of compostable diapers is emitted as CO2 under aerobic controlled conditions. The results obtained at full-scale demonstrate that both the composting process and the final end product (compost) are not altered by the presence of compostable diapers in crucial aspects such as pathogenic content, stability and elemental composition (including nutrients and heavy metals). The main conclusion of this study is that the collection of the OFMSW with compostable diapers can be a new way to transform this waste into high-quality compost.

  3. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non...... rate can be obtained in soils, compost and other materials, high enough to significant reduce the methane emission from landfills. The process has been scaled up by DTU Environment to a full‐scale implemented technology at two Danish landfills. Now the Danish government has decided to establish bio...

  4. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Urban Composting in the Technology and Engineering Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The average American produces around 1,600 pounds of garbage every year, and it is estimated that 50 percent of that waste is material that could be composted (Clean Air Council, 2012). Instead, most is sent to landfills and incinerators. In technology and engineering education, a great deal of time is spent in talking, teaching, and thinking…

  6. Urban Composting in the Technology and Engineering Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The average American produces around 1,600 pounds of garbage every year, and it is estimated that 50 percent of that waste is material that could be composted (Clean Air Council, 2012). Instead, most is sent to landfills and incinerators. In technology and engineering education, a great deal of time is spent in talking, teaching, and thinking…

  7. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Biodegradability potential of two experimental landfills in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazoller Rosana Filomena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes anaerobic biodegradability, methane production potential and microbiological composition of two experimental sanitary landfills in Brazil, running for one year, were evaluated. The two landfills showed a similar organic matter stabilization during the methane production phase, despite the high heterogeneity of the solid wastes. Both landfills presented the same level of methane (around 91.5 L CH4 / kg Volatile Total Solids and organic acids, mainly acetic and butyric acids, in the leachate. Bacterial isolates belonged to genera Megasphaera, Selenomonas, Methanobacterium, Methanobrevibacter and Methanosarcina.

  9. A Cost Analysis of Food Waste Composting in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology is developed. This paper conducts a cost/benefit analysis based on six cases of food waste composting plants in Taiwan, finding that (1 the composting of food waste may yield the most net benefit compared to other applications of today; (2 the production cost of compost ranges from NT$ 2897–23,117/tonne; (3 the adoption of more automatic technology may reduce operation costs and, thus, a closed composting system with mechanical aeration may be more cost effective; (4 the output is a determinant of affecting production costs and private firms are more competitive in production costs than government-affiliated composting units; (5 all of the government-affiliated composting units face a negative profit and thus they are required to make use of the market value of the produced compost to achieve economic viability; and (6 a subsidy to the compost producer is needed to expand the market demand as the food waste recycled can save the disposal cost of municipal solid waste (MSW incineration.

  10. Ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes nos resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário brasileiro e perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Occurrence of clinically relevant bacteria in health service waste in a Brazilian sanitary landfill and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago César Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos de serviços de saúde suscitam polêmica quanto a importância para a saúde humana, animal e ambiental. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes na pilha de resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Alíquotas de chorume foram processadas para isolamento seletivo de Staphylococcus sp, bastonetes Gram negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae e não fermentadores. Resistência bacteriana a todos os antimicrobianos testados foi observada em todos os grupos microbianos, além de resistência a mais de uma droga. Os resultados permitem sugerir que bactérias viáveis nos resíduos de serviços de saúde representam riscos à saúde humana e animal. Além disso, a ocorrência de linhagens multirresistentes sustenta a hipótese dos resíduos de serviços de saúde atuarem como reservatórios de marcadores de resistência, com impacto ambiental. A falta de legislação regional de segregação, tratamento e destino de resíduos podem expor diferentes populações a riscos de transmissão de doenças infecciosas associadas a microrganismos multirresistentes.Health service waste gives rise to controversy regarding its importance for human, animal and environmental health. Occurrences of clinically relevant bacteria in piles of health service waste in a sanitary landfill and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile were evaluated. Aliquots of leachate were processed for selective isolation of Staphylococcus sp, Gram-negative rods of the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenters. Bacterial resistance to all the antimicrobials tested was observed in all microbial groups, including resistance to more than one drug. The results make it possible to suggest that viable bacteria in health service waste represent risks to human and animal health. Furthermore, occurrences of multiresistant strains support the hypothesis that health service waste acts as a

  11. Avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados em efluente líquido percolado do aterro sanitário de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Assessment of heavy metal levels in percolated liquid from sanitary landfill in Paranavaí, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Akiko Nagashima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O percolado pode conter diversas substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados oriundos de vários materiais provenientes de indústrias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais, residências. A contaminação pormetais apresenta amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aavaliação dos níveis de Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn do percolado gerado no aterro sanitário de Paranavaí - PR. As amostras foram coletadas a partir de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em quatro pontos distintos nas lagoas de tratamento. Para detecção dosmetais utilizou-se o espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites máximos de concentração de metais em efluentes líquidos estabelecidos pela Resolução 397/2008 - Conama (BRASIL, 2008. Verificou-se que os níveis dos metais analisados, com exceção do Pb, estão dentro dos limites permissíveispela legislação ambiental.Percolated liquid may contain several chemical substances with toxic characteristics, among them heavy metals from industrial sources, agricultural activities, laboratories, hospitals and residences. Metal contamination presents a wide array of toxicities, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. The objective of this work was to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in percolated liquid produced at the sanitary landfill in Paranavaí. The samples were collected from September of 2006 to July of 2007, at fourdistinct places of the treatment lake. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a burner was used to detect the metals. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values for metal concentration present in Resolution 397/2008 – Conama (BRAZIL, 2008.It was verified that the level of analyzed

  12. Microbiological characteristics of bioaerosol at the composting plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversion of biodegradable waste from landfill is of key importance in developing a sustainable waste strategy for the next decade and beyond. The proliferation of waste treatment technologies such as mechanical biological treatment, anaerobic digestion and composting will be paramount in achieving this strategic goal. Composting plant is one of the end technology, which is widely used in waste processing of the biodegradable waste. These wastes originate from the maintenance of green areas in the cities and the municipalities and from the separatelly collected biodegradable waste from the citizens. There is also possible to process other biodegradable materials whose origin may be in other technologies of waste management at the composting plant. The most commonly used technology of composting is windrow system. Technological operations, which are necessary for the proper conduct of the composting process, may have negative influence on the environment in the immediate vicinity of composting plant. As pollutants we can mark particular odor and microorganisms. The largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic thermotolerant fungi. The amount of thermophillic actinomycetes ranged from 10 to 84.000 CFU∙m−3 (colony forming units per m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the maximum air contamination has been found during aeration of windrow by compost turner and during the sieving of the mature compost. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of compost windrow as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. At a distance of 150 m from the composting plant, only low numbers of indicator organisms at a regular occurrence in the air has been found.

  13. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  14. Development of a Nordic system for measuring the inactivation of pathogens during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Kjellberg; Møller, Kaare; Hockenhull, John

    The report presents the results of a study initiated to prepare a full-scale investigation for evaluating the inactivation of pathogens during composting of biodegradable waste by means of a direct evaluation. On the basis of the presented study it is recommended to include the direct procees...... evaluation in the Nordic full-scale investigation for evaluating the sanitary aspects of composting biodegradable waste...

  15. Development of a Nordic system for measuring the inactivation of pathogens during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Kjellberg; Møller, Kaare; Hockenhull, John;

    The report presents the results of a study initiated to prepare a full-scale investigation for evaluating the inactivation of pathogens during composting of biodegradable waste by means of a direct evaluation. On the basis of the presented study it is recommended to include the direct procees...... evaluation in the Nordic full-scale investigation for evaluating the sanitary aspects of composting biodegradable waste...

  16. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  17. Compostable cutlery and waste management: an LCA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Francesco; Fieschi, Maurizio; Innocenti, Francesco Degli; Bastioli, Catia

    2009-04-01

    The use of disposable cutlery in fast food restaurants and canteens in the current management scenario generates mixed heterogeneous waste (containing food waste and non-compostable plastic cutlery). The waste is not recyclable and is disposed of in landfills or incinerated with or without energy recovery. Using biodegradable and compostable (B&C) plastic cutlery, an alternative management scenario is possible. The resulting mixed homogeneous waste (containing food waste and compostable plastic cutlery) can be recycled through organic recovery, i.e., composting. This LCA study, whose functional unit is "serving 1000 meals", shows that remarkable improvements can be obtained by shifting from the current scenario to the alternative scenario (based on B&C cutlery and final organic recovery of the total waste). The non-renewable energy consumption changes from 1490 to 128MJ (an overall 10-fold energy savings) and the CO(2) equivalents emission changes from 64 to 22 CO(2) eq. (an overall 3-fold GHG savings).

  18. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  19. Interaction of organic contaminant with natural clay type geo sorbents: potential use as geologic barrier in urban landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, N.; Procopio, J. R.; Sevilla, T.; Cuevas, J.; Rodirguez, M.

    2009-07-01

    The great amount of municipal solid wastes generated by the cities can be processed in different ways such as incineration, derivation to composting plants or, simply, deposition in controlled landfills. One of the landfill characteristics is possess and adequate geological barrier for contaminant contention. The most important chemical processes an adequate geological battier for contaminant contention. (Author)

  20. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  1. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  2. Successful School Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  3. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  4. Wat is goede compost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost wordt voor meerdere doelen ingezet. Als meststof, maar ook om de organische stofbalans op peil te houden. Maar compost heeft nog meer voordelen. Zo worden aan compost ziektewerende eigenschappen toegekend. Het doel van compostgebruik bepaalt voor een groot deel welke prijs er voor wordt beta

  5. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  6. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  7. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃(-) removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  8. Landfills, Landfills, Published in 2003, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2003. It is described as 'Landfills'. Data by this publisher are...

  9. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  10. A study on the composting of the brewery and night soil mixed sludge (1) : Influence of mixing ratio and agitation period in composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Hyuk [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Kim, Dong-Soo [Health and Environment Institute of Kwangju, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-10-31

    Night soil and brewery sludges usually contain a high concentration of organic matters. A composting study using reactors was carried out for the recycle of brewery wastewater sludge and night soil treatment sludge, which have been landfilled. A good composting process was obtained with a sludge mixing ratio of 1:1 and initial pH had no effect on temperature increase related to microbial activity. The initial C/N ratio of approximately 15 decreased to 13 without the increase in pH. It was found that agitation of one time a week provided the most effective composting process. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. A laboratory-scale comparison of compost and sand--compost--perlite as methane-oxidizing biofilter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philopoulos, Andrew; Ruck, Juliane; McCartney, Daryl; Felske, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas. A treatment approach is to passively vent landfill gas through a methane-oxidizing biofilter medium, a porous substrate that facilitates the growth of methanotrophic bacteria. Two substrates, compost and a sand-compost-perlite (SCP) mixture, were evaluated in a laboratory-scale experiment for their suitability as biofilter media. The SCP mixture was investigated to minimize settlement and was based on a particle size distribution specification used for turf grass. The long-term (218 days) methane removal rates showed that both compost and SCP were capable of removing 100% of the methane influent flux (134 g CH(4) m( -2) day(-1)). The post-experiment analysis showed that compost had compacted more than SCP. This did not affect the results; however, in a field installation, traffic on the biofilter surface (e.g. maintenance) could cause further compaction and negatively affect performance. Exopolymeric substance produced by the methanotrophic bacteria, attributed by others for declining removal rates due to bio-clogging, was not observed to affect the results. The maximum exopolymeric substance values measured were 23.9 and 7.8 mg D-glucose g(-1) (dry basis) for compost and SCP, respectively.

  12. Energy Generation in Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Katinka; Wolfson, Richard

    2001-03-01

    Composting is a popular and environmentally sound way of disposing of organic waste, while producing a high-quality fertilizing medium for growing plants. But composting also produces energy, which can be used boost plant yields by augmenting solar energy and other sources of greenhouse heating. This work reviews previous experiments to measure energy generation in compost, and describes our recent measurements on Middlebury College's compost mix. Our results are consistent with others', and suggest a sensible heat generation on the order of 200 watts per cubic meter of compost.

  13. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mønster, Jacob [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker, E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 9, Appendix G: Composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting`s contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  15. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  16. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...... oxidation of CH4. A full scale biocover system to reduce CH4 emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH4 oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000m2 were integrated into the existing cover at the 12ha site. To increase CH4 load...... to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH4 was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH4...

  17. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  18. Changes in soil characteristics during landfill leachate irrigation of Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Vesna; Justin, Maja Zupančič

    2010-11-01

    The effects of wastewater application on electrical conductivity, water retention and water repellency of soils planted with Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood) and irrigated with different concentrations of landfill leachate and compost wastewater, tap water and nutrient solution were evaluated. Substrate water content at field capacity (-0.033 MPa) and at permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa) was determined with a pressure plate extractor to assess available water capacity of the substrate. A water drop penetration test was used to determine substrate water repellency. The biomass of nutrient and landfill leachate treatments was significantly (Pwater repellency after the experiment at field capacity and permanent wilting point comparing to the original substrate. The strongest influence on water repellency at both field capacity and permanent wilting point showed irrigation with compost wastewater and tap water. Pronounced influence on substrate's water repellency of compost wastewater could be contributed to a high content of dissolved organic carbon, whereas Mg and Ca cations caused flocculation and consequent water repellency of the substrate irrigated with tap water. The results indicate that soil physical characteristics must be closely monitored when landfill leachate and compost wastewater are used for irrigation to avoid long term detrimental effects on the soil, and consequently on the environment. Due to the complexity of the compost wastewater quality the latter should be applied on open fields only after prior pre-treatment to reduce dissolved organic carbons, or alternatively, compost wastewater should be added only intermittently and in diluted ratios. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental degradation of Air Products` Vinex, Airflex and Airvol polymers through composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, M.A.; O`Brien, N.M. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    With the growing public concern for environmental awareness, it has become increasingly important to market products which are considered environmentally friendly, i.e., non-toxic, recyclable or compostable. This concern, in part, represents a need to reduce waste streams currently entering landfills. Most compost facilities now in operation deal mainly with grass, leaves, yard waste and wastewater treatment plant sludges or other specific industrial waste streams. However, there are a growing number of experimental compost operations that are attempting to integrate a larger variety of waste streams, including plastics, into large scale compost operations. This study marks the first time that a full scale composting study has been used at Air Products to evaluate and demonstrate the degradation of Vinex thermoplastic PVOH resins and Airflex and Airvol emulsion binders. Results here have served to differentiate the Vinex product line for research and development, product application and marketing.

  20. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  1. Compost als onkruidonderdrukker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2008-01-01

    Een deklaag van 2 centimeter compost vermindert de onkruiddruk tot 80 procent. Biologisch akkerbouwer Anton van Vilsteren uit Marknesse (Flevoland) heeft de eerste compoststrokenlegger voor uien en peen

  2. Towards low carbon society in Iskandar Malaysia: Implementation and feasibility of community organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Cassendra Phun-Chien; Goh, Rebecca Kar Yee; Lim, Jeng-Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew-Tin; Hashim, Haslenda; Abu Mansor, Nur Naha; Ho, Chin Siong; Ramli, Abdul Rahim; Takeshi, Fujiwara

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  4. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different....... The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg−1 wet waste (ww...... input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load...

  5. Composting Begins at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  6. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground...... environment of an informal landfill for municipal solid waste in Beijing. We hypothesize that every location has a specific resistivity resulting from the leachate. We use the membership function of fuzzy mathematics to quantitatively represent the pollution of the underground environment in the sanitary...

  7. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

    2008-01-01

    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  8. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Waste disposed of in a landfill is by its nature different from the material found in the surroundings of the landfill and thereby the landfill may potentially affect the surrounding environment. This may be in terms of attracting or repelling flora and fauna from the area and through the emissio...

  9. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    in the October respectively February measurement. The CH4 emission from the compost area was 0.5 kg CH4 h-1, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and nitrous oxide (N2O) was quantified to be in the order of 332 kg CO2 h-1 and 0.06 kg N2O h-1 respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material......A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...... sources; a composting facility and a sewage sludge storage unit by scaling the tracer method down. Two field campaigns were performed; during October 11-12, 2006 and February 19-20, 2007. At both field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH4 emission from the old landfill section...

