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Sample records for sanitary landfill leachate

  1. Combined Treatment of Old Sanitary Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Orescanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate presents hardly treatable, highly complex and very toxic environmental effluent originated in the municipal solid waste degradation process. Although, numerous treatment methods were developed so far, none of them alone could achieve permissible limits of the primary pollutants to discharge into natural recipients. The current study aimed to develop and apply the process to treat landfill leachate by simultaneous application of electrochemical methods, ultrasound, electromagnetic field and ozonation to achieve the legal criteria for its discharge into natural recipient and minimize its adverse environmental impacts. For this purpose, old landfill leachate was taken from the Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia sanitary landfill. Prior to the treatment, the leachate was supplemented with NaCl (2 g/L and subjected to simultaneous treatment with stainless steel electrode plates, ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field. After 45 minutes, stainless steel electrode plates were replaced by iron electrodes and treated for another 10 minutes followed by 15 minutes of the treatment with aluminum electrode plates. Ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field were also applied during Fe and Al electrode treatment. Finally, the electrodes were removed and the suspension was mixed with ozone for another 30 minutes and allowed to settle for an hour. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiency for the turbidity, color, suspended solids, ammonium, phosphates and heavy metals was 99% or higher, while the removal of COD was 97%. All the measured parameters in the treated leachate were lower compared to upper permissible limit for discharge into natural recipient.

  2. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  3. Improved sanitary landfill design using recirculation of anaerobically treated leachates: generation of advanced design criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Schiappacasse,María Cristina; Palma,Juan; Poirrier,Paola; Ruiz-Filippi,Gonzalo; Chamy,Rolando

    2010-01-01

    In Latin Americ a, the most accepted disposal systems for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are landfills, which nowadays have low rates of stabilization. The objective of this study was to develop design criteria for sanitary landfills which lead to a reduction in the stabilization times of MSW, based on experiment results obtain from a pre-pilot scale operation of two sanitary landfills (0.5 Ton), one with recirculation of leachates treated in an anaerobic digester and the other with recirculatio...

  4. Treatment of sanitary landfill leachates in degassing gas domes. A low-cost pretreatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    The paper abstracted suggests the purification of leachates from sanitary landfills in packed bed reactors integrated into the landfill. The packed bed reactors of trickling filters will at the same time serve as degassing gabions. Experiences gained in the operation of a pilot plant are discussed in detail. The results obtained prove the procedure to be a feasible, effective and low-cost solution.

  5. Effects of supplement with sanitary landfill leachate in gas exchange of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Junior, Francisco H; Freitas, Valdineia S; Mesquita, Rosilene O; Braga, Brennda B; Barbosa, Rifandreo M; Martins, Kaio; Gondim, Franklin A

    2017-10-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is one of the major problems arising from disposal of urban waste. Sanitary landfill leachate may, however, have use in agriculture. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze initial plant growth and gas exchange in sunflower seedlings supplemented with sanitary landfill leachate and subjected to drought stress through variables of root fresh mass (RFM), shoot fresh mass (SFM), total fresh mass (TFM), relative chlorophyll content (CL), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (A), ratio of internal to external CO 2 concentration (Ci/Ca),water use efficiency (EUA), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), and electron transport rate (ETR). The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 (irrigated and non-irrigated) × 4 (sand, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 organic fertilizer, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate, and sand + 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate) factorial with five replicates. Under drought stress conditions, leachate treatment supplemented with 100 kg N ha -1 exhibited higher plant fresh weights than those of the treatment containing 150 kg N ha -1 . Increases in fresh mass in plant treatments supplemented with 100 and 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate were related to higher photosynthetic rates.

  6. The organic geochemistry of a sanitary landfill leachate plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. F.; Tessmann, J. S.; Plotz, P. E.; Reinhard, M.

    1986-02-01

    Leachate from the North Bay municipal landfill has contaminated an unconfined, sandy aquifer throughout the 700 m flow system from the site to a discharge zone at a creek. The major organic contaminants identified are aromatic hydrocarbons, especially substituted benzenes. The high groundwater velocity of about 75 m yr -1 and the low organic sorption properties of the sand have permitted non-transformed contaminants to spread throughout the total flow system. There is considerable temporal and spatial variability in groundwater chemistry. Most of the aqueous organic carbon has a nominal molecular weight of anarobic segment of the flow system 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene are equally persistent, but in the final, less anaerobic segment, the former appears to be degraded more rapidly than the latter. Contaminant distributions in aquifers reflect the results of a number of processes integrated in a complex manner and so are difficult to interpret in terms of specific processes. However, they do provide evidence for what processes are most significant in real groundwater systems and they will also provide critical tests of how well laboratory-derived information relates to real groundwater contamination situations.

  7. Characterization of sludge generated from the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with tannin-based coagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Taluana Delakis Recanello; Amanda Shizuka Fujimura; Carlos de Barros Junior; Lucila Akiko Nagashima

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the sludge resulting from the leachate treatment generated at sanitary landfill with tannin-based coagulant, denominated Tanfloc SG® supplied by TANAC SA Company. The effluent treatment was performed at pH 7.4 and [Tanfloc SG] = 2700 mg/L, considered as optimum condition in COD and turbidity removal, however. Metal fractionation chemical analyses were done through simple and sequential extractions, with results indicating the solid residue is constit...

  8. Sanitary landfill leachate as a source of nutrients on the initial growth of sunflower plants

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    Francisco H. Nunes Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under different concentrations of sanitary landfill leachate, considering the feasibility of its use as source of nutrients for agricultural production. Biometric and vigor variables were analyzed through the measurements of collar diameter, shoot height, number of leaves and shoot and root fresh and dry matters, from January to February 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme: five leachate concentrations (0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg N ha-1 x four harvest periods (14, 21, 25 and 29 days after sowing, with five replicates each containing two plants. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression, and the results of the last harvest (29 DAS were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The use of sanitary landfill leachate increased all analyzed variables in sunflower plants when compared to the control plants (without leachate, especially in the treatment of 100 kg N ha-1. There was no inhibitory effect of the leachate on the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under adopted experimental conditions.

  9. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

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    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  10. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  11. Characterization of sludge generated from the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with tannin-based coagulant

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    Taluana Delakis Recanello

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the sludge resulting from the leachate treatment generated at sanitary landfill with tannin-based coagulant, denominated Tanfloc SG® supplied by TANAC SA Company. The effluent treatment was performed at pH 7.4 and [Tanfloc SG] = 2700 mg/L, considered as optimum condition in COD and turbidity removal, however. Metal fractionation chemical analyses were done through simple and sequential extractions, with results indicating the solid residue is constituted by 29% of amorphous oxide, 28% of final residue, 22% of crystalline oxide and 21% of exchangeable fraction. The leaching tests have shown the sludge originated by Tanfloc SG® treatment is classified as Class I residue - considered dangerous, according to Brazilian legislation (NBR 10.004/2004 - ABNT, indicating that such residues need to be treated and must be disposed in industrial landfills, for being a hazardous material due to its toxicity.

  12. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

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    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  13. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  14. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  15. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm; Giacobbo, Alexandre; Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm −2 , 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment

  16. Leachates control in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes in Gipuzkoa; Control de lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos urbanos de Gipuzkoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martin, M.A.; Antiguedad Auzmendi, I.

    1998-12-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the leachates from seven sanitary landfills in Gipuzkoa has been studied. Flow rate, temperature and electric conductivity were monitored on line in some cases too. HELP model and other classic methods were applicated to calculate exactly the water balance. The authors conclude suggesting that these studies are essentials to know if the landfills are really sanitary landfills. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. Effects of ferric ions on the catalytic ozonation process on sanitary landfill leachates

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    Messias Borges Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leachates exhibiting an unstable ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD of approximately 0.45 are typical of new landfills in the City of Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. Although the organic matter portion is bio-treatable, the presence of refractory leached organic material requires unconventional effluent-treatment processes. Leachate treatment with ozone oxidation, in the presence of ferric ions, acts as catalyst in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ozone was obtained by corona-discharge from high-purity O2 gas. The treatment was performed in natura in a jacketed borosilicate glass reactor containing 900 ml of leachate. The analyzed response variable was expressed as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. In order to determine the optimal proportions to produce the greatest degradation rate for organic materials, variations in experimental O2 flow-fed to the generator, the Fe(iii concentration, and the output of the ozonator were conducted over two experimental runs. Experimental models showed a DOC degradation on the order of 81.25%.

  18. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

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    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  19. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

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    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  1. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.L.; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m 3 ha -1 yr -1 . However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios

  2. Organic halogens in landfill leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, C.; Christensen, J. B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke

    2000-01-01

    Using a group parameter, total organic halogens (TOX), high TOX concentrations were found in leachates and leachate contaminated groundwaters at two Danish mixed sanitary and hazardous waste sites. With commonly used screening procedures for organic contaminants, the individual halogenated organi...

  3. EFFECT OF SULFATE LOADING RATE AND ORGANIC LOADING RATE ON ANAEROBIC BAFFLED REACTORS USED FOR TREATMENT OF SANITARY LANDFILL LEACHATES

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    O. Burbano-Figueroa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study investigated the effect of organic loading rate (OLR and sulfate loading rate (SLR on landfill leachate treatment by a lab-scale anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR. Landfill leachate contained a concentration of organic matter between 3966 and 5090 mg COD.L-1 and no detectable amounts of sulfate. Reactors were started-up by feeding them with iron-sulfate at a SLR of 0.05 g SO42-.L-1.day-1 (4 weeks. Factorial design and response surface techniques were used to evaluate and optimize the effects of these operating variables on COD removal. ABRs were operated at OLRs ranging from 0.30 up to 6.84 g COD.L-1.day-1 by changes in influent volumetric flow. SO42- was added to the influent at a SRL from 0.06 to 0.13 g SO42-.L-1.day-1. The highest value of COD removal (66% was reached at an OLR of 3.58 g COD.L-1.day-1 and SLR of 0.09 g SO4-2.L-1.day-1 with a COD/SO4-2 ratio of 40. Under these conditions sulfate is mainly used for molecular hydrogen consumption while organic matter is preferentially degraded via methanogesis.

  4. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  5. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃ - removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  6. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  7. Sanitary landfill liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  8. Treatment of landfill leachate using ASBR combined with zeolite adsorption technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chi Kim; Seow, Ta Wee; Neoh, Chin Hong; Md Nor, Muhamad Hanif; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Ware, Ismail; Mat Sarip, Siti Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most common way to dispose solid urban waste; however, improper landfill management may pose serious environmental threats through discharge of high strength polluted wastewater also known as leachate. The treatment of landfill leachate to fully reduce the negative impact on the environment, is nowadays a challenge. In this study, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was proposed for the treatment of locally obtained real landfill leachate with initial ammoni...

  9. Polyfluoroalkyl compounds in landfill leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jan; Ahrens, Lutz; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are widely used in industry and consumer products. These products could end up finally in landfills where their leachates are a potential source for PFCs into the aqueous environment. In this study, samples of untreated and treated leachate from 22 landfill sites in Germany were analysed for 43 PFCs. ΣPFC concentrations ranged from 31 to 12,819 ng/L in untreated leachate and 4-8060 ng/L in treated leachate. The dominating compounds in untreated leachate were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (mean contribution 27%) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (24%). The discharge of PFCs into the aqueous environment depended on the cleaning treatment systems. Membrane treatments (reverse osmosis and nanofiltrations) and activated carbon released lower concentrations of PFCs into the environment than cleaning systems using wet air oxidation or only biological treatment. The mass flows of ΣPFCs into the aqueous environment ranged between 0.08 and 956 mg/day. - The first comprehensive survey of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in landfill leachates.

  10. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... are relatively narrow and do not in terms of width exceed the width of the landfill. The concept of redox zones being present in the plume has been confirmed by the reported composition of the leachate contaminated groundwater at several landfills and constitutes an important framework for understanding...... in a few cases. Apparently, observations in actual plumes indicate more extensive degradation than has been documented in the laboratory. The behavior of cations in leachate plumes is strongly influenced by exchange with the sediment, although the sediment often is very coarse and sandy. Ammonium seems...

  11. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  12. A comparative study of the leachates produced by anaerobic digestion in a pilot plant and at a sanitary landfill in Asturias, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, J.R.; Pelaez, L.C.; Maison, E.M.; Andres, H.S. [Univ. of Oviedo, Higher School of Industrial and Computing Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Asturias (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Leachates produced in a simulated landfill pilot plant were compared with those produced at the Zoreda landfill in Asturias, Spain. Three loads of different amounts of municipal solid waste (MSW) were added to the pilot plant at different stages, thus forming consecutive layers. Up to the present, approximately 3,333,000 t (metric tons) of MSW have been deposited in the landfill in 2.5 m high layers which are covered with soil from the surrounding area. The organic load of the leachates as COD decreased with time in both systems from very high initial values to relatively low ones by the end of the study, although they were higher in the actual landfill (approximately 4g as opposed to 1.5 g O{sub 2} dm{sup 3} in the pilot plant). The pH decreased initially to values close to 6, but then increased to around 8. Ammoniacal-N (ammoniacal nitrogen) concentrations were high in both systems whereas metal concentrations were low. (au)

  13. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  14. Review of existing landfill leachate production models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of water resources is a fundamental consideration in managing landfill operations. Landfill sites should be designed and operated so as to control leachate production and hence minimize the risk of surface and ground water pollution. A further important development is the use of computer models to estimate the production of leachate from landfill sites. It is revealed from the literature that a number of landfill leachate management model lave been development in recent years. These models allow different engineering schemes to be evaluated and are essential tools for design and operation managements of modern landfills. This paper describes a review of such models mainly focused on their theory, practicability, data requirements, suitability to real situation and usefulness. An evaluation of these models identifies. (author)

  15. Leachate generation from landfill in a semi-arid climate: A qualitative and quantitative study from Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, Youssef; Fellner, Johann; Zairi, Moncef

    2017-09-01

    Despite initiatives for enhanced recycling and waste utilization, landfill still represents the dominant disposal path for municipal solid waste (MSW). The environmental impacts of landfills depend on several factors, including waste composition, technical barriers, landfill operation and climatic conditions. A profound evaluation of all factors and their impact is necessary in order to evaluate the environmental hazards emanating from landfills. The present paper investigates a sanitary landfill located in a semi-arid climate (Tunisia) and highlights major differences in quantitative and qualitative leachate characteristics compared to landfills situated in moderate climates. Besides the qualitative analysis of leachate samples, a quantitative analysis including the simulation of leachate generation (using the HELP model) has been conducted. The results of the analysis indicate a high load of salts (Cl, Na, inorganic nitrogen) in the leachate compared to other landfills. Furthermore the simulations with HELP model highlight that a major part of the leachate generated originates form the water content of waste.

  16. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Simulação e avaliação do desempenho hidrológico da drenagem horizontal de percolado em aterro sanitário Leachate horizontal drainage hydrologic performance evaluation and simulation in sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Capelo Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da quantidade de percolado gerado em aterros sanitários continua sendo uma tarefa difícil, principalmente no semi-árido nordestino onde predominam caracteríticas meteorológicas e geológicas bem peculiares. O programa HELP (avaliação do comportamento hidrológico em aterros sanitários, desenvolvido por Schroder et al (1984, foi utilizado na simulação de várias configurações de drenagem de fundo. Aplicou-se ao modelo, dados meteorológicos e de solos da região onde está o aterro sanitário de Caucaia (ASMOC, a qual é representativa do semi-árido nordestino. Três características da drenagem de fundo foram variadas (configuração da drenagem, inclinação de fundo e adição de uma camada drenante com alta permeabilidade com o objetivo de avaliar a altura da coluna de percolado, a quantidade de percolado infiltrado no solo e o volume coletado para tratamento. Nas trincheiras sem camada drenante, o aumento da inclinação de fundo e a alteração da configuração dos drenos tiveram pouca influência sobre as variáveis estudadas. A adição da camada drenante proporcionou uma redução significativa da altura da coluna e na infiltração de percolado no solo, mostrando que é um componente fundamental para o bom funcionamento do sistema de drenagem horizontal em aterros sanitários.Leachate quantification in sanitary landfills has always been a difficult task for designers. In the semi-arid northeast of Brazil, where meteorological and geological characteristics are very peculiar, this task becomes even more complicated. With the aid of the computer program HELP-Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance developed by Schroeder et al (1984, and using local meteorological and geological data, various scenarios were simulated altering trench bottom inclination, drainage system configurations, and adding a layer with high hydraulic conductivity. With those changes, leachate head accumulated in the waste, leachate

  18. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground...... environment of an informal landfill for municipal solid waste in Beijing. We hypothesize that every location has a specific resistivity resulting from the leachate. We use the membership function of fuzzy mathematics to quantitatively represent the pollution of the underground environment in the sanitary...... landfill. The results are consistent with borehole data....

  19. Arsenic speciation in municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic species in municipal landfill leachates (MLL) were investigated by HPLC-DRC-ICPMS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Various arsenic species including arsenate (iAs(V)), arsenite (iAs(III)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), as well as sulfur-containing organoarsenic species were detected. Two sulfur-containing arsenic species in a MLL were positively identified as dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) by comparing their molecular ions, fragment patterns and sulfur/arsenic ratios with in-house synthesised thiol-organoarsenic compounds. The findings demonstrated the potential for transformation of DMA(V) to DMDTA(V) and DMMTA(V) in a DMA(V)-spiked MLL in a landfill leachate environment.

  20. Vinča landfill leachate characteristics prediction by the leaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Nataša D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the newly implemented waste management policy in European Union countries, sanitary landfilling constitutes the fourth and the least preferred of the alternative management options for the disposal of solid urban wastes. Landfills generate emissions over long periods, often longer than a lifetime. The longest lasting emission is leachate: leachate production and management is now recognized as one of the greatest problems associated with the environmentally sound operation of sanitary landfills. These liquid wastes can cause considerable pollution problems by contacting the surrounding soil, ground or surface waters and, are therefore considered major pollution hazards unless precautionary measures are implemented. Landfill leachate characterization is a critical factor in establishing a corresponding effective management strategy or treatment process. This paper summarizes leachate quality indicators, and investigates the temporal variation of leachate quality from municipal solid waste. The toxicity of leachates from the municipal solid waste landfill "Vinca" in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, was characterized using toxicity characteristics leaching procedures (TCLP. The "Vinca" landfill was established in 1978 as one of several municipal landfills. Since the 1990-ies the "Vinca" landfill has been the only operating landfill servicing the Belgrade Metropolitan area, the biggest city in Serbia, with 1,576,124 inhabitants in the larger-city area, and 1,273,651 inhabitants in the inner-city area. The total average amount of solid wastes deposited in the landfill is estimated to be 1100 tons/day. The landfill site is not lined and the tributary flows through the centre of the site-in some places directly under the mass of refuse. No consideration has been given to the protection of ground waters, surface runoff or drainage. Local authorities plan to expand the landfill by 0.4 km2 to a total of 1.3 km Chemical analysis was performed on the

  1. Occurrence, characteristics and leakage of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Raw leachate samples were collected from various municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in a densely populated city in North China to measure the levels and compositional patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachate. The total concentration of PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 351.2 ng/L, with an average of 73.0 ng/L. BDE-209 dominated the congeners in most of the samples, followed by BDE-47 and -99. Higher PBDEs concentrations were found in leachate from younger landfill facilities in the urban area. Pearson correlation analysis implied a potential dependence of the PBDEs level on landfill age, suspended solids and dissolved organic carbon, while the results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested potential origins and transportation of PBDEs in leachate. The Monte Carlo method was adopted to estimate the annual leakage of PBDEs into the underground environment nationwide, based on two main scenarios: simple landfills with inadequate liner systems and composite-lined landfills with defective geomembranes. -- Highlights: • Levels and congener patterns of PBDEs in landfill leachate from China are measured. • Pollution loading of PBDEs in leachate is identified through comparative analysis. • Leachate properties perform moderate impact on the occurrence of PBDEs. • Both commercial and decomposition origins contribute to lower brominated congeners. • Leakage rate of PBDEs due to inadequate liner is estimated nationwide. -- This paper determined the levels and distribution of PBDEs in MSW landfill leachate and predicted the leakage of PBDEs from sanitary landfills into the underground environment across China

  2. Treatment of landfill leachate using ASBR combined with zeolite adsorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chi Kim; Seow, Ta Wee; Neoh, Chin Hong; Md Nor, Muhamad Hanif; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Ware, Ismail; Mat Sarip, Siti Hajar

    2016-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most common way to dispose solid urban waste; however, improper landfill management may pose serious environmental threats through discharge of high strength polluted wastewater also known as leachate. The treatment of landfill leachate to fully reduce the negative impact on the environment, is nowadays a challenge. In this study, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was proposed for the treatment of locally obtained real landfill leachate with initial ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 1800 and 3200 mg/L, respectively. ASBR could remove 65 % of ammoniacal nitrogen and 30 % of COD during seven days of treatment time. Thereafter, an effective adsorbent, i.e., zeolite was used as a secondary treatment step for polishing the ammoniacal nitrogen and COD content that is present in leachate. The results obtained are promising where the adsorption of leachate by zeolite further enhanced the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and COD up to 96 and 43 %, respectively. Furthermore, this combined biological-physical treatment system was able to remove heavy metals, i.e. aluminium, vanadium, chromium, magnesium, cuprum and plumbum significantly. These results demonstrate that combined ASBR and zeolite adsorption is a feasible technique for the treatment of landfill leachate, even considering this effluent's high resistance to treatment.

  3. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill.

  4. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  5. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  6. Leachate Characterization from a Closed Landfill in Air Hitam, Puchong, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fatin Dahlia Mat Salleh; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Leachate, wastewater that was collected from landfill is known to have pungent smell and may impose serious harm to human health and the environment. Air Hitam, Puchong Sanitary Landfill has stopped its land filling operation since December 2006 and is under post-closure maintenance stages. After several years of stopping its operation, a landfill will still produce leachate hence it needs constant monitoring and maintenance. The main aim of this paper was to characterize leachate produced from Air Hitam, Puchong Closed Landfill, according to several important parameters: pH, temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4 -N), total organic carbon (TOC), total solids, volatile organic acids (VOA) and heavy metals content, to determine its suitability in producing methane by identifying its phase. Leachate samples were drawn weekly for a period of 3 months from three different ponds, untreated raw leachate pond 1 and treated leachate pond 2 and 3. Results obtained showed that the average values were around 25 degree Celsius, average pH 8, highest COD reading was 5,248 mg/L, TOC highest at 6,797 mg/L, VOA highest at 1,424 mg/L and ammoniacal content of 3.10 mg/L the highest. (author)

  7. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3–4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate......-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic...... leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007E to 0.013PE and 0.002 to 0.003 PE respectively). The reason for this is that even if the leachate is treated, slight amounts of contaminants are released...

  8. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    The Danish counties have performed numerous investigations of old landfills. These investigations have been presented in several reports, but no comprehensive summary of the findings has been carried out. The objective of this study was to evaluate the typical composition of leachates from old...... smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...... decreased with the age of the landfill, and that the leachate concentrations were lower than found in other similar studies....

  9. Domestic Solid Waste Landfills: Experimental Analysis of Leachate Stripping Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, N. E.; Strelkov, A. K.; Teplykh, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The domestic solid waste (DSW) landfills activity is based on the natural processes of organic substances decomposition through their processing into other substances by micro-organisms. Such micro-organisms can only live in water or, in other words, they exist only in the aquatic environment, both in natural environment and under artificial conditions, e.g. in DSW landfill sites. This paper investigates the problem of DSW landfills leachate preparation for the reuse as irrigation water. Leachate is formed as an inescapable side-product of DSW landfills operation. Leachate is a result of precipitations and artificial irrigation contaminated by substances of microbiological decomposition and destruction of organic substances coming to landfill sites as domestic solid waste. The use of leachate as irrigation water will significantly change the DSW decomposition technology and the safety of landfill sites operations.

  10. Simulated evapotranspiration from a landfill irrigated with landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Evapotranspiration from a landfill area, irrigated with leachate water, was simulated with the SOIL model. Three different types of vegetation (bare soil, grass ley, and willow) were used both with and without irrigation. The highest simulated evapotranspiration (604 mm) during the growing season was found from an irrigated willow stand with a high interception capacity. The lowest evapotranspiration (164 mm) was found from the bare soil. The relatively high evapotranspiration from the willow was probably caused by the high LAI (Leaf Area Index) and the low aerodynamic resistance within the willow stand. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce most of the leakage water from a landfill by irrigation of willow stands. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  11. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  12. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  13. Landfill Leachate Toxicity Removal in Combined Treatment with Municipal Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kalka, J.

    2012-01-01

    Combined treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater was performed in order to investigate the changes of leachate toxicity during biological treatment. Three laboratory A2O lab-scale reactors were operating under the same parameters (Q-8.5–10 L/d; HRT-1.4–1.6 d; MLSS 1.6–2.5 g/L) except for the influent characteristic and load. The influent of reactor I consisted of municipal wastewater amended with leachate from postclosure landfill; influent of reactor II consisted of leachate ...