  10. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  11. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  12. Landfill site selection using combination of GIS and fuzzy AHP, a case study: Iranshahr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Kaveh, M; Babazadeh, R; Mohammadi, S D; Zaresefat, M

    2016-03-09

    One of the most important recent challenges in solid waste management throughout the world is site selection of sanitary landfill. Commonly, because of simultaneous effects of social, environmental, and technical parameters on suitability of a landfill site, landfill site selection is a complex process and depends on several criteria and regulations. This study develops a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process, which combines geographic information system (GIS) analysis with a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), to determine suitable sites for landfill construction in Iranshahr County, Iran. The GIS was used to calculate and classify selected criteria and FAHP was used to assess the criteria weights based on their effectiveness on selection of potential landfill sites. Finally, a suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses and suitable areas were identified. Four suitability classes within the study area were separated, including high, medium, low, and very low suitability areas, which represented 18%, 15%, 55%, and 12% of the study area, respectively.

  13. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  15. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  16. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  17. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin B Holman

    Full Text Available Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  18. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  19. Avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados em efluente líquido percolado do aterro sanitário de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.1154 Assessment of heavy metal levels in percolated liquid from sanitary landfill in Paranavaí, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.1154

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Algayer da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O percolado pode conter diversas substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados oriundos de vários materiais provenientes de indústrias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais, residências. A contaminação por metais apresenta amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação dos níveis de Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn do percolado gerado no aterro sanitário de Paranavaí - PR. As amostras foram coletadas a partir de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em quatro pontos distintos nas lagoas de tratamento. Para detecção dos metais utilizou-se o espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites máximos de concentração de metais em efluentes líquidos estabelecidos pela Resolução 397/2008 - Conama (BRASIL, 2008. Verificou-se que os níveis dos metais analisados, com exceção do Pb, estão dentro dos limites permissíveis pela legislação ambiental.Percolated liquid may contain several chemical substances with toxic characteristics, among them heavy metals from industrial sources, agricultural activities, laboratories, hospitals and residences. Metal contamination presents a wide array of toxicities, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. The objective of this work was to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in percolated liquid produced at the sanitary landfill in Paranavaí. The samples were collected from September of 2006 to July of 2007, at four distinct places of the treatment lake. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a burner was used to detect the metals. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values for metal concentration present in Resolution 397/2008 – Conama (BRAZIL, 2008. It was verified that the level of

  20. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  1. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  2. The Science of Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  3. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  4. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  5. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  6. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  7. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  8. Woody plant roots fail to penetrate a clay-lined landfill: Managment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.

    1995-01-01

    In many locations, regulatory agencies do not permit tree planting above landfills that are sealed with a capping clay, because roots might penetrate the clay barrier and expose landfill contents to leaching. We find, however, no empirical or theoretical basis for this restriction, and instead hypothesize that plant roots of any kind are incapable of penetrating the dense clays used to seal landfills. As a test, we excavated 30 trees and shrubs, of 12 species, growing over a clay-lined municipal sanitary landfill on Staten Island, New York. The landfill had been closed for seven years, and featured a very shallow (10 to 30-cm) soil layer over a 45-cm layer of compacted grey marl (Woodbury series) clay. The test plants had invaded naturally from nearby forests. All plants examined—including trees as tall as 6 m—had extremely shallow root plates, with deformed tap roots that grew entirely above and parallel to the clay layer. Only occasional stubby feeder roots were found in the top 1 cm of clay, and in clay cracks at depths to 6 cm, indicating that the primary impediment to root growth was physical, although both clay and the overlying soil were highly acidic. These results, if confirmed by experimental research should lead to increased options for the end use of many closed sanitary landfills.

  9. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Simón E. Morales-Soto; Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2016-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela) church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The ...

  10. Compost voor biggen met diarree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, T.

    1990-01-01

    Het geven van compost aan biggen met diarree zorgt op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij voor minder medicijngebruik. De biggen krijgen de compost van groente-, fruit- en tuinafval vanaf de tweede dag na de geboorte, zodra de diarreeverschijnselen zichtbaar zijn.

  11. Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottle, Troy A; Bilec, Melissa M; Brown, Nicholas R; Landis, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed bins) and 23% contamination rates at the third game.

  12. Characterization of MSW and related waste-derived compost in Zanzibar municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuai, Said Ali Hamad

    2010-02-01

    The spread of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Zanzibar municipality has been associated with environmental pollution, unpleasant city conditions, contamination of water sources and coastal areas together with harbouring of malaria vectors. The contamination has a close relationship with eruption of diarrhoea, cholera and typhoid which claim the lives of the residents. Most of the wastes are of domestic and market origin and have the potential for compost production. This study examined the possibility of composting MSW from Zanzibar municipality as an alternative way of SW management and assessed the nutrient contents of the compost for application in agricultural production. Two major classes of SW were selected for the study: municipal solid waste and rice milling by-products. The samples were composted aerobically and anaerobically. The results showed that aerobic composting reduced about 60% of the waste volume. This volume reduction suggests that composting can be a promising SW management technique by reducing the large demand of space for landfilling. Municipal solid waste composted under anaerobic conditions produced compost with relatively higher concentrations of dissolved species than that produced under aerobic conditions. The trace metal contents were higher in MSW than in rice milling by-products. It was found that the unmanaged compost collected from the dumping site had low nutrient contents and was enriched with trace metals. Generally, physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients and trace metal levels suggest that Zanzibar municipal solid waste can produce high-quality compost for application to a wide range of soil types to improve their fertility, under proper management.

  13. YIELD FORMING EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF COMPOSTS CONTAINING POLYMER MATERIALS ENRICHED IN BIOCOMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Gambuś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment the impact of composts containing polymeric materials modified with biocomponents on the diversity of crops of oats and mustard was examined. The composts used in the study were produced in the laboratory from wheat and rape straw, and pea seed cleaning waste with 8-percent addition of chopped biopolymer materials (films which were prepared in the Central Mining Institute (GIG in Katowice. Three polymers differing in content of starch and density were selected for the composting. The pot experiment was conducted on three substrates: light and medium soil and on the sediment obtained after flotation of zinc and lead ores, coming from the landfill ZGH “Boleslaw” S.A. in Bukowno. The need for using such materials and substrates results from the conditions of processing some morphological fractions of municipal waste and from improving methods of reclamation. Yield enhancing effect of composts depends on the substrate on which the compost was used, cultivated plants and crop succession. Application of composts prepared with 8% of polymeric materials based on polyethylene, modified with starch as biocomponent, resulted in significantly lower yields in sandy (light soil in case of oats and, in some cases, in medium soil. Subsequent plant yield did not differ significantly between the objects fertilized with compost.

  14. Household, hotel and market waste audits for composting in Vietnam and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Philip H; Hoang, Chi Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Thuc Thuy; Chopra, Sangeeta; Maclaren, Virginia; Haight, Murray

    2006-10-01

    In Da Nang and Ha Long, Vietnam and in Vientiane, Laos, there was interest by local authorities in separating and composting waste in order to reduce environmental and health problems at the local landfills and to produce a soil conditioner for local agricultural use. To assist in the planning of composting projects, three studies were carried out to estimate waste quantities and composition. 1. A 9-day audit of waste from 45 vendors in a market in Vientiane, the capital of Laos. The total quantity of waste and the quantity in each of nine categories were estimated for each of six different types of vendors. 2. A 7-day audit of waste disposed by three hotels in the tourist area of Ha Long, Vietnam. Waste quantities were estimated in total, on a per guest basis, and in three main categories: compostables, recyclables and miscellaneous. 3. A 7-day audit of waste collected from 74 households in Da Nang, the fourth largest city in Vietnam. Waste from each household was separated into compostable and non-compostable waste. Over 60% of each waste source comprised compostable waste and this was considered significant enough to warrant further planning of composting operations.

  15. OrganicWaste for Compost and Biochar in the EU: Mobilizing the Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyer-Kohlstock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While several EU member states have working compost markets, only about one third of the bio-waste, around 35 Mio tons is used to produce compost, and to some degree, biogas. The major part is still incinerated or landfilled together with other waste. This paper proposes the improvement of existing and the creation of new compost markets based on the integration of biochar and the implementation of obligatory recycling targets with flexible implementation approaches. Based on a literature review, the production of compost with biochar reduces some of the nitrogen and carbon losses and accelerates the composting process. This indicates economical benefits for the compost producer and the farmer, as well as reduced greenhouse gas emissions. An obligation to recycle organic waste, may it be on a national or on EU level, together with the implementation of appropriate collection systems, could provide the economic and societal base to mobilize the currently unused bio-waste. Should this scenario be realized, the annual amount of biochar-compost out of bio-waste could be used to serve around 3.7% of all arable land in the EU. This would demand no large-scale application, but instead specific uses for specific soil-crop constellations.

  16. Environmental and economic analysis of an in-vessel food waste composting system at Kean University in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Horowitz, Naomi; Casey, Maeve; Jones, Kimmera

    2017-01-01

    A composting system provides many benefits towards achieving sustainability such as, replacing fertilizer use, increasing the quantity of produce sold, and diverting organic wastes from landfills. This study delves into the many benefits a composting system provided by utilizing an established composting system at Kean University (KU) in New Jersey, as a scale project to examine the composters' environmental and economic impacts. The results from the study showed that composting food wastes in an in-vessel composter when compared to typical disposal means by landfilling, had lower impacts in the categories of fossil fuel, GHG emissions, eutrophication, smog formation and respiratory effects; whereas, its had higher impacts in ozone depletion, acidification human health impacts, and ecotoxicity. The environmental impacts were mainly raised from the manufacturing of the composter and the electricity use for operation. Applying compost to the garden can replace fertilizers and also lock carbon and nutrients in soil, which reduced all of the environmental impact categories examined. In particular, the plant growth and use stage reduced up to 80% of respiratory effects in the life cycle of food waste composting. A cost-benefit analysis showed that the composting system could generate a profit of $13,200 a year by selling vegetables grown with compost to the student cafeteria at Kean and to local communities. When educational and environmental benefits were included in the analysis, the revenue increased to $23,550. The results suggest that in-vessel composting and the subsequent usage of a vegetable garden should be utilized by Universities or food markets that generate intensive food wastes across the U.S. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hottle, Troy A., E-mail: troy.hottle@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 370 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States); Bilec, Melissa M., E-mail: mbilec@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 153 Benedum Hall, 3700 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261-3949 (United States); Brown, Nicholas R., E-mail: nick.brown@asu.edu [Arizona State University, University Sustainability Practices, 1130 East University Drive, Suite 206, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Landis, Amy E., E-mail: amy.landis@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, 375 Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building 4 (ISTB4), 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  18. Composting of Disposal Organic Wastes: Resource Recovery for Agricultural Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad H. Golabi; Peggy Denney; Clancy Iyekar

    2006-01-01

    One of the major problems of agricultural soils in the tropical regions of the Pacific is the low organic matter content. Because of the hot and humid environment, the soil organic matter (SOM) is minimal due to rapid decomposition.Composted organic material is being applied on agricultural fields as an amendment to provide nutrients and enhance the organic matter content for improving the physical and chemical properties of the cultivated soils. In addition land application of composted material as a fertilizer source effectively disposes of wastes that otherwise are buried in landfills. In our soil program at the University of Guam, we are evaluating the use of organic material as an alternative to synthetic fertilizers. Its goal is to develop management strategies and use available resources for improving crop production while conserving resources and preserving environmental quality. Our case study project is designed to improve soil fertility status by using composted organic wastes and assessing how the nitrogen and other essential nutrients contribute to long-term soil fertility and crop productivity without application of synthetic fertilizers. In our pilot project, compost is produced from wood chips,grinded typhoon debris mixed with animal manure, fish feed, shredded paper and other organic wastes. Mature compost is then applied on the field at the rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 t/ha as a soil amendment on the eroded cobbly soils of southern Guam.Corn is planted and monitored for growth performance and yield. The effect of land application of composted material on the SOM content and overall soil quality indices are being evaluated in this pilot study.

  19. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  20. The role of composting in sustainable agriculture; Il ruolo del compostaggio nell`agricoltura sostenibile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sequi, P.; Benedetti, A.; Canali, S.; Tittarelli, F. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1996-03-01

    Incineration, landfill and recycling are three main strategies to face the problem of waste disposal, and may co-exist. However, it is essential to encourage recycling, the only sustainable practice among the three cited above which avoids the existence itself of wastes by transforming possible waste materials in a series of products. Composting, as sustainable transformation of potential wastes in organic fertilizers, tunes up with sustainable agriculture, and must be optimised and developed. The three requisites needed in order that agriculture can be considered sustainable are discussed, and the use of compost is shown to enhance sustainability, not only of the agricultural activity, but of a more general context of sustainable society.

  1. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions.

  2. Evaluation of commercial compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomati, Umberto; Belardinelli, Monica; Andreu, Monica; Galli, Emanuela; Capitani, Donatella; Proietti, Noemi; De Simone, Claudio

    2002-10-01

    Ten commercial composts were evaluated on the basis of chemical, physical and biological characteristics and compared with a compost produced by a safe matrix in controlled conditions. FT-IR spectra, (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra and molecular weights were also assayed on humic acids extracted from the composts. The results show that the origin of the starting materials affects the quality of the end products especially for their heavy metal content and genotoxic effect. The presence of a high percentage of low molecular weight fractions generally recorded in the humic acids from commercial composts could be due to uncorrected composting process. FT-IR and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra agree with functional group assignments, characterising the level of humification. The results show that commercial composts can display harmful properties probably due to the origin of the starting material, therefore a regulation about both compost production and characterisation should be suitable.

  3. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  4. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  5. Compost levert complete bemesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost is een zeer goed bemestingsproduct. Het kan kort voor het zaaien worden aangebracht, belemmert de wortelgroei niet en levert een kant-en-klaar ecosysteem als aanvulling en versterking van de bodembiologie. Ook de pH van de bodem en de lucht- en waterhuishouding varen wel bij de toepassing

  6. Compost levert complete bemesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost is een zeer goed bemestingsproduct. Het kan kort voor het zaaien worden aangebracht, belemmert de wortelgroei niet en levert een kant-en-klaar ecosysteem als aanvulling en versterking van de bodembiologie. Ook de pH van de bodem en de lucht- en waterhuishouding varen wel bij de toepassing va

  7. Occurrence and levels of fecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria in market-ready recycled organic matter composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, W F; Storms, P; Blewett, T C

    2009-02-01

    Landfill diversion of organic wastes through composting is making compost products available for agricultural and horticultural crops. On certified organic farms, nonsludge green waste and manure composts are widely used because the use of these products removes harvest date restrictions imposed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture when raw manure is applied. We quantified several pathogens in point-of-sale composts from 94 nonsludge facilities processing 2.2 million m3 year(-1) of recycled green waste. Only one compost contained Salmonella (1.8 most probable number [MPN]/4 g), 28% had fecal coliforms exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency 503 sludge hygiene limits (1000 MPN g(-1)), and 6% had detectable Escherichia coli O157:H7. In 22 of 47 samples, very low levels of Listeria spp. were found. However, in one sample the Listeria level was very high, coinciding with the highest overall level of all pathogen indicators. Seventy percent of the compost samples were positive for Clostridium perfringens, but only 20% of the samples had levels >1000 CFU/g. All samples were positive for fecal streptococci, and 47% had >1000 MPN g(-1). Statistical analyses conducted using documented site characteristics revealed that factors contributing to elevated pathogen levels were large facility size, large pile size, and immaturity of compost. Application of the California Compost Maturity Index distinguished compost products that had very low levels of E. coli from those with high levels. Products produced with windrow methods were of higher microbiological quality than were those produced with static pile methods, and point-of-sale bagged composts scored very high. These data indicate that compost that is hygienic by common standards can be produced, but more effort is required to improve hygiene consistency in relation to management practices.

  8. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broe [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Per Haugsted [Ramboll Denmark A/S, DK-5100 Odense C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jørgen Henrik Bjerre [Klintholm I/S, DK-5874 Hasselager (Denmark); Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia; Mønster, Jacob G. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker [FluxSense AB/Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pekj@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • An innovative biocover system was constructed on a landfill cell to mitigate the methane emission. • The biocover system had a mitigation efficiently of typically 80%. • The system also worked efficiently at ambient temperatures below freezing. • A whole landfill emission measurement tool was required to document the biocover system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was designed based on a conceptual model of the gas emission patterns established through an initial baseline study. The study included construction of gas collection trenches along the slopes of the landfill where the majority of the methane emissions occurred. Local compost materials were tested as to their usefulness as bioactive methane oxidizing material and a suitable compost mixture was selected. Whole site methane emission quantifications based on combined tracer release and downwind measurements in combination with several local experimental activities (gas composition within biocover layers, flux chamber based emission measurements and logging of compost temperatures) proved that the biocover system had an average mitigation efficiency of approximately 80%. The study showed that the system also had a high efficiency during winter periods with temperatures below freezing. An economic analysis indicated that the mitigation costs of the biocover system were competitive to other existing greenhouse gas mitigation options.

  9. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  10. Composting as Final Alternative to Solid Waste from Ceasa Curitiba/PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson V. Andreoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Solids waste (SW have been a municipal government concern. Centrais de Abastecimento (CEASA, the wholesale markets, are examples of SW potential generators. The CEASA localized in Curitiba city generates about 25 ton of SW per day corresponding to 20 ton of organic solid waste, consisting mainly of leftover or surplus of products marketed in the unit. The alternatives for this waste class are landfill, incineration, biodigesters and composting. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the composting as an alternative to disposal of waste based on the diagnosis made previously in the Program of Waste Management. It was found the composting is the cheaper solution available, ranging form U$ 6 to U$ 10 for natural method and U$ 20 to U$ 90 per ton for the accelerated method. It has suggested the compost from the composting method should be sold at CEASA with the objective to decrease the value paid by storekeeper to form a cycle: The farmer produces foods to market at CEASA and receive the compost to be applied partial or overall to substitute the chemical additives in his fields and turn to CEASA as foods and son on, encouraging the farmers to use natural nutrients and reduce their dependence on artificial inputs.

  11. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  12. IJER@2014 Page 57 Disposal Criteria of Bhanpur Solid Waste Landfill Site: Investigation and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Dasgpta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste management and design assist waste management officials in developing and encouraging environmentally sound methods for the disposal of "nonhazardous" solid waste. Promulgated under the authority of municipal act, the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF regulation act establish a framework for planning and implementing municipal solid waste landfill programs at the state and local levels. This framework sets minimum standards for protecting human health and the environment, while allowing states to develop more flexible MSWLF criteria. Intension to mitigate or expeditiously remediate potential adverse environmental impacts resulting from municipal landfills. However, other regulations existed prior to the revised MSWLF standards discussed in this module. The promulgation Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices. The established regulatory standards to satisfy the minimum national performance criteria for sanitary landfills governs only those solid waste disposal facilities and practices that do not meet the definition of a MSWLF. Such facilities include waste piles, industrial nonhazardous waste landfills, surface impoundments, and land application units. Environmental Protect Authority (EPA modified address the fact that these non-municipal non-hazardous wastes landfills may receive Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator (CESQG hazardous waste, further clarify that construction and demolition landfills may receive residential lead-based paint waste as Solid Waste Disposal Facilities without for MSWLFs as long as all conditions are met.

  13. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  14. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  15. Sanitary survey rapport 2: Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    .3and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on so-called ‘sanitary surveys’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary...... survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice for microbiological sampling frequency and classification made previously on the basis of this, as described in ‘muslingebekendtgørelsen’ is summarized in Appendix 13. The report covers production areas P1, P2, P3...... is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at different sampling points within each area. The report points to the most precautionary fixed sampling points for future monitoring In summary, the sanitary survey of Nissum Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  16. Gradient packing bed bio-filter for landfill methane mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Sim Yan May, Jane; Rajasekar, Balasubramanian

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the suitability of various biogenic materials for development of a gradient packed bed bio-filter to mitigate the methane (CH4) emission from landfills. Five different biogenic materials (windrow compost-WC; vermicompost-VC; landfill top cover-LTC; landfill bottom soil-LBS; and river soil sediment-SS) were screened. Among these materials, the VC showed a better CH4 oxidation potential (MOP) of 12.6μg CH4 gdw(-1)h(-1). Subsequently, the VC was used as a packing material along with wood chips in proto-type bio-filters. Wood chips were mixed at 5-15% to form three distinct gradients in a test bio-filter. Under the three different CH4 loading rates of 33, 44 and 55 gCH4 m(-3)h(-1), the achieved MOPs were 31, 41, and 47gCH4 m(-3)h(-1), respectively. The gradient packed bed bio-filter is effective for landfill CH4 mitigation than the conventional bio-filter as the latter shows gas channeling effects with poor MOPs.

  17. Organized and optimized composting of agro-waste some important considerations and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load. Emission of gases from land- fills poses yet another environmental challenge. Today, composting offers a promising solution to disposal of agro-waste with minimum harmful impact on environment. Need of the hour is to carry out composting in an organized and controlled manner to derive maximum benefits with minimum undesirable effects and researchers are attempting to compost agro-wastes with these objectives in mind.

  18. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  19. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting.

  20. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  1. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...

  2. Production and the application of anaerobic granular sludge produced by landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sludge granulation is considered to be the most critical parameter governing successful operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. Pre-granulated seeding sludge could greatly reduce the required start-up time. Two lab-scale and a pilot-scale EGSB reactors were operated to treat Shaoxing Wastewater Treatment Plant containing wastewater from real engineering printing and dyeing with high pH and sulfate concentration. The microbiological structure and the particle size distribution in aerobic excess sludge, sanitary landfill sludge digested for one year, and the granular sludge of EGSB reactor after 400 d of operation were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and sieves. The lab-scale EGSB reactor seeded with anaerobic sludge after digestion for one year in landfill showed obviously better total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency than one seeded with aerobic excess sludge after cation polyacrylamide flocculation-concentration and dehydration. The TCOD removed was 470.8 mg/L in pilot scale EGSB reactor at short hydraulic retention time of 15 h. SEM of sludge granules showed that the microbiological structure of the sludge from different sources showed some differences. SEM demonstrated that Methanobacterium sp. was present in the granules of pilot-scale EGSB and the granular sludge produced by landfill contained a mixture of anaerobic/anoxic organisms in abundance. The particle size distribution in EGSB demonstrated that using anaerobic granular sludge produced by sanitary landfill as the seeding granular sludge was feasible.

  3. Physical analyses of compost from composting plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, L P; Philippi Junior, A; Rodrigues, M S; Tenório, J A S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the composting process has shown itself to be an alternative in the treatment of municipal solid wastes by composting plants. However, although more than 50% of the waste generated by the Brazilian population is composed of matter susceptible to organic composting, this process is, still today, insufficiently developed in Brazil, due to low compost quality and lack of investments in the sector. The objective of this work was to use physical analyses to evaluate the quality of the compost produced at 14 operative composting plants in the Sao Paulo State in Brazil. For this purpose, size distribution and total inert content tests were done. The results were analyzed by grouping the plants according to their productive processes: plants with a rotating drum, plants with shredders or mills, and plants without treatment after the sorting conveyor belt. Compost quality was analyzed considering the limits imposed by the Brazilian Legislation and the European standards for inert contents. The size distribution tests showed the influence of the machinery after the sorting conveyer on the granule sizes as well as the inert content, which contributes to the presence of materials that reduce the quality of the final product.

  4. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Energy Effectiveness Assessment of Composting Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Plūme, I.

    2006-01-01

    The incorrect biomass composting improperly results in considerable emission of greenhouse gases, loss of effluent and composting heat into environment. The composting heat and gases utilisation is especially suitable for plant enrichment and heating of greenhouses. The mathematical model is worked out for assessment of energy effectiveness and sustainability of biomass composting process. Coefficient of energy effectiveness for traditional litter manure composting technologies is 0.45 and ca...

  6. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  7. Nutritional analysis of some composted and non-composted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... ble substrates for the production of mushrooms (Chang and Buswell, 2003). .... The compost was then ready for pasteurizing and inoculation. ..... be attributed to the activity of microorganisms which may have degraded the ...

  8. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  9. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  10. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOCHAR FOR COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2014-10-01

    for composting of materials with high moisture and/or nitrogen contents. The addition of biochar to composting mixtures can reduce ammonia emissions, and thus limit nitrogen losses during composting, increase water holding capacity and retention of nutrients. Biochar can also function as a carrier substrate for microbial inoculants and a scrubing material used in biofilters at composting facilities. Due to the fact that the literature does not provide many examples of biochar applications for composting, and there is little known about the effects of biochar added to composting mixtures on composting dynamics and properties of final composts, futher investigations should focus on mechanisms of biochar-composting mixtures interactions and analysis of properties of biochar-based composts. The overall goal of the article is to analyze the potentials of biochars for composting, to report the effects of various biochars on composting dynamics and quality of produced biochar-based composts, and to indicate the areas of further studies on biochar properties that would allow optimization of composting and improve the quality of final products.

  11. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  12. Sanitary technology. Special issue; Sanitairtechniek. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, H. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); De Veer, T. [PWN Waterleidingbedrijf Noord-Holland, Velserbroek (Netherlands); Korstanje, H.; De Gids, Ph. K. [LegioFreeWaterSystems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands); Scheffer, W.J.H. [UNETO-VNI, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Van Wolferen, H. [TNO Milieu en Energie, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Donker, H. [Kemper Nederland, Groenlo (Netherlands); Engelenburg, M. [ATECA, Den Haag (Netherlands); Wolters, J. [Tour en Andersson, Alphen aan den Rijn (Netherlands); Doldersum, R.H. [De Melker Sanitairtechniek, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    In 11 articles attention is paid to several aspects of sanitary technology, in particular the prevention and control of legionella in heating systems and water supply installations. [Dutch] In 11 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. sanitaire techniek, in het bijzonder legionella preventie en beheer in verwarmingssystemen en leidingwaterinstallaties.

  13. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  14. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  15. Yolo County controlled landfill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D. [IEM, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Dahl, K.; Mansoub, A.; Moore, R. [Yolo County Department of Public Works, Davis, CA (United States); Pacey, J. [Emcon, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A new landfill management approach controlled landfilling is being demonstrated by the Yolo County, California Department of Public Works at the Yolo County Central Landfill (YCCL) near Davis. Overall objectives are to obtain earlier and greater methane energy recovery from landfilled waste and to reduce landfill greenhouse gas emissions to near-negligible levels. Methane generation and waste stabilization were accelerated by improving biological conditions within a test cell through carefully controlled additions of water and leachate. A control cell was operated in parallel. Landfill gas capture was maximized, with emissions reduced to minimal levels, by a combination of surface membrane containment, a permeable layer conducting gas to collection points, and operation at slight vacuum. Cells are highly instrumented to determine performance. To date, normalized methane recovery is the highest seen from such a large waste mass, anywhere - about ten times that from conventional landfall practice. The rationale and details of this project, and first three years' results, are summarized. (author)

  16. Methane elimination methods on landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Ponikvar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Increase in substance and energy exploitation from waste which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main goals of environmental protection. Slovenian legislation defines that in case captured landfill gas cannot be used for energy acquisition, incineration on the landfill itself or some other equivalent procedure must be used to prevent gas emissions into the air. The graduation thesis is based on existing municipal landfill Volče where suitable gas elimination is yet to be arr...

  17. The Importance of Landfill Gas Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and examine global policies, measures, and incentives that appear to be stimulating LFG use. As certain countries have made great advances in LFGE development through effective policies, the intention of this report is to use information from the IEA's Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Measures and Policies Databases to identify and discuss policies. By consolidating this information and categorising it according to policy type, the attributes that are most appealing or applicable to the circumstances of a particular country or area -- technology demonstration, financial incentives, awareness campaigns, etc. -- are more easily identified. The report begins with background information on LFG and sanitary landfill practices, including a discussion of regional disparities, followed by a description of LFG mitigation technologies. Barriers to LFGE projects are then outlined. An explanation of the importance and effectiveness of policy measures leads into a discussion of types and examples of measures that are being used to overcome these barriers and encourage LFGE development. The report concludes with lessons learned, recommendations for further study, and resources where more information can be found.

  18. Effect of nano-ZnO on biogas generation from simulated landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizel, İlknur; Emadian, S Mehdi; Di Addario, Martina; Onay, Turgut T; Demirel, Burak; Copty, Nadim K; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-05-01

    Extensive use of nanomaterials in commercial consumer products and industrial applications eventually leads to their release to the waste streams and the environment. Nano-ZnO is one of the most widely-used nanomaterials (NMs) due to its unique properties. It is also known to impact biological processes adversely. In this study, the effect of nano-ZnO on biogas generation from sanitary landfills was investigated. Two conventional and two bioreactor landfills were operated using real MSW samples at mesophilic temperature (35°C) for a period of about 1year. 100mg nano-ZnO/kg of dry waste was added to the simulated landfill reactors. Daily gas production, gas composition and leachate Zn concentrations were regularly monitored. A model describing the fate of the nano-ZnO was also developed. The results obtained indicated that as much as 99% of the nano-ZnO was retained within the waste matrix for both reactor operation modes. Waste stabilization was faster in simulated landfill bioreactors with and without the addition of nano-ZnO. Moreover, the presence of the nano-ZnO within the waste led to a decrease in biogas production of about 15%, suggesting that the nano-ZnO might have some inhibitory effects on waste stabilization. This reduction can have potentially significant implications on waste stabilization and the use of biogas from landfills as a renewable energy source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  20. Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-01-01

    Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases.

  1. Scrutinizing compost properties and their impact on methane oxidation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Humer, Marion; Tintner, Johannes; Böhm, Katharina; Lechner, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Methane emissions from active or closed landfills can be reduced by means of microbial methane oxidation enhanced by properly designed landfill covers and engineered biocovers. Composts produced using different waste materials have already been proven to support methane oxidation, and may represent a low-cost alternative to other suitable substrates such as sandy or humic-rich soils, which are frequently not available in sufficient amounts or are too costly. In the present study a data set of 30 different compost materials (different age and input materials) and mixtures, as well as seven soils and mineral substrates were tested to assess methane oxidation rate under similar conditions in a laboratory column set-up. Multivariate data analysis (discriminant analysis) was applied to predict the influence of 21 different parameters (chemical, maturation and physical) on methane oxidation rate in a PLS-DA model. The results show that bulk density, total nutrient content (nitrogen and phosphorus), as well as the quantity and quality (with respect to maturity) of organic matter determined methane oxidation rate in this data set. The model explained 50% of the data variation, indicating how characterisation of oxidation rate by single, even diverse conventional parameters was limited. Thus for the first time, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied to a series of samples to better determine the characteristics of methane-oxidising materials. The initial data obtained in this study appear to be most promising. The prediction of specific methane oxidation rate of a potential biocover material from FTIR spectra and multivariate data analyses is a target to be focused on in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of future methane production from Hellenic landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsatsarelis, T.; Karagiannidis, A. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    Organic waste decomposition leads to the production of Landfill Gas (LFG). LFG mainly consists of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is common understanding now that LFG should be considered either as a significant source of pollution and risk (if migrating uncontrollably to the air and ground), or as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly). There are two possible solutions for dealing with LFG emissions. In the case of low methane ratios, LFG should be extracted and flared or oxidized in biofilters. On the other hand, in the case of high methane content, LFG becomes an evidently valuable energy resource, as it is then able to sustain the fuelling of engines producing electricity and thermal energy. More specifically, it can be used as a supplementary or primary fuel to increase the production of electric power, as a pipeline quality gas and vehicle fuel, or even as a supply of heat and carbon dioxide for greenhouses and various industrial processes. Technologies that utilize LFG include internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells and boiler systems. The main objective of this research was to predict expected methane generation in Hellenic sanitary landfills, in order to evaluate its potential for energy production and to ensure health and safety in and around these sites on the long term. The study was performed for the period 2008--2028 with the use of a multi-phase model and included a sensitivity analysis in order to determine the impact of certain waste parameters. In this context, two 'extreme' reference scenarios were formulated and assessed, one anticipating fulfillment of the EU landfill directive (which sets limits to the amount of biodegradable and packaging materials to be deposited in sanitary landfills) whereas a second (do-nothing scenario) assuming no such timely compliance. The model used here for methane estimation is a multi-phase model developed by the Norwegian

  3. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    government should do sanitary landfill to prevent further contamination to surface water, groundwater as well as soil.