  14. A Framework for Assessing Uncertainty Associated with Human Health Risks from MSW Landfill Leachate Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Jitendra

    2017-07-01

    Landfilling is a cost-effective method, which makes it a widely used practice around the world, especially in developing countries. However, because of the improper management of landfills, high leachate leakage can have adverse impacts on soils, plants, groundwater, aquatic organisms, and, subsequently, human health. A comprehensive survey of the literature finds that the probabilistic quantification of uncertainty based on estimations of the human health risks due to landfill leachate contamination has rarely been reported. Hence, in the present study, the uncertainty about the human health risks from municipal solid waste landfill leachate contamination to children and adults was quantified to investigate its long-term risks by using a Monte Carlo simulation framework for selected heavy metals. The Turbhe sanitary landfill of Navi Mumbai, India, which was commissioned in the recent past, was selected to understand the fate and transport of heavy metals in leachate. A large residential area is located near the site, which makes the risk assessment problem both crucial and challenging. In this article, an integral approach in the form of a framework has been proposed to quantify the uncertainty that is intrinsic to human health risk estimation. A set of nonparametric cubic splines was fitted to identify the nonlinear seasonal trend in leachate quality parameters. LandSim 2.5, a landfill simulator, was used to simulate the landfill activities for various time slices, and further uncertainty in noncarcinogenic human health risk was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation followed by univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, James W.; Van Stempvoort, Dale R.; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. -- Highlights: • Artificial sweeteners detected at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites. • Concentrations comparable to wastewater even at sites closed for >50 yr. • Saccharin elevated at all sites; potentially diagnostic of landfill impacts. • Potential for age-dating recent (past 2 decades) waste with acesulfame. -- Artificial sweeteners may be useful for tracing landfill leachate contamination and distinguishing it from wastewater impacts

  16. Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates are potential threats for environmental degradation. This study was conducted to determine the leachate quality, to identify the dominant pollutants and to evaluate the leachate pollution potential of an active and closed dumping ground of an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill site in Kolkata, India using leachate pollution index. The results of the physico-chemical and biological analyses of leachate indicated that landfill site was in its methanogenic phase. Among the analysed leachate pollutants, TDS, BOD5, COD, TKN, NH3-N, Cl¯, TCB, Pb, and Hg surpassed the leachate discharge standards for inland surface water as specified by the municipal solid waste (Management and Handling Rules, 2013 for both the dumping grounds. Moreover the concentrations of total Cr and Zn also exceeded the leachate disposal standards for the active dumping ground. The leachate pollution potentialities of both the active and closed dumping grounds were comparable as the overall LPI obtained 34.02 and 31.80 respectively. The overall LPI, LPI organic (LPIor, LPI inorganic (LPIin and LPI heavy metals (LPIhm of both the dumping grounds largely exceeded the LPI and sub-LPI values for treated leachate before disposal to the inland surface water. In terms of the individual pollution rating, total coliform bacteria, TKN, NH3-N and Hg were identified as the dominant pollutants and major contributing factors for the leachate pollution potential.

  17. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the concentration of Cd, Cu and Zn was not detected in the leachate but Fe was found to be in high concentration (184 mg/L) in raw leachate collected from a municipal landfill site. Therefore, the effects of biomass dosage, contact time, pH and agitation speed were observed for optimal adsorption of iron from ...

  18. Treatability of stabilize landfill leachate by using pressmud ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azme, N. N. Mohd; Murshed, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the landfill that contains high concentration of heavy metals, chemicals and nutrient loading. The treatability of these contaminants are complicated since the current treatment technology are costly and site specific. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of stabilized landfill leachate by using waste (pressmud ash) as an absorbent. Pressmud ash was prepared by burning at different temperature from 100 to 700 degree Celsius and test at 24 hours shaking time, pH 8, and 4000 rpm. Leachate samples were collected from municipal solid waste (MSW) Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) and were analyzed for heavy metal, COD, ammonia and colour. This study was performed in two phases i) leachate characteristic, ii) treatability assessment by using pressmud ash. Pressmud was sampled from the sugar mill, Malaysian Sugar Manufacturing (MSM) Sdn Bhd, Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang. The pressmud with 400°C are highly potential material with a low cost which can be a good adsorbent was capable reducing efficiencies of COD (60.76%), ammonia (64.37%) and colour (35.78%) from real wastewater leachate. Pressmud showed good sorption capability. Surface modification with burning greatly enhanced the reducing efficiency of sugar waste based adsorbent with adsorption efficiency.

  19. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  20. Characteristics and biological treatment of leachates from a domestic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste material from urban areas is a major environmental concern and landfill application is a frequent method for waste disposal. The leachate from landfills can, however, negatively affect the surrounding environment. A bioreactor cascade containing submerged biofilms was used to treat newly forme...

  1. A comparison of landfill leachates based on waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Chris M; Townsend, Timothy G

    2017-05-01

    Samples of leachate were collected from fourteen landfills in the state of Florida, United States that contained primarily putrescible waste (municipal solid waste, MSW, and yard waste), MSW incinerator (MSWI) ash, or a combination of both. Assessment of leachates included trace metals, anions, and nutrients in order to create a mass balance of total dissolved solids (TDS). As expected from previously literature, MSW leached a complex matrix of contaminants while MSWI ash leachate TDS was more than 98% metallic salts. The pH of the MSWI ash leachate samples was slightly acidic or neutral in character, which is contradictory to the results commonly reported in the literature. The cause of this is hypothesized to be a short-circuiting of rainfall in the landfill due to low hydraulic conductivities reported in ash landfills. The difference in pH likely contributed to the findings with respect to MSWI ash-characteristic trace metals in leachates such as aluminum. The authors have concluded that the research findings in this study are an indication of the differences between laboratory leachate quality studies and the conditions encountered in the field. In addition, a characterization of organic matter using qualitative and quantitative analyses determined that COD is not an accurate indicator of organic matter in leachates from landfills with a significant fraction of MSWI ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of Leadchate from Army Sanitary Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    C0ONTAINNENT X x X X X COLLECTION SYSTEM LEACHATE TREATMENTxx -PROCESSES A GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS x x x GROUNDWATER RENOVATION TECHNOLOGIES x x x x 28 5 LEACHATE...Horace R. Collins Director Ohio Div. of Geol. Survey Servicio Geologico de P.R. Fountain Square, Bldg. B Dept. de Recursos Naturales Columbus, OH

  3. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  4. Landfill Leachate Toxicity Removal in Combined Treatment with Municipal Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kalka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater was performed in order to investigate the changes of leachate toxicity during biological treatment. Three laboratory A2O lab-scale reactors were operating under the same parameters (Q-8.5–10 L/d; HRT-1.4–1.6 d; MLSS 1.6–2.5 g/L except for the influent characteristic and load. The influent of reactor I consisted of municipal wastewater amended with leachate from postclosure landfill; influent of reactor II consisted of leachate collected from transient landfill and municipal wastewater; reactor III served as a control and its influent consisted of municipal wastewater only. Toxicity of raw and treated wastewater was determinted by four acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Vibrio fischeri, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Landfill leachate increased initial toxicity of wastewater. During biological treatment, significant decline of acute toxicity was observed, but still mixture of leachate and wastewater was harmful to all tested organisms.

  5. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  9. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  11. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  13. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  14. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  15. Leachate characterization and performance evaluation of leachate treatment plant in Cipayung landfill, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerfitriyani, E.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.; Gusniani, I.

    2018-01-01

    The operation of landfill can cause environmental problems due to waste decomposition in the form of leachate production. Cipayung Landfill has a leachate treatment plant using stabilization ponds. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of stabilization ponds at Cipayung Landfill. The data were analyzed based on leachate samples from treatment unit’s influent and effluent under rainy season condition from April to May 2017. The results show the average leachate quality based on parameters of temperature by 34.81°C, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) of 72.33 mg/L, pH of 7.83, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of 3,959.63 mg/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of 6,860 mg/L, Total Nitrogen of 373.33 mg/L, and heavy metal Mercury of 0.0016 mg/L. The treatment plant’s effluent quality exceeds the leachate standard limit based on Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry Law No. 59 of 2016. The results of design evaluation show that the anaerobic pond, facultative pond, and maturation pond system do not meet the design criteria. Therefore, a design improvement is needed to increase the performance of the leachate treatment plant and to ensure that the leachate discharged to water bodies does not exceed the standard limit to prevent contamination of the environment.

  16. Use of ammoniacal nitrogen tolerant microalgae in landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Chan, G Y S; Jiang, B L; Lan, C Y

    2007-01-01

    Two microalgae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas snowiae, were isolated from a high ammonia leachate pond in Li Keng Landfill, Guangzhou, China. Their growth and nutrient removal rates were determined in a serial dilution of landfill leachate under laboratory conditions, and their growth rates were compared with that of a C. pyrenoidosa strain isolated from a clean river. The results indicated the growth of all three algae was inhibited by high leachate concentrations, and the inhibition appears linked to high ammonia (ammoniacal-N670mgL(-1)). Significant amounts of ammoniacal-N, ortho-P and COD in the leachate were removed by the algae, with a positive correlation between algal growth and nutrient consumption. Not enough data are available to conclude that one strain was less inhibited by ammoniacal nitrogen or more effective at treating it. Phytotoxicity of leachate was reduced after algal growth, as demonstrated by a seed germination experiment with Brassica chinensis. The germination rates in 10%, 30% and 50% concentrations of algal-treated leachate were significantly higher than those in the same concentration but algal-free leachate.

  17. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon...... content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  19. Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... Treatment of landfill leachate: Removal of ammonia by struvite formation. CC Camargo1, JR Guimarães1 and AL Tonetti1*. 1School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, FEC/UNICAMP, Avenida Albert Einstein, 951, Cidade Universitária 'Zeferino Vaz',. PO Box 6021, 13083-852, Campinas, SP, ...

  20. Removal of trace elements from landfill leachate by calcite precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Zelená, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Strnad, L.; Coufal, P.; Bezdička, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, 1-3 (2006), s. 28-31 ISSN 0375-6742 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3111402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : landfill leachate * calcite * scavenging Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2006

  1. Treatment of landfill leachate using Solar UV facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation for the treatment of landfill leachate was investigated in this study. The photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out using Zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst and the process was facilitated by ultra violet radiation (UV) from sunlight. Characterisation of the raw ...

  2. Nitrous oxide flux from landfill leachate-sawdust nitrogenous compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C.H.; So, M.K.; Lee, C.M.; Chan, G.Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Composted nitrogenous waste has the potential to produce excessive amounts of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent greenhouse gas that also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. In this laboratory study, sawdust was irrigated with varying amounts of landfill leachate with high NH 4 + -N content (3950 mg l -1 ). Physicochemical properties, including the amount of N 2 O produced, were monitored during the composting process over 28 days. A rapid decline in NH 4 + -N in the first 4 days and increasing NO 3 - -N for 11 days was followed by lower but stabilized levels of available-N, even with repeated leachate irrigation. Less than 0.03% of the leachate-applied N was lost as N 2 O. Higher leachate applications as much as tripled N 2 O production, but this represented a lesser proportion overall of the total nitrogen. Addition of glucose to the composting process had no significant effect on N 2 O production. The derived sawdust-leachate compost supported healthy growth of Sesbania rostrata. It is concluded that compost can be produced from sawdust irrigated with landfill leachate without substantial emission of N 2 O, although excessive flux of N 2 O remains about high application rates over longer time periods. (Author)

  3. Landfill wall revegetation combined with leachate recirculation: a convenient procedure for management of closed landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, G; Barca, E; Cassano, D; Di Iaconi, C; Mascolo, G; Brunetti, G

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable sustainable option to effectively manage the landfill leachate generation. This study presents a simple procedure for the revegetation of the walls of closed landfills, employing the leachate as a fertirrigant. The native plants Lepidium sativum, Lactuca sativa, and Atriplex halimus, which suit the local climate, were chosen for this study in Southern Italy. The methodology was structured into three phases (i) early stage toxicity assessment phase (apical root length and germination tests), (ii) adult plant resistance assessment phase, and (iii) soil properties verification phase. The rationale of the proposed approach was first to look at the distinctive qualities and the potential toxicity in landfill leachates for fertigation purposes. Afterwards, through specific tests, the plants used were ranked in terms of resistance to the aqueous solution that contained leachate. Finally, after long-term irrigation, any possible worsening of soil properties was evaluated. The results demonstrated the real possibility of using blended leachate as a fertigant for the revegetation of the walls of closed landfills. In particular, the plants maintained good health when leachate was blended at concentrations of lower than 25 and 5%, respectively for A. halimus and Lepidium sativum. Irrigation tests showed good resistance of the plants, even at dosages of 112 and 133.5 mm m(-2), at maximum concentrations of 25 and 5%, respectively, for A. halimus and Lepidium sativum. The analysis of the total chlorophyll content and of aerial parts dried weight confirmed the results reported above.

  4. Natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation of landfill leachate management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, X. Y.; Seow, T. W.; Lim, C. K.; Ibrahim, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Landfills used for solid waste management will lead to leachate production. Proper leachate management is highly essential to be paid attention to protect the environment and living organisms’ health and safety. In this study, the remedial strategies used for leachate management were natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation. All treatment samples were treated via 42-days combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment and the treatment efficiency was studied by measuring the removal rate of COD and ammonia nitrogen. In this study, all remedial strategies showed different degrees of contaminants removal. Lowest contaminants removal rate was achieved via bioaugmentation of B. panacihumi strain ZB1, which were 39.4% of COD and 37.6% of ammonia nitrogen removed from the leachate sample. Higher contaminants removal rate was achieved via natural attenuation and biostimulation. Native microbial population was able to remove 41% of COD and 59% of ammonia nitrogen from the leachate sample. The removal efficiency could be further improved via biostimulation to trigger microbial growth and decontamination rate. Through biostimulation, 58% of COD and 51.8% of ammonia nitrogen were removed from the leachate sample. In conclusion, natural attenuation and biostimulation should be the main choice for leachate management to avoid any unexpected impacts due to introduction of exogenous species.

  5. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  9. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varank, Gamze; Demir, Ahmet; Top, Selin; Sekman, Elif; Akkaya, Ebru; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Bilgili, M Sinan

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm+10 cm, k=10(-8)m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm+10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn)+bentonite liner (2 cm)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn)+zeolite liner (2 cm)+compacted clay liner (10 cm, k=10⁻⁸ m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD rem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  11. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, S; Karimi-Jashni, A; Sartaj, M

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD(rem) for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrochemical Characterization of a Tropical, Coastal Aquifer Affected by Landfill Leachate and Seawater Intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, Jubhar C.; Goeltom, Mangihot T.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Straalen, NM; Roling, WFM

    2016-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of landfill leachate and groundwater is affected by not only waste degradation processes, but also by external factors such as the geography of the landfilling site. Knowledge on the fate of landfill leachate in tropical countries will be beneficial for monitoring and regulatory

  13. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  14. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  16. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risk associated with landfills. This chapter provides information about the materials used in the construction of liners and drainage systems, tools to calculate migrations through liners, as well as information about requirements for lining systems in the European Union (EU) and the United States...

  17. Biogeochemical evolution of a landfill leachate plume, Norman, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Böhlke, John Karl; Masoner, Jason R.; Breit, George N.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.

    2011-01-01

    Leachate from municipal landfills can create groundwater contaminant plumes that may last for decades to centuries. The fate of reactive contaminants in leachate-affected aquifers depends on the sustainability of biogeochemical processes affecting contaminant transport. Temporal variations in the configuration of redox zones downgradient from the Norman Landfill were studied for more than a decade. The leachate plume contained elevated concentrations of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) (up to 300 mg/L), methane (16 mg/L), ammonium (650 mg/L as N), iron (23 mg/L), chloride (1030 mg/L), and bicarbonate (4270 mg/L). Chemical and isotopic investigations along a 2D plume transect revealed consumption of solid and aqueous electron acceptors in the aquifer, depleting the natural attenuation capacity. Despite the relative recalcitrance of NVDOC to biodegradation, the center of the plume was depleted in sulfate, which reduces the long-term oxidation capacity of the leachate-affected aquifer. Ammonium and methane were attenuated in the aquifer relative to chloride by different processes: ammonium transport was retarded mainly by physical interaction with aquifer solids, whereas the methane plume was truncated largely by oxidation. Studies near plume boundaries revealed temporal variability in constituent concentrations related in part to hydrologic changes at various time scales. The upper boundary of the plume was a particularly active location where redox reactions responded to recharge events and seasonal water-table fluctuations. Accurately describing the biogeochemical processes that affect the transport of contaminants in this landfill-leachate-affected aquifer required understanding the aquifer's geologic and hydrodynamic framework.

  18. Improvement of landfill leachate biodegradability with ultrasonic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    Full Text Available Landfills leachates are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as pre-treatment to convert initially biorecalcitrant compounds to more readily biodegradable intermediates. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of ultrasonic process on biodegradability improvement. After the optimization by factorial design, the ultrasonic were applied in the treatment of raw leachates using a batch wise mode. For this, different scenarios were tested with regard to power intensities of 70 and 110 W, frequencies of 30, 45 and 60 KHz, reaction times of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and pH of 3, 7 and 10. For determining the effects of catalysts on sonication efficiencies, 5 mg/l of TiO(2 and ZnO have been also used. Results showed that when applied as relatively brief pre-treatment systems, the sonocatalysis processes induce several modifications of the matrix, which results in significant enhancement of its biodegradability. For this reason, the integrated chemical-biological systems proposed here represent a suitable solution for the treatment of landfill leachate samples.

  19. Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds...... are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status...

  20. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  1. Natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes at three Danish sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Tuxen, Nina; Reitzel, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    . The research performed serves as good case studies to conceptualize natural attenuation processes in landfill leachate plumes and also supports the notion that monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may be a possible remediation strategy at landfills. However, landfill leachate plumes challenge traditional......This article provides an overview of comprehensive core and fringe field studies at three Danish landfill sites. The goal of the research activities is to provide a holistic description of core and fringe attenuation processes for xenobiotic organic compounds in landfill leachate plumes...

  2. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  3. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  4. Brain dysfunctions in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage induced by Olusosun and Aba-Eku municipal landfill leachates was investigated in Wistar rats. Male rats were orally exposed to 1–25% concentrations of the leachates for 30 days. Catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations in the brain and serum of rats were evaluated; body and brain weight gain and histopathology were examined. There was significant (p < 0.05 decrease in body weight gain and SOD activity but increase in absolute and relative brain weight gain, MDA concentration and CAT activity in both brain and serum of treated rats. The biochemical parameters, which were more altered in the brain than serum, corroborated the neurologic lesions; neurodegeneration of purkinje cells with loss of dendrites, perineural vacuolations of the neuronal cytoplasm (spongiosis and neuronal necrosis in the brain. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, sulphates, ammonia, chloride and phosphate in the leachate samples were above standard permissible limits. The interactions of the neurotoxic constituents of the leachates induced the observed brain damage in the rats via oxidative damage. This suggests health risk in wildlife and human populations.

  5. Landfill leachate as a mirror of today's disposable society: Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in final leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Final leachates (leachate after storage or treatment processes) from 22 landfills in 12 states were analyzed for 190 pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), which were detected in every sample, with the number of CECs ranging from 1 to 58 (median = 22). In total, 101 different CECs were detected in leachate samples, including 43 prescription pharmaceuticals, 22 industrial chemicals, 15 household chemicals, 12 nonprescription pharmaceuticals, 5 steroid hormones, and 4 animal/plant sterols. The most frequently detected CECs were lidocaine (91%, local anesthetic), cotinine (86%, nicotine degradate), carisoprodol (82%, muscle relaxant), bisphenol A (77%, component of plastics and thermal paper), carbamazepine (77%, anticonvulsant), and N,N-diethyltoluamide (68%, insect repellent). Concentrations of CECs spanned 7 orders of magnitude, ranging from 2.0 ng/L (estrone) to 17 200 000 ng/L (bisphenol A). Concentrations of household and industrial chemicals were the greatest (∼1000-1 000 000 ng/L), followed by plant/animal sterols (∼1000-100 000 ng/L), nonprescription pharmaceuticals (∼100-10 000 ng/L), prescription pharmaceuticals (∼10-10 000 ng/L), and steroid hormones (∼10-100 ng/L). The CEC concentrations in leachate from active landfills were significantly greater than those in leachate from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.05). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.01) in untreated leachate compared with treated leachate. The CEC concentrations were significantly greater in leachate disposed to wastewater treatment plants from modern lined landfills than in leachate released to groundwater from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.04). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p = 0.06) in the fresh leachate (leachate before storage or treatment) reported in a previous study compared with the final leachate sampled for the present study.

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate using a solar destillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Thomé Jucá

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research was to build, develop, evaluate and optimize a system of natural evaporation of leachate, to reduce the organic loads. Physical and chemical microbiological parameters were monitored during the experiment to evaluate the system performance. The solar radiation and rainfall influence on the evaporator was investigated. The results showed 100% reduction of the turbidity, color and total solids. The values of BOD, COD, thermotolerants and total coliforms in the treated effluent had concentrations that meet the Brazilian Federal Environmental Council (CONAMA standards. Based on the results, it was concluded that the natural solar system was adequate for small landfills.

  7. Influence of dosage, pH and contact time in stabilized landfill leachate treatment using ozone/zirconium tetrachloride catalytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Nor Farhana; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Leachate is a critical problem of sanitary landfills because it contains high organic matter and hazardous compounds that can generate negative environmental effects. The high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of the leachate necessitates its treatment before it can be released to the water body. Thus, an investigation into the performance of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was conducted using a combination of ozone (O3) with zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) as catalyst in stabilized landfill leachate treatment. Such leachate was collected from the Alor Pongsu Landfill site (APLS), Perak, Malaysia. COD and color parameter were used as indicators to examine the effect of O3/ZrCl4 dosage, pH, and contact time. The experiment was run under gas flow rate of 1,000 mL/min±10% and temperature below 15 °C. The maximum removal obtained for COD and color were 88% and 100%, respectively. This outcome was achieved at 27 g/m3 ozone dosage, pH 6, 90 min reaction time, and dosage ratio of 1:2 (COD g: ZrCl4 g). The reaction rate constant (k) was 0.2364 min-1 and followed pseudo first order. Thus, given the efficiency of the O3/ZrCl4 mixture for the remediation of stabilized landfill leachate, a new alternative method in leachate industrial treatment was identified.

  8. Assessment of the Spatial Variability in Leachate Migration from an Old Landfill Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Winther, Pia

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of the pollution of groundwater from old landfills have in most cases focused on delineating the pollution plume and only in very few cases on the landfill as a source to groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas. Spatial variations in leachate composition may have...... great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. Grindsted landfill in Denmark was investigated by sampling leachate beneath the landfill and in groundwater at the borders of the landfill. A pronounced variability in leachate quality and leakage patterns from...... the landfill was observed. Also variations in local groundwater flow directions were found. These observations are very important for delineation of the groundwater pollution and for proper choice of remedial action activities, related both to the plume and to the landfill....

  9. Impact of Leachate Discharge from Cipayung Landfill on Water Quality of Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerfitriyani, Eki; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The landfill operation can cause environmental problems due to solid waste decomposition in the form of leachate. The evaluation of environmental impacts related with solid waste landfilling is needed to ensure that leachate discharge to water bodies does not exceed the standard limit to prevent contamination of the environment. This study aims to analyze the impact of leachate discharge from Cipayung Landfill on water quality of Pesanggrahan River. The data were analyzed based on leachate samples taken from influent and effluent treatment unit, and river water samples taken from upstream, stream at leachate discharge, and downstream. All samples were taken three times under rainy season condition from April to May 2017. The results show the average leachate quality temperature is 34,81 °C, TSS 72.33 mg/L, pH 7.83, BOD 3,959.63 mg/L, COD 6,860 mg/L, TN 373.33 mg/L, Hg 0.0016 mg/L. The BOD5/COD ratio 0.58 indicated that leachate characteristics was biodegradable and resemble intermediate landfill due to the mixing of young leachate and old leachate. The effluent of leachate treatment plant exceeds the leachate standard limit for BOD, COD, and TN parameters. Statistical results from independent T-test showed significant differences (p<0,05) between upstream and downstream influenced with leachate discharge for DO parameter.

  10. Generation of leachate and the flow regime in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, D.

    1998-06-01

    In this thesis the generation of leachate and the presence and movement of water in landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) is investigated. The precipitation-leachate discharge relationship for landfills was found to be dominated by evaporation, accumulation in the soil cover, accumulation in the solid waste and fast gravitational flow in a network of channels. The flow regime is governed by the heterogeneity of the internal geometry of the landfill, which is characterized by a discrete structure, significant horizontal stratification, structural voids, impermeable surfaces, and low capillarity. Also the boundary conditions, that is the water input pattern, has shown to be important for the flow process. Based on this, landfilled waste can be conceptualized as a dual domain medium, consisting of a channel domain and a matrix domain. The matrix flow is slow and diffusive, whereas the channel flow is assumed to be driven solely by gravity and to take place as a thin viscous film on solid surfaces. A kinematic wave model for unsaturated infiltration and internal drainage in the channel domain is presented. The model employs a two-parameter power expression as macroscopic flux law. Solutions were derived for the cases when water enters the channel domain laterally and when water enters from the upper end. The model parameters were determined and interpreted in terms of the internal geometry of the waste medium by fitting the model to one set of infiltration and drainage data derived from a large scale laboratory experiment under transient conditions. The model was validated using another set of data from a sequence of water input events and was shown to perform accurately. A solute transport model was developed by coupling a simple piston flux expression and a mobile-immobile conceptualization of the transport domains with the water flow model. Breakthrough curves derived from steady and transient tracer experiments where interpreted with the model. The transport

  11. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  12. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, Stewart M.; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. ► Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. ► We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. ► Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. ► The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m 2 /person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country’s total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1–3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48

  13. Radiation decomposition of humic substances in landfill disposal leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    1979-01-01

    The leachate generated from landfill contains humic substances such as humic acid and fluvic acid. It shows, in general, high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD), and colors in dark brown. When the leachate collected on the No. 15 landfill in Tokyo Bay was irradiated by γ-rays from a 60 Co source in bubbling air, the total organic carbon (TOC) decreased with increasing dose and the brown color was bleached. The effects of pH, flow rate, and dose rate on the decrease of TOC, the variations of UV spectrum, and the formation of carbon dioxide by the irradiation were examined. The decreasing rate of TOC increased with an increase of the flow rate up to -- 11/min and showed a maximum value in the region of pH 4 - 6. It was also dependent on the dose rate and increased with a decrease of the dose rate. The radiation chemical yield, G(-TOC), reached 162 at low dose rate of 1.3 x 10 4 rad/h. This result suggests that a radiation-induced chain reaction occurred. The amount of TOC decreased was almost equal to that of carbon dioxide formed. This result shows that the organic substances were decomposed by irradiation to carbon dioxide as a final product and it was ejected from the solution. (author)

  14. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  15. The Comet Assay for the Evaluation of Genotoxic Potential of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Widziewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic assessment of landfill leachate before and after biological treatment was conducted with two human cell lines (Me45 and NHDF and Daphnia magna somatic cells. The alkali version of comet assay was used to examine genotoxicity of leachate by DNA strand breaks analysis and its repair dynamics. The leachate samples were collected from Zabrze landfill, situated in the Upper Silesian Industrial District, Poland. Statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallice ANOVA rank model were observed between DNA strand breaks in cells incubated with leachate before and after treatment (P<0.001. Nonparametric Friedman ANOVA confirmed time-reliable and concentration-reliable cells response to leachate concentration. Examinations of chemical properties showed a marked decrease in leachate parameters after treatment which correlate to reduced genotoxicity towards tested cells. Obtained results demonstrate that biological cotreatment of leachate together with municipal wastewater is an efficient method for its genotoxic potential reduction; however, treated leachate still possessed genotoxic character.