  4. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  5. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  6. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture, horticu

  7. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  8. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  9. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...

  10. Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Avian influenza (AI is a viral disease that caused the largest animal disease outbreak in the history of US agriculture. There are several disposal methods of AI infected poultry carcasses available in the US, which include on-site burial, landfill, incineration, rendering, and composting. Of these methods, composting is the most environmentally friendly and poses a low risk for biosecurity. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA has developed a comprehensive plan for composting AI infected carcasses. The current protocols have the potential for areas of anaerobic pockets within the windrow due to inadequate mixing and the large carcass size of whole birds. This could lead to ineffective virus neutralization or prolonged composting times and higher resource costs. The purpose of this project was to determine if using a horizontal mixer (HM wagon to mix composting ingredients or a vertical mixer (VM wagon to mix and cut up the compositing ingredients is an economical and timely means to accelerate the tissue break-down and obtain optimal temperatures for poultry carcass composting during an AI outbreak. Materials and Methods: A replicated trial with three treatments, HM, conventional layering (CL and VM, and three replications was initiated at the Compost Research and Education Center part of the University of Maine Forest and Agricultural Experimental Station called High Moor Farm. Daily temperatures and screened core sample weights (screen weights on day 0, 16, and 30 were recorded for each of the compost piles. The time to build each replication was recorded and used to help calculate the cost of each method. Data on equipment, carbon material and labor costs were collected from private contractors from the 2014 to 2016 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI outbreak and used to compare costs between methods. Results: All treatment methods reached USDA protocol temperatures to neutralize the HPAI virus. Screen weights for

  11. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerni, E. [SSB Environmental Inc., Albany, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.

  12. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  13. The seasonal distribution of bioaerosols in municipal landfill sites: a 3-yr study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Lee, Ching-Chang; Li, Fang-Chun; Ma, Yu-Pei; Su, Huey-Jen Jenny

    Landfill is the most common way to dispose waste in many countries, and most landfill sites after closure are often considered for public recreation purposes. It is important that the pollutant levels of closed landfill areas are free of adverse health concerns. However, only limited studies have investigated the airborne biological contamination in closed landfill sites. The objective of this study was to document the bioaerosol levels in a closed landfill site while the temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects were also taken into accounts. Study site was at one sanitary landfill, taking mostly municipal wastes, in southern Taiwan. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected on tryptic soy agar (Difco) and malt extract agar (Difco) by a Burkard impactor (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd.) operating at about 10 l m -3 for 30 s. Air samples were collected sequentially in winter, spring, summer and fall in 1998, winter, spring, summer in 1999, as well as summer and fall in 2000. In addition, sampling was conducted in the morning, at noon, in the evening and the following morning during each field assessment. Levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were all far above 10 3 CFU m -3. The concentrations of culturable bacteria and fungi were higher in winter than in other seasons. The difference of bioaerosol level and fungal percentages between the undergoing-closure and closed areas was obvious, and the concentrations were higher in closed area. We therefore recommend that before any complete investigation can be conducted to assure the safety, the closed area of landfill site is probably not ready for immediate public use.

  14. Micrometeorological Mass Balance Measurements of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Composting Green-waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, E. R.; Bailey, S.; Stephens, J.; Horwath, W. R.; Paw U, K.

    2013-12-01

    Managed decomposition of organic materials is increasingly being used as an alternative waste management option and the resulting compost can be used as a fertilizer and soil amendment in home gardens and agriculture. An additional benefit is the avoidance of methane emissions associated with anaerobic decomposition in landfills. Greenhouse gases are still emitted during the composting process, but few studies have measured emissions from a full-scale windrow of composting green-waste. This study uses a micrometeorological mass balance technique (upwind and downwind vertical profile measurements of trace gas concentrations and wind velocity) to calculate emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide from a pile of composting green-waste during the dry season in Northern California. The expected source pattern was observed in measured upwind-downwind concentration differences of all three gases averaged over the study period despite substantial noise seen in the half-hourly emission calculations. Sources of uncertainty are investigated and temporal patterns analyzed. An in-situ zero-source test was conducted to examine the mass balance technique when the source of emissions was removed. Results from the micrometeorological mass balance measurements are compared with measurements taken using the more common open chamber technique.

  15. Understanding and mitigating the challenge of bioaerosol emissions from urban community composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, L. J.; Akeel, U.; Hewson, C.; Maduka, I.; Pham, P.; Saragossi, J.; Taylor, J.; Lai, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the UK, local and regional government drives to reduce the quantity of waste being sent to landfill have led to an increase in small-scale composting schemes, instigated by local councils and not-for-profit organisations. The composting process relies upon the proliferation of microorganisms, leading to their emission into the ambient environment. In this investigative study, total bacteria and Aspergillus fumigatus emitted from a small-scale composting facility in central London were measured in different spatial and temporal dimensions. Bioaerosols did not disperse in concentrations significantly higher than those measured at 'background' locations, where maximum geometric mean was 55 × 10 2 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per m -3. Concentrations on-site and at the nearest potential receptor were comparable to those found at commercial facilities, reaching 25 × 10 4 and 29 × 10 3 CFU m -3 for total bacteria and A. fumigatus respectively. The room housing the facility was contaminated by moulds; likely to result from high relative humidity of the air (consistently above 80% during this study), building material, and the generation of organic dust. The complex diurnal meteorological variations of urban environments are likely to influence bioaerosol dispersal, and consequent exposure risk for sensitive receptors. Site planning tools including Geographical Information Systems (GIS) mapping with buffer zones around schools and hospitals, and use of computerised models for the design of rooms housing urban composting facilities are proposed as methods for reducing the risk of occupational and off-site receptor exposure.

  16. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  17. Biochar composts and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekebafe, Marian Osazoduwa; Ekebafe, Lawrence Olu; Ugbesia, Stella Omozee

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  18. Hydrothermal carbonization of off-specification compost: a byproduct of the organic municipal solid waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Daniele; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Fiori, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to apply the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process to off-specification compost (EWC 19.05.03) at present landfilled was investigated in this work. The aim was to produce a carbonaceous solid fuel for energy valorization, with the perspective of using HTC as a complementary technology to common organic waste treatments. Thus, samples of EWC 19.05.03 produced by a composting plant were processed through HTC in a batch reactor. Analytical activities allowed to characterize the HTC products and their yields. The hydrochar was characterized in terms of heating value, thermal stability and C, H, O, N, S and ash content. The liquid phase was characterized in terms of total organic carbon and mineral content. The composition of the gas phase was measured. Results show that the produced hydrochar has a great potentiality for use as solid fuel.

  19. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, M.R., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@ars.usda.gov; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require

  20. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.

  1. Final Environmental Assessment for Sanitary Landfill Expansion on the Tonopah Test Range, NYE County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Palma Bureau of Land Management Las Vegas Field Office 4701 N Torrey Pines Dr Las Vegas, NV 89130-2301 Mr. Robert Williams, State Supervisor U.S...Fish and Wildlife Service Nevada Ecological Field Office 1340 Financial Blvd, Ste 234 Reno, NV 89502 Ms. Cynthia Martinez US Fish and

  2. Environmental Assessment for Sanitary Landfill Expansion on the Tonopah Test Range, Nye County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Administration 209 E Musser St, Room 200 Carson City, NV 89701-4298 Electronic format Mr. Juan Palma Bureau of Land Management Las Vegas... Ecological Field Office 1340 Financial Blvd, Ste 234 Reno, NV 89502 Ms. Cynthia Martinez US Fish and Wildlife Service Southern Nevada Field Office

  3. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  4. The applications of geotextiles in the sanitary landfills; Aplicaciones de los geotextiles en los vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, J.; Marin, J.

    1999-11-01

    The spillways controlled of Solid Urban Residuals, Industrial Residuals and Industrial Special Residuals should be waterproofed. The waterproofing should be assured, to avoid the possibility of contamination of the aquifer for the filtration of leachates coming from the garbage and rain waters eventually polluted for their contact with the mass of deposited waste already.

  5. Appendices for Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    FOR THE SPECIFIC TEST bA."E EXCEPT FOR THE FOLLOWING TEST NAMES: PH, COND, TEMP, OILGR, BOD, COD, TOC, HARD, ASBEST , TSS -LAB DOES NOT REQUIRE...ACENAPHTHYLENE. AI4ELNT *ANION ELUENT ANIL ANILINE AI4TRC ANTHRACENE ANTRCN 9-ANTHRACENECARBONITRILE ANTRQO ATHRAQUINONE / 9,10 -ANTHRACENED ONE AS ARSENIC ASBEST ...ANION ELUENT ANTRC ANTHRACENE ACHE ANTICHOLINESTERASE SB ANTIMONY AS ARSENIC ASEXT -ARSENIC, EXTRACTABLE ASTOT *AR.SENIC, TOTAL ASBEST ASBESTOS’ ANTROTJ

  6. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    acceptable. However, the RME exposure yielded an unacceptable cancer risk. Clean Fill Dump A two-phase study was conducted at this site concurrently with...Indian hemp FACU Asclepias syriaca Pink milkweed UP* Aster spp. Asters UNK Cardamine hirsuta Hairy bitter cress FACU Centaurea maculata Batchelor’s...bound excess cancer risk associated with lifetime exposure to 1 mg/kg.day of a compound. There is a 95 percent chance that the actual risk value is

  7. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  8. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  9. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  10. Two-phase olive mill waste composting: enhancement of the composting rate and compost quality by grape stalks addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Roig, Asunción

    2010-06-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated by the olive oil industry. Its recycling as a soil amendment, either unprocessed or composted, is being promoted as a beneficial agricultural practice in the Mediterranean area. One of the major difficulties when composting TPOMW is the compaction of the material due to its dough-like texture, which leads to an inadequate aeration. For this reason, the addition of bulking agents is particularly important to attain a proper composting process. In this study we followed the evolution of two composting mixtures (A and B) prepared by mixing equal amounts of TPOMW and sheep litter (SL) (in a dry weight basis). In pile B grape stalks (GS) were added (10% dry weight) as bulking agent to study their effect on the development of the composting process and the final compost quality. The incorporation of grape stalks to the composting mixture changed the organic matter (OM) degradation dynamics and notably reduced the total amount of lixiviates. The evolution of several maturation indices (C/N, germination index, water soluble carbon, humification indices, C/N in the leachates) showed a faster and improved composting process when GS were added. Moreover, chemical (NH4+, NO3(-), cation exchange capacity, macro and micronutrients, heavy metals) and physical properties (bulk and real densities, air content, total water holding capacity, porosity) of the final composts were analysed and confirmed the superior quality of the compost where GS were added.

  11. The influence of compost addition on the water repellency of brownfield soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Amii; Kechavarzi, Cedric; Sakrabani, Ruben; Coulon, Frederic; Simmons, Robert; Wu, Guozhong

    2010-05-01

    Compost application to brownfield sites, which can facilitate the stabilisation and remediation of contaminants whilst providing adequate conditions for plant growth, is seen as an opportunity to divert biodegradable wastes from landfill and put degraded land back into productive use. However, although compost application is thought to improve soil hydraulic functioning, there is a lack of information on the impact of large amounts of compost on soil water repellency. Water repellency in soils is attributed to the accumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds released as root exudates, fungal and microbial by-products and decomposition of organic matter. It has also been shown that brownfield soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants can exhibit strong water repellency, preventing the rapid infiltration of water and leading potentially to surface run off and erosion of contaminated soil. However, hydrophobic organic contaminants are known to become sequestrated by partitioning into organic matter or diffusing into nano- and micropores, making them less available over time (ageing). The effect of large amounts of organic matter addition through compost application on the water repellency of soils contaminated with petroleum-derived organic contaminants requires further investigation. We characterised the influence of compost addition on water repellency in the laboratory by measuring the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT), sorptivity and water repellency index through infiltration experiments on soil samples amended with two composts made with contrasting feedstocks (green waste and predominantly meat waste). The treatments consisted of a sandy loam, a clay loam and a sandy loam contaminated with diesel fuel and aged for 3 years, which were amended with the two composts at a rate equivalent to 750t/ha. In addition core samples collected from a brownfield site, amended with compost at three different rates (250, 500 and 750t/ha) in 2007, were

  12. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A; Miles, D M

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram-, Gram+, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH3, CO2, CH4, N2O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram+ bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  13. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  14. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  15. Active compost biofiltration of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteau, Y; Ramsay, B

    1997-01-01

    Composting of leaves and alfalfa (i.e. active compost) was used for the biofiltration of toluene-contaminated air in a 6-L biofilter (initial bed height: 180 mm). During the thermophilic phase (45 to 55 degrees C), toluene biodegradation rates reached 110 g toluene.m-3.h-1 at an inlet concentration of about 5 g.m-3 and a gas residence time of 90 seconds. The highest rates were obtained in the thermophilic phase suggesting a microbial adaptation was occurring. Biodegradation rates decreased rapidly (50% in 48 h) in the cooling stage. Under mesophilic conditions, the maximum biodegradation rates that could be obtained by increasing the inlet toluene concentration were near 89 g toluene.m-3.h-1 which is similar to that reported in the literature for mature compost biofilters. No volatile by-product was detected by gas chromatherapy. Mineralization of 14C-toluene and benzene showed that they were completely degraded into CO2 and H2O under both thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. Bacteria isolated from late mesophilic stage had the capacity to degrade all BTEX compounds but were not able to transform chlorinated compounds. No organisms were isolated which could use toluene as their sole source of carbon and energy at 50 degrees C. Active compost biofiltration should be an excellent process for the treatment of gaseous BTEX by biofiltration. This is the first report of thermophilic biofiltration of toluene.

  16. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  17. PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opy Kurniasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available PERFORMANCE OF METHANE OXIDATION IN CONTINUOUS REACTOR BY BIOCOVER LANDFILL FILM THICKNESS IMPROVEMENT. Municipal solid waste (MSW handling in Indonesia is currently highly dependent on landfilling at the final disposal facility (TPA, which generally operated in layer-by-layer basis, allowing the anaerobic (absent of oxygen process. This condition will certainly generate biogas in the form of methane (CH4 and CO2. Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential greater than CO2, and can absorb infrared radiation 23 times more efficient than CO2 in the period of over 100 years. One way that can be done to reduce methane gas from landfills that escape into nature is to oxidize methane by utilizing landfill cover material (biocover as methane-oxidizing microorganism media. Application of compost as landfill cover material is a low-cost approach to reduce emissions so are suitable for developing countries. The compost used in this study was compost landfill mining, which is degraded naturally in landfill. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of biocover to oxidize the methane on a certain layer thickness with a continuous flow conditions. Three column reactors were used, which were made of flexy glass measuring 70 cm in high and 15 cm in diameter. The methane flowed from the bottom of the reactor continuously at a flow rate of 5 ml/minute. The columns were filled with biocover compost landfill mining with layer thickness of 5, 25, 35 and 60 cm. The results showed that the thicker layer of biocover, the higher the efficiency of methane oxidation. The oxidation efficiency obtained in each layer thickness of 15, 25, 35 and 60 cm was 56.43%, 63.69%, 74.58% and 80, 03% respectively, with the rate of oxidation of 0.29 mol m-2 d-1 and the fraction of oxidation of 99%. The oxidation result was supported by the identification of bacteria isolated in this experiment, namely metanotrophic bacteria that have the ability to oxidize

  18. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  19. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van compostering in de ecologische varkenshouderij : een milieutechnische benadering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, W.

    1993-01-01

    Student report in which the possibilities of composting for a pig farming system in Gemert, The Netherlands, with an ecological basis, are investigated. The process of composting and different composting systems were evaluated

  20. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van compostering in de ecologische varkenshouderij : een milieutechnische benadering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilkens, W.

    1993-01-01

    Student report in which the possibilities of composting for a pig farming system in Gemert, The Netherlands, with an ecological basis, are investigated. The process of composting and different composting systems were evaluated

  1. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills.

  2. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  3. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  4. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  5. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  6. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  7. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  8. Minimum quantity of urban refuse compost affecting physical and chemical soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    Full Text Available The increasing production of urban waste requires urgent responses because of various environmental problems that arise when urban refuse is stored in landfills or incinerated. Recycling of domestic waste and composting of its organic fraction has been indicated as a possible disposal solution. A three-year experiment was conducted to quantify the minimum rate of urban refuse compost (URC addition able to improve some physical and chemical soil properties at the lowest cost and environmental impact. URC was added to a silty clay soil and to a sandy loam soil 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% rate (w/w. Samplings were made 12, 24 and 36 months after URC application. To study the only effect of compost on soil due to its interaction with the soil matrix, each soil-compost mixture was divided into three boxes and kept outdoors weed free. After 12 months, 3% URC resulted the minimum quantity able to ameliorate several soil properties. In silty clay soil this rate significantly ameliorated microaggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity, but negative effects were observed on electrical conductivity. After 24 months, 3% rate significantly increased soil organic matter content. In the sandy loam soil, after 12 months, 3% rate of URC determined a positive effect on organic matter and cone resistance in dry soil condition. Electrical conductivity increased at 3% URC addition. The minimum URC quantity affecting hydraulic conductivity and plastic limit was 6%, and 9% for the liquid limit. Under these experimental conditions, the lowest rate (3% of URC incorporation to soils appears to be the minimum quantity able to improve most of the soil properties influencing fertility. What the results show is that, to achieve sustainability of urban refuse compost application to agricultural soil, further research is needed to investigate soil property changes in the range between 0% and 3%.

  9. Minimum quantity of urban refuse compost affecting physical and chemical soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rocchini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing production of urban waste requires urgent responses because of various environmental problems that arise when urban refuse is stored in landfills or incinerated. Recycling of domestic waste and composting of its organic fraction has been indicated as a possible disposal solution. A three-year experiment was conducted to quantify the minimum rate of urban refuse compost (URC addition able to improve some physical and chemical soil properties at the lowest cost and environmental impact. URC was added to a silty clay soil and to a sandy loam soil 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% rate (w/w. Samplings were made 12, 24 and 36 months after URC application. To study the only effect of compost on soil due to its interaction with the soil matrix, each soil-compost mixture was divided into three boxes and kept outdoors weed free. After 12 months, 3% URC resulted the minimum quantity able to ameliorate several soil properties. In silty clay soil this rate significantly ameliorated microaggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity, but negative effects were observed on electrical conductivity. After 24 months, 3% rate significantly increased soil organic matter content. In the sandy loam soil, after 12 months, 3% rate of URC determined a positive effect on organic matter and cone resistance in dry soil condition. Electrical conductivity increased at 3% URC addition. The minimum URC quantity affecting hydraulic conductivity and plastic limit was 6%, and 9% for the liquid limit. Under these experimental conditions, the lowest rate (3% of URC incorporation to soils appears to be the minimum quantity able to improve most of the soil properties influencing fertility. What the results show is that, to achieve sustainability of urban refuse compost application to agricultural soil, further research is needed to investigate soil property changes in the range between 0% and 3%.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  11. Composting of Rice straw with Effective Microorganisms (EM and its Influence on Compost Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Lokman Che Jusoh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05 compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05 than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  12. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  13. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang.

  14. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  15. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  16. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01

    Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant

  17. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  18. Landfill to Learning Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  19. A review of landfill microbiology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D.; Reynolds, P.; Blakey, N.C.

    1995-05-01

    In May 1994 the DTI through ETSU commissioned WRc to undertake a comprehensive review of the landfill microbiology programme to date. The review has attempted to identify remaining gaps in knowledge which are most likely to find application in controlling the production of gas from landfills, and concludes with a list of recommendations for specific landfill process research which is likely to facilitate and optimise energy recovery from landfill. (UK)

  20. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  1. Composting of bio solids by composting tunnels; Compostaje de biosolidos mediante tunes de compostado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varo, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Prats, D.; Soto, R.; Pastor, B.; Monges, M.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the bio-solid composting process carried out in the composting plant of Aspe (Alicante) by means of open composting tunnels, and to determine the quality of the resulting compost. The parameters under control are temperature. humidity, density, pH, conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, ammonium nitride and organic nitrogen. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and copper were monitored during the composting process. Observing the parameters analyzed we can conclude that the composting process of the sewage sludge from Aspe procedures a product suitable for agricultural use. The values obtained allow the product resulting from the process to be designated as compost. (Author)

  2. Landfill gas control facility with automatic wobbe-correction for Gas-Otto-Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.; Pauli, H.

    1986-01-01

    In open sanitary landfills large amounts of energy-rich landfillgas is generated. Without a purposeful collection, this gas would escape into the covering layers and into the air and thus burden the environment. In the sanitary landfill of 'Gummersloch' near Berne, the gas is systematically collected and piped to the Senior and Nursing Home of Kuehlewil where it is utilised in a thermal power-coupling facility (heating power station) of the Bernese Power Plants (BKW) to produce power and heat. This plant, with additional equipment for the automatic wobbe-correction, has been in operation for about 2 years and has proved its worth in practical use. By way of the automatic wobbe-correction through the disturbance-variable feed-forward system, the uncontrolled occuring fluctuations of the gas quality are being, up to 40%, so levelled out, that a faultless operation is guaranteed. Actual experiences have confirmed that the adaption to changing gas qualities by means of the constant extended wobbe-index is ideally suited to the use of gas engines.

  3. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  4. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  5. Exposures and health outcomes in relation to bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities: a systematic review of occupational and community studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Clare; Littlewood, Emma; Douglas, Philippa; Robertson, Sarah; Gant, Timothy W; Hansell, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    The number of composting sites in Europe is rapidly increasing, due to efforts to reduce the fraction of waste destined for landfill, but evidence on possible health impacts is limited. This article systematically reviews studies related to bioaerosol exposures within and near composting facilities and associated health effects in both community and occupational health settings. Six electronic databases and bibliographies from January 1960 to July 2014 were searched for studies reporting on health outcomes and/or bioaerosol emissions related to composting sites. Risk of bias was assessed using a customized score. Five hundred and thirty-six papers were identified and reviewed, and 66 articles met the inclusion criteria (48 exposure studies, 9 health studies, 9 health and exposure studies). Exposure information was limited, with most measurements taken in occupational settings and for limited time periods. Bioaerosol concentrations were highest on-site during agitation activities (turning, shredding, and screening). Six studies detected concentrations of either Aspergillus fumigatus or total bacteria above the English Environment Agency's recommended threshold levels beyond 250 m from the site. Occupational studies of compost workers suggested elevated risks of respiratory illnesses with higher bioaerosol exposures. Elevated airway irritation was reported in residents near composting sites, but this may have been affected by reporting bias. The evidence base on health effects of bioaerosol emissions from composting facilities is still limited, although there is sufficient evidence to support a precautionary approach for regulatory purposes. While data to date are suggestive of possible respiratory effects, further study is needed to confirm this and to explore other health outcomes.

  6. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...... of these issues focusing on pH-development in landfilled residues, effects of leaching test conditions on Cr leaching and effects of pre-treatment with FeSO4....

  7. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  8. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  9. Climate co-benefits of energy recovery from landfill gas in developing Asian cities: a case study in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikpura, S N M; Sang-Arun, Janya; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Landfilling is the most common and cost-effective waste disposal method, and it is widely applied throughout the world. In developing countries in Asia there is currently a trend towards constructing sanitary landfills with gas recovery systems, not only as a solution to the waste problem and the associated local environmental pollution, but also to generate revenues through carbon markets and from the sale of electricity. This article presents a quantitative assessment of climate co-benefits from landfill gas (LFG) to energy projects, based on the case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand. Life cycle assessment was used for estimating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, considering the whole lifespan of the landfill. The assessment found that the total GHG mitigation of the Bangkok project would be 471,763 tonnes (t) of carbon dioxide (CO(2))-equivalents (eq) over its 10-year LFG recovery period.This amount is equivalent to only 12% of the methane (CH(4)) generated over the whole lifespan of the landfill. An alternative scenario was devised to analyse possible improvement options for GHG mitigation through LFG-to-energy recovery projects. This scenario assumes that LFG recovery would commence in the second year of landfill operation and gas extraction continues throughout the 20-year peak production period. In this scenario, GHG mitigation potential amounted to 1,639,450 tCO(2)-eq during the 20-year project period, which is equivalent to 43% of the CH(4) generated throughout the life cycle. The results indicate that with careful planning, there is a high potential for improving the efficiency of existing LFG recovery projects which would enhance climate co-benefits, as well as economic benefits. However, the study also shows that even improved gas recovery systems have fairly low recovery rates and, in consequence, that emissions of GHG from such landfills sites are still considerable.

  10. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Het onderhavige onderzoek is een eerste verkenning geweest naar de aanwezigheid van organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost. In deze rapportage is een indicatieve vergelijking van de gehalten in compost met de streefwaarden voor bodem (H=20%) gemaakt. Mede op basis van dit onderzoek

  11. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  12. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  13. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  14. Compostwijzer compost maken in vier stappen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iepema, G.; Louis Bolk,

    2008-01-01

    Voor het in stand houden van veel natuurgebieden is maaien en afvoeren van het maaisel van belang. Het maaisel wordt vaak over grotere afstanden vervoerd om verwerkt te worden tot compost. In de directe nabijheid van het natuurgebied is in de landbouw in toenemende mate behoefte aan compost. In deze

  15. Nitrogen transformations during pig manure composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is now suggested as one of the environmentallyand friendly alternative method for disposal of solid organic wastes, as it leads to minimization, stabilization, and utilization of organic waste. Transformations of nitrogen were investigated inco-composting of pig manure with different amendments, such as sawdust and leaves. Samples were analyzed for pH, total-N, soluble NH4-N, soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. The total-N increased after 63 days of composting, as well as the soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. Soluble NH4-N increased significantly and showed peak values at day 7, thereafter decreased sharply and gradually to lower levels. Seed germination index (GI) showed that co-composting of pig manure with sawdust reached maturity after 49 days of composting, while co-composting of pig manure with sawdust and leaves required shorter time for 35 days. Soluble NH4-N was significantly negatively (P<0.05), while soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N were significantly positively (P<0.05), correlated with seed germination index (GI). Addition of leaves in co-composting of pig manure with sawdust had no significant impacts on nitrogen transformations, but it was beneficial for maturity of pig manure compost.

  16. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  17. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Het onderhavige onderzoek is een eerste verkenning geweest naar de aanwezigheid van organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost. In deze rapportage is een indicatieve vergelijking van de gehalten in compost met de streefwaarden voor bodem (H=20%) gemaakt. Mede op basis van dit onderzoek zul

  18. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  19. COMPLEX COMPOST AND DETOXICATION OF AGROLANDSCAPE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyuchenko I. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity complex compost arises during compiling of organomineral mixtures of various waste of life, agriculture and mineral industries. One of detoxification factors of complex compost is the ability of heavy metal cations to the formation insoluble compounds, which are fixed by clay materials and different disperse systems, and differ markedly by calcium content, acidity and humus soil-absorbing complex

  20. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...

  1. Compost. An interesting plant choice; Compost. Una interessante opzione impiantistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, S. [Urbino Univ. , Urbino (Italy). Centro per la Diffusione della Cultura e delle Tecnologie Ambientali

    1999-11-01

    While preparing a pre-feasibility study, one must identify the best procedural technological solution right from the context analysis. To this end, this work identifies a general methodology for separate collection-derived sludge and MSW a organic fraction composting plants, relating the conclusions of a study on quality compost production in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino. In order to be able to operate a selection among the ever more defined technological typologies, it also defines in a systematic way the matrix of both process targets and degrees of freedom of the system. For the catchment area taken into account - coinciding with the above mentioned province, with the exception of its highlands - the optimal technological solution identified was a dynamic open-trench plant. [Italian] In sede di prefattibilita' occorre individuare la soluzione tecnologica di processo ottimale a partire dall'analisi del contesto. A tale riguardo il presente lavoro individua una metodologia generale per gli impianti di compostaggio della frazione organica dei rifiuti solidi urbani da raccolta differenziata e dei fanchi di depurazione, riportando le conclusioni di uno studio che fa riferimento alla produzione di compost di qualita' nella Provincia di Pesaro e Urbino. Viene definita la matrice degli obiettivi di processo e dei gradi di liberta' di sistema, per potere operare in modo sistematico una selezione tra tipologie tecnologiche sempre piu' definite. A servizio del bacino di utenza esaminato, come opzione tecnologica ottimale e' stato individuato l'impianto a trincee dinamiche.

  2. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  3. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose ... Keywords: Day Care Centres, sanitary practices, indoor air quality, children, urban communities ...

  4. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in NAFTA: The Canada Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Norman

    2005-01-01

    Canada's Experience in Implementing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA has been a major success story for Canada since its entry into force on January 1, 1994.

  5. Behaviour of biodegradable plastics in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, I; Redemann, K; Stegmann, R

    2005-01-01

    Composting is a preferred treatment strategy for biodegradable plastics (BDPs). In this sense, the collection of BDPs together with organic household wastes is a highly discussed possibility. Under the aspect of the behaviour of BDPs in composting facilities, a telephone survey was carried out with selected composting facility operators. They were interviewed with respect to treated wastes, content of impurities, processes for impurity separation, experiences with biodegradable plastics and assumptions to the behaviour of biodegradable plastics in their facility. Forty percent of the facilities had some experiences with BDPs due to test runs, and also since the occurrence of BDPs in their waste was known. The majority of the operators expressed apprehension regarding an increase of impurities resulting from a combined collection of biowaste and BDPs. In the facilities, measures for the impurity separation from the biowaste were used in common practice - in 33% of the cases, separation of disturbing plastics was done before composting, in 33% after composting, and in 13% before and after composting. The most important separation processes for conventional plastics were sieving and manual sorting. In two cases air classification was also used. When asked about the separation possibility of the conventional but not of the biodegradable plastics in their facilities, the majority of operators were not in a position to comment or they replied that it was not an option. No problems were seen in most cases if the impurity separation follows composting. If impurity separation takes place before composting it was often assumed that the BDPs are mainly separated by sieving. In conclusion, in more than half of the cases, BDPs would not be composted if delivered to a composting facility. Under the actual conditions regarding the collection and the treatment/disposal possibilities, an application of BDPs seems to only be reasonable for clean (i.e., source separated on their own

  6. Charles Dickens and the movement for sanitary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Socrates

    2003-01-01

    Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles published in his weekly journal Household Words

  7. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...... to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.......5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation...

  8. Nematode succession during composting and the potential of the nematode community as an indicator of compost maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, H.; Peña, de la E.; Fonderie, P.; Willekens, K.; Borgonie, G.; Bert, W.

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in compost research is to assess when the compost has reached a mature stage. The maturity status of the compost determines the quality of the final soil amendment product. The nematode community occurring in a Controlled Microbial Composting (CMC) process was analyzed with the

  9. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  10. Groundwater contamination due to lead (Pb migrating from Richmond municipal landfill into Matsheumhlope aquifer: evaluation of a model using field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kubare

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of solid waste in landfills is an economic option for many municipalities in developing countries where alternatives like incineration and composting are costly. However, groundwater pollution from the leachate generated within the landfill and migrating through the bottom liner material into the underlying groundwater aquifers remains a major public health concern. In our study, we evaluated the application of a mathematical model to determine the aerial extent of unacceptable groundwater contamination due to lead migrating from the Richmond landfill leachate into the underlying Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer. A one-dimensional advection-dispersion model was applied to predict the down-gradient migration of lead into the aquifer. Linear sorption and first-order decay were considered as the dominant contaminant sink mechanisms for lead. Lead concentrations in the monitoring wells at the landfill site were used as the source term. The lead migration from the landfill was determined by water quality sampling from boreholes situated down-gradient of the landfill. The model simulations gave a good fit of the field results. The safe distance for potable water abstraction was determined to be 400 m, and the model simulations showed that the aerial extent of the pollution will increase with time. The model is most sensitive to the partition coefficient, hydraulic conductivity and longitudinal dispersivity, whilst it exhibits no sensitivity to the lead decay coefficient.