  16. Transformation of metals speciation in a combined landfill leachate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanyu; Zhou Shaoqi; Chen Dongyu; Zhao Rong; Li Huosheng; Lin Yiming

    2011-01-01

    Landfill leachate was treated by a combined sequential batch reactor (SBR), coagulation, Fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) technology. The metals in treatment process were fractionated into three fractions: particulate and colloidal (size charge filtration), free ion/labile (cation exchange) and non-labile fractions. Fifty percent to 66% Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd were present as particulate/colloidal matter in raw leachate, whereas Cr was present 94.9% as non-labile complexes. The free ion/labile fractions of Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn, Pb and Cd increased significantly after treatment except Cr. Fifty-nine percent to 100% of Al was present mainly as particulate/colloidal matter > 0.45 μm and the remaining portions were predicted as non-labile complexes except in coagulation effluent. The speciation of Fe varied significantly in various individual processes. Visual MINTEQ simulation showed that 95-100% colloidal species for Cu, Cd and Pb were present as metal-humic complexes even with the lower dissolved organic carbon. Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution, whereas under-estimated in alkaline effluents. Overestimated particulate/colloidal fraction consisted with the hypothesis that a portion of colloids in fraction < 0.45 μm were considered as dissolved. - Research Highlights: → Metals in various landfill leachate treatments were size charge fractionated and the speciation transformations were compared. → Species predictions of metals were simulated by Visual MINTEQ model. → Optimum agreements for the free ion/labile species were within acidic solution. → Predictions of colloidal species agree with experimental data well in alkaline solution.

  17. Evaluation of phytotoxicity of municipal landfill leachate before and after biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Klauck

    Full Text Available In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and rocket plant (Eruca sativa Mill. and root elongation of onions (Allium cepa L.. Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment and negative control (tap water. The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepashowed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

  18. Evolution of nitrogen species in landfill leachates under various stabilization states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Renzun; Gupta, Abhinav; Novak, John T; Goldsmith, C Douglas

    2017-11-01

    In this study, nitrogen species in landfill leachates under various stabilization states were investigated with emphasis on organic nitrogen. Ammonium nitrogen was found to be approximately 1300mg/L in leachates from younger landfill units (less than 10years old), and approximately 500mg/L in leachates from older landfill units (up to 30years old). The concentration and aerobic biodegradability of organic nitrogen decreased with landfill age. A size distribution study showed that most organic nitrogen in landfill leachates is nitrogen (TON, mg/L-N, R 2 =0.88 and 0.98 for untreated and treated samples, respectively). The slopes of the regression curves of untreated (protein=0.45TON) and treated (protein=0.31TON) leachates indicated that the protein is more biodegradable than the other organic nitrogen species in landfill leachates. XAD-8 resin was employed to isolate the hydrophilic fraction of leachate samples, and it was found that the hydrophilic fraction proportion in terms of organic nitrogen decreased with landfill age. Solid-state 15 N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to identify the nitrogen species. Proteinaceous materials were found to be readily biodegradable, while heterocyclic nitrogen species were found to be resistant to biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Landfill leachate as a mirror of today's disposable society: Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in final leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R; Kolpin, Dana W; Furlong, Edward T; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Gray, James L

    2016-04-01

    Final leachates (leachate after storage or treatment processes) from 22 landfills in 12 states were analyzed for 190 pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), which were detected in every sample, with the number of CECs ranging from 1 to 58 (median = 22). In total, 101 different CECs were detected in leachate samples, including 43 prescription pharmaceuticals, 22 industrial chemicals, 15 household chemicals, 12 nonprescription pharmaceuticals, 5 steroid hormones, and 4 animal/plant sterols. The most frequently detected CECs were lidocaine (91%, local anesthetic), cotinine (86%, nicotine degradate), carisoprodol (82%, muscle relaxant), bisphenol A (77%, component of plastics and thermal paper), carbamazepine (77%, anticonvulsant), and N,N-diethyltoluamide (68%, insect repellent). Concentrations of CECs spanned 7 orders of magnitude, ranging from 2.0 ng/L (estrone) to 17,200,000 ng/L (bisphenol A). Concentrations of household and industrial chemicals were the greatest (∼1000-1,000,000 ng/L), followed by plant/animal sterols (∼1000-100,000 ng/L), nonprescription pharmaceuticals (∼100-10,000 ng/L), prescription pharmaceuticals (∼10-10,000 ng/L), and steroid hormones (∼10-100 ng/L). The CEC concentrations in leachate from active landfills were significantly greater than those in leachate from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.05). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p landfills than in leachate released to groundwater from closed, unlined landfills (p = 0.04). The CEC concentrations were significantly greater (p = 0.06) in the fresh leachate (leachate before storage or treatment) reported in a previous study compared with the final leachate sampled for the present study. Published 2015 SETAC. This article is a US Government work and as such, is in the public domain in the United States.

  20. Effect of landfill characteristics on leachate organic matter properties and coagulation treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah E H; Boyer, Treavor H; Graf, Katherine C; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-11-01

    This work spans landfill characteristics, leachate organic matter properties, and coagulation chemistry to provide new insights into the physical-chemical treatability of stabilized landfill leachate. Furthermore, leachate organic matter is viewed in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the natural environment, and coagulation chemistry is evaluated based on previous leachate and water treatment coagulation studies. Stabilized leachate was collected from four landfills for a total of seven leachate samples, and samples were coagulated using ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminum sulfate. Landfill characteristics, such as age, leachate recirculation, and cover material, influenced properties of DOM present in the leachate, as measured by specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The coagulation performance of the metal salts was ferric sulfate>aluminum sulfate>ferric chloride, and DOM removal followed the trend of color>UV254>dissolved organic carbon>chemical oxygen demand (COD). Finally, a strong association was found between increasing SUVA254 and increasing DOM removal for coagulation of both leachate and natural surface water. Thus, SUVA254 is expected to be a better predictor of leachate treatability, in particular DOM removal, than the traditionally used ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to COD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Review on landfill leachate treatment by electrochemical oxidation: Drawbacks, challenges and future scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pubali; Dubey, Brajesh K; Gupta, Ashok K

    2017-11-01

    Various studies on landfill leachate treatment by electrochemical oxidation have indicated that this process can effectively reduce two major pollutants present in landfill leachate; organic matter and ammonium nitrogen. In addition, the process is able to enhance the biodegradability index (BOD/COD) of landfill leachate, which make mature or stabilized landfill leachate suitable for biological treatment. The elevated concentration of ammonium nitrogen especially observed in bioreactor landfill leachate can also be reduced by electrochemical oxidation. The pollutant removal efficiency of the system depends upon the mechanism of oxidation (direct or indirect oxidation) which depends upon the property of anode material. Applied current density, pH, type and concentration of electrolyte, inter-electrode gap, mass transfer mode, total anode area to volume of effluent to be treated ratio, temperature, flow rate or flow velocity, reactor geometry, cathode material and lamp power during photoelectrochemical oxidation may also influence the system performance. In this review paper, past and present scenarios of landfill leachate treatment efficiencies and costs of various lab scale, pilot scale electrochemical oxidation studies asa standalone system or integrated with biological and physicochemical processes have been reviewed with the conclusion that electrochemical oxidation can be employed asa complementary treatment system with biological process for conventional landfill leachate treatment as well asa standalone system for ammonium nitrogen removal from bioreactor landfill leachate. Furthermore, present drawbacks of electrochemical oxidation process asa landfill leachate treatment system and relevance of incorporating life cycle assessment into the decision-making process besides process efficiency and cost, have been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating biotoxicity variations of landfill leachate as penetrating through the soil column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Ku, Tingting; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies of leachate-induced ecotoxicity have focused on crude samples, while little attention has been given to changes in biotoxicity resulting from the environmental behavior of landfill leachate. Therefore, we set up a soil column to simulate the underground penetration of leachate into the soil layer, define the rules of migration and transformation of leachate pollutants, and determine the variation in toxicity of landfill leachate during penetration. The results demonstrated that: (1) landfill leachate inhibited the growth and chlorophyll levels, elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and stimulated the antioxidant enzyme activities of barley seedlings. The effects generally displayed a peak value at 12-24 cm, slowly declined at 36-48 cm, and then rapidly decreased with penetrating distance in the column. (2) Statistical correlation analysis of the properties of leachate and the observed biotoxic effects revealed that COD, conductivity and heavy metals (esp. Ni, Mn, Cd) were positively correlated with variations in biotoxicity. (3) The microbial activity of outflowing leachate sampled from the 48 cm port was significantly higher than the activity from succedent ports, and the types of contaminants increased in the leachate outflowing from the same port, implying that microbial behaviors near the 48 cm port could be used to partially evaluate variations in the composition and biotoxicity of landfill leachate. Taken together, the above results illustrate the polluting characteristics of landfill leachate when penetrating a soil column and provide guidance for pollution control and risk assessment of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of phenols in landfill leachate-contaminated groundwaters by solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Reitzel, Lotte; Ledin, Anna

    2002-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method for phenols in landfill leachates was developed and optimized in order to solve the expected and observed problems associated with an anaerobic matrix containing high concentrations of salts and organic matter. Isolute ENV1 cartridges exhibited the best retention...... be identified in leachates from three Danish landfills, ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 29 mg/ L, which is at the lower end of the concentration range usually found for phenols in landfill leachates (sub-mg/L to mg/L).  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Treating landfill leachate using passive aeration trickling filters; effects of leachate characteristics and temperature on rates and process dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Richard; Winson, Michael; Scullion, John

    2009-04-01

    Biological ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) and organic carbon (TOC) treatment was investigated in replicated mesoscale attached microbial film trickling filters, treating strong and weak strength landfill leachates in batch mode at temperatures of 3, 10, 15 and 30 degrees C. Comparing leachates, rates of NH(4)(+)-N reduction (0.126-0.159 g m(-2) d(-1)) were predominantly unaffected by leachate characteristics; there were significant differences in TOC rates (0.072-0.194 g m(-2) d(-1)) but no trend relating to leachate strength. Rates of total oxidised nitrogen (TON) accumulation (0.012-0.144 g m(-2) d(-1)) were slower for strong leachates. Comparing temperatures, treatment rates varied between 0.029-0.319 g NH(4)(+)-N m(-2) d(-1) and 0.033-0.251 g C m(-2) d(-1) generally increasing with rising temperatures; rates at 3 degrees C were 9 and 13% of those at 30 degrees C for NH(4)(+)-N and TOC respectively. For the weak leachates (NH(4)(+)-N<140 mg l(-1)) complete oxidation of NH(4)(+)-N was achieved. For the strong leachates (NH(4)(+)-N 883-1150 mg l(-1)) a biphasic treatment response resulted in NH(4)(+)-N removal efficiencies of between 68 and 88% and for one leachate no direct transformation of NH(4)(+)-N to TON in bulk leachate. The temporal decoupling of NH(4)(+)-N oxidation and TON accumulation in this leachate could not be fully explained by denitrification, volatilisation or anammox, suggesting temporary storage of N within the treatment system. This study demonstrates that passive aeration trickling filters can treat well-buffered high NH(4)(+)-N strength landfill leachates under a range of temperatures and that leachate strength has no effect on initial NH(4)(+)-N treatment rates. Whether this approach is a practicable option depends on a range of site specific factors.

  5. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  6. EVALUATION OF LANDFILL LEACHATE POLLUTION: FINDINGS FROM A MONITORING STUDY AT MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daria Vaverková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring that was carried out at the landfill specialized in leachate, groundwater and surface water. There were 6 sampling sites. The observed parameters were pH, BOD5, CODCr, conductivity. Leachate reached the high values in all observed parameters. Groundwater samples were collected at two monitoring wells and the sampling site (A, B, C. Surface water was collected from two sampling sites (D, E. The pH showed slightly acid values at all sampling points. The pH of surface water was slightly acid to neutral. Both BOD5 and CODCr values ​​remained stable over the reporting period. The average conductivity value at sampling points D, E remained constant. In line with the Czech National Standard ČSN 75 7221 “Classification of Surface Water Quality” sampling point D belongs to II Water Quality Class – slightly polluted water and sampling site E to Class I water quality – unpolluted water. The authors believe that the fluctuations occurring with regard to the values of certain samples were not caused by the operation of the landfill itself, but were a result of the intense agricultural activity nearby the landfill.

  7. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg

  8. Optimization of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, N.; Raman, A. A.; Ramesh, S.

    2017-06-01

    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. In this study, the treatment of leachate using electrocoagulation (EC) was investigated. Iron was used as both the anode and cathode. Response surface methodology was used for experimental design and to study the effects of operational parameters. Central Composite Design was used to study the effects of initial pH, inter-electrode distance, and electrolyte concentration on color, and COD removals. The process could remove up to 84 % color and 49.5 % COD. The experimental data was fitted onto second order polynomial equations. All three factors were found to be significantly affect the color removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Further work will be conducted towards integrating EC with other wastewater treatment processes such as electro-Fenton.

  9. Effects of evolving quality of landfill leachate on microbial fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simeng; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a novel technology for landfill leachate treatment with simultaneous electric power generation. In recent years, more and more modern landfills are operating as bioreactors to shorten the time required for landfill stabilization and improve the leachate quality. For landfills to operate as biofilters, leachate is recirculated back to the landfill, during which time the organics of the leachate can be decomposed. Continuous recirculation typically results in evolving leachate quality, which chronologically corresponds to evolution stages such as hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and maturation. In this research, variable power generation (160 to 230 mW m -2 ) by MFC was observed when leachate of various evolutionary stages was used as the feed. The power density followed a Monod-type kinetic model with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) ( p < 0.001). The coulombic efficiency decreased from 20% to 14% as the leachate evolved towards maturation. The maximum power density linearly decreased with the increase of internal resistance, resulting from the change of the conductivity of the solution. The decreased conductivity boosted the internal resistance and consequently limited the power generation. COD removal as high as 90% could be achieved with leachate extracted from appropriate evolutionary stages, with a maximum energy yield of 0.9 kWh m -3 of leachate. This study demonstrated the importance of the evolving leachate quality in different evolutionary stages for the performance of leachate-fed MFCs. The leachate extracted from acidogenesis and acetogenesis were optimal for both COD reduction and energy production in MFCs.

  10. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  11. A utilização de mapas temáticos no diagnóstico de áreas suscetíveis à contaminação por percolado de aterro sanitário The use of thematic maps for the diagnosis of susceptible areas to the contamination by leachate of sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo J. Rowe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a preocupação com a proteção de áreas destinadas ao abastecimento público é eminente, pois a disponibilidade de água é cada vez menor. Entre as prováveis fontes de poluição das águas estão os aterros sanitários mal operados, aterros controlados e lixões. Os processos de contaminação no solo ocorrem lentamente e, frequentemente, sem consequências imediatas, porém, em longo prazo, podem ter efeitos sérios e possivelmente irreversíveis. O diagnóstico e a visualização da possível pluma de contaminação, em áreas destinadas à disposição de resíduos, podem ser realizados pela utilização de softwares que utilizam técnicas de interpolação, que transformam dados X, Y, Z, criando mapas temáticos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas amostras de solo a 1 e 2 m de profundidade, obtidos os valores de condutividade elétrica e pH para cada amostra e posteriormente inseridos no Software SURFER32, para a produção dos mapas. Verificam-se, claramente, nos mapas gerados, as áreas passíveis de contaminação por percolado e que os valores de pH e condutividade elétrica do solo são diretamente proporcionais, demonstrando os padrões representados nos mapas temáticos.Nowadays the concern with the protection of areas destined to the public provisioning is eminent, because the water availability is smaller. Among the probable sources of pollution of the waters are the sanitary landfill site, controlled landfill sites and garbage dumps. The processes of soil contamination occur slowly and, frequently, without immediate consequences; however, in long period, they can have serious effects and possibly irreversible. The diagnosis and the visualization of the possible feather of contamination in areas destined to the disposal of residues can be accomplished by using softwares that apply interpolation techniques, transforming X,Y,Z, data and creating thematic maps. With this objective soil samples of one and two meters

  12. Parametric Analysis of Leachate and Water Resources around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill area in Solan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is defined as the liquid that drains from the landfill. The paper presents the physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal testing results carried out for leachate, surface and sub-surface water samples collected from municipal solid waste landfill and different water sources in Solan to find out the effect of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Physico-chemical parameters analysed were, pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS, sulphate, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC while biological parameters tested were Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Most Probable Number (MPN test and ammonical nitrogen. Testing for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe were carried out and have been reported. The results reveal that the leachate from the unlined landfill may have a significant impact on the groundwater resource (often used as drinking source particularly because of the toxic nature of the leachate coupled with the soil characteristics which is permeable in nature.

  13. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect...

  14. Removal of COD and Colour from Sanitary Landfill Leachate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocculation process using FeCl3 as a conventional coagulant and Ca(OH)2 as base-precipitant. The second method involved integration of Fenton's reagent into the coagulation/flocculation process. Concentration of FeCl3 that reduced chemical ...

  15. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  16. Understanding the causes of toxicity in treated landfill leachate through whole eefluent testing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, David J. L

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachate is collected and treated before discharge to protect the environment from a potential toxic cocktail of substances. In the U.K. biological treatment is the favourite technology for rendering landfill leachate safe due its simple design, effective handling of varying chemical loads and relatively low operating costs. Biological treatment is effective at reducing the concentrations of ammoniacal-nitrogen and the biological oxygen demand (BOD) to acceptable level...

  17. A coupled system of half-nitritation and ANAMMOX for mature landfill leachate nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang; Wang, Xiujie; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Wei, Jia; Bian, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A coupled system of membrane bioreactor-nitritation (MBR-nitritation) and up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (UASB-ANAMMOX) was employed to treat mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia nitrogen and low C/N. MBR-nitritation was successfully realized for undiluted mature landfill leachate with initial concentrations of 900-1500 mg/L [Formula: see text] and 2000-4000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand. The effluent [Formula: see text] concentration and the [Formula: see text] accumulation efficiency were 889 mg/L and 97% at 125 d, respectively. Half-nitritation was quickly realized by adjustment of hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen (DO), and a low DO control strategy could allow long-term stable operation. The UASB-ANAMMOX system showed high effective nitrogen removal at a low concentration of mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency was inhibited at excessive influent substrate concentration and the nitrogen removal efficiency of the system decreased as the concentration of mature landfill leachate increased. The MBR-nitritation and UASB-ANAMMOX processes were coupled for mature landfill leachate treatment and together resulted in high effective nitrogen removal. The effluent average total nitrogen concentration and removal efficiency values were 176 mg/L and 83%, respectively. However, the average nitrogen removal load decreased from 2.16 to 0.77 g/(L d) at higher concentrations of mature landfill leachate.

  18. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Gaspari, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration

  19. Evaluation of the biodegradability and toxicity of landfill leachates after pretreatment using advanced oxidative processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fabio Moraes; Daflon, Sarah Dario Alves; Bila, Daniele Maia; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valeria; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2018-02-19

    Leachate from urban solid waste landfills is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic substances that cause damage to the environment, due to the high concentration of recalcitrant organic matter and toxicity. The objective of this study was to apply advanced oxidation processes (AOP), namely the dark Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes, to young and old landfill leachates prior to biological treatment. The leachates were obtained from the Seropedica and Gramacho landfill sites, respectively, located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. For the two Fenton processes, different conditions of pH (1.5, 3.0 and 5.0) and Fe 2+ : H 2 O 2 ratio (1:2, 1:5 and 1:10) were evaluated. Biodegradability was evaluated using the Zahn-Wellens methodology and Aliivibrio fischeri acute toxicity tests were conducted in order to predict the toxicity in the activated sludge. The best conditions for both Fenton processes were pH of 3.0 and Fe 2+ : H 2 O 2 and COD RAW :H 2 O 2 mass ratios of 1:5 and 1:1, respectively. The solar photo-Fenton process was more effective at improving the quality for both leachates, reaching COD, TOC and abs 254 nm reductions of 82%, 85% and 96.3%, respectively, for the Seropedica landfill leachate. In the case of the Gramacho landfill leachate, the corresponding reductions were 78.2, 80.7% and 91.1%, respectively. The biodegradability results for the untreated leachates from the Seropedica and Gramacho sites were 65% and 30% respectively. The biodegradability of both leachates was improved by the Fenton processes, especially the solar photo-Fenton process, which increased the leachate biodegradability to 89% (Seropedica) and 69% (Gramacho). For both leachates, a greater reduction in the acute toxicity was achieved with the solar photo-Fenton compared to the dark-Fenton process. The Seropedica landfill leachate showed high toxicity (EC50 = 33%, 15 min), after the dark Fenton and solar photo Fenton processes, with EC50 values of 81 and 91

  20. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, S.; Eilertsson, J.; Ledin, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Leachates from 17 different landfills in Europe were, analysed with respect to phthalates, i.e. phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) and their degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) and ortho-phthalic acid (PA). Diesters are ubiquitous and the human possible exposure and potential to human...... health and environment has put them in focus. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether monoesters and phthalic acid could be traced in landfill leachates and in what concentrations they may be found. The results showed that phthalates were present in the majority of the leachates investigated...

  2. Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Of Heavy Metals From Leachate Of The Wild Landfill Of El Hajeb City Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Abderrahmane Gamar; Zakaria Khiya; Touria Zair; Mohammed El Kabriti; Abdelaziz Bouhlal; Fatima El Hilali

    2017-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in landfill leachates poses a risk to the environment especially in the unpaved dumps where their dissipation in groundwater might occur. This study is focused on the assessment of heavy metal load in landfill leachate of El Hajeb Morocco and their effects on the environment in general. To do this raw leachate samples were collected monthly from basins available at the heart of the landfill and analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS to quantify...

  3. Optimizing the treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton and photo-Fenton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermosilla, Daphne; Cortijo, Manuel; Huang, Chin Pao

    2009-01-01

    Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe 2+ and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.

  4. THE "CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND / TOTAL VOLATILE ACIDS" RATIO AS AN ANAEROBIC TREATABILITY INDICATOR FOR LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Contrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR. The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a second stage of operation, the AnSBBR presented efficiency above 70%, in terms of COD removal, utilizing landfill leachate without water dilution, with an inlet COD of about 11,000 mg.L-1, a TVA/COD ratio of approximately 0.6 and reaction time equal to 7 days. To evaluate the landfill leachate biodegradability variation over time, temporal profiles of concentration were performed in the AnSBBR. The landfill leachate anaerobic biodegradability was verified to have a direct and strong relationship to the TVA/COD ratio. For a TVA/CODTotal ratio lower than 0.20, the biodegradability was considered low, for ratios between 0.20 and 0.40 it was considered medium, and above 0.40 it was considered high.

  5. Modeling of leachate recirculation using combined drainage blanket-horizontal trench systems in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Leachate recirculation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. Combined drainage blanket (DB)-horizontal trench (HT) systems can be an alternative to single conventional recirculation approaches and can have competitive advantages. The key objectives of this study are to investigate combined drainage blanket -horizontal trench systems, to analyze the effects of applying two recirculation systems on the leachate migration in landfills, and to estimate some key design parameters (e.g., the steady-state flow rate, the influence width, and the cumulative leachate volume). It was determined that an effective recirculation model should consist of a moderate horizontal trench injection pressure head and supplementary leachate recirculated through drainage blanket, with an objective of increasing the horizontal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and thereby allowing more leachate to flow from the horizontal trench system in a horizontal direction. In addition, design charts for engineering application were established using a dimensionless variable formulation.

  6. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Ammonia recovery from landfill leachate using hydrophobic membrane contactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Magalhães, Nátalie C; Moravia, Wagner G; Ferreira, Carolina D

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to evaluate membrane contactors capability to remove and recover ammonia from landfill leachate (LFL). A hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane module was used to achieve such purpose. A sulfuric acid diluted solution was used as extraction solution to speed up ammonia content removal. Several factors that have influence on ammonia removal and recovery capability such as ammonia solution pH, concentration of sulfuric acid solutions and flow rate of liquid phases have been examined. Microfiltration was the method used as pretreatment. The results have shown that membrane contactor operated with LFL (pH 10), 0.1 M acid solution and liquid flow rate up to 0.5 L min -1 achieved 99.9% of ammonia removal, which corresponds to 79.1% of ammonia recovery from the extraction solution, and it is capable to produce highly purified ammonium sulfate solutions (41.2%, wt wt -1 ) to be used as fertilizer. The concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in the residual LFL complies with Brazilian law requirements of 20.0 mg L -1 of TAN, regarding the disposal of effluents.

  8. Variability of Parameters Involved in Leachate Pollution Index and Determination of LPI from Four Landfills in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites are potential sources of human and environmental hazards. Leachate produced form these waste dumping sites is heterogeneous and exhibits huge temporal and seasonal variations. Leachate pollution index (LPI provides an overall pollution potential of a landfill site. The parameters required to calculate LPI from a landfill site are discussed in terms of their variations over time, and their significance has been highlighted in the context of LPI. The LPI values of two semiaerobic and two anaerobic landfill sites in Malaysia have been calculated in this study. Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS was found to have the highest LPI score while Ampang Jajar Landfill Site (AJLS showed the lowest LPI as compared to other landfills. It is concluded that LPI value can be used as a tool to assess the leachate pollution potential from landfill sites particularly at places where there is a high risk of leachate migration and pollution of groundwater.