  11. Solar sanitary system (SOL-SAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    Ordinary composting toilets, because of cooling by evaporation, do not heat the product (humus) hot enough to kill all pathogenic viruses, bacteria, or parasite eggs and cysts. The SOL-SAN system uses direct radiation to pasteurize incoming river water for drinking and also, separately, to pasteurize and dry the humus, and to pasteurize the effluent gray/brown water. Work is in progress on simple fool-proof methods of insuring that the water will not flow out unless it has been pasteurized. Heat exchangers recapture the heat from these very hot pasteurized liquids, thereby warming more in-coming water for washing, which is important for preventing transmission of pathogenic microbes. When pasteurized, the humus and gray/brown water can safely be recycled to fertilize and water the family vegetable garden. Thus no sewer would be needed, and the vegetables or fish would grow well. Widespread use of the SOL-SAN system would save water and nutrients, reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases, improve the nutrition and vitality of the population, and save the large fraction of human food now consumed by parasites.

  12. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  13. Influence of oxygen flow rate and compost addition on reduction of organic matter in aerated waste layer containing mainly incineration residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Asakrura; Kei Nakagawa; Kazuto Endo; Masato Yamada; Yusaku Ono; Yoshiro Ono

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue alkalizes the waste layer,causing a subsequent decrease in microbial activity and a delay in the decomposition of organic matter.In this study,efficiencies of neutralization of the leachate and organic matter decomposition in the waste layer in a column filled with MSWI residue using aeration and compost addition were evaluated.Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction in the waste layer is large at high oxygen flow rate (OFR).To effectively accelerate TOC reduction in the waste layer to which compost was added,a high OFR exceeding that by natural ventilation was required.At day 65,the pH of the leachate when OFR was above 102 mol-O2/(day·m3) was lower than that when OFR was below 101 mol-O2/(day·m3).At the same OFR,the pH of waste sample was lower than that of waste sample with compost.Although leachate neutralization could be affected by compost addition,TOC reduction in the waste layer became rather small.It is possible that humic substances in compost prevent the decomposition of TOC in MSWI residue.

  14. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  15. Emission Control and Utilization of Landfill Gas in Ningbo Waste Landfill Site%宁波市垃圾填埋场填埋气体排放控制及利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

    Taking Ningbo city as an example,the treatment measures of unorganized emission of odor landfill gas from domestic waste sanitary landfill site were discussed,for instance,ordered collection and incineration-power generation.It could treat greenhouse gases such as CH4 effectively to make the pollutions control,and use waste heat to produce electricity.Thus it would achieve energy-saving and emission-reduction.%以宁波市为例,探讨了生活垃圾卫生填埋场产生的无组织排放的异味填埋气体有序收集及焚烧发电的处理措施,既有效处理了CH4等温室气体,使污染排放得到有效控制,又利用余热发电,实现节能减排.

  16. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. The composition from organic waste that could be used as nutrients for crops, soil additive and for environmental management. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different types of organic wastes have different concentrations of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P, K which are the common macro nutrients present in fertilizers. The presences of heavy metals show how composts can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.

  17. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  18. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  19. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  20. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  1. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  3. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  4. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.

  5. Waste compost effect on macronutrients in haplorthox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a controlled aerobic process to treat and stabilize organic wastes, transforming them into organic fertilizers. It is environmentally friendly (by treating polluting wastes and recycling nutrients and materials, sanitary (by breaking the cycle of diseases and eliminating vectors and socially beneficial (by generating jobs and improving crop yields. The use of compost from urban waste (the product obtained by composting the organic part of solid household wastes can improve soil fertility without harming the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of levels of organic fertilizer (waste compost - WC on soil macronutrient contents. The experiment was performed at the Animal Nutrition and Pasture Center – Instituto de Zootecnia – Nova Odessa, SP, between January and June 2013, in a Haplorthox soil (pHCaCl2= 4.9, cultivated with piatagrass (Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf, without liming. The treatments involved five rates of WC application: 0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 Mg ha-1, mixed with soil before sowing the grass. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replications, in pottery vessels (3.34 dm3. Soil samples were collected prior to the experiment (original soil and after cultivation of the grass (60 days after application. The samples were air dried and passed through sieves with 2 mm mesh and analyzed chemically. The macronutrients (P, S, in mg kg-1 and K, Ca and Mg mmolc kg-1 were quantified. The method to measure P, Ca, Mg and K was atomic emission spectrophotometry, after extraction with ion exchange resin, and the S concentration was measured by turbidimetry. The data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2. The degrees of freedom related to the five rates (quantitative treatment were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials to obtain the best equation to fit the data. In the original soil, the concentrations of the macronutrients analyzed were considered low. The application of the WC

  6. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  7. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharff, Heijo, E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  8. Removal and transformation of recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachates by coagulation-ozonation coupling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Ramirez, I; Orta de Velásquez, M T

    2004-05-01

    The Bordo Poniente sanitary landfill in Mexico City currently receives 11,500 ton/day of solid wastes. The landfill has been in operation since 1985, in what was formerly Texcoco Lake, now a dried-up lakebed. The physico-chemical characteristics of the leachate generated by this particular landfill are altered by the incorporation of freatic saline water present in the area. This paper reports the results from a study evaluating coagulation and ozonation as alternative processes for removing and transforming recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachate. Coagulation with ferric sulfate was found to remove up to 67% of COD and 96% of leachate color. The remaining 33% COD was removed with ozone. Recalcitrant organic matter removal by ozonation is limited by the reaction kinetic due mainly to ozone's low reactivity with the organic compounds present in the leachates (amines, amides, alcohols, aliphatic compounds, and carboxylic acids). However, ozone contributes greatly to changing the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter. Leachate biodegradability was found to be significantly enhanced through ozonation: BOD(5) values reach 265%, and the BOD(5)/COD ratio increases from 0.003 to 0.015. Infrared analysis of ozonated leachates shows that the main by-products of recalcitrant organic matter ozonation are an increase in the hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the presence of aldehydes groups.

  9. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  10. A 3D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT THROUGH A POROUS LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEGUN, I. K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the flow of incompressible fluid and contaminant transport through a Porous Landfill using a numerical technique. A threedimensional finite element analysis technique was adopted for the solution. The problem was based on the Darcy’s Law and the Advection-Dispersion equation. The solutions of the Darcy’s and Advection-Dispersion equations were generated using Finite Element Analysis Software known as COMSOL Multiphysics. This simulation tool tracked the contaminant transport in the Landfill for 360 days at 10 days interval. It first modeled steady-state fluid flow by employing the Darcy’s Law Application Mode and then followed up with a transient solute-transport simulation by employing the Solute-Transport Application Mode from the Earth Science Module of COMSOL. The solution results obtained from this model were found to be in close agreement with reallife data obtained at the 130- million ton Bukit Tagar Mega Sanitary Landfill site, Selangor near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This showed that the model can effectively predict the trends in the distributions of pollutants from a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill into nearby land and water sources. The model is thus applicable to the issues of environmental protection and safety of groundwater.

  11. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...

  12. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  13. Composting in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  14. Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... extractable humic acid carbon; CFA, extractable fulvic acid carbon; EC, electrical .... level of 80% recommended for vermicomposting but no worms ... composting of the wastes was then done in boxes measuring 1 x 1.

  15. Leaching, geochemical modelling and field verification of a municipal solid waste and a predominantly non-degradable waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sloot, H A; Kosson, D S; van Zomeren, A

    2017-05-01

    In spite of the known heterogeneity, wastes destined for landfilling can be characterised for their leaching behaviour by the same protocols as soil, contaminated soil, sediments, sludge, compost, wood, waste and construction products. Characterisation leaching tests used in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling results in much more detailed insights into release controlling processes and factors than single step batch leaching tests like TCLP (USEPA) and EN12457 (EU Landfill Directive). Characterisation testing also can provide the potential for mechanistic impact assessments by making use of a chemical speciation fingerprint (CSF) derived from pH dependence leaching test results. This CSF then forms the basis for subsequent chemical equilibrium and reactive transport modelling to assess environmental impact in a landfill scenario under relevant exposure conditions, including conditions not readily evaluated through direct laboratory testing. This approach has been applied to municipal solid waste (MSW) and predominantly non-degradable waste (PNW) that is representative of a significant part of waste currently being landfilled. This work has shown that a multi-element modelling approach provides a useful description of the release from each of these matrices because relevant release controlling properties and parameters (mineral dissolution/precipitation, sorption on Fe and Al oxides, clay interaction, interaction with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and incorporation in solid solutions) are taken into consideration. Inclusion of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model is important to properly describe release of the low concentration trace constituents observed in the leachate. The CSF allows the prediction of release under different redox and degradation conditions in the landfill by modifying the redox status and level of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model runs. The CSF for MSW provides a useful starting point

  16. Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using mobile plume method with trace gas and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mønster, J.; Kjeldsen, P.; Scheutz, C.

    2012-04-01

    Methane is emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. One of the major anthropogenic sources is methane produced by bacteria in anaerobic environments such as rice pads and landfills. Land filling has for many years been the preferred waste disposal method, resulting in a large methane production with a large contribution to the global increase in atmospheric green house gas concentration. Several steps have been taken to reduce the emission of methane from landfills. In order to validate the effect of these steps, a measurement method is needed to quantify methane emissions with a large spatial variation. One method is to use a highly sensitive and fast analytical method, capable of measuring the atmospheric concentration methane downwind from emission areas. Combined with down-wind measurements of a trace gas, emitted at a controlled mass flow rate, the methane emission can be calculated. This method is called the mobile plume method, as the whole plume is measured by doing several transects. In the current study a methane/acetylene analyzer with cavity ring-down spectroscopy detection (Picarro, G2203) was used to estimate methane from a number of Danish landfills. We measured at both active and closed landfills and investigated the difference in methane emission. At landfills where the emissions could have more than one origin, the source strength of the different emission areas was determined by accurate trace gas positioning and choosing appropriate wind speed and measurement distance. To choose these factors, we addressed the uncertainties and limitations of the method with respect to the configuration of the trace gas bottles and the distance between the emission area and the measurement points. Composting of organic material in large piles was done at several of the investigated landfills and where possible, the methane emission from this partly anaerobic digestion was measured as a separate emission.

  17. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  18. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  19. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  20. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaerosols from composting facilities - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eWéry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modelling.

  2. Thermophilic methane production and oxidation in compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, Udo; Thummes, Kathrin; Kämpfer, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Methane cycling within compost heaps has not yet been investigated in detail. We show that thermophilic methane oxidation occurred after a lag phase of up to one day in 4-week old, 8-week old and mature (>10-week old) compost material. The potential rate of methane oxidation was between 2.6 and 4.1 micromol CH4(gdw)(-1)h(-1). Profiles of methane concentrations within heaps of different ages indicated that 46-98% of the methane produced was oxidised by methanotrophic bacteria. The population size of thermophilic methanotrophs was estimated at 10(9) cells (gdw)(-1), based on methane oxidation rates. A methanotroph (strain KTM-1) was isolated from the highest positive step of a serial dilution series. This strain belonged to the genus Methylocaldum, which contains thermotolerant and thermophilic methanotrophs. The closest relative organism on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity was M. szegediense (>99%), a species originally isolated from hot springs. The temperature optimum (45-55 degrees C) for methane oxidation within the compost material was identical to that of strain KTM-1, suggesting that this strain was well adapted to the conditions in the compost material. The temperatures measured in the upper layer (0-40 cm) of the compost heaps were also in this range, so we assume that these organisms are capable of effectively reducing the potential methane emissions from compost.

  3. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily

  4. [Sanitary regulation in Mexico and the Free Trade Treaty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-López, M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper are discussed essential issues about the concept, characteristics and general functions of sanitary regulation, as well as the principles and main lines of action contained in the Program of Modernization of the Sanitary Regulation, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. In addition, some considerations are offered regarding the supporting role of such a program, in the context of the free trade era that Mexico is undergoing. After 40 years of an outdated sanitary regulation based in a non-functional licensing concept, the new and improved scheme relies on several ammendments to the General Health Law. Thus, the present approach, focuses on a set of flexible, simple and efficient rules, strengthened by proven scientific and technical procedures.

  5. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  6. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Møller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting...

  7. Pathogen re-colonization of in-house composted and non-composted broiler litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    “In-house” litter composting has been reintroduced to the industry and shown to reduce bacteria by as much as two orders of magnitude. Other industries have demonstrated that pathogens can recolonize a waste-residual when microbial competition has been reduced or inhibited following composting. Po...

  8. Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Marek; Płaza, Grażyna A; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

    2011-02-01

    The leachates from 22 municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites in Southern Poland were characterized by evaluation of chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological parameters. Chemical analyses were mainly focused on the identification of the priority hazardous substances according to Directive on Priority Substances, 2008/105/EC (a daughter directive of the WFD) in leachates. As showed, only five substances (Cd, Hg, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene and PAHs) were detected in the leachates. The compounds tested were absent or present at very low concentrations. Among them, only PAHs were found in all samples in the range from 0.057 to 77.2 μg L⁻¹. The leachates were contaminated with bacteria, including aerobic, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliforms, and spore-forming-bacteria, including Clostridium perfringens, and with filamentous fungi. From the analysis of specific microorganism groups (indicators of environmental pollution by pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic organisms) it can be concluded that the landfill leachates showed sanitary and epidemiological hazard. In the ecotoxicological study, a battery of tests comprised of 5 bioassays, i.e. Microtox(®), Spirotox, Rotoxkit F™, Thamnotoxkit F™ and Daphtoxkit F™ magna was applied. The leachate samples were classified as toxic in 13.6%, highly toxic in 54.6% and very highly toxic in 31.8%. The Spirotox test was the most sensitive bioassay used. The percentage of class weight score was very high - above 60%; these samples could definitely be considered seriously hazardous and acutely toxic to the fauna and microflora. No correlations were found between the toxicity values and chemical parameters. The toxicity of leachate samples cannot be explained by low levels of the priority pollutants. It seems that other kinds of xenobiotics present in the samples at subacute levels gave the high aggregate toxic effect. The chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological

  9. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in piles with higher proportion of pomace (Var.II. Analysis of results shows that the compost made ​​of grape pomace is a quality organic fertilizer, which may have in addition to agronomic point of view also great hygienic and ecological importance.

  10. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  11. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  12. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  13. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  14. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Conza

    Full Text Available Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD. Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture and FLA (by culture in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila were detected in 69.3% (61/88 of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba in 92.0% (81/88. L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88 of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012 than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47 were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47 for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8% were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  15. Household food-waste composting using a small-scale composter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vital Vich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Household food-waste composting is an attractive alternative for Brazilian waste management; however, there are few programs or studies regarding the implementation or management of this small-scale process. This study investigates the performance of food waste composting using a simple and small-scale domestic composter. Three composting trials were conducted using food waste and wood chips in 10 L plastic bins using different filling schemes. In the first trial, the composter was filled weekly over two months. In the second, the composter was filled once with a mixture of food waste and 100% of the used wood chips from the previous trial. In the last third trial, the composter was filled with food waste and wood chips (50% of wood chips used in the second trial and 50% of untreated wood chips. The physical chemical parameters of the compost were monitored and the total coliforms and E. coli were measured. In all trials, the temperature varied between 26.7°C and 46.2°C throughout the process. The reduction in wet mass was 58-69%, while the reduction in dry mass was 37-61%. The pH value, the contents of carbon and nitrogen and the C/N ratio were in accordance with the values recommended in norm 25 (July, 2009 adopted by Brazil's Agriculture Ministry. Only the compost from Trial 2, which had 1900 MPN g-1total solids, did not meet the E. coli standards; this was likely due to the fact that when the temperatures did not reach the thermophilic phase, the relatively long time the waste remains in the composter allows these pathogenic microorganisms to decay naturally.

  16. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  17. sequential analysis of metals in municipal dumpsite composts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Keywords: Municipal dumpsite, compost, sequential extraction, mobility factor, bioavailability factor. ..... either plants or microorganisms (He et al., 1995). Thus, for the ... dumpsite composts production and application, and for.