  9. Micronuclei induced by municipal landfill leachate in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangke; Sang Nan; Zhao Youcai

    2004-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow by municipal landfill leachate was studied in vivo. Results showed that mouse exposure via drinking water containing various concentrations of leachate caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a concentration (Chemical oxygen demand measured with potassium dichromate oxidation, COD Cr )-dependent manner. MN induction in female and male mice was different at higher concentrations. This implies that leachate is a genotoxic agent in mammalian cells and that exposure to leachate in an aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings

  10. Leachate impacts on groundwater: modeling generation and transport at the naameh landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; El FAdel, M.; Basha, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Although municipal solid waste is now managed through integrated schemes that rank land filling as one of the least favorable options for disposal, this management alternative continues to be the most economic and attractive in the vast majority of cases. An inevitable consequence of the practice of solid waste disposal in landfills is the generation, refuse characteristics and land filling operations. Leachate migration away from the landfill boundaries and its subsequent release into the surrounding environment, present serious environmental concerns at both existing and new facilities particularly in relation to surface and ground water pollution. While numerous mathematical models have been developed to simulate processes governing leachate occurrence and behavior in landfills and their potential migration away from landfill boundaries, none have been applied at former quarries converted to waste disposal facilities. The objective of this research work is to calibrate and apply mathematical models to predict the generation, fate and transport of leachate at a former quarry landfill facility (the Naameh landfill site). The site offers unique characteristics in that it is the first quarry converted to a landfill in Lebanon and is planned to have refuse depth in excess of one hundred meters, making it one of the deepest in the world. The modeling estimates leachate quantity in order to control its associated environmental impacts, particularly on ground water wells down gradient of the site. The sensitivity of leachate generation to meteorological, operation and design parameters was assessed. Guidance for leachate control, recirculation and collection to minimize these impacts is also provided. The fate and transport of contaminants released from the landfill to the subsurface was modeled. A sensitivity analysis with respect to geological properties of the site was conducted. Worst case scenarios were investigated as well

  11. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  12. Landfill operation and waste management procedures in the reduction of methane and leachate pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, J.

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to find ways of minimising emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills by means of laboratory experiments. During anaerobic incubation for 237 days, the grey waste components produced between 120 and 320 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tTS{sup -1} and between 0.32 and 3.5 kg NH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1} and the first-order rate constant of degradation ranged from 0.021 and 0.058 d{sup -1}. High amounts of COD and NH{sub 4}-N were observed in the leachate of grey waste in all the procedures tested during lysimeter experiments lasting 573 days. In the 10- year-old landfilled MSW, a high rate of methanisation was achieved with rainwater addition and leachate recirculation over 538 days, whereas initially pre-wetted grey waste and landfilled MSW were rapidly acidified, thus releasing a high amount of COD into the leachate. In batch assays, the grey waste produced a methane potential amounting to 70-85 % of the total methane potential of the grey waste plus putrescibles. In low moisture conditions, i.e. below 55%, methane production was delayed in the old landfill waste and prevented in the grey waste. In the emission potential study with five waste types, putrescibles produced 410 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tTS{sup -1} and 3.6 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1}, whereas composted putrescibles produced 41 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tVS{sup -1}, and 2.0 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1}. The remains of putrescibles probably caused the leaching potential of 2.1 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1} in the grey waste. Aeration for 51 days in lysimeters reduced the CH{sub 4} potential of putrescibles by more than 68 % and of the lysimeter landfilled grey waste by 50 %, indicating the potential of aeration for CH4 emission reduction. Nitrogen removal of landfill leachate was studied in the laboratory as well as on-site. Over 90 % nitrification of leachate was obtained with loading rates between 100 and 130 mgNH{sub 4}-N l{sup -1} d-1 at 25 deg C. Nitrified leachate was denitrified with a

  13. Phycoremediation of landfill leachate with chlorophytes: Phosphate a limiting factor on ammonia nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskuliakova, Andrea; Tonry, Steven; Touzet, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The potential of microalgae to bioremediate wastewater has been reported in numerous studies but has not been investigated as extensively for landfill leachate, which may be attributed to its complex nature and toxicity. In this study we explored if microalgal phycoremediation could constitute an alternative biological treatment option for landfill leachate management in regions with temperate climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of microalgae species at relatively low temperature (15 °C) and light intensity (14:10 h, light: dark, 22 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for reduction in energy inputs. Four chlorophyte strains originating from the North-West of Ireland were selected and used in batch experiments in order to evaluate their ability to reduce total ammonia nitrogen, oxidised nitrogen and orthophosphate in landfill leachate. The Chlamydomonas sp. strain SW15aRL isolated from raw leachate achieved the highest level of pollutant reduction whereby a decrease of 51.7% of ammonia nitrogen was observed in 10% raw leachate (∼100 mg l(-1) NH4(+)-N) by day 24 in experiments without culture agitation. However, in the experiment conducted with 10% raw leachate supplemented with phosphate, a decrease of 90.7% of ammonia nitrogen was obtained by day 24 while also achieving higher biomass production. This series of experiments pointed to phosphorus being a limiting factor in the microalgae based phycoremediation of the landfill leachate. The effective reduction of ammonia nitrogen in landfill leachate can be achieved at lower temperature and light conditions. This was attained by employing native species adapted to such conditions and by improving nutrient balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  15. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places

  16. Longitudinal data analysis in support of functional stability concepts for leachate management at closed municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Prucha, Christopher P.; Caldwell, Michael D.; Staley, Bryan F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Longitudinal data analysis using a mixed-effects regression model. • Dataset consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 closed municipal landfills. • Target analytes and classes generally showed predictable degradation trends. • Validates historical studies focused on macro organic indicators such as BOD. • BOD can serve as “gateway” indicator for planning leachate management. - Abstract: Landfill functional stability provides a target that supports no environmental threat at the relevant point of exposure in the absence of active control systems. With respect to leachate management, this study investigates “gateway” indicators for functional stability in terms of the predictability of leachate characteristics, and thus potential threat to water quality posed by leachate emissions. Historical studies conducted on changes in municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate concentrations over time (longitudinal analysis) have concentrated on indicator compounds, primarily chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). However, validation of these studies using an expanded database and larger constituent sets has not been performed. This study evaluated leachate data using a mixed-effects regression model to determine the extent to which leachate constituent degradation can be predicted based on waste age or operational practices. The final dataset analyzed consisted of a total of 1402 samples from 101 MSW landfills. Results from the study indicated that all leachate constituents exhibit a decreasing trend with time in the post-closure period, with 16 of the 25 target analytes and aggregate classes exhibiting a statistically significant trend consistent with well-studied indicators such as BOD. Decreasing trends in BOD concentration after landfill closure can thus be considered representative of trends for many leachate constituents of concern

  17. Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8 %), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7 %) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4 %). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70 % DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3 %), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5 %) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8 %). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) ( = CGMCC 2318(T) = DSM 26382(T)).

  18. Performance evaluation of startup for a yeast membrane bioreactor (MBRy) treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Gomes, Rosimeire F; Brasil, Yara L; Oliveira, Sílvia M A; Moravia, Wagner G

    2017-12-06

    The startup process of a membrane bioreactor inoculated with yeast biomass (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and used in the treatment of landfill leachate was evaluated. The yeast membrane bioreactor (MBRy) was inoculated with an exogenous inoculum, a granulated active dry commercial bakers' yeast. The MBRy was successfully started up with a progressive increase in the landfill leachate percentage in the MBRy feed and the use of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth. The membrane plays an important role in the startup phase because of its full biomass retention and removal of organic matter. MBRy is a suitable and promising process to treat recalcitrant landfill leachate. After the acclimation period, the COD and NH 3 removal efficiency reached values of 72 ± 3% and 39 ± 2% respectively. MBRy shows a low membrane-fouling potential. The membrane fouling was influenced by soluble microbial products, extracellular polymeric substances, sludge particle size, and colloidal dissolved organic carbon.

  19. Correlation between iron mobilization and emergence of benzene in leachate at old landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin

    2013-05-15

    Leachate monitoring data from a closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill with negligible gas production showed increasing iron, alkalinity and benzene levels over time. Due to significant rain water infiltration, concentration data alone was not adequate to analyze the possible correlations between the leachate quality parameters monitored. When quantities (kg/d) present in leachate rather than concentrations (mg/L) of benzene, bicarbonate and iron were analyzed; there were significant correlations between benzene and iron as well as biocarbonate and iron quantities. Increasing iron quantity in leachate was accompanied by increasing quantities of benzene and bicarbonate which are indicative of transformation reactions of polymeric organic compounds present in MSW. The results indicate that biotransformation mechanisms in landfills are similar to those in anaerobic sediments due to lack of electron acceptors with higher energy yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial and temporal migration of a landfill leachate plume in alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Leachate from unlined or leaky landfills can create groundwater contaminant plumes that last decades to centuries. Understanding the dynamics of leachate movement in space and time is essential for monitoring, planning and management, and assessment of risk to groundwater and surface-water resources. Over a 23.4-year period (1986–2010), the spatial extent of the Norman Landfill leachate plume increased at a rate of 7800 m2/year and expanded by 878 %, from an area of 20,800 m2 in 1986 to 203,400 m2 in 2010. A linear plume velocity of 40.2 m/year was calculated that compared favorably to a groundwater-seepage velocity of 55.2 m/year. Plume-scale hydraulic conductivity values representative of actual hydrogeological conditions in the alluvium ranged from 7.0 × 10−5 to 7.5 × 10−4 m/s, with a median of 2.0 × 10−4 m/s. Analyses of field-measured and calculated plume-scale hydraulic conductivity distributions indicate that the upper percentiles of field-measured values should be considered to assess rates of plume-scale migration, spreading, and biodegradation. A pattern of increasing Cl− concentrations during dry periods and decreasing Cl− concentrations during wet periods was observed in groundwater beneath the landfill. The opposite occurred in groundwater downgradient from the landfill; that is, Cl− concentrations in groundwater downgradient from the landfill decreased during dry periods and increased during wet periods. This pattern of changing Cl−concentrations in response to wet and dry periods indicates that the landfill retains or absorbs leachate during dry periods and produces lower concentrated leachate downgradient. During wet periods, the landfill receives more recharge which dilutes leachate in the landfill but increases leachate migration from the landfill and produces a more concentrated contaminant plume. This approach of quantifying plume expansion, migration, and concentration during variable hydrologic

  1. Temporal and spatial pore water pressure distribution surrounding a vertical landfill leachate recirculation well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

    2011-05-01

    Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth.

  2. Contaminants of emerging concern in fresh leachate from landfills in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Furlong, Edward T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Gray, James L.; Schwab, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the composition of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in landfill leachate, fresh leachate from 19 landfills was sampled across the United States during 2011. The sampled network included 12 municipal and 7 private landfills with varying landfill waste compositions, geographic and climatic settings, ages of waste, waste loads, and leachate production. A total of 129 out of 202 CECs were detected during this study, including 62 prescription pharmaceuticals, 23 industrial chemicals, 18 nonprescription pharmaceuticals, 16 household chemicals, 6 steroid hormones, and 4 plant/animal sterols. CECs were detected in every leachate sample, with the total number of detected CECs in samples ranging from 6 to 82 (median = 31). Bisphenol A (BPA), cotinine, and N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET) were the most frequently detected CECs, being found in 95% of the leachate samples, followed by lidocaine (89%) and camphor (84%). Other frequently detected CECs included benzophenone, naphthalene, and amphetamine, each detected in 79% of the leachate samples. CEC concentrations spanned six orders of magnitude, ranging from ng L−1 to mg L−1. Industrial and household chemicals were measured in the greatest concentrations, composing more than 82% of the total measured CEC concentrations. Maximum concentrations for three household and industrial chemicals, para-cresol (7020000 ng L−1), BPA (6380000 ng L−1), and phenol (1550000 ng L−1), were the largest measured, with these CECs composing 70% of the total measured CEC concentrations. Nonprescription pharmaceuticals represented 12%, plant/animal sterols 4%, prescription pharmaceuticals 1%, and steroid hormones amounts of precipitation had greater frequencies of CEC detections and concentrations in leachate than landfills receiving less precipitation.

  3. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation

  4. Application of Electrochemical Process in Removal of Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafaii Gh.1 PhD,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Municipal landfill leachate contains high concentrations of heavy metals, organics, ammonia. The efficeincy of electrochemically removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate was studied. Materials & Methods The leachate was obtained from Kahrizak landfill in south of Tehran. The experiments were carried out by batch process. The 2liter batch reactor was made of glass. There were eight anodes and cathodes electrodes. The electrodes were placed vertically parallel to each other and they were connected to a digital DC power supply. The pH and conductivity were adjusted to a desirable value using NaOH or H2SO4, and NaCl. All the runs were performed at constant temperature of 25°C. In each run, 1.5liter of the leachate was placed into the electrolytic cell. Samples were extracted every 10min and then filtered through a mixed cellulose acetate membrane (0.42μm. The amount of Lead, Zinc and Nickel removal was measured at pH=7 and in current density of 0.5, 0.75, and 1A. Findings When current density and time reaction increased, removal efficiency of heavy metals such as Lead, Zinc and Nickel increased. At initial pH=7, density 1A and reaction time= 60min, Lead, Nickel and Zinc were removed up to 86, 93 and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Electrochemical process can be proposed as a suitable technique to remove heavy metal from landfill leachate.

  5. An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ludvigsen, L.

    1999-01-01

    Redox conditions may be environmental factors which affect the fate of the xenobiotic organic compounds. Therefore the redox conditions were characterized in an anaerobic, leachate-contaminated aquifer 15–60 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark, where an field injection experiment ...... electron acceptor in the region of the aquifer, which was investigated. Because of the complexity of a landfill leachate plume, several redox processes may occur simultaneously, and an array of methods must be applied for redox characterization in such multicomponent systems....

  6. Biochemical processes in soil and groundwater contaminated by leachates from municipal landfills (Mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu N. Vodyanitskii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available World clean water deficit grows by increasing pollution on the planet. Landfill of solid domestic waste is one of the most important sources of pollution, where the leachate seeping through soil, gets into the soil and groundwater. Area of landfills of solid household waste, reaches tens of hectares and the mass of waste reaches millions of tones. The specificity of the leachate is the high content of soluble organic substances, providing reduction conditions in contaminated soil and groundwater. Reduction environment is defines biogeochemical processes under landfills with the participation of: ammonium, iron, manganese, bicarbonate, sulfate, methane. The main processes in polluted soil stream are including: biological degradation of organic matter and a variety of biological and abiotic processes. Wide discrimination of the most diverse groups of microorganisms in the polluted leachate is occurs, overlay neighboring redox zones. Microbial population is identifies specific redox zones more contaminated leachate nucleus than on the borders of the leachate with oxygen-enriched by the background thread. Biological reduction processes in the leachate are developing at different speeds: fast evolving and denitrification reduction of iron, slow – methanogenesis.

  7. Three-dimensional modelling of leachate recirculation using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Chen, Zheng-Wei; Cao, Ben-Yi

    2016-12-01

    Bioreactor landfills use leachate recirculation to enhance the biodegradation of municipal solid waste and accelerate landfill stabilisation, which can provide significant environmental and economic benefits. Vertical wells are operated as a major method for leachate recirculation systems. The objectives of this article are to analyse the leachate migration in bioreactor landfills using vertical wells and to offer theoretical basis for the design of leachate recirculation systems. A three-dimensional numerical model was built using FLAC-3D, and this model can consider the saturated and unsaturated flow of leachate within anisotropic waste to reflect the actual conditions. First, main influence factors of leachate migration were analysed, including the vertical well height, hydraulic conductivity, and anisotropic coefficient, in a single-well recirculation system. Then, the effects of different configurations of a group-well system were studied and the optimal well spacing was obtained. Some key design parameters (e.g. the recirculation flow rate, volume of impact zone, radius of impact zone and time to reach steady state) were also evaluated. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity has a great impact on the optimal height of vertical wells and uniform configuration is the best option in terms of both volume of impact zone and time to reach steady state. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. A comparative examination of MBR and SBR performance for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Hashisho, J

    2014-09-01

    The management of landfill leachate is challenging, with relatively limited work targeting high-strength leachate. In this study, the performance of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technologies are compared in treating high-strength landfill leachate. The MBR exhibited a superior performance with removal efficiencies exceeding 95% for BOD5, TN, and NH3 and an improvement on SBR efficiencies ranging between 21 and 34%. The coupled experimental results contribute in filling a gap toward improving the management of high-strength landfill leachate and providing comparative guidelines or selection criteria and limitations for MBR and SBR applications. Implications: While the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology offers some flexibility in terms of cycle time and sequence, its performance is constrained when considering landfill leachate associated with significant variations in quality and quantity. Combining membrane separation and biodegradation processes or the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology improved removal efficiencies significantly. In the context of leachate management using the MBR technology, more efforts have targeted low-strength leachate with limited attempts at moderate to high strength leachate. In this study, the SBR and MBR technologies were tested under different operating conditions to compare and evaluate their feasibility for the management of high-strength leachate from a full-scale operating landfill. Such a comparison has not been reported for high-strength leachate.

  9. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  10. Environmental isotopes and major ions for tracing leachate contamination from a municipal landfill in Metro Manila, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castañeda, S.S.; Sucgang, R.J.; Almoneda, R.V.; Mendoza, N.D.S.; David, C.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    The surface water and groundwater sources in the vicinity of a major municipal landfill in Metro Manila, Philippines were investigated to determine contamination by landfill leachate. Tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, and major ions in the leachate and freshwater within the landfill environment were determined. The leachate contained elevated tritium activities and high concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, and calcium. The concentrations of tritium and the leachate related ions in the affected surface water were significantly higher than the non-impacted water and correlated strongly with distance from the leachate source, following a negative exponential relationship, providing evidence of leachate transport along the affected surface water. Enrichment in deuterium was exhibited by leachate in the holding pond but not by the effluent leachate. The stable isotope signature of leachate is masked in the surface water due to dilution by stream water. Dilution similarly masked the effect of leachate in the shallow groundwater which was strongly influenced by precipitation. Evidence of leachate contamination in the deep groundwater was sporadic. In isolated cases, elevated tritium concentrations coincided with enrichment in deuterium. In the same case, leachate related ions, Na, Ca, Mg, and Cl, varied with rainfall but generally increased from 2003 to 2009. The effect on the groundwater of methane produced within the landfill was seen in the depletion in deuterium in groundwater in the drier months. - Highlights: ► Environmental isotopes and major ions as tracers of landfill leachate contamination. ► Tritium and major ions unequivocally show leachate transport in surface water. ► Groundwater enriched in deuterium and tritium attributed to leachate contamination.

  11. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...

  12. Optimizing the treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton and photo-Fenton processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermosilla, Daphne, E-mail: dhermosilla@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortijo, Manuel [U.D. Operaciones Basicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Forestal, E.T.S.I. Montes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, Chin Pao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 352C DuPont Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe{sup 2+} and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.

  13. Slope stability of bioreactor landfills during leachate injection: effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic municipal solid waste conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajiv K; Reddy, Krishna R

    2014-03-01

    In bioreactor landfills, leachate recirculation can significantly affect the stability of landfill slope due to generation and distribution of excessive pore fluid pressures near side slope. The current design and operation of leachate recirculation systems do not consider the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the increased pore gas pressures in landfilled waste caused due to leachate recirculation on the physical stability of landfill slope. In this study, a numerical two-phase flow model (landfill leachate and gas as immiscible phases) was used to investigate the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of MSW on moisture distribution and pore-water and capillary pressures and their resulting impacts on the stability of a simplified bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation using horizontal trench system. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of MSW were considered based on the van Genuchten model. The strength reduction technique was used for slope stability analyses as it takes into account of the transient and spatially varying pore-water and gas pressures. It was concluded that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW with varied unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly influenced the moisture distribution and generation and distribution of pore fluid pressures in landfill and considerably reduced the stability of bioreactor landfill slope. It is recommended that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW must be considered as it provides a more reliable approach for the design and leachate operations in bioreactor landfills.

  14. Assessment of leachate infiltration from Piyungan landfill using electrical resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhusip, Jaingot Anggiat; Harijoko, Agung; Putra, Doni Prakasa Eka; Suryanto, Wiwit

    2017-07-01

    Piyungan Landfill (TPA) is the largest landfill located in Bantul Regency of Yogyakarta. Leachate samples collected around the landfill area indicate that there is a contamination of groundwater around the landfill. This study has been successfully found a leachate infiltration to the soil layer at the north area of the landfill, which is the flow direct ion of the groundwater flow from the landfill. Electrical resistivity (ER) measurement towards fluid-saturated soil was carried out in the laboratory. Soil samples were saturated with fluid aquades-leachate and ER values were measured. ER value gained for saturated sandy clay with total dissolve solid TDS 10 mg/l to 350 mg/l is between 6.8 Ωm - 9.7 Ωm. Measurement of geo-electric resistivity 2-D of multi electrode Wener Schlumberger configuration has a minimum distance of 5m with an expanse length of 190 m. It is geo-electric line is 300°NW at the point X = 437.172m; Y = 9130495m; Z = 73.5m. This line perpendicularly cut the fault line at point 110m, and cross the Banyak River flow at point 135m. ER values of soil layer obtained from the results of geo-electric interpretation RES2DINV were ranged from 2 Ωm - 120 Ωm. At point 135m of the eastern part, ER value is between 2 Ωm to 10 Ωm with a depth of 10-12 m. This layer is estimated as a layer of Sandy Clayey saturated with contaminated water by leachate from Piyungan Landfill. ER value under point 40m to 130m is between 2 Ωm -12 Ωm with a depth of 15m, which is estimated as a layer of Tuffaceous Clay Sand Stone.

  15. Relationships between microbial community structure and hydrochemistry in a landfill leachate-polluted aquifer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Braster, M.; Lin, B; van Verseveld, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge about the relationship between microbial community structure and hydrogeochemistry (e.g., pollution, redox and degradation processes) in landfill leachate-polluted aquifers is required to develop tools for predicting and monitoring natural attenuation. In this study analyses of pollutant

  16. Geophysical monitoring of recirculation of leachate on landfill sites in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruiver, P.P.; Westerhoff, R.S.; Noorlandt, R.P.; Hoekstra, N.N.; Woelders, H.; Vossen, W.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Geophysical investigations were carried out on two modern landfill sites in the Netherlands. The objective of the geo-electrical and EM31 measurements was to reveal the effect of recirculation of leachate on homogenising moisture content in the waste to stimulate the process of attenuation. At

  17. Evidence for Microbial Iron Reduction in a Landfill Leachate-Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    Aquifer sediment samples obtained from the anaerobic part of a landfill leachate plume in Vejen, Denmark, were suspended in groundwater or in an artificial medium and incubated. The strictly anaerobic suspensions were tested for reduction of ferric iron (Fe(III)) oxides, which was measured...

  18. Trace determination of bisphenol-A in landfill leachate samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and efficient sample pretreatment technique, termed dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), was developed as an extraction methodology to determine bisphenol-A (BPA), in landfill leachate samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet detection. Some effective ...

  19. An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ludvigsen, L.

    1999-01-01

    Redox conditions may be environmental factors which affect the fate of the xenobiotic organic compounds. Therefore the redox conditions were characterized in an anaerobic, leachate-contaminated aquifer 15–60 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark, where an field injection experiment ...

  20. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of colloids and particles from landfill leachates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matura, M.; Ettler, V.; Klementová, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2012), s. 530-541 ISSN 0734-242X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : colloids * landfill leachates * transmission electron microscopy * calcite * contaminant mobility Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2012

  1. Temporal variation of trace elements in waters polluted by municipal solid waste landfill leachate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Matura, M.; Skalková, M.; Šebek, O.; Bezdička, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2008), s. 274-279 ISSN 0007-4861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB3111402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : trace elements * landfill leachate * temporal variation Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2008

  2. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium) was studied to remove cadmium, copper, zinc and iron from synthetic water and leachate. The biomass was produced due to the experiments conducted for bioconversion of wastewater for lignin ...

  3. Geotechnics in controlled sanitary landfills. Geotecnia en vertederos sanitarios controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alciturri, J.M.; Palma, J.M.; Sagaceta, C.; Caizal, J.

    Landfills, which were very used after the 2nd World War, still play an important role in wastes disposal. Nowadays, there are included new technologies to increase their yield, to reduce their pollutant capacity and once it is finished to make possible their recovery for other uses. This can be obtained through complex techniques, which make of the project and explotation of a landfill an activity in which different branches of engineering participate. The authors of this article explain us how geotechnics take part in this subject. (Author)

  4. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  5. Fate and distribution of nitrogen in soil and plants irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C Y; Chu, L M

    2011-06-01

    Landfill leachate contains a high concentration of ammoniacal substances which can be a potential supply of N for plants. A bioassay was conducted using seeds of Brassica chinensis and Lolium perenne to evaluate the phytotoxicity of the leachate sample. A soil column experiment was then carried out in a greenhouse to study the effect of leachate on plant growth. Two grasses (Paspalum notatum and Vetiver zizanioides) and two trees (Hibiscus tiliaceus and Litsea glutinosa) were irrigated with leachate at the EC50 levels for 12 weeks. Their growth performance and the distribution of N were examined and compared with columns applied with chemical fertilizer. With the exception of P. notatum, plants receiving leachate and fertilizer grew better than those receiving water alone. The growth of L. glutinosa and V. zizanioides with leachate irrigation did not differ significantly from plants treated with fertilizer. Leachate irrigation significantly increased the levels of NH(x)-N in soil. Although NO(x)-N was below 1 mg NL(-1) in the leachate sample, the soil NO(x)-N content increased by 9-fold after leachate irrigation, possibly as a result of nitrification. Leachate irrigation at EC50 provided an N input of 1920 kg N ha(-1) over the experimental period, during which up to 1050 kg N ha(-1) was retained in the soil and biomass, depending on the type of vegetation. The amount of nutrient added seems to exceed beyond the assimilative capability. Practitioners should be aware of the possible consequence of N saturation when deciding the application rate if leachate irrigation is aimed for water reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water reduction by constructed wetlands treating waste landfill leachate in a tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuka; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Sutthasil, Noppharit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Yamada, Masato

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges in landfill leachate management is the prevention of environmental pollution by the overflow of untreated leachate. To evaluate the feasibility of constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of waste landfill leachate in tropical regions, water reduction and pollutant removal by a CW subjected to different flow patterns (i.e., horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) and free water surface (FWS)) were examined in both rainy and dry seasons in Thailand. A pilot-scale CW planted with cattail was installed at a landfill site in Thailand. With HSSF, the CW substantially removed pollutants from the landfill leachate without the need to harvest plants, whereas with FWS, it only slightly removed pollutants. Under both flow patterns, the CW significantly reduced the leachate volume to a greater extent than surface evaporation, which is regarded as an effect of the storage pond. Additionally, water reduction occurred regardless of season and precipitation, within the range 0-9 mm d(-1). In the case of low feeding frequency, water reduction by the CW with HSSF was lower than that with FWS. However, high feeding frequency improved water reduction by the CW with HSSF and resulted in a similar reduction to that observed with FWS, which exhibited maximum evapotranspiration. In terms of water reduction, with both HSSF in conjunction with high frequency feeding and FWS, the CW provided a high degree of evapotranspiration. However, pollutant removal efficiencies with HSSF were higher than for FWS. The present study suggested that CWs with HSSF and high frequency feeding could be useful for the prevention of uncontrollable dispersion of polluted leachate in the tropical climate zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abiotic properties of landfill leachate controlling arsenic release from drinking water adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckman, Mengling Y; Lenhart, John J; Walker, Harold W

    2011-10-15

    In this study, As leaching from five arsenic bearing solid residuals (ABSRs) comprised of the iron hydroxide adsorbent Bayoxide E33 used in long-term operations was evaluated in leaching trials using California Waste Extraction Test (CalWET) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Protocol (TCLP) leachate solutions, a landfill leachate (LL), and synthetic leachate (SL). The initial As loading of the media, which reflects the influence of source water chemistry and varying treatment conditions at the point of removal, strongly influenced the magnitude of As release. The chemical composition of the leachate also influenced As release and demonstrated the relative importance of different release mechanisms, namely media dissolution, pH-dependent sorption/desorption, and ion exchange. The CalWET solution, which partially dissolved the iron-based media, resulted in 100 times more As release than did the TCLP solution, which did not dissolve the media. The LL had a higher pH than the TCLP solution, and even though its organic carbon content was lower it tended to release more As. Tests with the SL were conducted to determine the influence of variations in leachate pH, phosphate, bicarbonate, sulfate, silicate, and natural organic matter (NOM). Release increased at high pH, in the presence of high concentrations of phosphate and bicarbonate, and in the presence of high NOM concentrations. For pH, this reflects the pH-dependence of sorption reactions, whereas for the anions and NOM, direct competition appeared important. Similar to the CalWET solution, excess NOM dissolved portions of the media thereby facilitating As release. In general, our results suggest that estimating As release into landfills will remain a challenge as it depends upon As loading, which reflects site-specific properties, and the composition of the leachate, which varies from landfill to landfill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zero air emission and zero drilling waste landfill leachate collection well installation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Hornsby, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Landfilling of industrial wastes is an extensively used means of disposal throughout the US. Prior to RCRA, many landfills were little more than excavated trenches. During the construction and filling of such trenches, the long-term environmental impact was seldom considered. Water (leachate) management for these early landfills was not part of engineering or operating considerations. Today, waste management facilities succeed or fail on the quality of their leachate management efforts, as judged by groundwater quality around the landfill. The CECOS International Inc. facility near Livingston, Louisiana has three pre-RCRA disposal units (landfills) that were designed, constructed, and closed by a previous owner. These disposal units were constructed without any type of leachate removal system. During 1984-1985, samples from two nearby monitor wells revealed evidence of groundwater contamination in the area, principally in the shallow (30-foot) zone. A one-year, state-approved groundwater assessment revealed the nature and extent of groundwater contamination. Later, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) approved a remedial action plan (RAP) for this area that included: Installation of an engineered slurry wall surrounding the disposal units to isolate the shallow groundwater regime. Placement of an engineered cap over the units to prevent rainwater infiltration. Installation of several recovery wells inside the units to facilitate removal of leachate. While efforts are now underway to provide for removal of impacted groundwater in the vicinity of these old wells, the long-term solution is to reduce or, to the greatest extent possible, eliminate the liquid volume inside the cells. This paper deals with the installation of 16 leachate recovery wells inside the pre-RCRA disposal units

  9. Inhibition kinetics of nitritation and half-nitritation of old landfill leachate in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Wang, Zhaozhao; Li, Jun; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhao, Baihang

    2017-04-01

    Nitritation can be used as a pretreatment for anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Various control strategies for nitritation and half-nitritation of old landfill leachate in a membrane bioreactor were investigated in this study and the inhibition kinetics of substrate, product and old landfill leachate on nitritation were analyzed via batch tests. The results demonstrated that old landfill leachate nitritation in the membrane bioreactor can be achieved by adjusting the influent loading and dissolved oxygen (DO). From days 105-126 of the observation period, the average effluent concentration was 871.3 mg/L and the accumulation rate of [Formula: see text] was 97.2%. Half-nitritation was realized quickly by adjusting hydraulic retention time and DO. A low-DO control strategy appeared to best facilitate long-term and stable operation. Nitritation inhibition kinetic experiments showed that the inhibition of old landfill leachate was stronger than that of the substrate [Formula: see text] or product [Formula: see text] . The ammonia oxidation rate dropped by 22.2% when the concentration of old landfill leachate (calculated in chemical oxygen demand) was 1600.2 mg/L; further, when only free ammonia or free nitrous acid were used as a single inhibition factor, the ammonia oxidation rate dropped by 4.7-6.5% or 14.5-15.9%, respectively. Haldane, Aiba, and a revised inhibition kinetic model were adopted to separately fit the experimental data. The R 2 correlation coefficient values for these three models were 0.982, 0.996, and 0.992, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of ozonation on COD in stabilized landfill leachate: Case study at Alor Pongsu landfill site, Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Nor Farhana; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    One of an anaerobic stabilized landfill leachate in Malaysia underwent ozonation process. The sample rich in chemical oxygen demand (COD) was collected from Alor Pongsu Landfill Site, Perak (APLS). This site has been operating since year 2000. The leachate also contains other pollutants that exceeded the standard discharge limit for wastewater effluents. The effectiveness of ozone (O3) dosage, pH variation, and reaction time during ozonation was evaluated to measure the performance of O3 and determine the maximum operational conditions for this treatment. The maximum removal efficiency for COD was 50% at an ozone dosage of 31 g/m3, natural of pH 8.5, and reaction time of 60 min. The biodegradability ratio (BOD5/COD) improved from 0.08 to 0.23 after treatment with O3. The ozonation method has enhanced the biodegradability ratio and resulted high percentage removal of COD. This improvement showed that oxidation has a great potential to remediate recalcitrant pollutant wastes, such as landfill leachate.

  11. A study for the environmental impact assessment of the leachate migration in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y. S.

    1999-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsula and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. To assess the source term, in the second year study, the computational modeling to predict the potential infiltration rate of groundwater into the landfill were developed and tested for different geomembrane sets. These results shall be used to assess the total risk of the landfill site if combined with the results in the first year R and D and potential future R and D on the biosphere. In addition the generation, migration of LFG were studied and then approaches for the monitoring and controlling of LFG were discussed. (author)

  12. LEACHATE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY USING JOINT INTERIOR SPACE OF SPSP CUTOFF WALLS AT LANDFILL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazumi, Shinya; Kimura, Makoto; Kakuda, Toshimitsu

    This paper proposes leachate control technology usin g H-H joint interior space as a part of steel pile sheet pipe cutoff walls in coastal landfill site from a long-term perspective. In addition, the containment and remediation performance of the H-H joint in landfill site was evaluated by seepage and advection/dispersion analysis. The H-H joint was able to perform the containment and the remediation functions by keeping the low water-level at H-H joints interior space. Moreover, th e leachate control technology using H-H joint interior space demonstrates it's pos sible to contain water-solub le toxic substances in landfill sites and remediate them.

  13. Hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate

    KAUST Repository

    Rizkallah, Marwan

    2013-07-15

    Performance assessment of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is relatively limited or lacking. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate using a hollow-fiber MBR. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale MBR was constructed and operated to treat leachate with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 9000-11,000 mg/l, a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 4000-6,000 mg/l, volatile suspended solids (VSS) of 300-500 mg/l, total nitrogen (TN) of 2000-6000 mg/l, and an ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) of 1800-4000 mg/l. VSS was used with the BOD and COD data to simulate the biological activity in the activated sludge. Removal efficiencies > 95-99% for BOD5, VSS, TN and NH3-N were attained. The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap in managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding MBR application. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Leachate pollution management to overcome global climate change impact in Piyungan Landfill, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjito; Suntoro; Gunawan, T.; Maskuri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Environmental problems associated with the landfill system are generated by domestic waste landfills, especially those with open dumping systems. In these systems, waste degrades and produces some gases, namely methane gas (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which can cause global climate change. This research aimed at identifying the areas that experience groundwater pollution and the spread pattern of leachate movement to the vicinity as well as to develop a leachate management model. The Electricity Resistivity Tomography (ERT) survey is deployed to assess the distribution of electrical resistivity in the polluted areas. In this study, the groundwater contamination is at a very low in the aquifer zone, i.e., 3-9 Ωm. It is caused by the downward migration of leachate to water table that raises the ion concentration of groundwater. These ions will increase the electrical conductivity (EC), i.e., up to 1,284 μmhos/cm, and decrease the electrical resistivity. The leachate spreads westward and northward at a depth of 6-17 m (aquifer) with a thickness of pollution between 4 and11 m.The recommended landfill management model involves the installation of rainwater drainage, use of cover and baseliner made of waterproof materials, and massive waste treatment.

  15. Removal of ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate by irrigation onto vegetated treatment planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrel, S F; Leeds-Harrison, P B; Harrison, K S

    2002-01-01

    Leachate is a contaminated liquor resulting from the disposal of solid and liquid wastes at landfill sites that must be treated before discharge. Vegetated leachate treatment planes have been used at landfill sites in the UK but have received little scientific attention. This paper describes studies of model leachate treatment planes with a focus on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N). Small-scale and field-scale experimental treatment planes were constructed. filled with clay loam soil and vegetated with grass (Agrostis stolonifera). Landfill leachate was applied at hydraulic loading rates ranging from 17-217l/m2/d. An exponential relationship was used to characterise the pattern of NH3-N removal. No relationship was observed between the hydraulic loading rate and the NH3-N removal rate constants (R2 = 0.0039). The daily specific NH3-N mass removal rate was found to be linearly related to the NH3-N concentration at the start of that day of treatment (R2 = 0.35). Possible causes of variation in the rate of NH3-N removal between experiments are discussed. A simple inorganic nitrogen balance indicated that the mass of N-H3-N and NO2-N removed was not accounted for by NO3-N production. Explanations for this apparent nitrogen deficit are discussed.

  16. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkallah, Marwan; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Saikaly, Pascal E; Ayoub, George M; Darwiche, Nadine; Hashisho, Jihan

    2013-10-01

    Performance assessment of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is relatively limited or lacking. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate using a hollow-fiber MBR. For this purpose, a laboratory-scale MBR was constructed and operated to treat leachate with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 9000-11,000 mg/l, a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 4000-6,000 mg/l, volatile suspended solids (VSS) of 300-500 mg/l, total nitrogen (TN) of 2000-6000 mg/l, and an ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) of 1800-4000 mg/l. VSS was used with the BOD and COD data to simulate the biological activity in the activated sludge. Removal efficiencies > 95-99% for BOD5, VSS, TN and NH3-N were attained. The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap in managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding MBR application.

  18. Biomarkers in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea confined downstream a domestic landfill leachate discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes; Santos, Caroline; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno

    2016-07-01

    Landfills represent a severe environmental problem mainly due to the generation of leachates, and this study aimed to evaluate sublethal effects of a domestic landfill leachate in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Clams were submitted to in situ tests along a stream, at three sites, representing increasing distances from the leachate discharge (Pq1, Pq2, and Pq3), for 1, 5, and 15 days. The following biomarkers were analyzed in the gills and digestive glands: 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Metallothionein (MT) content was determined in the gills and DNA damage in hemocytes. The mortality rate of animals during in situ tests was reduced as the distance from the leachate discharge source increased. On the other hand, biomarker results showed sublethal effects on C. fluminea confined at all sites of PqS. GST, TAC, ROS, and DNA damage were the most significant biomarkers for this species and should be considered for future monitoring and assessment of freshwater environments located in landfill areas.

  19. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  20. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    , ferrogenic, nitrate-reducing and aerobic environments overa distance of 370 m. This redox zone sequence is consistent with thermodynamical principles and is closely matched by the leachate plume determined by the chloride plume distribution. The redox zone sequence is believed to be key in controlling...

  1. The effect of leachate recirculation with enzyme cellulase addition on waste stability in landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffira, N.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation is known to enhance waste stabilization. However, the composition of waste in Indonesia is comprised by organic waste which is lignocellulosic materials that considered take a long time to degrade under anaerobic condition. To accelerate the degradation process, enzyme addition is ought to do. Cellulase is an enzyme that can catalyse cellulose and other polysaccharide decomposition processes. Therefore, operation of waste degradation using leachate recirculation with a cellulase addition to enhance waste stabilization was investigated using anaerobic bioreactor landfill. The experiment was performed on 2 conditions; leachate recirculation with cellulase addition and recirculation only as a control. The addition of cellulase is reported to be significant in decreasing organic content, represented by volatile solid parameter. The volatile solid reduction in the cellulase augmented reactor and control reactor was 17.86% and 7.90%, respectively. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest cellulose reduction. Settlement of the landfill in a bioreactor with enzyme addition (32.67%) was reported to be higher than the control (19.33%). Stabilization of landfill review by the decreasing rate constant of the cellulose and lignin ratio parameter was more rapidly achieved by the enzyme addition (0.014 day-1) compared to control (0.002 day-1).

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994

  4. Approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna (Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibinger, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    The research was focused on approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna, situated near the location Osecna, region Liberec, Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, by analysis of numerical experiment results. To approximate the clogging of the leachate collection system after fifteen years of landfill operation (1995-2009) were successfully tested modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga transient drainage theory. This procedure allows application of the reduction factors to express clogging of the leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. The results proved that the modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga method with reduction factors can serve as a good tool for clogging approximation in a leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    In some arid regions where landfill produces minimal amount of leachate, leachate recirculation is suggested as a cost-effective option. However, its long-term impacts to environment remain disputed. For the purpose of revealing the environmental impacts of leachate recirculation in landfill, four...... scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number...... of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human...

  6. Landfill leachate characterization for simulation of biological treatment with Activated Sludge Model No. 1 and Activated Sludge Model No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleguillos, Marcelo; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Landfill leachates can be characterized correctly in terms of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) variables. The wastewater characterization of leachate from a Luxembourg landfill was based on a physical-chemical method combined with a BOD analysis for the COD fractions and on standard analysis for forms of nitrogen. The results show important differences compared with municipal wastewater. High amounts of organic matter with low biodegradability were found, as well as a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. Based on average values, a generic ASM characterization is proposed for landfill leachates. It can be directly employed in the early stages of the simulation of landfill leachate treatment with activated sludge models.

  7. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. This document contains the analytical groundwater sampling data for these eight wells for the first two quarters of 1996.

  8. Limiting Factors for Microbial Fe(III)-Reduction In a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    the more distant cluster were rich in Fe(III)-oxides. The active microbial population seemed to be less dense in samples more distant from the landfill (measured by ATP and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)), but the microbial communities were very similar in the two sample clusters according......Aquifer sediment samples from two locations within the anaerobic leachate plume of a municipal landfill were compared with respect to microbiology (especially Fe(III)-reduction) and geochemistry. The samples close to the landfill were characterized by low contents of Fe(III), whereas samples from...... to the composition of PLFA. Very little, if any, Fe(III)-reduction was observed close to the landfill, but all the more distant samples showed evident microbially mediated Fe(III)-reduction. After amendment with both acetate and Fe(III), all the samples showed a potential for Fe(III)-reduction, and the in situ Fe(III...

  9. THE STRIPPING OF AMMONIA FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PLUG FLOW REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Costa Campos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The leachate is a highly liquid polluting, considering, besides high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen. Treating leachate is a very difficult task once its composition is very complex. A king of treatment that is being developed is the stripping of ammonia where this chemical will be removed from the leachate by mass transfer of the liquid phase to gas. Therefore, this paper addressed to study the ammonia stripping process in leachates liquids using plug-flow reactors in series. In order to accomplish the experimental part four plugflow reactors in series were build, with an average height of 50 centimeters, without forced air supplier and without leachate pH adjustment. The leachate sample used was from the metropolitan landfill of Joao Pessoa city, which was collected and transported to the EXTRABES laboratory and made the physicochemical characterization. The experimental monitoring system consisted of four distinct phases, with applied superficial loads of 450, 500, 600 and 700 kg NH4+ ha-1 day-1, hydraulic detention time equal to 65, 60, 50 and 38 days, and it was obtained an average efficiency of ammonia nitrogen removal around 96.1%, 99.7%, 99.5% and 98.5% respectively. It was found that the removal efficiency of NH3 was satisfactory in all phases, however, the kinetic study showed that the higher the surface charge applied to the reactors, the higher the rate constant for removal of NH3 stripping process. Thus we can conclude that the process of stripping ammonia from landfill leachate may be done in plug-flow reactors in series, with an average depth of 50 cm, due to provide high removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, with low operating costs.

  10. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  11. Energetic utilization of biogas arising of sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, R.

    1995-01-01

    The biogas is the gaseous product that is obtained from the fermentation of biodegradable organic matter; this process is known as anaerobic digestion. In this exposition, the formation process of biogas is described in its three continuos phases: 1. Hydrolysis phase, 2. Phase of acid generation and the acetic acid generation and 3. Phase of methane generation. Also, the biogas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and traces) is present. Different types of anaerobic digestion as discontinuous digestion, continuo digestion, digestion with suspended biomass, digestion with adhered biomass, and digestion of two phases are shown. Finally, the process that occur in a landfill and its different phases of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, are describe from its initial stage until the biogas generation

  12. Soil contamination by heavy metals in landfills: measurements from an unlined leachate storage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzayani, Fethi; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek

    2014-08-01

    Landfills are sources of groundwater and soil pollution due to the production of leachate and its migration through refuse. This study was conducted in order to determine the extent of soil pollution within and around the Jebel Chakir landfill, located in the Tunis City, Tunisia. The main objective was to characterize soil samples of an unlined storage basin in relation to heavy metal concentrations in the Jebel Chakir landfill to the southwest of Tunis, Northern Tunisia. Twenty-four soil samples taken from different locations around the storage basin were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn investigation. Our results indicated high concentrations of Cr (54.4-129.9 mg/kg of DM), Zn (4.1-81.8 mg/kg of DM), Ni (15.1-43.9 mg/kg of DM), Pb (5.6-16.1 mg/kg of DM), and Cu (0.2-1.84 mg/kg of DM). These results suggested that contaminant migration is controlled by an active clay layer acting as an insulating material in the landfill. It is therefore necessary to set a treatment system for the landfill leachates and place a liner under the storage basin to reduce the pollution threat.

  13. Household hazardous waste disposal to landfill: Using LandSim to model leachate migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, Rebecca J.; Gronow, Jan R.; Hall, David H.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains a number of aquatic pollutants. A specific MSW stream often referred to as household hazardous waste (HHW) can be considered to contribute a large proportion of these pollutants. This paper describes the use of the LandSim (Landfill Performance Simulation) modelling program to assess the environmental consequences of leachate release from a generic MSW landfill in receipt of co-disposed HHW. Heavy metals and organic pollutants were found to migrate into the zones beneath a model landfill site over a 20,000-year period. Arsenic and chromium were found to exceed European Union and US-EPA drinking water standards at the unsaturated zone/aquifer interface, with levels of mercury and cadmium exceeding minimum reporting values (MRVs). The findings demonstrate the pollution potential arising from HHW disposal with MSW. - Aquatic pollutants linked to the disposal of household hazardous waste in municipal landfills have the potential to exist in soil and groundwater for many years

  14. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  15. The pre-treatment of landfill leachate using peat as a filtering medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerton, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kinsley, C.; Crolla, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using peat as a pre-treatment medium for landfill leachate and focuses on its capacity to treat boron and BTEX. The properties of three types of peat were investigated to determine which peat properties are best suited for adsorption. Alfred peat had the best performance in the batch adsorption tests and was studied further in a continuous flow column experiment using leachate from the City of Ottawa's Trail Road Landfill. Saturated and unsaturated conditions were studied to determine their effect on peat adsorption capacity. Excellent removal of BTEX (86 to 99%) was observed in all columns regardless of their saturation condition. Saturation conditions did not appear to have an effect on boron removal with both saturated and unsaturated columns exhibited an average removal efficiency of approximately 0.1 mg boron per gram of dry peat. (author)

  16. Electrochemical oxidation of biological pretreated and membrane separated landfill leachate concentrates on boron doped diamond anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Bo, E-mail: 357436235@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Long, HangYu, E-mail: 55686385@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Xie, Youneng, E-mail: 1187272844@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yijia, E-mail: 503630433@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • High quality boron-doped diamond film electrodes were synthesized on Nb substrates. • Electrochemical oxidation on boron-doped diamond anode is an effective method for treating landfill leachate concentrates. • Optimal operating conditions for electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates is determined. • 87.5% COD removal and 74.06% NH{sub 3}−N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment. - Abstract: In the present study, the high quality boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties were deposited on niobium (Nb) substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. The electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate concentrates from disc tube reverse osmosis (DTRO) process over a BDD anode was investigated. The effects of varying operating parameters, such as current density, initial pH, flow velocity and cathode material on degradation efficiency were also evaluated following changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N). The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE) was used to appraise different operating conditions. As a result, the best conditions obtained were as follows, current density 50 mA cm{sup −2}, pH 5.16, flow velocity 6 L h{sup −1}. Under these conditions, 87.5% COD and 74.06% NH{sub 3}−N removal were achieved after 6 h treatment, with specific energy consumption of 223.2 kWh m{sup −3}. In short, these results indicated that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD/Nb anode is an effective method for the treatment of landfill leachate concentrates.

  17. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Trine; Moeder, Monika; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram (μg) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  18. Photocatalysis applied in the studies of decolorization and COD removal of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisselma Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper photocatalysis processes on titanium dioxide suspension in aqueous solution illuminated with UV light are described for decolorization and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal of landfill leachate. Several operational parameters to achieve optimum efficiency are presented. The properties of the decolorization and COD removal were enhanced and studied by spectrophotometer methods. The results indicate that the process can be used as a pretreatment to the conventional processes.

  19. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Trine, E-mail: Trine.Eggen@bioforsk.no [Bioforsk, Vest Saerheim, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp st. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-10-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram ({mu}g) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  20. Landfill Gas Characterization and Leachate Removal at the Alachua County Southwest Landfill, Alachua County, Florida Through Utilization of a Mechanical Gas Collection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    leachate on site or removing and treating the leachate. Leachate recycling , evaporation, on-site biological treatment, and lime treatment followed by...1.0 1.0 1.3 Diapers 2.1 3.9 2.1 2.7 Note:Class 1 landfill waste calculated from total waste without yard waste and construction and demolition C & D...Townsend, C.W. Bartlett, and H. Lee, 1991. Leachate Recycle and the Auamentation of Bioloaical Decomposition at Municipal L U. Center for Solid and

  1. Analysis of Electro-Oxidation Suitability for Landfill Leachate Treatment through an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ragazzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency of electro-oxidation used as the single pretreatment of landfill leachate. The experiments were performed on three different types of leachate. The results obtained using this electrochemical method results were analyzed after seven days of treatment. The main characteristics of leachate and a diagram of the experimental apparatus are presented. The overall objectives were to contribute to the knowledge of electrochemical treatments for the reduction of COD, BOD5, ammonium, and total suspended solids, and also to examine whether there was any resulting hexavalent chromium in the liquid sample. The yields obtained were considered satisfactory, particularly given the simplicity of this technology. Like all processes used to treat refluent water, the applicability of this technique to a specific industrial refluent needs to be supported by feasibility studies to estimate its effectiveness and optimize the project parameters. This could be a future development of the work.

  2. Laboratory study on sequenced permeable reactive barrier remediation for landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jun; Zhao Yongsheng; Zhang Weihong; Hong Mei

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was a promising technology for groundwater remediation. Landfill leachate-polluted groundwater riches in various hazardous contaminants. Two lab-scale reactors (reactors A and B) were designed for studying the feasibility of PRB to remedy the landfill leachate-polluted groundwater. Zero valent iron (ZVI) and the mixture of ZVI and zeolites constitute the first section of the reactors A and B, respectively; the second section of two reactors consists of oxygen releasing compounds (ORCs). Experimental results indicated that BOD 5 /COD increased from initial 0.32 up to average 0.61 and 0.6 through reactors A and B, respectively. Removal efficiency of mixed media for pollutants was higher than that of single media (ZVI only). Zeolites exhibited selective removal of Zn, Mn, Mg, Cd, Sr, and NH 4 + , and removal efficiency was 97.2%, 99.6%, 95.9%, 90.5% and 97.4%, respectively. The maximum DO concentration of reactors A and B were 7.64 and 6.78 mg/L, respectively, while the water flowed through the ORC. Therefore, sequenced PRB system was effective and was proposed as an alternative method to remedy polluted groundwater by landfill leachate

  3. Biodegradation of organics in landfill leachate by immobilized white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor BCC 8725.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetang, Jenjira; Babel, Sandhya

    2012-12-01

    Immobilized Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 was evaluated for the biodegradation of the organic components of four different types of landfill leachate collected at different time periods and locations from the Nonthaburi landfill site of Thailand in batch treatment. The effects of carbon source, ammonia and organic loading on colour, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and the reuse of immobilized fungi were investigated. It was found that fungi can remove 78% of colour, reduce BOD by 68% and reduce COD by 57% in leachate within 15 days at optimum conditions. Organic loading and ammonia were the factors that affected the biodegradation. When immobilized T versicolor on polyurethane foam (PUF) was subjected to repeated use for treatment over the course of three cycles, the decolourization efficiency of the first and the second cycle was very similar, whereas the third cycle was about 20% lower than the first cycle under similar conditions. The obtained removal of colour, BOD and COD indicates the effectiveness of fungi for leachate treatment with high organic loading and varied leachate characteristics.