  18. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of cucumber ... to determine the effects of spent mushroom compost (SMC), which is a waste product ... processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic

  19. Effect Various Combination of Organic Waste on Compost Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hapsoh; Gusmawartati; Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    .... They can be used as compost row materials. The purpose of the research was to get an optimum combination of both wastes to improve compost quality, to meet the Indonesian National Standard 19-7030-2004...

  20. Physico- Chemical characteristics of compost (Cotonou, Benin, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico- Chemical characteristics of compost (Cotonou, Benin, West Africa) ... proving the poverty of the soil of this site and their increased need of organic amendment. Keywords: Cotonou; biodegradable waste; compost; physico- chemical ...

  1. An Overview of Composting Based on Variable Feedstock Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biological treatment method that provides a potential sustainable way to convert food waste into organic compost. In composting, the feedstock material is an important item to ensure the success of the composting process. This paper reviewed the process of composting based on implementation different types of feedstock, namely: 1 animal waste such as cow dung, poultry litter, swine manure and chicken manure; and 2 agricultural waste such as sawdust, rice straw, bran, bagasse, banana waste and pine chip. The result for poultry litter, cow manure, swine manure, sawdust and rice straw has C/N ratio lower than 20 at final composting process which is considered as satisfactory level for compost maturity. As a conclusion, the selection of the feedstock material is based on the characteristics of the material itself and the selection of materials is important for the quality of compost.

  2. The determinants for the adoption of compost from household waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... Both descriptive statistics and logit model are used to analyze the data collected from 108 farmers ... Keywords: Adoption, compost users, logit model, non compost users, odds ratio.

  3. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  4. Effect of biomass concentration on methane oxidation activity using mature compost and graphite granules as substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S; O'Dwyer, T; Freguia, S; Pikaar, I; Clarke, W P

    2016-10-01

    Reported methane oxidation activity (MOA) varies widely for common landfill cover materials. Variation is expected due to differences in surface area, the composition of the substratum and culturing conditions. MOA per methanotrophic cell has been calculated in the study of natural systems such as lake sediments to examine the inherent conditions for methanotrophic activity. In this study, biomass normalised MOA (i.e., MOA per methanotophic cell) was measured on stabilised compost, a commonly used cover in landfills, and on graphite granules, an inert substratum widely used in microbial electrosynthesis studies. After initially enriching methanotrophs on both substrata, biomass normalised MOA was quantified under excess oxygen and limiting methane conditions in 160ml serum vials on both substrata and blends of the substrata. Biomass concentration was measured using the bicinchoninic acid assay for microbial protein. The biomass normalised MOA was consistent across all compost-to-graphite granules blends, but varied with time, reflecting the growth phase of the microorganisms. The biomass normalised MOA ranged from 0.069±0.006μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h during active growth, to 0.024±0.001μmol CH4/mg dry biomass/h for established biofilms regardless of the substrata employed, indicating the substrata were equally effective in terms of inherent composition. The correlation of MOA with biomass is consistent with studies on methanotrophic activity in natural systems, but biomass normalised MOA varies by over 5 orders of magnitude between studies. This is partially due to different methods being used to quantify biomass, such as pmoA gene quantification and the culture dependent Most Probable Number method, but also indicates that long term exposure of materials to a supply of methane in an aerobic environment, as can occur in natural systems, leads to the enrichment and adaptation of types suitable for those conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  6. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  7. Characterisation of landfills using a multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Hoekstra, N.K.; Oonk, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands has about 3800 abandoned landfills with a total surface of about 9000 ha. As they are often located near urban areas and their influence extends into their surrounding environment they put pressure on available space. Most abandoned landfills were in use until the 1960s and 1970s. Th

  8. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  9. Imaging scatterers in landfills using seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Dragnov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem with landfills is their aftercare period. A landfill is considered to be safe for the environment only after a relatively long period of time. Until it reaches such a condition, it has to be periodically treated. Not only are treatments very expensive, but they could be dangero

  10. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m(3) were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation. The construction of the landfill is only a significant contributor to the impact of resource depletion owing to the high use of gravel and steel.

  11. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kačinskaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations and vital activity of microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to examine conditions affecting these parameters. The paper presents and analyses the characteristics of experimental data, assesses the factors having the greatest influence on recent development and introduces the measures that should be taken into account so that to the ensure optimal operation of the systems for collecting municipal waste landfill leachate.Article in Lithuanian

  12. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  13. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...

  14. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  15. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  16. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  17. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... water to required locations throughout the plant. (2) Properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste...

  18. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOST OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI AHMED

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that tannery wastes in the form of sludge are managed in an environmentally sound manner. This study focused on the heavy metal characterization and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium throughout the composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in tannery sludge. The physical and chemical properties of the composted sludge during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. Total metal content in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed in using a sequential extraction method in sludge compost at different phases of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70– 80% and more resistant fractions to extraction X–NaOH, X–EDTA, X–HNO3 (12–29%. Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X–(KNO3 + H2O. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content.

  20. COMPOSTING AQUATIC MACROPHYTES: SALVINIA AURICULATA AND EICHHORNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available High population growth and densities in urban areas and the consumerism present in modern societies have pronounced effect on the generation of organic waste, which may become an environmental problem. Aerobic composting is one of the best known alternatives to treating these wastes. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of composting as an alternative to the disposal of organic wastes from aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia auriculata collected in the reservoir UHE Luis Eduardo Magalhães, Tocantins, Brazil and also produce an organic compound from different combinations of macrophytes, prunning residues and organic waste generated by the Campus of Palmas of UFT, TO. The study was conducted in an area of 80m² in unprotected environment at the experimental station of the Campus of Palmas. The experiments were done as three replications in the dry season (from 18.09.2008 to 11.21.2008 and rainy season (from 03.09.2009 to 05.04.2009 and the parameters temperature, pH, total nitrogen and carbon, and organic matter were monitored along with counts of microorganisms. It was possible to produce compost from the combinations of organic wastes within 65 days of composting during the dry season and 55 days in the rainy season. The aquatic macrophytes resulted in a good raw material for composting, since there is not a destination for the excess plant materials removed by the cleaning process of the reservoir.

  1. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, M.A.; Leonard, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, several industries are looking into new technologies to mitigate GHG production. This paper described the ongoing research regarding composting and its application to the waste management sector. Baseline data has been collected on emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides, the primary greenhouse gases. Four test trials were performed at a composting facility which involved windrows with: high carbon to nitrogen ratio, turned; high carbon to nitrogen ratio, unturned; low carbon to nitrogen ratio, turned; and, low carbon to nitrogen ratio, unturned. The objective was to verify the hypothesis that high carbon to nitrogen ratio could suppress nitrous oxide emissions due to less available nitrogen for mineralization and subsequent denitrification. Another objective was to confirm if turning the compost promotes an aerobic environment in which methane production is decreased. Concurrent bench-scale composting experiments were conducted to measure and analyze off-gases to evaluate the feasibility of field-scale composting operations.

  2. Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

    2002-09-01

    The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, Pcocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw.

  3. Processes in a compost based landfill biocover; methane emission, transport and oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Bukh

    Metan er en drivhusgas med et potentiale for global opvarmning som er 25 gange større end kuldioxids. Metan produceret i lossepladser kan oxideres i biologiske aktive lossepladsdæklag også kaldet biocover systemer. Denne proces vil kunne reducere lossepladsers bidrag til drivhuseffekten. Den inde...

  4. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  5. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  7. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Naoumenko, Z.S.; Derikx, P.J.L.; Felske, A.; Stephen, J.R.; Arkhipchenko, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous

  8. Improving quality of composted biowaste to enhance disease suppressiveness of compost-amended, peat-based potting mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Blok, W.J.; Curci, F.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biowaste can be converted into compost by composting or by a combination of anaerobic digestion and composting. Currently, waste management systems are primarily focused on the increase of the turnover rate of waste streams whereas optimisation of product quality receives less attention. This

  9. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  10. Improving quality of composted biowaste to enhance disease suppressiveness of compost-amended, peat-based potting mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Blok, W.J.; Curci, F.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biowaste can be converted into compost by composting or by a combination of anaerobic digestion and composting. Currently, waste management systems are primarily focused on the increase of the turnover rate of waste streams whereas optimisation of product quality receives less attention. This result

  11. The Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Compost Properties Produced in Sanandaj City with a View of Improving the Soil Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the use of municipal solid waste (MSW compost in agriculture as a soil conditioner is increasing day by day because of its positive effects on biological, physical, and chemical soil properties. However, some of the composts because of contamination with heavy metals and other impurities can have deleterious effects on groundwater quality, agricultural environment, food chain, plant growth and activity of soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potential of two types of municipal solid waste composts with processing time between 4 to 8 years (type A and between1 to 4 years (type B produced in Sanandaj city with the aim of using it as an organic fertilizer. Materials and Methods: Sanadaj city, the center of Kurdistan province, with a population of about 335,000 is located in the west of Iran. The current solid waste generation from the city is about 320 t/day, which are not separated at source of generation. About 200 t of the total produced wastes are composted using an open windrows system at the Sanandaj MSW Composting Plant, which is located in 10 km of Sanadaj-Kamiaran road and the rest are disposed at the landfill site. The compost manufactured by the composting plant has been collected around it in two different locations. The first belonges to the product of 2004-2008 (type A and the second belonges to the product of 2009-2013 (type B. Till now, due to lack of quality information associated with these products, they have remained unused. Therefore, in this study, we sampled 3 samples composed of six subsamples (each containing 2 kg from the products in March 2013. The samples were analyzed to determine the physical properties (including undesirable impurities, initial moisture content, particle size distribution, particle density, bulk density (ρb, porosity, and maximum water holding capacity, and the

  12. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  13. Improvements in a Universal Composting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Beloev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in Bulgaria for the needs of organic, environmentally-friendly and conventional agriculture, the universal composting machine requires to be attached to the front of tractors when being used in aggregates. However, it is rare to find such tractors. What is more, tractors with front – shaft power take almost do not exist. For this reason the universal composting machine is rather limited from a technological point of view despite its capacity and this made it necessary to improve it through the development and testing of a hydraulic power drive system. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the technical and technological changes in the design of the composting machine which have resulted in increased performance under conditions of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria.

  14. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  15. Optimization of control parameters for petroleum waste composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is being widely employed in the treatment of petroleum waste. The purpose of this study was to find the optimum control parameters for petroleum waste in-vessel composting. Various physical and chemical parameters were monitored to evaluate their influence on the microbial communities present in composting. The CO2 evolution and the number of microorganisms were measured as theactivity of composting. The results demonstrated that the optimum temperature, pH and moisture content were 56.5-59.5, 7.0-8.5 and 55%-60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbon reached 83.29% after 30 days composting.

  16. Methane oxidation potential of boreal landfill cover materials: The governing factors and enhancement by nutrient manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanoja, Susanna T; Rintala, Jukka A

    2015-12-01

    Methanotrophs inhabiting landfill covers are in a crucial role in mitigating CH4 emissions, but the characteristics of the cover material or ambient temperature do not always enable the maximal CH4 oxidation potential (MOP). This study aimed at identifying the factors governing MOPs of different materials used for constructing biocovers and other cover structures. We also tested whether the activity of methanotrophs could be enhanced at cold temperature (4 and 12°C) by improving the nutrient content (NO3(-), PO4(3-), trace elements) of the cover material. Compost samples from biocovers designed to support CH4 oxidation were exhibiting the highest MOPs (4.16 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1)), but also the soil samples collected from other cover structures were oxidising CH4 (0.41 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1)). The best predictors for the MOPs were the NO3(-) content and activity of heterotrophic bacteria at 72.8%, which were higher in the compost samples than in the soil samples. The depletion of NO3(-) from the landfill cover material limiting the activity of methanotrophs could not be confirmed by the nutrient manipulation assay at 4°C as the addition of nitrogen decreased the MOPs from 0.090 μmol CH4 g dw(-1) h(-1) to 0.096 μmol CH4 g dw(-1)h(-1)) suggesting that this was attributable to stimulation of the enzymatic activity of the psychrotolerant methanotrophs.

  17. Microbial activity in the landfill soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, M Swiontek; Burkowska, A; Walczak, M

    2012-01-01

    The research objective was to determine the activity of microorganisms in the soil exposed to direct influence of a landfill, as well as in the soil beyond its influence. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity and respiration in the soil were determined. The highest number of cultivated bacteria was recorded at the site located within the zone of direct influence exerted by the landfill, whereas the least amount was found at a distance of 1000 metres from the landfill. In contrast, the largest numbers of molds were observed in the soil at a distance of 1000 m from the headquarters of the landfill. The highest FDA hydrolytic activity and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were recorded in the soil by the headquarters of the landfill, and the least parameters were revealed at a distance of 1000 m from the landfill. It was found a high correlation between the number of bacteria and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5 in the north-eastern of the landfill. However, in the same place, there is a low correlation between the number of molds, and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5.

  18. Controlled landfill project, Yolo County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D.C.; Benemann, J.R. [Inst. for Environmental Management Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H. [Yolo County Dept. of Public Works, Woodland, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Controlled bioreactor landfill tests were conducted at the Central Landfill in Yolo County, California to determine how to maximize methane recovery for energy use while minimizing methane emissions to the atmosphere. Landfill gas has the potential to contribute 1 per cent to the total electricity supplies in the United States. The failure to use methane to its potential is due to unpredictability, variability and slow rates of production and low recovery factors of landfill methane. The main challenge lies in accelerating the biological decomposition and treatment of the municipal solid waste (MSW). The breakdown rate of MWS can be increased through the use of basic landfill biochemical engineering methods. This study demonstrated the influence of adding supplemental water and leachate to the MSW. Moisture, temperature and gas pressures were recorded throughout the waste mass. This study also focused on eliminating volatile organic compounds, reducing the costs for post-closure landfill care, improving the economics of scale for energy use, improving leachate quality and reducing the costs for off-site disposal of landfill leachate. It was shown that methane capture was maximized when a surface membrane was placed over a permeable layer and when the bioreactor was operated at a slight vacuum. Accelerated methane production and waste reduction were noted in the enhanced test cell. The first order rate constant for methanogenesis was about 0.45 per year. The control cell stopped producing gas after one year. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  20. Controlling Pathogens and Allergens in Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The process options for control of pathogens in the windrow and ASP (aerated static pile) are considered based on indicator organisms for the incoming pathogens with MSW and sludge as feedstock. Some European process requirements for sanitisation are considered in relation to the actual conditions within a composting mass where temperatures across the mass vary from 70℃ to ambient. Improved control methodologies for the ASP using combinations of suck and blow are discussed together with short term use of elevated core temperatures (>70℃). The generation of Aspergillus fumigatus during composting is considered in relation to reducing the numbers in the windrow by changing the operating regime.

  1. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw.

  2. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  3. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  4. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  5. Response of compost maturity and microbial community composition to pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui; Yu, Man; Zhao, Mingjie

    2011-05-01

    Two composting piles were prepared by adding to a mixture of rice straw, vegetables and bran: (i) raw soil free from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination (pile A) and (ii) PCP-contaminated soil (pile B). It was shown by the results that compost maturity characterized by water soluble carbon (WSC), TOC/TN ratio, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) was significantly affected by PCP exposure, which resulted in an inferior degree of maturity for pile B. DGGE analysis revealed an inhibited effect of PCP on compost microbial abundance. The bacteria community shifts were mainly consistent with composting factors such as temperature, pH, moisture content and substrates. By contrast, the fungal communities were more sensitive to PCP contamination due to the significant correlation between fungal community shifts and PCP removal. Therefore, the different microbial community compositions for properly evaluating the degree of maturity and PCP contamination were suggested.

  6. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost.

  7. Laccases production by A.blazei mushroom grown either in composted or non-composted substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro; Figlas, Norma Débora; Curvetto, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei is an edible and medicinal mushroom commonly cultivated on compost. However, non-composted substrates are being particularly studied for specialty mushrooms because their economic and labour advantages. Addition of salt minerals to the substrate or casing materials may stimulate both the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in the mushroom substrate biotransformation and eventually lead to an increase not only in mushroom productivity but in the fruitbody mineral content...