  4. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm -3 with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin -1 and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm -3 was obtained with 30mLmin -1 recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal dynamics in leachate hydrochemistry and natural attentuation in surface run-off waste from a tropical landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, J.C.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Krave, A.S.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Open waste dump systems are still widely used in Indonesia. The Jatibarang landfill receives 650-700 tons of municipal waste per day from the city of Semarang, Central Java. Some of the leachate from the landfill flows via several natural and collection ponds to a nearby river. The objectives of the

  6. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Deng, Wenjing; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    In some arid regions where landfill produces minimal amount of leachate, leachate recirculation is suggested as a cost-effective option. However, its long-term impacts to environment remain disputed. For the purpose of revealing the environmental impacts of leachate recirculation in landfill, four scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280 t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human toxicity in surface water, and those to groundwater, present relatively low levels. In Scenario B, leachate evaporation in a collecting pool has minimal impacts on surface water. However, this strategy significantly impacts groundwater (1055.16 PE) because of the potential infiltration of leachate, with major contaminants of As, ammonia, and Cd. A number of ions, such as Cl(-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), may also contaminate groundwater. In Scenario C, the direct discharge of leachate to surface water may result in acidification (2.71 PE) and nutrient enrichment (2.88 PE), primarily attributed to soluble ammonia in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor to global warming and photochemical ozone formation due to methane emission. In Scenario D, landfill gas flaring was thus be modeled and proven to be efficient for reducing

  7. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  8. Evaluation of a buried vertical well leachate recirculation system for municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadambala, Ravi; Powell, Jon; Singh, Karamjit; Townsend, Timothy G

    2016-12-01

    Vertical liquids addition systems have been used at municipal landfills as a leachate management method and to enhance biostabilization of waste. Drawbacks of these systems include a limitation on pressurized injection and the occurrence of seepage. A novel vertical well system that employed buried wells constructed below a lift of compacted waste was operated for 153 days at a landfill in Florida, USA. The system included 54 wells installed in six clusters of nine wells connected with a horizontally-oriented manifold system. A cumulative volume of 8430 m 3 of leachate was added intermittently into the well clusters over the duration of the project with no incidence of surface seeps. Achievable average flow rates ranged from 9.3 × 10 -4 m 3 s -1 to 14.2 × 10 -4 m 3 s -1 , which was similar to or greater than flow rates achieved in a previous study using traditional vertical wells at the same landfill site. The results demonstrated that pressurized liquids addition in vertical wells at municipal solid waste landfills can be achieved while avoiding typical operational and maintenance issues associated with seeps. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Determination of selected persistent organic pollutants in wastewater from landfill leachates, using an amperometric biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomngongo, Philiswa N.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Gumbi, Bhekumuzi P.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    Landfill leachates that contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a big threat to groundwater systems and are projected to have hazardous effects in the long term if proper management strategies of the landfills are not put in place by those responsible. Monitoring the levels of POPs in landfill leachates is very crucial. This work presents an amperometric biosensor for determination of selected POPs in landfill leachates. The biosensor is based on kinetic inhibition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The enzyme was immobilised by electrostatic attachment on a polyaniline-modified Pt electrode surface. Selected POPs inhibited HRP enzyme activity and the decrease in the enzyme activity was used to determine these environmental pollutants. Selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the analytes of choice because they are commonly found in South Africa water systems. Limits of detection for the amperometric biosensor were established as 0.014, 0.018, 0.022, 0.016 and 0.019 μg l-1 for BDE-100, PBB-1, PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB-101, respectively. The HRP biosensor system gave different linear ranges for; BDE-100 (0.424-25.8 μg l-1), PBB-1 (0.862-13.4 μg l-1), PCB-1 (0.930-18.1 μg l-1), PCB-28 (0.730-15.7 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.930-27.1 μg l-1). Inhibition studies on HRP biosensor response toward the reduction of H2O2 in the absence and presence of the selected POPs were carried out to investigate the inhibition kinetics and its mechanism. The results obtained indicated that the inhibition mechanism was competitive for PBDEs and non-competitive for biphenyls (PCBs and PBBs). The application of the biosensor was tested on wastewater samples obtained from landfill leachate for determination of selected POPs. The leachate samples were found to contain PCB-28 (0.28 ± 0.03 μg l-1) and PCB-101 (0.31 ± 0.02 μg l-1). The samples were also analysed by GC-MS as a cross-check method and the

  10. Co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater using a submerged aerobic biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, F M; Povinelli, J; Pozzi, E; Vieira, E M; Trofino, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study used a pilot-scale submerged aerobic biofilter (SAB) to evaluate the co-treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate that was pre-treated by air stripping. The leachate tested volumetric ratios were 0, 2, and 5%. At a hydraulic retention time of 24 h, the SAB was best operated with a volumetric ratio of 2% and removed 98% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 90% of the total suspended solids (TSS). A proposed method, which we called the "equivalent in humic acid" (Eq.HA) approach, indicated that the hardly biodegradable organic matter in leachate was removed by partial degradation (71% of DOC Eq.HA removal). Adding leachate at a volumetric ratio of 5%, the concentration of the hardly biodegradable organic matter was decreased primarily as a result of dilution rather than biodegradation, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was mostly removed (90%) by nitrification, and the SAB performances at the volumetric ratios of 0 and 2% were equal. For the three tested volumetric ratios of leachate (0, 2, and 5%), the concentrations of heavy metals in the treated samples were below the local limits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. REMOVAL OF PHENOL AND SURFACTANT FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAKRAOUY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the action of rainfall and natural fermentation, the stored waste produces a liquid fraction called leachate. This leachate is rich in organic matter (biodegradable but also refractory and trace elements. There are many techniques of treating the leachate, in particular, biological, physicochemical, membrane processes. The choice of a technique instead of another depends on several parameters including: the age of the leachate, composition... In this work we applied a coagulation-flocculation process to treat intermediate landfill leachate of Rabat city with a combined ferric chloride coagulant and a polymer flocculant. We were inspired by full factorial design, including twenty five experiments, to determine optimal dosages of coagulant and flocculant. We operate at pH 8.4, the best removal efficiencies obtained were 88 % for Turbidity, 98 % for Phenol and 82 % for surfactant. The optimum dosages values determined by this study were 13.2 g∙L-1 of coagulant, 62 mL∙L-1 of flocculant.

  12. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baderna, D.; Maggioni, S.; Boriani, E.; Gemma, S.; Molteni, M.; Lombardo, A.; Colombo, A.; Bordonali, S.; Rotella, G.; Lodi, M.; Benfenati, E.

    2011-01-01

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. - Research highlights: → We study the toxicity of leachate from a non-hazardous industrial waste landfill. → We perform chemical analyses, risk assessments and in vitro assays on HepG2 cells. → Risk models suggest toxic effects due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. → In vitro assays show that leachate inhibits cell proliferation at low doses. → Leachate can induce cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells at high doses.

  13. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-C microelectrolysis-Fenton process is proposed to pretreat landfill leachate. • Operating variables are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). • 3D-EEMs and MW distribution explain the mechanism of enhanced biodegradability. • Fixed-bed column experiments are performed at different flow rates. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H 2 O 2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD 5 /COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72 g/L, H 2 O 2 concentration 12.32 mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  14. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liqun, E-mail: 691127317@qq.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Qi, E-mail: yangqi@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Dongbo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmli121x@hotmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Fe-C microelectrolysis-Fenton process is proposed to pretreat landfill leachate. • Operating variables are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). • 3D-EEMs and MW distribution explain the mechanism of enhanced biodegradability. • Fixed-bed column experiments are performed at different flow rates. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD{sub 5}/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72 g/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration 12.32 mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  15. CONJUGATE TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM LANDFILL AND SEWAGE IN DOMESTIC STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the per capita generation of municipal solid waste is approximately 0.80 kg hab-1 day-1, which implies daily production of 156 tons, whereas on average 50% of this quantity of waste is composed mainly of putrescible organic material that will contribute to the leachate generation process directly influencing the qualitative and quantitative aspects. Landfill leachate basically originates from the percolation process of different types of water and is considered a wastewater to cause in significant environmental impact on the environment, given in possession of high concentration of ammonia nitrogen, organic matter difficult to biodegradation, metals heavy and xenobiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a series of stabilization ponds, the treatment process conjugate of landfill leachate fresh more domestic sewage in the proportion of 1 plus 99% (volume percent, respectively. The experimental system consisted of four stabilization ponds in series, being a facultative pond, followed by three maturation ponds. . The applied surface charge (λs the series of stabilization ponds was 320 kg DBO5 ha-1 day-1 with hydraulic retention time (HRT of 17 days for the series. The average removal efficiency of BOD5 and ammonia was 69 and 86% respectively, while removing coliform efficiency always in the 99.9% threshold during the monitoring period was 220 days. Overall it can be concluded that treatment conjugate landfill leachate and sewage in stabilization ponds, in northeastern Brazil, is emerging as a promising technological alternative, given the comfortable area availability in northeastern Brazil, conditions climate favorable and the ponds system present low ratio cost / benefit when compared to other waste treatment systems of this nature.

  16. Simultaneous energy generation and UV quencher removal from landfill leachate using a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; Brazil, Brian; He, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    The presence of UV quenching compounds in landfill leachate can negatively affect UV disinfection in a wastewater treatment plant when leachate is co-treated. Herein, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated to remove UV quenchers from a landfill leachate with simultaneous bioelectricity generation. The key operating parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT), anolyte recirculation rate, and external resistance were systematically studied to maximize energy recovery and UV absorbance reduction. It was found that nearly 50% UV absorbance was reduced under a condition of HRT 40 days, continuous anolyte recirculation, and 10 Ω external resistance. Further analysis showed a total reduction of organics by 75.3%, including the reduction of humic acids, fulvic acids, and hydrophilic fraction concentration as TOC. The MFC consumed 0.056 kWh m -3 by its pump system for recirculation and oxygen supply. A reduced HRT of 20 days with periodical anode recirculation (1 hour in every 24 hours) and 39 Ω external resistance (equal to the internal resistance of the MFC) resulted in the highest net energy of 0.123 kWh m -3 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used as an effective post-treatment step and could achieve 89.1% UV absorbance reduction with 40 g L -1 . The combined MFC and GAC treatment could reduce 92.9% of the UV absorbance and remove 89.7% of the UV quenchers. The results of this study would encourage further exploration of using MFCs as an energy-efficient method for removing UV quenchers from landfill leachate.

  17. Application of Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology for Characterization of Leachate Generation in Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    aharoni, imri; dahan, ofer

    2016-04-01

    Ground water contamination due to landfill leachate percolation is considered the most severe environmental threat related to municipal solid waste landfills. Natural waste degradation processes in landfills normally produce contaminated leachates up to decades after the waste has been buried. Studies have shown that understanding the mechanisms which govern attenuation processes and the fate of pollutants in the waste and in the underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluation of environmental risks and selection of a restoration strategy. This work focuses on a closed landfill in the coastal plain of Israel that was active until 2002 without any lining infrastructure. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) that was implemented at the site enables continuous measurements across the waste body (15 m thick) and underlying sandy vadose zone (16 m thick). Data collected by the VMS included continuous measurements of water content as well as chemical composition of the leachates across the entire waste and vadose zone cross section. Results indicated that winter rain percolated through the waste, generating wetting waves which were observed across the waste and unsaturated sediment from land surface until groundwater at 31 m bls. Quick percolation and high fluxes were observed in spite of the clay cover that was implemented at the site as part of the rehabilitation scheme. The results show that the flow pattern is controlled by a preferential mechanism within the waste body. Specific sections showed rapid fluxes in response to rain events, while other sections remained unaffected. In the underlying sandy vadose zone the flow pattern exhibited characteristics of matrix flow. Yet, some sections received higher fluxes due to the uneven discharge of leachates from the overlying waste body. Water samples collected from the waste layer indicate production of highly polluted leachates over 14 years after the landfill was closed. The chemical composition within the waste

  18. Adsorption studies of COD and Fe2+ from stabilized landfill leachate on activated carbon and calcite containing alginate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Awatif Md; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    In this study, composite adsorbent was produced from the combination of activated carbon (AC) and calcite by four (4) different mixing ratios (AC:Calcite) of 9:1, 7:3, 1:1, 3:7, 1:9. The mixture was mixed with alginate as the binder. The composite adsorbent was tested in batch of experimental study to observe the effectiveness of removing COD and Fe2+ from sample of leachate collected from semi-aerobic sanitary landfill at Pulau Burung, Penang, Malaysia. The effect on contact time was conducted to observe its impact on the adsorption of COD and Fe2+. Besides, the adsorption kinetic model was also conducted to study the mechanism of adsorption process by applying pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Based on experimental results, optimum removal of COD and Fe2+ was obtained at mixing ratio of 7:3 with optimum removal of 54.6% for COD and 68.06% for Fe2+. This result indicates that high amount of AC in mixing ratio of adsorbent contributed to the highest removal of both COD and Fe2+. In addition, the study also proves that a combination of AC and calcite has improved the adsorption efficiency. The results of adsorption kinetic model indicate that both COD and Fe2+ followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model which means that the chemisorptions is the favorable mechanism of adsorption process.

  19. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  20. An Autopsy of Nanofiltration Membrane Used for Landfill Leachate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Komurcuoda leachate treatment plant, Istanbul, which consists of membrane bioreactor (MBR and nanofiltration (NF system, faced rapid flux decline in membranes after 3-year successful operation. To compensate rapid flux decline in membranes, the fouled membranes were renewed but replacement of the membranes did not solve the problem. To find the reasons and make a comprehensive analysis, membrane autopsy was performed. Visual and physical inspection of the modules and some instrumental analysis were conducted for membrane autopsy. Membranes were found severely fouled with organic and inorganic foulants. Main foulant was iron which was deposited on surface. The main reason was found to be the changing of aerator type of MBR. When surface aerators were exchanged with bottom diffusers which led to increasing of dissolved oxygen (DO level of the basin, iron particles were oxidized and they converted into particulate insoluble form. It was thought that probably this insoluble form of the iron particles was the main cause of decreased membrane performance. After the diagnosis, a new pretreatment alternative including a new iron antiscalant was suggested and system performance has been recovered.

  1. Potential of tin (IV) chloride for treatment in Alor Pongsu as stabilized landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Sharifah Farah Fariza Syed; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Leachate production from landfilling contributes crucial pollutants to the environment. This study examined the potential of tin (IV) chloride as coagulant that involved charge neutralization and sweep flocculation mechanisms. The negative charge of leachate is neutralized by adding tin (IV) chloride as cationic coagulant which resulted precipitation and swept most of the colloids and dissolved solids that entrapped in the settling as hydrous oxide floc. Parameters such as suspended solid (SS) content, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard jar test procedures. The best condition was observed at pH 8, with removal efficiencies of 75.99 %, 99.29 % and 98.36 % for COD, SS, and color, respectively. At optimum dosage, tin (IV) chloride successfully removed 98.40 % for color, 99.54 % for SS and 71.53 % for COD. These results indicated the satisfactory performance of tin (IV) chloride. Hence, tin (IV) chloride is a potential coagulant for the treatment of Alor Pongsu Landfill leachate.

  2. Effects of aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Ma, Zeyu; Jin, Xiao; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement in simulated hybrid landfill bioreactors. Four laboratory-scale reactors were constructed and operated for about 10 months to simulate different bioreactor operations, including one anaerobic bioreactor and three hybrid bioreactors with different aeration frequencies (one, two, and four times per day). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) reduced more than 96% of the initial concentrations in all aerated bioreactors. The differences of COD and BOD 5 reductions among tested aeration frequencies were relatively small. For ammonia nitrogen, the higher aeration frequency (two or four times per day) resulted in the quicker reduction. Overall, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) decreased over time except Cd and Pb. The reduction of redox-sensitive metal concentrations (Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) was greater in aerated bioreactors than in anaerobic bioreactor. Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) was enhanced with higher frequency of aeration events (four times per day). In recent years, hybird bioreactor landfill technology has gained a lot of attention. Appropriate aeration rate is crucial for hybrid bioreactor operation, but few studies have been done and different results were obtained. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement. Results indicated that aeration can effectively accelerate waste stabilization and remove organic carbon concentration and total nitrogen in the leachate.

  3. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-11-15

    A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H2O2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72g/L, H2O2 concentration 12.32mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant biomarkers in Gammarus pulex to evaluate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process in landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Osman; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Tatar, Sule; Yildirim, Numan; Ogedey, Aysenur

    2018-02-20

    The discharge of landfill leachate into the environment without effective treatment poses a serious threat for the aquatic ecosystems. This present study was undertaken to evaluate whether electrocoagulation process is efficient for treatment landfill leachate (LL) or not by using antioxidant biomarkers in Gammarus pulex. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in G. pulex exposed to untreated, treated, and diluted rates 1/10 and 1/20 in both LL during 24 and 96 h were tested. Physiochemical characteristics of leachate (chemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, pH, phosphate, turbidity, NH 3 , Cl - , and color) were determined pre and post treatment. All physiochemical characteristics of LL decreased after treatment process. GSH-Px and CAT activities and GSH and MDA levels were increased in untreated groups when compared to control (p < 0.05). After treatment by electrocoagulation, MDA and GSH levels and CAT activities were returned to control values. In conclusion, the abilities of LL to stimulate oxidative stress in G. pulex have been proven. The results revealed that antioxidant parameters are useful biomarkers for determining the treatment efficiency of the electrocoagulation process.

  5. Alternative solutions for the bio-denitrification of landfill leachates using pine bark and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trois, Cristina; Pisano, Giulia; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Nitrified leachate may still require an additional bio-denitrification step, which occurs with the addition of often-expensive chemicals as carbon source. This study explores the applicability of low-cost carbon sources such as garden refuse compost and pine bark for the denitrification of high strength landfill leachates. The overall objective is to assess efficiency, kinetics and performance of the substrates in the removal of high nitrate concentrations. Garden refuse and pine bark are currently disposed of in general waste landfills in South Africa, separated from the main waste stream. A secondary objective is to assess the feasibility of re-using green waste as by-product of an integrated waste management system. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests and leaching columns packed with immature compost and pine bark. Biologically treated leachate from a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) with nitrate concentrations of 350, 700 and 1100 mgN/l were used for the trials. Preliminary results suggest that, passed the acclimatization step (40 days for both substrates), full denitrification is achieved in 10-20 days for the pine bark and 30-40 days for the compost.

  6. Evaluation of effluents from bench-scale treatment combinations for landfill leachate in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, Mkc

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pollutants in landfill leachate was investigated using constructed wetlands, a trickling filter, alum flocculation and coagulation, and a sequencing batch reactor in various combinations. Thirteen combined operations were investigated involving three out of the four unit treatment methods in series. The study was conducted because unit operations, though achieved reductions in pollutants concentrations had effluent values above the national regulatory guideline values. The suspended solids of effluents were permissible in most treatment processes, while reductions in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH3) of leachates ranged from 80% to 97%; 86% to 97% and 92% to 98% respectively. However, there were significant increases in nitrate (85%) and dissolved oxygen of treatment (218%). In addition, the characteristics of the recommended treatment sequence, involving constructed wetlands, alum and trickling filter produced effluents with reductions in colour (97%), alkalinity (97%), BOD (97%), COD (97%) and NH3 (98%), and in metals, except nickel (29% reduction from the influent values). The recommended treatment combination is suitable for effective leachate management at the landfill. The cost of constructing and operating the recommended treatment combination at the facility, for 5 years, would be NGN6,009,750.00 ($38,036.39). The performance should be monitored on site prior to full adoption if effluent characteristics remain consistently low over dry and wet seasons.

  7. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of 90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transformation and Stability of Dimethylmonothiolated Arsinic acid (DMMTAV) and Dimethyldithiolated Arsinic Acid (DMDTAV) in a Simulated Landfill Leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. O.; Lee, H.; Jeong, S.

    2016-12-01

    In environmental pollution concern, arsenic species (As) are the major concern because of its toxicity. The occurrence of thioarsenates, thiolated analogs of inorganic As species, are recently reported in groundwater, geothermal water, and landfill leachate. Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTAV) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTAV) have receiving increasing attention. Since there are difficulties of preparing of standards along with confirming DMMTAV and DMDTAV for verification prior to analysis of samples due to no available commercial standard, the accurate assessment of those As species was not resolved. is present and Moreover, there are limit studies on transformation and stability of thiolated As species under high sulfur condition such as landfill leachate to accurate assess their fate and toxicity in environment. In this study, DMMTAV and DMDTAV were artificially synthesized and identified using ESI-MS. Column test was conducted using the simulated landfill leachates (SLLs) to investigate their transformation under high sulfur conditions. The transformation mechanisms for DMMTAV and DMDTAV were also investigated to quantify what As species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. The transformed As species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This study provides the transformation mechanism and stability of DMMTAV and DMDTAV in landfill leachate to determine their potential environmental risk. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by research project title "Development of response Technology for the Environment Disaster by Chemical Accident (project No. C36707) of the Korea Basic Science Institute.

  9. Stable condition of dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV) and dimethyldithioarsinic acid ( DMDTAV) in landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, E.; Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Lee, H.; Jung, S.; Kim, Y. T.

    2015-12-01

    When waste containing arsenic (As) are disposed of landfill, such facilities (i.e., landfill) can play an important role in disseminating As to the surrounding environment. These disposal of waste containing As might cause a serious environmental pollution due to potentially As remobilization in landfill. Especially, As species containing sulfur such as DMDTAv and DMMTAv found occasionally high concentration in landfill leachate. These As species (i.e., DMDTAv and DMMTAv) had the higher toxicity to human cells compared to other pentavalent As species. However, there was no chemical standard material of these As species (i.e., DMDTAv and DMMTAv) commercially. In this study, we synthesized DMDTAv and DMMTAv by simulating reaction with the sufficient sulfur condition from DMAv. DMMTAv was quite changeable to DMDTAv due to its short life time from our preliminary study. Thus, it is important to find the stable condition of synthesis process for DMDTAv and DMMTAv under suitable environmental condition. This study can be very significant in quantitative analysis area to detect the various As species in environmental media such as landfill.

  10. Influence of Fenton reagent oxidation on mineralization and decolorization of municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Soraya; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mohajeri, Leila; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Fenton's technique for the treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate collected from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia. The Fe2+ or Fe3+ as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agent are commonly used for the classical Fenton's reaction. In present study, the effect of operating conditions such as pH, reaction time, molar ratio, agitation rate, feeding mode and Fenton reagent concentrations which are important parameters that affect the removal efficiencies of Fenton method were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, the highest removals of 58.1 and 78.3% were observed for COD and color, respectively. In general, the best operating conditions were pH = 3, Fe = 560 mg L(-1), H2O2 = 1020 mg L(-1), H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3, agitation rate = 400 rpm and reaction time = 120 minutes. The results highlighted that stepwise addition of Fenton's reagent was more effective than adding the entire volume in a single step. Excessive hydrogen peroxide and iron have shown scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals and reduced degradation of refractory organics in the landfill leachate.

  11. Mobilization of iron and arsenic from soil by construction and demolition debris landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sikora, Saraya; Kim, Hwidong; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2012-05-01

    Column experiments were performed to examine (a) the potential for leachate from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills to mobilize naturally-occurring iron and arsenic from soils underlying such facilities and (b) the ability of crushed limestone to remove these aqueous phase pollutants. In duplicate columns, water was added to a 30-cm layer of synthetic C&D debris, with the resulting leachate serially passed through a 30-cm soil layer containing iron and arsenic and a 30-cm crushed limestone layer. This experiment was conducted for two different soil types (one high in iron (10,400mg/kg) and the second high in iron (5400mg/kg) and arsenic (70mg/kg)); also monitored were control columns for both soil types with water infiltration alone. Despite low iron concentrations in the simulated C&D debris leachate, elevated iron concentrations were observed when leachate passed through the soils; reductive dissolution was concluded to be the cause of iron mobilization. In the soil containing elevated arsenic, increased iron mobilization from the soil was accompanied by a similar but delayed arsenic mobilization. Since arsenic sorbs to oxidized iron soil minerals, reductive dissolution of these minerals results in arsenic mobilization. Crushed limestone significantly reduced iron (to values below the detection limit of 0.01mg/L in most cases); however, arsenic was not removed to any significant extent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of ammonia nitrogen from distilled old landfill leachate by adsorption on raw and modified aluminosilicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Rafael Schirmer de Paula; Oliveira, Aline Faria; Guarino, Alcides Wagner Serpa; Perez, Daniel Vidal; Marques, Mônica Regina da Costa

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ammonia-nitrogen removal by aluminosilicates, using both standard solutions as pretreated landfill leachate. Three types of commercial clays and one commercial zeolite were initially tested using standard solution; however, only one clay with the best removability and the zeolite were tested with pretreated leachate. The chosen clay sorption capacity with the standard solution reached 83%, while with the pretreated leachate solution has reached 95% and zeolites have reached, respectively, a removal of 73% and 81%. For this two adsorbents' studies of equilibrium and kinetic of the sorption were also performed. The Langmuir model was more adequate to describe the ion exchange equilibrium and the sorption mechanism fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the pretreatment used on leachate proved to be essential not only for ammonium detection in solution, but also to facilitate its sorption in aluminosilicates. This alternative of ammonia-nitrogen removal also generates a product derived from treatment that can be used as agricultural feedstock in the form of fertilizer.

  13. Leachate Treatment from Sarimukti Landfill Using Ozone with Sludge from Water Treatment Plant as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Ramdhani Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is the liquid waste from anaerobic decomposition in a landfill. The ozonation process can be used for leachate treatment. Sludge from sedimentation in water treatment plant contains 5.96% of Al and 9.35% of Si which can affect of its cation exchange capacity and affects the active site in the catalyst. This study aims to determine the effectivity of sludge in the ozonation process to treat leachate. A 1,5 L semi-batch reactor containing 1 L sample was used in this experiment with the rate of oxygen supply was at 4 L/min taken from ambient air. Two groups of sludge weighing 1.5 grams, 3.0 grams and 4.5 grams were used and activate with physically and chemically activated. The best result was obtained by the physically activated sludge with mass of 4.5 gram O3-L-4,5 AF. The differences of removal efficiency between O3-L-4,5 AF with the control (O3 for turbidity were respectively 13.02% and 7.81%, for EC were 10.57% and 8.29%, for COD were 49.44% and 37.50%, and for residual ozone concentration at the end of contact time were 7.6 mg/L and 9.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that activaed sludge and ozonation can be used as a catalyst in leachate treatment.

  14. Photosynthesis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in response to landfill leachate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lie; Sun, Tiantian; Liu, Yanli; Guo, Houqing; Lv, Lixin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chang

    2017-11-01

    Thousands of unlined landfills and open dumpsites have put great threat on the security of soil and ground water due to leachate leakage. Alfalfa is believed potential as a phytoremediation plant for leachate contamination based on strong root system and the excellent capacity of removing various kinds of pollutants. A lab-scale investigation was conducted to figure out the sensitiveness of alfalfa photosynthesis in response to leachate contamination. The results demonstrated that both of the maximum photosynthetic efficiency (F v /F m ) and net photosynthetic rate (P n ) were slightly inhibited in the high-dosage group. Based on statistical analysis, higher sensitivity of P n to leaching parameters than F v /F m was observed. There were significant correlations between most of leaching parameters (pH, ammonium and COD) and P n with correlation coefficients of 0.530, -0.580 and -0.578 (p < 0.01), respectively. Therefore, P n is potential for acting as an effective indicator for staple leaching characteristics of leachate contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Technological Conditions on Removing Organic Substances from Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on how the effectiveness ofremoving organic substances is affected bythe use of polyurethane foam fillings characterized by a varied porosity and the temperature of the process of treating landfill leachate in a biological sequencing batch reactor. The information on the conversion of organic compounds during the operation of the reactor was obtained by measuring the absorbance for selected wavelengths to describe the process of humification. It was found that the technological conditions used in the experiment affected the effectiveness of reducing the COD, but did not affect the type or amount of the humic substances in the leachate treated. In all of the variants examined, the COD decreased the as the humification level increased, and yet this relation was not linear in character.

  16. DETERMINATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTE FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE (CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dal Molin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental toxicity of hazardous industrial waste from landfill leachate of the one industrial solid waste center from the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the ecotoxicity with Daphnia magna and toxicity and mutagenicity with Allium cepa were determined. The results of the row leachate sample indicated that the physical and chemical characteristics are compatible with the limit values imputed for treated wastewaters. Absence of acute ecotoxicity was also detected, however a significant (P<0.01 larger frequency of micronuclei was verified when compared with the results of the negative control, suggesting a genotóxico effect of this wast, although not significant alterations in the mitotic index and root growth was observed.

  17. Leachate properties as indicators of methane production process in MSW anaerobic digestion bioreactor landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunmin; Wang, Li'ao; Xu, Tengtun; Li, Jiaxiang; Song, Xue; Hu, Chaochao

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, bioreactor was used to simulate the municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation process of landfill, tracing and testing trash methanogenic process and characteristics of leachate during anaerobic digestion, exploring the relationship between the two processes, aiming to screen out the indicators that can predict the methane production process of anaerobic digestion, which provides the support for real-time adjustment of technological parameters of MSW anaerobic digestion system and ensures the efficient operation of bioreactor landfill. The results showed that MSW digestion gas production rate constant is 0.0259 1/d, biogas production potential is 61.93 L/kg. The concentration of TN in leachate continued to increase, showing the trend of nitrogen accumulation. "Ammonia poisoning" was an important factor inhibiting waste anaerobic digestion gas production. In the anaerobic digestion system, although pH values of leachate can indicate methane production process to some degree, there are obvious lagging behind, so it cannot be used as indicator alone. The TOC/TN value of leachate has a certain indication on the stability of the methane production system. When TOC/TN value was larger than12, anaerobic digestion system was stable along with normal production of biogas. However, when TOC/TN value was lower than 12, the digestive system is unstable and the gas production is small. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the synthesis and transformation of valeric acid is more active. HAc/HVa changed greatly and had obvious inflection points, from which methane production period can be predicted.

  18. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  19. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999

  1. Rice Husk Packed Bed Column Reactor To Remove Cadmium From Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monik Kasman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The landfill leachate can be a major problem due to large variability of high organic, inorganic, heavy metal content and toxicity characteristics from landfill leachate such as  cadmium. Thus, this study was aimed to observe the application of rice husk packed bed column to reduce cadmium from landfill leachate. Experiment was conducted in gravity down flow system by pumping landfill leachate into packed bed column. The effect of influent flow rate to adsorption capacity was studied by varying flow rate (5 mL/min and 10 mL/min. The effluent-influent concentration ratio Ce/C0 (% as a function of throughput volume (L was used to represent the breakthrough curve in column systems. Result shows that the flow rate of 5 mL/min was favorable to achieve higher removal rates with the percentage of cadmium was 57 %. At breakthrough time, the cadmium effluent concentration reached on 0.01 mg/l for both of flow rate.ABSTRAKLindi yang dihasilkan dari TPA (Tempat Pembuangan Akhir menimbulkan permasalahan lingkungan karena kandungan pencemarnya meliputi material organik, material anorganik, logam dan material beracun. Salah satu logam berat yang terdapat dalam lindi tersebut adalah kadmium. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mereduksi kadmium dalam lindi dengan menggunakan sekam padi yang diinstal dalam packed bed column. Lindi dipompakan dari tangki penampung lindi ke dalam packed bed column dan dialirkan dari atas ke bawah kolom secara gravitasi. Fokus pada penelitian ini adalah pengaruh laju alir influen terhadap kapasitas adsorpsi. Dimana lindi dialirkan dengan laju alir 5 mL/menit dan 10 mL/menit. Kurva breakthrough (titik jenuh kolom dipresentasikan oleh hubungan antara rasio konsentrasi efluen-influen Ce/C0 (% dan jumlah aliran lindi yang diolah dalam kolom. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa persentase reduksi tertinggi dicapai pada laju alir 5 mL/menit yaitu 57%. Waktu jenuh kedua laju alir (5 mL/menit dan 10 mL/menit tercapai saat konsentrasi efluen

  2. Statistical evaluation of mature landfill leachate treatment by homogeneous catalytic ozonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. C. Peixoto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a mature landfill leachate treated by a homogeneous catalytic ozonation process with ions Fe2+ and Fe3+ at acidic pH. Quality assessments were performed using Taguchi's method (L8 design. Strong synergism was observed statistically between molecular ozone and ferric ions, pointing to their catalytic effect on •OH generation. The achievement of better organic matter depollution rates requires an ozone flow of 5 L h-1 (590 mg h-1 O3 and a ferric ion concentration of 5 mg L-1.

  3. Microbes in biological processes for municipal landfill leachate treatment: Community, function and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Duoying; Vahala, Riku; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    of Planctomycetes, Nitrosomonas sp., the phylum of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. The bioreactor's operational parameters influence the microbial community, inversely affect the bioreactor's performance. It is practical to accumulate desirable microbes by managing the bioreactor's running condition......Landfill leachate (LFL) contains high strength of ammonium and complex organic substances including biodegradable volatile fatty acids (VFAs), refractory aquatic humic substances (AHS) and micro-scale xenobiotic organic chemicals (XOCs), which promotes the diverse microbial community in LFL....... High ammonium loading, low DO (desirable AOB and realize the partial nitrification. Nitrite and organic matters inhibit the anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AnAOB). In anaerobic LFL treatment bioreactors, Methanosaeta...

  4. Systematic model development for partial nitrification of landfill leachate in a SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganigue, R.; Volcke, E.I.P.; Puig, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (PN-SBR) treating raw urban landfill leachate. In order to enhance process insight (e.g. quantify interactions between aeration, CO2 stripping, alkalinity, pH, nitrification kinetics), a mathematical model has been set up....... Following a systematic procedure, the model was successfully constructed, calibrated and validated using data from short-term (one cycle) operation of the PN-SBR. The evaluation of the model revealed a good fit to the main physical-chemical measurements (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and inorganic carbon...

  5. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian

    1998-01-01

    -polluted groundwater. For humic acids the O/C ratios were slightly higher than reported in the literature, indicating a high content of carboxylic groups, phenolic groups or carbohydrates. Acid-base titration indicated that, in the fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction, carboxylic acids were the dominating......Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...... for about 60% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 1800 Da. The hydrophilic fraction constituted about 30% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent molecular weight of about 2100 Da, and the humic acid fraction made up about 10% of the total amount of DOC with an apparent...

  6. Attenuation of landfill leachate by UK Triassic sandstone aquifer materials. 1. Fate of inorganic pollutants in laboratory columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Tellam, John H.; Lerner, David N.

    2000-05-01

    The attenuation of inorganic contaminants in acetogenic and methanogenic landfill leachate by calcareous and carbonate-deficient, oxide-rich Triassic sandstone aquifer materials from the English Midlands was examined in laboratory columns. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modelling, simple transport modelling and chemical mass balance approaches are used to evaluate the key processes and aquifer geochemical properties controlling contaminant fate. The results indicate that leachate-rock interactions are dominated by ion-exchange processes, acid-base and redox reactions and sorption/precipitation of metal species. Leachate NH 4 is attenuated by cation exchange with the aquifer sediments; however, NH 4 migration could be described with a simple model using retardation factors. Organic acids in the acetogenic leachate buffered the system pH at low levels during flushing of the calcareous aquifer material. In contrast, equilibrium with Al oxyhydroxide phases initially buffered pH (˜4.5) during flushing of the carbonate-deficient sandstone with methanogenic leachate. This led to the mobilisation of sorbed and oxide-bound heavy metals from the aquifer sediment which migrated as a concentrated pulse at the leachate front. Abiotic reductive dissolution of Mn oxyhydroxides on each aquifer material by leachate Fe 2+ maintains high concentrations of dissolved Mn and buffers the leachate inorganic redox system. This feature is analogous to the Mn-reducing zones found in leachate plumes and in the experiments provides a sink for the leachate Fe load and other heavy metals. The availability of reactive solid phase Mn oxyhydroxides limits the duration of redox buffering and Fe attenuation by these aquifer sediments. Aquifer pH and redox buffering capacity exert a fundamental influence on leachate inorganic contaminant fate in these systems. The implications for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability at landfills are discussed and simple measurements of aquifer properties which

  7. Comparative Study on the Landfill Leachate Treatment in a Vertical Flow Wetland System With/Without Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Lavrova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The landfill leachate treatment efficiency in a vertical-flow wetland system with and without planted Phragmites australis was investigated. The BOD/COD ratio of the landfill leachate was 0.38. Water samples were taken daily for determination of the COD, BOD, [NH4-N], [NO2-N], [NO3-N] and orthophosphates values. High COD and BOD removal efficiencies and discharge limits in both laboratory systems were achieved. Complete elimination of the ammonium nitrogen from the leachate in the nonvegetated wetland for 13 and 14 days was obtained at a recirculation ratio of 1:1 and 1:2, respectively, and for 9 and 7 days - in the vegetated wetland, at the same recirculation ratios. The initial nitrite nitrogen concentration in the landfill leachate was 17.2 ± 1.1 mg/L, which is 430 times over the discharge limit for these ions. After landfill leachate treatment in the nonvegetated wetland system at the recirculation ratios 1:1 and 1:2, nitrites removal efficiencies of 98.8% and 92.5%, respectively, were achieved. In the vegetated wetland system at the same recirculation ratios, nitrites removal efficiencies of 96.5% and 76.2%, respectively were achieved. Nitrates removal was not observed. The results show that the orthophosphates were assimilated better from the Phragmites australis at longer water resting period.

  8. Chromium accumulation in the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774), as an indicative of landfill leachate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana Fernandes; Martinez, Claudia Bueno dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea exposed in situ for periods of 1, 5, 15 and 30 days along a stream which receives landfill leachate effluent showed increased Cr accumulation in gills and digestive gland, although Cr concentrations have been found to be low in sediment. Other metals such as Pb, Ni, Al and Cu were also analyzed but were found to accumulate in clam tissues in lower concentrations or without showing a consistent pattern. Thus, the accumulation of a single contaminant such as Cr is proposed to be used as a tool to assess exposure to a complex mixture such as landfill leachates.

  9. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  10. Assessment of domestic landfill leachate toxicity to the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea via biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana F; Silva, Sandra M C P; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of domestic landfill leachate to bivalves Corbicula fluminea, clams were exposed to different leachate concentrations (v/v): 2, 3, 6 and 10 percent, corresponding to dilutions observed along a stream that receives this effluent, or only to clean water for comparisons. After 5 and 15 days of exposure the activity of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), the multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in gills and digestive gland and metallothionein (MT) content in gills were evaluated. Differences in biomarkers responses were observed between gills and digestive gland, except for MXR that decreased in both tissues of clams exposed to 6 percent for 5 days. EROD activity in gills was reduced in all leachate concentrations after 5 days and only in 2 percent after 15 days exposure, while an EROD increase was observed in digestive gland after 15 days exposure to 6 percent. GST activity increased only in the gills of clams exposed to 10 percent for 5 days. LPO varied between tissues and different conditions. A significant increase in LPO was observed in the gills, after 5 days exposure to 2 and 6 percent, and in digestive gland after 5 and 15 days exposure to 2 and 3 percent. MT content in the gills increased after 15 days exposure to 2 percent. In conclusion, different leachate concentrations tested here caused biochemical changes in C. fluminea, but due to the observed variability in biomarkers responses among leachate concentrations, it was difficult to determine patterns or thresholds concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence, characteristics and leakage of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Raw leachate samples were collected from various municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in a densely populated city in North China to measure the levels and compositional patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachate. The total concentration of PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 351.2 ng/L, with an average of 73.0 ng/L. BDE-209 dominated the congeners in most of the samples, followed by BDE-47 and -99. Higher PBDEs concentrations were found in leachate from younger landfill facilities in the urban area. Pearson correlation analysis implied a potential dependence of the PBDEs level on landfill age, suspended solids and dissolved organic carbon, while the results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested potential origins and transportation of PBDEs in leachate. The Monte Carlo method was adopted to estimate the annual leakage of PBDEs into the underground environment nationwide, based on two main scenarios: simple landfills with inadequate liner systems and composite-lined landfills with defective geomembranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GeoChip-based analysis of microbial functional gene diversity in a landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria A.; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The functional gene diversity and structure of microbial communities in a shallow landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer were assessed using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). Water samples were obtained from eight wells at the same aquifer depth immediately below a municipal landfill or along the predominant downgradient groundwater flowpath. Functional gene richness and diversity immediately below the landfill and the closest well were considerably lower than those in downgradient wells. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that various geochemical parameters had a significant impact on the subsurface microbial community structure. That is, leachate from the unlined landfill impacted the diversity, composition, structure, and functional potential of groundwater microbial communities as a function of groundwater pH, and concentrations of sulfate, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Historical geochemical records indicate that all sampled wells chronically received leachate, and the increase in microbial diversity as a function of distance from the landfill is consistent with mitigation of the impact of leachate on the groundwater system by natural attenuation mechanisms.

  13. Comparison of NF-RO and RO-NF for the Treatment of Mature Landfill Leachates: A Guide for Landfill Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Sreenivasan; Behrendt, Joachim; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2018-03-21

    Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are among the state-of-the-art technologies for treating landfill leachates. Due to the complexity and variance in the composition of leachates, numerous combinations of multiple technologies are used for their treatment. One process chain for the treatment of raw leachate is RO followed by further concentration of RO-retentate using NF (RO-NF scheme). The aptness of this process train used by some landfill sites around the world (usually with the aim of volume reduction so as to re-inject the concentrate into the landfill) is questionable. This study investigated two schemes RO-NF and NF-RO (nanofiltration of raw leachate followed by reverse osmosis of NF permeate) to identify their merits/demerits. Experiments were conducted in bench scale using commercial membranes: DOW Filmtec NF270 and SW30HR. Filtration trials were performed at different pressures to compare the water and solute transports in the individual stages of the two schemes. Based on the water fluxes and compositions of retentates and permeates; osmotic pressures, energy demands, and other possible operational advantages were discussed. NF-RO offers some advantages and flexibility for leachate treatment besides being energy efficient compared to RO-NF, wherein osmotic pressure steadily increases during operation in turn increasing operation and maintenance costs.

  14. CO-DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MATURE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PRE-BIOAUGMENTED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Montusiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate at the volumetric ratio of 95:5% in primarily bioaugmented system. Bioaugmentation was carried out with the use of commercial product Arkea® in the volumetric dose of 5% and lasted three months prior to the co-digestion start-up. Co-digestion was undergone without bioaugmentation. The results indicated that in the first period (of three months following bioaugmentation, co-digestion led to biogas/methane yields only 5-8% lower as compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, and the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, a comparable value of volatile solids removal was obtained. However, the effects became worse over time, i.e. a lower organics removal efficiency of 16% as well as 9.5–13% decreases of biogas/methane yields were achieved by applying co-digestion for a further period (of the same duration. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate could be recognized as quite efficient in the system that was primarily bioaugmented with the use of Arkea®. However, the beneficial impact of bioaugmentation remained for the limited period of three months after its completion. To sustain the favourable effects a periodical, repeatable bioaugmentation of the co-digestion system is required.

  15. Alkaline disinfection of urban wastewater and landfill leachate by wood fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Tomislav; Hrenović, Jasna; Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Kovačević, Davor; Milenković, Jelena

    2014-12-01

    Wood fly ash is an industrial by-product of the combustion of different wood materials and is mostly disposed of as waste on landfills. In our preliminary experiments, wood ash exhibited antibacterial activity against urban wastewater bacteria and we focused on wood fly ash as a potential substrate for wastewater disinfection. The addition of ash at a concentration of 10 g L⁻¹ (1%) caused an instant increase of pH in urban wastewater and landfill leachate. High pH (10.1-12.7) inactivated bacterial populations in the wastewater and the removal of faecal coliforms and intestinal enterococci after 6 h of contact was 100% (below the detection limit; wood fly ash, i.e. one that tends to increase the pH to the greatest extent, proved to be a very effective disinfection substrate. Considering that water treated with wood ash has a high pH and needs to be neutralised before discharge, ash would be suitable for disinfection of leachates when smaller volumes are treated.

  16. The Effectiveness of Silica Sand in Semi-Aerobic Stabilized Landfill Leachate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezlina Othman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS in Penang, Malaysia. The above-mentioned contaminants are highlighted in this study because of their unsafe concentrations at PBLS. The effects of shaking time, settling time, and silica sand dosage on the study parameter removal efficiencies were investigated to predict the performance of the process. The adsorptions of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc were judiciously described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum removal efficiencies of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc obtained were 51%, 44.4%, and 39.2%, respectively, with a shaking time of 90 min, a settling time of 60 min, and with a dosage of 60 g (0.5 kg/L of silica sand. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2 values obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc adsorption were better fitted to the Freundlich model.

  17. Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate with Colocasia esculenta, Gynerum sagittatum and Heliconia psittacorum in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Salamanca, E J; Peña, M R; Rousseau, D P L; Lens, P N L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the accumulation of Cd (II), Hg (II), Cr (VI) and Pb (II) in Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) planted in constructed wetlands treating synthetic landfill leachate. Sixteen bioreactors were operated in two experimental blocks. Metal concentrations in the influent and effluent; root, stem, branch and leaves of plants were analysed, as well as COD, N-NH4+, TKN, T, pH, ORP, DO, and EC. Average removal efficiencies of COD, TKN and NH4+-N were 66, 67 and 72%, respectively and heavy metal removal ranged from 92 to 98% in all units. Cr (VI) was not detected in any effluent sample. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 10(0) -10(2). The BCF of Cr (VI) was the lowest: 0.59 and 2.5 (L kg(-1)) for Gs and He respectively; whilst Cd (II) had the highest (130-135 L kg(-1)) for Gs. Roots showed a higher metal content than shoots. Translocation factors (TF) were lower, He was the plant exhibiting TFs>1 for Pb (II), Cr (T) and Hg (II) and 0.4-0.9 for Cd (II) and Cr (VI). The evaluated plants demonstrate their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate and all of them can be categorized as metals accumulators.

  18. Variables in the process of coagulation / flocculation / settling of leachate of municipal landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Thomé Jucá

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The careless disposal of waste may generate tremendous environmental and social impacts. For the treatment of landfill leachate, biological and physic-chemical treatments are routinely used. Chemical precipitation using calcium hydroxide has been used with great effectiveness in treating effluent with high concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals. The leachate used in this study was collected from a flow box of the Muribeca landfill, located in the city of Jaboatão Guararapes, PE. Commercial calcium hydroxide was used as coagulant in aqueous solution. The experiment was implemented using a fractional factorial design, followed by a complete planning 24. It was observed that the lowest turbidity and color were obtained at the highest flocculation speeds. Color removal was favored by long flocculation time whereas this did not occur for turbidity removal. For the optimal point, a reduction of 52% of the color and a NTU turbidity within the standards established in Brazilian Laws (CONAMA 357/05 and CONAMA 430/11 were obtained.

  19. Hydraulic and mechanical behavior of landfill clay liner containing SSA in contact with leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lu, Haijun; Liu, Junzhu; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) produced by municipal sludge can be used as a modified additive for clay liner, and improves the working performance of landfill clay liner in contact with leachate. Under the action of landfill leachate, the permeability, shear strength, phase composition, and pore structure of the modified clay are investigated through the flexible wall permeability test, triaxial shear test, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption test, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of the modified clay containing 0-5% SSA is in the range of 3.94 × 10 -8 -1.16 × 10 -7  cm/s, and the pollutant concentration of the sample without SSA was higher than others. The shear strength of the modified clay is more than that of the traditional clay liner, the cohesion rate of modified clay increases from 32.5 to 199.91 kPa, and the internal friction angle decreases from 32.5° to 15.6°. Furthermore, the weight loss rates of the samples are 15.69%, 17.92%, 18.06%, and 20.68%, respectively, when the SSA content increases from 0% to 5%. The total pore volume and average pore diameter of the modified clay decrease with the increase in the SSA content, respectively. However, the specific area of the modified clay increases with the increase in the SSA content.

  20. Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water: Optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Haidong; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water was investigated. • The process was optimized by Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. • GY H2 , TRE and CR could exhibit up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC −1 , 82.54% and 94.56%. • Small amounts of oxidant can decrease the generation of tar and char. - Abstract: To achieve the maximum H 2 yield (GY H2 ), TOC removal rate (TRE) and carbon recovery rate (CR), response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters for supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO) of landfill leachate in a batch reactor. Quadratic polynomial models for GY H2 , CR and TRE were established with Box–Behnken design. GY H2 , CR and TRE reached up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC −1 , 82.54% and 94.56% under optimum conditions, respectively. TRE was invariably above 91.87%. In contrast, TC removal rate (TR) only changed from 8.76% to 32.98%. Furthermore, carbonate and bicarbonate were the most abundant carbonaceous substances in product, whereas CO 2 and H 2 were the most abundant gaseous products. As a product of nitrogen-containing organics, NH 3 has an important effect on gas composition. The carbon balance cannot be reached duo to the formation of tar and char. CR increased with the increase of temperature and oxidation coefficient

  1. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  2. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  3. The influences on leachate from landfill of incineration residuals by acid precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J.-D.; Chai, W.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is the main method of waste management in Taiwan. Although the incineration of MSW processes the solid wastes at 850-950 deg. C and destroys most of the organics, the content of incineration ashes is still a problem for landfill. Moreover, acid precipitation is much worse than before in Taiwan, especially in the northern areas. For instance, the occurrence probabilities of acid precipitation measured from 1991 to 1998 in Taipei increase from 73% to 85%. Therefore, it is more important to get a series of data that will help explore the influence of acid precipitation during disposal on characterization of pollutants than to analyze the ash properties after the incinerators have been constructed and regularly used. In this investigation, the disposal site of incineration ashes is simulated in laboratory by test columns. An irrigation experiment is taken to simulate the acid precipitation at room temperature. In order to explore the exact influence on leachate quality of the main chemical composition of acid precipitation, columns are migrated with different concentrations of sulfate in acid precipitation. This investigation showed that the sulfate concentration of acid precipitation has an increasing effect on the accumulative release of heavy metals, such as Zn, Pb and Cu, from leachate. The sulfate concentration of acid precipitation, however, will not influence the trend of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the leachate release

  4. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Thi Qar University, Nasiriyah (Iraq); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo888@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  5. Investigation of Biogas Production Process by the Mixture of Landfill Leachate and Animal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein alidadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Energy consumption is on a rapidly growing trend in the world. Accordingly, the non-renewable energy sources are expected to be run out in the future. This issue has resulted in the establishment of efforts targeted toward the development of new energy-generating methods around the world. Biogas energy is one of the new and clean energies that is produced from the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Anaerobic digestion is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method, which facilitates fertilizer and biogas production as well as landfill leachate treatment. Given the high environmental hazards of leachate and its mixture with animal wastes, the present study aimed to estimate the possibility of producing biogas in various mixture ratios. Methods: In this pilot-scale experimental study, the landfill leachate of Mashhad, Iran, were mixed with caw fresh dung in different ratios, but same conditions, under anaerobic digestion. This was conducted to consider the ability to produce methane gas in different proportions and landfill leachate. At the beginning and end of the project, the parameters of EC, pH, VS, TS, COD, TOC, P, K, N, and Na were measured. Additionally, the composition of the gases produced under different operating conditions was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Gas production began three weeks after uploading and continued for five weeks. The analysis of gas production in three ratios was indicative of the CH4 production in all three proportions. In this regard, 1/1 ratio produced the highest percentage of CH4. No gas production was observed in the two months of study. Other physical and chemical parameters, such as COD, TS, TKN, and TOC were reduced in the given mixtures during the biogas production procedure. For instance, the case with 1/1 ratio, which showed the best results, had almost 80% decrease in the given parameters. However, no gas

  6. Biogeochemistry at a wetland sediment-alluvial aquifer interface in a landfill leachate plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    The biogeochemistry at the interface between sediments in a seasonally ponded wetland (slough) and an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate was investigated to evaluate factors that can effect natural attenuation of landfill leachate contaminants in areas of groundwater/surface-water interaction. The biogeochemistry at the wetland-alluvial aquifer interface differed greatly between dry and wet conditions. During dry conditions (low water table), vertically upward discharge was focused at the center of the slough from the fringe of a landfill-derived ammonium plume in the underlying aquifer, resulting in transport of relatively low concentrations of ammonium to the slough sediments with dilution and dispersion as the primary attenuation mechanism. In contrast, during wet conditions (high water table), leachate-contaminated groundwater discharged upward near the upgradient slough bank, where ammonium concentrations in the aquifer where high. Relatively high concentrations of ammonium and other leachate constituents also were transported laterally through the slough porewater to the downgradient bank in wet conditions. Concentrations of the leachate-associated constituents chloride, ammonium, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity, and ferrous iron more than doubled in the slough porewater on the upgradient bank during wet conditions. Chloride, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and bicarbonate acted conservatively during lateral transport in the aquifer and slough porewater, whereas ammonium and potassium were strongly attenuated. Nitrogen isotope variations in ammonium and the distribution of ammonium compared to other cations indicated that sorption was the primary attenuation mechanism for ammonium during lateral transport in the aquifer and the slough porewater. Ammonium attenuation was less efficient, however, in the slough porewater than in the aquifer and possibly occurred by a different sorption mechanism. A

  7. Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Coupled, Sequential Coagulation-flocculation and Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Álvarez Cruz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of Fenton (Fe/H2O2 and photo-assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2/UV reactions combined with coagulation-flocculation (C-F processes to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD in a landfill leachate from Mexico at a laboratory scale. The C-F experiments were carried out in jar test equipment using different FeSO4 concentrations (0.0, 0.6, 1.0, 3, and 6 mM at pH = 3.0. The effluent from the C-F processes were then treated using the Fenton reaction. The experiments were carried out in a 500 mL glass reactor fillet with 250 mL of landfill leachate. Different molar ratio concentrations (Fe/H2O2 were tested (e.g., 1.6, 3.3, 30, 40 and 75, and the reaction was followed until COD analysis showed no significant further variation in concentration or until 90 min of reaction time were completed. The photo-assisted Fenton reaction was carried out using a UV lamp (365 nm, 5 mW with the same Fe/H2O2 molar ratio values described above. The results suggested that the photo-assisted Fenton process is the most efficient oxidation method for removing organic matter and color in the leachate. The photo-assisted Fenton process removed 68% of the COD and 90% of the color at pH = 3 over 30 minutes of reaction time using a H2O2/Fe molar ratio equal to 75 only using a third of the reaction time of the previous process.