  8. Quality of compost from urban solid wastes; Calidad del compost de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, M.; Dobao, M.M. [Universidad de Sevilla. Sevilla (Spain); Benitez, C; Gonzalez, J. L. [Universidad de Cordoba. Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The stability, maturity and quality of MSW compost are discussed in this paper. The higher or lower stability is related to the microbial activity, but the maturity is related with the absence of phitotoxic substances. The MSW compost quality is fixed, besides of its stability/maturity, by other parameters (heavy metals contents, granulometric composition, etc...) Likewise, this paper shows a revision about the chemist, physics and biologic methods for the definition of this concepts. (Author) 51 refs.

  9. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment.

  10. Characterization of a soil used as sanitary landfill liner at an experimental cell of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Alves de Godoy Leme

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A geração dos resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU) é uma ocorrência diária que deve ser gerenciada. Os aterros sanitários são os empreendimentos para disposição adequada desses resíduos. Dentre os constituintes estruturais dos aterros sanitários, há as barreiras impermeabilizantes de base, que podem ser de vários tipos, sendo as constituídas por solo argiloso compactado amplamente utilizadas. Este trabalho objetivou-se caracterizar o solo utilizado como camada mineral compactada no sistema ...

  11. Leachates treatment with oxygen in Sanitary landfills of urban solid waste; Depuracion de lixiviados con oxigeno en vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, P.

    1999-11-01

    The leachate of spillways of solid waste is a product of the rain and of the humidity contributed by the residuals that is deposited in it. When water is filtered through the residuals in decompositions, biological materials and chemical compounds are dragged and dilute, being many of them very polluting. For their treatment, one must keep in mind that the composition chemistry of the leachates varies a lot according to the technique of exploitation and the antiquity of the spillway. (Author)

  12. American Canyon Sanitary Landfill Operation Regulatory Permit Application, Napa County, California, Public Notice 9297-29R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    of an excessive ultimate estuary load. 9. In essence Alternative #2R may be considered "conditioned" in that it incorporates the proposed project as...average daily trips (ADT). Eucalyptus Drive, the main access road to the site, is currently at 15 percent of this capacity. The most likely point of

  13. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring in the surrounding area of a sanitary landfill, Londrina (PR-Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, D. D.; Silva, S. M. C. P.; Fernandes, F.; Texeira, R. S.; Celligoi, A.; Dall' Antonia, L. H.

    2009-07-01

    The use of non-invasive techniques such as surface geophysics usually allows a preliminary mapping providing information that will guide the use of invasive techniques of soil investigation. surface geophysics also helps the location of unconfined aquifer and monitoring wells (Mondelli 2004). However is necessity to point out that results obtained through surface geophysics are not conclusive, and their combination with data from monitoring wells is indicated in order to identify or confirm the behavior of the underground resistivity, which in turn may change according to some conditions such as: intrinsic porosity of rock and sediment, air and aqueous fluid content and variations of the groundwater chemical composition. (Author)

  14. Consortia of microalgae and bacteria in the performance of a stabilization pond system treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R H R; Martins, C L; Fernandes, H; Velho, V F

    2014-01-01

    This study treated sanitary landfill leachate and was conducted in a pilot-scale system composed of three serial ponds (P1, P2 and P3), followed by a rock filter, in order to evaluate the microbial consortium influence on system performance and to investigate microorganism dynamics in the process. The system was broken into three stages, with a continuous flow rate (Q = 200 L d⁻¹) for 43 weeks. The stages were as follows: conventional operation (stage I), 12 h aeration in P2 (stage II), and 18 h aeration in P2 (stage III). The results showed the possibilities for treating landfill leachate, presenting an average efficiency of 75% for both filtered biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. At the end of stage III, the ammonium concentration was 6 mg L⁻¹, which is lower than that established by Brazilian regulations for wastewater discharge (CONAMA 430/2011). The aeration applied in P2 led to a change in the microbial consortia during the second and third stage, which influenced the quality of the final effluent. The best performance was seen in stage III, where the system showed high microbial diversity, including the presence of nitrifying bacteria.

  15. Modelling the Potential Biogas Productivity Range from a MSW Landfill for Its Sustainable Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of biogas generation was modified and applied to the case of a sanitary landfill in Italy. The modifications considered the role of the temperature field normally established within each layer of waste. It must be pointed out the temperature affects the anaerobic biodegradation kinetics. In order to assess the effect of moisture on the waste biodegradation rate, on the bacteria process and then on the methane production, the model was compared with the LandGEM one. Information on the initial water content came from data concerning waste composition. No additional information about the hydrological balance was available. Thus, nine sets of kinetic constants, derived by literature, were adopted for the simulations. Results showed a significant variability of the maximal hourly biogas flows on a yearly basis, with consequences for the collectable amount during the operating period of a hypothetical engine. The approach is a useful tool to assess the lowest and highest biogas productivity in order to analyze the viability of biogas exploitation for energy purposes. This is useful also in countries that must plan for biogas exploitation from old and new landfills, as a consequence of developments in the waste sector.

  16. A combined treatment of landfill leachate using calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo; Mikulic, Nenad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of appropriate procedure for treatment of landfill leachate taken from old sanitary landfill Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia). Due to complex nature of the effluent a combined treatment approach was applied. Samples were treated with calcium oxide followed by ferric chloride and finally with clinoptilolite. The optimum amount of treating agents and contact time were determined. Application of calcium oxide (25 g/L, 20 min. contact time) resulted in the reduction of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia for 94.50%, 96.55%, 95.66% and 21.60%, respectively, while the removal efficiency of Cr (VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb was 75.00%, 95.34%, 56.52%, 78.72%, 73.02% and 100.00%, respectively. After addition of ferric chloride (570 mg Fe(3+)/L, 20 min. contact time) removal efficiency of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia increased to 96.04%, 99.27%, 98.61%, and 43.20%, respectively. Removal of ammonia (81.60%) increased significantly after final adsorption onto clinoptilolite (25 g/L, 4 h contact time). Removal of COD after successive treatment with calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite was 64.70%, 77.40% and 81.00%, respectively.

  17. Performance of landfill leachate treatment system with disc-tube reverse osmosis units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping LIU; Xiujin LI; Baozhen WANG; Shuo LIU

    2008-01-01

    Reverse osmosis system with the disc-tube module (DT-RO) was applied to treat landfill leachate on full scale at the Changshengqiao Sanitary Landfill, Chongqing City, China. In the first six-mouth operation phase, the treatment performance of DT-RO system had been excel-lent and stable. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical con-ductivity (EC), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) reached 99.2-99.7%, 99.2%, 99.6%, and over 98%, respectively. The rejection of Ca2+,Ba2+, and Mg2+ was over 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solid (SS) was not detected in prod-uct water. Effective methods had been adopted to control membrane fouling, of which chemical cleaning is of utmost importance to guarantee the long smooth operation of the DT-RO system. The DT-RO system is cleaned in turns with Cleaner A and Cleaner C. At present, the 1st stage cleaning cycle by Cleaner A and Cleaner C is conducted every 100 and 500 h, respectively, depending on raw the water quality.

  18. Removal of hydrogen sulfide gas and landfill leachate treatment using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Y; Hesu, P H; Yang, D H

    2001-06-01

    Coal bottom ashes produced from three thermal power plants were used in column and batch experiments to investigate the adsorption capacity of the coal ash. Hydrogen sulfide and leachates collected from three sanitary landfill sites were used as adsorbate gas and solutions, respectively. Experimental results showed that coal bottom ash could remove H2S from waste gas or reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. Each gram of bottom ash could remove up to 10.5 mg of H2S. In treating the landfill leachate, increasing ash dosage increased the removal efficiency but decreased the adsorption amount per unit mass of ash. For these tested ashes, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), P, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ were 36.4-50, 24.2-39.4, 27.0-31.1, 82.2-92.9, 93.8-96.5, 93.7-95.4, and 80.5-82.2%, respectively; the highest adsorption capacities for those parameters were 3.5-5.6, 0.22-0.63, 0.36-0.45, 0.027-0.034, 0.050-0.053, 0.029-0.032, and 0.006 mg/g of bottom ash, respectively. The adsorption of pollutants in the leachate conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  20. Effects of Two Composted Plant Pesticide Residues,Incorporated with Trichoderma viride,on Root-Knot Nematode in Balloonflower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuang-xi; ZHANG Xing

    2009-01-01

    Plant pesticide residues,such as chinaberry(Melia toosendan)residue and sand cypress(Sabina vulgaris)residue,are pesticidal plant materials discarded after the bioactive ingredient has been extracted with organic solvents.The only option for botanical pesticide residue utilization has been as landfill.Chinaberry residue(CBR)and sand cypress residue(SCR)were collected and composted in Yangling,Shaanxi Province,China.We studied the effects of chinaberry residue compost(CBRC),CBRC incorporated with Trichoderma viride(CBRCT),sand cypress residue compost(SCRC),and SCRC incorporated with T.viride(SCRCT)on the root-knot nematode,Meloidogyne incognita,infesting the balloonflower(Platycodon grandiflorum).Bioassay results indicated that stock solutions of the CBRCT and SCRCT extracts significantly inhibited egg hatching and caused high larval mortality,followed in degree by the CBRC and SCRC extracts.The CBR and SCR extracts caused very low inhibition of eggs and larvae.Supplementing potting mixtures with these four composts reduced the severity of root galling and increased the proportion of marketable roots.The severity of root galling decreased and the average weight of the marketable roots increased with an increase in all the composts when supplemented at rates from 5 to 30%.CBR- and SCR-supplemented pot soils also inhibited the nematodes,but CBR and SCR applied to the soil had a phytotoxic effect and inhibited balloonflower growth.Supplementing field soil with the composts reduced the severity of root galling and the populations of southern root-knot nematodes in the soil.CBRCT and SCRCT clearly enhanced the average weight of the marketable roots by 30.45 and 26.64%,respectively.Continuous supplementation with CBRCT or SCRCT in the same field significantly enhanced the control of the root-knot nematode,and the populations of nematodes continued to decrease with second inoculations.The populations of total Trichoderma spp.were distinctly enhanced and were maintained at

  1. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  2. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  3. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program models rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and other water pathways to estimate how much water builds up above each landfill liner. It can incorporate data on vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, slopes, etc.

  4. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  5. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  6. Lightweight and Compostable Fiberboard for the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    coatings that are both re-pulpable and recyclable adding a new avenue of recovery for military logistics, as well as for the commercial market . 0 500...time, the compost was hand-mixed to ensure that anaerobic microenvironments did not develop. Daily and cumulative CO2 production (total and net) were

  7. Compost: The Rot Thing for Our Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Fred; Fucigna, Carolee

    2013-01-01

    Fred Estes is a science teacher and lower school science coordinator at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Carolee Fucigna is a prekindergarten teacher at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Their year in the classroom regularly begins with starting a compost pile that serves as a focus for classroom research and science…

  8. Compost degradation and growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive structures of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, form a high quality food source. Its mushrooms are cultivated on straw based compost that is rich in microbes. A. bisporus primarily degrades lignin during its vegetative growth while plant cell wall carbohydrates are primarily

  9. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  10. Compost: The Rot Thing for Our Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Fred; Fucigna, Carolee

    2013-01-01

    Fred Estes is a science teacher and lower school science coordinator at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Carolee Fucigna is a prekindergarten teacher at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Their year in the classroom regularly begins with starting a compost pile that serves as a focus for classroom research and science…

  11. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  12. Compost helpt onkruid de wereld uit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, van D.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    De aanpak van zaad afdekken met mulch om onkruid te onderdrukken is in een eigentijds jasje gehesen. Er wordt nu compost door de grond gewerkt, eventueel gecombineerd met zaaien. De ervaringen zijn tot nu toe niet verkeerd, aldus Derk van Balen van DLV Plant

  13. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Basil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  14. Marketing Specialization in the Sanitary-Veterinary Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Prejmerean

    2006-01-01

    Public health and food safety are main consumer rights in the European Union. Sanitary standards related to animal health, animal welfare, food production are developed and standardizEditura The objective is to detect, diagnose and control animal diseases and to have a safe food chain. Although the input of the animal health industry is low in the agricultural production, it allows European farmers to produce high quality meat and dairy products, minimise environmental impact. Romania as a fu...

  15. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  16. Investigation of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, H; Fernandes, L; Tezel, F H

    2008-05-01

    An investigation into the use of organic, inorganic and synthetic adsorbents for the pretreatment of landfill leachate, generated by the City of Ottawa Trail Road Landfill, was carried out. The purpose of this project was to reduce the concentration of contaminants in order to meet the local Sewer Use By-Laws, prior to transporting the leachate from the generating site to the local municipal sewage treatment plant, and thereby reducing the disposal fees. Peat moss, compost, clinoptilolite, basalt and two types of activated carbon (DSR-A and F400) were investigated to determine the adsorption capacity for contaminants from leachate. Kinetic studies were also performed. The results based on batch adsorption isotherms show that peat moss has the highest adsorption capacity for boron (B) and barium (Ba), compared with the other adsorbents. Also peat moss has good removals of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), but these are lower than the removals obtained with activated carbon. Because of its relatively low cost and higher adsorption of B and Ba, peat moss was selected as the filter media for the column studies. The treated leachate was tested for B, Ba, TKN, carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD5) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The breakthrough curves for B and Ba showed the effectiveness of peat moss in removing these contaminants.

  17. Evaluation of aerated biofilter systems for microbial methane oxidation of poor landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrichs, R; Widmann, R

    2006-01-01

    In the long-term, landfills are producing landfill gas (LFG) with low calorific values. Therefore, the utilization of LFG in combined heat and power plants (CHP) is limited to a certain period of time. A feasible method for LFG treatment is microbial CH(4) oxidation. Different materials were tested in actively aerated lab-scale bio-filter systems with a volume of 0.167 m(3). The required oxygen for the microbial CH(4) oxidation was provided through perforated probes, which distributed ambient air into the filter material. Three air input levels were installed along the height of the filter, each of them adjusted to a particular flow rate. During the tests, stable degradation rates of around 28 g/(m(3) h) in a fine-grained compost material were observed at a CH(4) inlet concentration of 30% over a period of 148 days. Compared with passive (not aerated) tests, the CH(4) oxidation rate increased by a factor of 5.5. Therefore, the enhancement of active aeration on the microbial CH(4) oxidation was confirmed. At a O(2)/CH(4) ratio of 2.5, nearly 100% of the CH(4) load was decomposed. By lowering the ratio from 2.5 to 2, the efficiency fell to values from 88% to 92%. By varying the distribution to the three air input levels, the CH(4) oxidation process was spread more evenly over the filter volume.

  18. Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, Igor; Andreas, Lale; Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl(-), N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two-three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato

    2016-11-01

    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  20. Drum composting of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Khwairakpam, Meena; Kazmi, A A

    2012-01-01

    The high initial C/N ratio (> 30) found in Indian municipal solid waste (MSW) leads to more time required for composting (> 3 months), with poor-quality compost production. Therefore, the effects of MSW amended with cattle manure (trial 1) and tree leaves (trial 2) were compared with unamended MSW (control) in a rotary drum composter. The initial C/N ratios of trial 1 and trial 2 were kept at 22, as compared to 32 for the MSW control sample. It was observed that trial 1 produced high-quality and stable compost within 20 days. It showed higher final total nitrogen (2.2%), final total phosphorus (3.2 g/kg) and low electrical conductivity (2.7 dS/m). At the end of 20 days, higher degradation caused lower final oxygen uptake rate (OUR) (1.8 mg/g volatile solids (VS)/day), final CO2 evolution (1.0 mg/g VS/day) and final C/N ratio (7.8). Trial 2 produced good-quality and stable compost resulting in 1.9% of total nitrogen, 2.7% of total phosphorus and low OUR (2.0 mg/g VS/day), CO2 evolution (1.5 mg/g VS/day) and C/N ratio (10.1) after 20 days ofcomposting. However, the control sample with an initial C/N ratio of 32 showed higher OUR (3.6 mg/g VS/day) and CO2 evolution (2.6 mg/g VS/day) comprising a lower concentration of total nitrogen (1.6%) and total phosphorus (2.3 g/kg), which indicated an unstable and low-quality product as compared to trials 1 and 2. Therefore, results showed that the characteristics of MSW amended with cattle manure and tree leaves significantly influence the compost quality and process dynamics in a rotary drum composter.