  8. Utilization of durian peel activated carbon (DPAC) for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Anuar Kamaruddin; Mohd Suffian Yusoff; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the mixture of solid and liquid wastes at landfill sites. It needs to undergo special treatment before discharging it into water bodies. Some of the parameters in leachate such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metal and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N) have resulted in high toxicity of the contaminants which create harmful condition to the environment. The high content of these parameters such as NH 3 -N in stabilized leachate has caused significant problem in leachate treatment. The aim of this study to investigate the ability of durian peel activated carbon (DPAC) in removing NH 3 -N from landfill leachate to replace the commercially available AC as media filter. DPAC was prepared by physical activation method. The raw durian peel (DP) was carbonized at 700 degree Celsius under N 2 gas for 1 hour. DPAC was then characterized with Elemental Analyzer which indicates that DP, DPC and DPAC contain 42.33 %, 63.33 % and 64.16 % carbon respectively. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that DP, DPC and DPAC contain 26.13 %, 47.94 % and 62.15 % fixed carbon. Batch study was carried out to determine the effects of DPAC in removing N-NH 3 from landfill leachate. The results indicated that up to 50 % removal of NH 3 -N from leachate with concentration of 1883 mg/ L can be achieved up via DPAC. The result was promising in term of replacement of commercial AC in leachate treatment for NH 3 -N removal at lower cost. (author)

  9. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  10. Pilot-scale comparison of two hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems operated in a cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Sean; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems employ active pretreatment to remove dissolved inorganic constituents and decrease the oxygen demand of the leachate prior to treatment in a passive system. In a 1-year pilot-scale study, two passive treatment systems - a peat and wood shaving biological trickle filter and a sand and gravel constructed wetland - were installed to treat leachate from the Merrick Landfill in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Leachate was pretreated in a fixed-film aerobic reactor, which provided reductions in COD (26%), and masses of ammonia (21%), Al (69%), Ca (57%), Fe (73%) and Sr (37%). A comparison of the performance of the hybrid-passive treatment systems indicated different extents of heterotrophic nitrification; the peat and wood shaving filter removed 49% of the ammonia and nitrified 29%, while the constructed wetland removed 99% of the ammonia and nitrified 90%. Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment was determined to be feasible in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Physical Clogging of the Landfill Leachate Collection System in China: Based on Filtration Test and Numerical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clogging of the leachate collection system (LCS has been a common operation problem in municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in China, which can result in high water levels that threaten the safety of landfill operations. To determine the cause of failure in an LCS, raw leachate from a municipal solid waste transfer station was collected and the high content of particulate matter was characterized. Based on the parameters obtained in a filtration test, a numerical simulation was performed to estimate the influence of particle deposition on drainage system clogging. The results showed that LCSs were confronted with the risk of clogging due to the deposition of particulate matter resulting from the higher concentration of total suspended solids (TSS level > 2200 mg L−1 and larger particle size (>30% TSS particles > 15 μm in the leachate. On one hand, the non-woven geotextile, as the upper layer of the LCS, retained most particulate matter of large diameters, reducing its hydraulic conductivity to approximately 10−8 to 10−9 m s−1 after 1–2 years of operation and perching significant leachate above it (0.6–0.7 m. On the other hand, the geotextile prevented the gravel layer from physically clogging and minimized the leachate head above the bottom liner. Therefore, the role of geotextile should be balanced to optimize the LCS in MSW landfills in China.

  12. Clonal variation in morphology of Populus root systems following irrigation with landfill leachate or water during 2 years of establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall; Edmund O. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generation in North America has prompted the use of Populus for phytoremediation of waste waters including landfill leachate. Populus species and hybrids are ideal for such applications because of their high water usage rates, fast growth, and extensive root systems. Adventitious rooting (i.e.,...

  13. Association of trace elements with colloidal fractions in leachates from closed and active municipal solid waste landfills

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matura, M.; Ettler, V.; Ježek, J.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Sýkora, V.; Klementová, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, 1-3 (2010), s. 541-548 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Landfill * leachate * trace elements * colloids * cascade filtration Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2010

  14. Application of constructed wetlands to the treatment of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, M K C

    2005-06-01

    Leachates are wastewater generated principally from landfills and solid waste disposal sites. Leachates emanating from municipal wastes are a major source of surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. Globally, leachates have been implicated in low yield of farm produce, developmental anomalies, low birth weights, leukemia incidence, and other cancers in communities around the site. They have also been implicated in hazards to the environment, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of water sources. At Aba-Eku in Nigeria, leachates are being discharged into the Omi Stream without treatment. A study was conducted on a method of leachate treatment that passes the leachate through constructed wetlands using Ipomoea aquatica (Forsk), a locally available plant found close to the landfill site. The aim of the study was to evolve a sustainable and cost-effective method of treatment whose effluents can be discharged into the Omi Stream with no or minimal impact. The study was descriptive and analytical in design. Samples were collected and analyzed with standard methods for pH, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate, and trace metals. Raw leachates were turbid and amber in color and contained suspended solids (197.5 mg/L), ammonia (610.9 mg/L), lead (1.64 mg/L), iron (198.10 mg/L), and manganese (23.20 mg/L). When the leachates were passed through the constructed wetland with eight hours' detention time, effluents showed significant reductions in suspended solids (81.01 percent), BOD (86.03 percent), and ammonia (97.77 percent). The study shows that a constructed wetland is a feasible tool for the treatment of leachates before their disposal into the environment in Nigeria and can help safeguard environmental quality.

  15. Landfill disposal of CCA-treated wood with construction and demolition (C&D) debris: arsenic, chromium, and copper concentrations in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Although phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains a concern because significant quantities have yet to be taken out of service, and it is commonly disposed in landfills. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills. The goal of this research was to simulate the complex chemical and biological activity of a construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfill containing a realistic quantity of CCA-treated wood (10% by mass), produce leachate, and then evaluate the arsenic, copper, and chromium concentrations in the leachate as an indication of what may occur in a landfill setting. Copper concentrations were not significantly elevated in the control or experimental simulated landfill setting (alpha = 0.05). However, the concentrations of arsenic and chromium were significantly higher in the experimental simulated landfill leachate compared to the control simulated landfill leachate (alpha = 0.05, p debris can impact leachate quality which, in turn could affect leachate management practices or aquifers below unlined landfills.

  16. Combining an experimental study and ANFIS modeling to predict landfill leachate transport in underlying soil-a case study in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Kebria, D; Ghavami, M; Javadi, S; Goharimanesh, M

    2017-12-16

    In the contemporary world, urbanization and progressive industrial activities increase the rate of waste material generated in many developed countries. Municipal solid waste landfills (MSWs) are designed to dispose the waste from urban areas. However, discharged landfill leachate, the soluble water mixture that filters through solid waste landfills, can potentially migrate into the soil and affect living organisms by making harmful biological changes in the ecosystem. Due to well-documented landfill problems involving contamination, it is necessary to investigate the long-term influence of discharged leachate on the consistency of the soil beds beneath MSW landfills. To do so, the current study collected vertical deep core samples from different locations in the same unlined landfill. The impacts of effluent leachate on physical and chemical properties of the soil and its propagation depth were studied, and the leachate-transport pattern between successive boreholes was predicted by a developed mathematical model using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The decomposition of organic leachate admixtures in the landfill yield is to produce organic acids as well as carbon dioxide, which diminishes the pH level of the landfill soil. The chemical analysis of discharged leachate in the soil samples showed that the concentrations of heavy metals are much lower than those of chloride, COD, BOD 5 , and bicarbonate. Using linear regression and mean square errors between the measured and predicted data, the accuracy of the proposed ANFIS model has been validated. Results show a high correlation between observed and predicated data.

  17. Coagulation-flocculation and ammoniacal stripping of leachates from municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Paz; Díaz, Arturo; Cortijo, Manuel

    2007-11-01

    The elimination of contamination in leachates from municipal solid waste landfill was studied by sedimentation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the removal efficiency of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)). First, by coagulation with aluminium sulphate like inorganic coagulant, and secondly by flocculation with anionic polyacrylamides in quick succession. The use of polyacrylamides after coagulation with Al(3+) showed a lower SS removal and slow filtration. Turbidity removal efficacy was over 60% if Al(3+) concentration was 190 mg/L. COD elimination by flocculation was 10 to 20% regardless of adding polyacrylamides. Finally, ammoniacal stripping is made in order to reduce the ammoniacal nitrogen concentration in the supernatant liquid obtained after coagulation with Al(3+). The most influential variable in ammoniacal stripping was the agitation time.

  18. An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume, Grindsted, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rügge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Pedersen, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous, natural-gradient field injection experiment, involving 18 xenobiotic compounds and bromide as tracers, was performed in the anaerobic region of a leachate plume downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark. The injection lasted for 195 days, and within this period a continuous...... cloud was established. Over a period of 924 days the cloud movement was monitored in approximately 70 discrete sampling points in the central part of the cloud, and the spatial distribution was described by seven cloud snapshots involving 400-700 sampling points. The bromide cloud movement closely...... followed the varying flow direction predicted by the water table measurements. Moment analysis showed decreasing tracer flow velocities and reduced capture of bromide mass with time, which may be explained by varying flow conditions (direction, hydraulic gradient) and the heterogeneous geological...

  19. Irradiation conditions required in combined radiation-microbial process for landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko; Yamazaki, Kimiko; Kawaguchi, Shiro.

    1984-01-01

    A landfill leachate, which contains large amounts of microbially refractory humic substances, was irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays under several conditions and the modification of its biodegradability was examined. The effects of initial pH and dose rate on the modification were found to be insignificant. The apparent effect was observed for the initial concentration of the humic substances. High biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value was obtained as the initial concentration was higher. As the initial concentration was lower, in contrast, the decreasing rates of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were high. Therefore two possible designs of the combined radiation-microbial processes with and without dilution are proposed. Both processes require only about 30% of the irradiation dose, compared with a simple radiation process. (author)

  20. Evaluation of electro-oxidation of biologically treated landfill leachate using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Ran Xiaoni; Wu Xiaogang; Zhang Daobin

    2011-01-01

    Box-Behnken statistical experiment design and response surface methodology were used to investigate electrochemical oxidation of mature landfill leachate pretreated by sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Titanium coated with ruthenium dioxide (RuO 2 ) and iridium dioxide (IrO 2 ) was used as the anode in this study. The variables included current density, inter-electrode gap and reaction time. Response factors were ammonia nitrogen removal efficiency and COD removal efficiency. The response surface methodology models were derived based on the results. The predicted values calculated with the model equations were very close to the experimental values and the models were highly significant. The organic components before and after electrochemical oxidation were determined by GC-MS.

  1. Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Haidong; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water was investigated. • The process was optimized by Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. • GY{sub H2}, TRE and CR could exhibit up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC{sup −1}, 82.54% and 94.56%. • Small amounts of oxidant can decrease the generation of tar and char. - Abstract: To achieve the maximum H{sub 2} yield (GY{sub H2}), TOC removal rate (TRE) and carbon recovery rate (CR), response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters for supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO) of landfill leachate in a batch reactor. Quadratic polynomial models for GY{sub H2}, CR and TRE were established with Box–Behnken design. GY{sub H2}, CR and TRE reached up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC{sup −1}, 82.54% and 94.56% under optimum conditions, respectively. TRE was invariably above 91.87%. In contrast, TC removal rate (TR) only changed from 8.76% to 32.98%. Furthermore, carbonate and bicarbonate were the most abundant carbonaceous substances in product, whereas CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were the most abundant gaseous products. As a product of nitrogen-containing organics, NH{sub 3} has an important effect on gas composition. The carbon balance cannot be reached duo to the formation of tar and char. CR increased with the increase of temperature and oxidation coefficient.

  2. Nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qi; Li Daping; Tao Yong; Wang Xiaomei; He Xiaohong; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jinlian; Guo Weiqiang; Wang Lan

    2009-01-01

    Ex situ nitrification and sequential in situ denitrification represents a novel approach to nitrogen management at landfills. Simultaneous ammonia and organics removal was achieved in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results showed that the maximum nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and the maximum organic loading rate (OLR) was 0.65 g N l -1 d -1 and 3.84 g COD l -1 d -1 , respectively. The ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was over 99% and 57%, respectively. In the run of the CSTR, free ammonia (FA) inhibition and low dissolved oxygen (DO) were found to be key factors affecting nitrite accumulation. In situ denitrification was studied in a municipal solid waste (MSW) column by recalculating nitrified leachate from CSTR. The decomposition of MSW was accelerated by the recirculation of nitrified leachate. Complete reduction of total oxidized nitrogen (TON) was obtained with maximum TON loading of 28.6 g N t -1 TS d -1 and denitrification was the main reaction responsible. Additionally, methanogenesis inhibition was observed while TON loading was over 11.4 g N t -1 TS d -1 and the inhibition was enhanced with the increase of TON loading

  3. Integrated treatment of landfill leachates including electrooxidation at pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtiaga, Ane; Rueda, Ana; Anglada, Angela; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2009-07-30

    This paper reports the integration of advanced and conventional technologies to deal with the treatment of landfill leachates. The raw leachate, with average values of COD=4430 mg/L and N-NH(4)(+)=1225 mg/L, was first treated on site by an activated sludge large-scale process reducing the former parameters to 1750 mg/L (av.) of COD and 750 mg/L (av.) of N-NH(4)(+). Next, 50 L/h of the effluent were pumped to a pilot plant that included Fenton oxidation followed by an electrooxidation unit, provided with boron doped diamond anodes (anode area=1.05 m(2)); almost complete removal of the organic matter and ammonium nitrogen was achieved. Comparison of the results with those obtained in the laboratory (70 cm(2) of anode area) was performed observing a similar performance in the kinetics of COD removal, while differences were found in the ammonium removal rates. The specific energy consumption necessary to electro-oxidize the organic load below the disposal limit (CODplant scale was 35 kWh/m(3).

  4. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of electrical tomography methods to determinate the extension and main migration routes of uncontrolled landfill leachates in fractured areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Ismael; Mahjoub, Himi; Lovera, Raul; Fernández, Jesús; Casas, Albert

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the uses of the electrical tomography and its relationship with hydrochemical data in order to characterize contaminated groundwater flows in fractured aquifers. The studied area is contaminated with different hazardous substances like lyndanes, organochlorinated compounds and benzenes coming from the old non-controlled Sardas landfill. The enormous volumes of wastes filling the landfill have generated a convoluted mixture of leachates. Due to the lack of a landfill liner, the leachates have migrated through the fractured Eocene marls towards the Gallego River. The striking correlation between high concentrations of polluted groundwater and low electrical resistivity of the subsurface (< 8 Ω·m) allows defining the principal contaminant migration route thanks to the distribution of these conductive anomalies. This mapping verifies that there is intense tectonical–structural control of the leachate migration, because the deep migration presents the same direction as the geological axis fold. - Highlights: • The outcrop topographic reconstruction is done using cores and aerial photographs. • Hydrochemical and geophysical data allow defining two leachate migration paths. • Conductive anomalies in ERT are linked to high contaminant concentration. • The distribution of conductive anomalies defines the fractured basement migration. • The plume direction reflects important tectonic control in the migration process

  6. Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment Of Heavy Metals From Leachate Of The Wild Landfill Of El Hajeb City Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Gamar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in landfill leachates poses a risk to the environment especially in the unpaved dumps where their dissipation in groundwater might occur. This study is focused on the assessment of heavy metal load in landfill leachate of El Hajeb Morocco and their effects on the environment in general. To do this raw leachate samples were collected monthly from basins available at the heart of the landfill and analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS to quantify the heavy metals during the period which extends of May 2015 to February 2017. The results showed the presence of Pb 2.68 mgL Co 0.92 mgL Hg 0.009 mgL Cr 5.14 mgL As 1.95 mgL Cd 0.41mgL and Mn 61.52 mgL in significant amounts. What makes these extremely toxic effluents and thus presented a potential danger for the health of the riparian population and the adjacent groundwater. The determination of heavy metals content will thus make it possible to orient the choice of the leachate treatment process to answer the strictest standards of rejection.

  7. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Investigation of landfill leachate toxic potency: An integrated approach with the use of stress indices in tissues of mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leachate induces mortality of mussels and their cell death at very low doses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepathological alterations occur in tissues of leachate-exposed mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alterations of stress indices reveal neurotoxic and genotoxic potency of leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leachate could induce oxidative damage in tissues of leachate-exposed mussels. - Abstract: The present study investigates the harmful impacts of landfill leachate release and/or disposal into the marine environment, as well as its ability to induce lethal and pre-pathological alterations in marine organisms, such as the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In specific, mortality test (96 h), performed first in order to estimate leachate lethal endpoints, showed increased levels of mussel mortality after exposure to leachate higher than 0.5%, v/v (96 h LC{sub 50} = 0.526%, v/v), while the exposure to 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) of leachate showed negligible levels of mortality (96 h LC{sub 10} = 0.167%, v/v). Furthermore, the estimation of lysosomal membrane integrity in hemocytes of exposed mussels (Neutral Red Retention Time assay) showed increased levels of lysosomal destabilization in cells of mussels exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of leachate (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5%, v/v) for 4 days. In order to exclude parameters, such as mussel mortality and cell death, which could interfere with the obtained results, leachate at final concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) were finally used for the estimation of a battery of stress indices in target tissues of mussels, such as hemolymph, gills and digestive gland. According to the results, leachate-exposed mussels showed a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, increased levels of nuclear abnormalities, as well as increased levels of metallothionein, superoxide anion and lipid peroxides (in terms of malondialdehyde equivalents) in each tissue tested. The

  9. Evaluation of pH, alkalinity and temperature during air stripping process for ammonia removal from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli; Moura, Denise; Costa, Ana Paula; Yokoyama, Lidia; Araujo, Fabiana Valeria da Fonseca; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Cardillo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the air stripping technology for the removal of ammonia from landfill leachates. In this process, pH, temperature, airflow rate and operation time were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between the leachate alkalinity and the ammonia removal efficiency during the process was studied. The leachate used in the tests was generated in the Gramacho Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The best results were obtained with a temperature of 60(o)C, and they were independent of the pH value for 7 h of operation (the ammonia nitrogen removal was greater than 95%). A strong influence of the leachate alkalinity on the ammonia nitrogen removal was observed; as the alkalinity decreased, the ammonia concentration also decreased because of prior CO2 removal, which increased the pH and consequently favored the NH3 stripping. The air flow rate, in the values evaluated (73, 96 and 120 L air.h(-1).L(-1) of leachate), did not influence the results.

  10. Mammalian cell line-based bioassays for toxicological evaluation of landfill leachate treated by Pseudomonas sp. ISTDF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pooja; Das, Mihir Tanay; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Landfill leachate has become a serious environmental concern because of the presence of many hazardous compounds which even at trace levels are a threat to human health and environment. Therefore, it is important to assess the toxicity of leachate generated and discharge it conforming to the safety standards. The present work examined the efficiency of an earlier reported Pseudomonas sp. strain ISTDF1 for detoxification of leachate collected from Okhla landfill site (New Delhi, India). GC-MS analysis performed after treatment showed the removal of compounds like alpha-limonene diepoxide, brominated dioxin-2-one, Bisphenol A, nitromusk, phthalate derivative, and nitrobenzene originally found in untreated leachate. ICP-AES analysis for heavy metals also showed reduction in concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb bringing them within the limit of safety discharge. Methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay for cytotoxicity, alkaline comet assay for genotoxicity, and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for dioxin-like behavior were carried out in human hepato-carcinoma cell line HepG2 to evaluate the toxic potential of treated and untreated leachates. The bacterium reduced toxicity as shown by 2.5-fold reduction of MTT EC50 value, 7-fold reduction in Olive Tail Moment, and 2.8-fold reduction in EROD induction after 240 h of bacterial treatment.

  11. Estudo de compostos orgânicos em lixiviado de aterros sanitários por EFS e CG/EM Study of organic compounds in landfill leachate by SPE and GC/MSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irajá do Nascimento Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the qualitative study of organic compounds in landfill leachate. The samples were collected from a sanitary landfill located at Gravataí, a southern Brazilian city, that receive both, industrial and domestic refuse. The samples were submitted to solid phase extraction (SPE with XAD-4 resin as the stationary phase. The instrumental analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Spectrometry Detector (GC/MSD. The compounds achieved in the SPE extracts were tentatively identified by the GC/MS library. It was found several oxygen and nitrogen compounds like carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and amides. Sulfur compounds and phthalate esters are also identified.

  12. Batch and column tests of metal mobilization in soil impacted by landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, L; Mecozzi, R

    2010-01-01

    The percolation of landfill leachate, even in the absence of a high concentration of specific pollutant, may induce a strong modification of soil chemical and physical characteristics, due to the alteration of the natural equilibrium between the aqueous phase and the soil matrix. As a result, a huge amount of cations can be solubilized, thus inducing groundwater pollution. In this work batch and column experiments of metal mobilization from a soil sampled down gradient of a municipal waste landfill in Northern Italy are presented. The experiments were initially performed in batch scale on soil slurries at different pH and Eh. Distilled water was used first and then a groundwater sampled down-gradient in the same site. Subsequently, to better simulate the aquifer conditions, 50 d column tests were performed on 15 kg of saturated soil. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Ni were evaluated when these selected environmental parameters were altered. Results indicated a greater release when acidic conditions were achieved, a positive effect in this case of the addition of an oxidant and a great Mn mobilization when negative redox potentials were established. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organophosphorus flame retardants and heavy metals in municipal landfill leachate treatment system in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingjun; Kuo, Dave T F; Wu, Qihang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Shengyu; Hu, Xiaodong; Mai, Bixian; Liu, Zhineng; Zhang, Haozhi

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence, distribution and removal efficiencies of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and metals were examined in a municipal landfill leachate treatment system in Guangzhou, China. Five OPFRs and thirty-five metals were detected in wastewater samples collected at different treatment stages. ∑OPFRs was reduced from 4807.02 ng L -1 to 103.91 ng L -1 through the treatment system, with close to 98% removed from the dissolved phase. Tris(clorisopropyl) phosphates (TCPPs) dominated through the treatment process and accounted for over 80% and 50% of ∑OPFRs at the influent and the effluent, respectively. TCPPs were most efficiently removed (98.6%) followed by tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (96.6%) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) (88.5%). For metals, Fe, Cr, and Rb were dominant in the raw leachate, detected at 7.55, 2.82, and 4.50 mg L -1 , respectively. Thirteen regulated heavy metals - including eight major pollutants (i.e., As. Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) - have been detected in all wastewater samples at sub-mg L -1 levels. Over 99.5% removal was achieved for Cr, Ni, and Fe, and close to 95% removal efficiency was observed for Rb. For the eight major heavy metals, over 99% removal was observed; the only exception was Cu, which was removed at 89%. It was found that microfiltration/reverse osmosis was critical for the removal of OPFRs and heavy metals while the core biological treatment played a minor role towards their removal. Remobilization of Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Sb, and Sr from the returned sludge occurred during the second denitrification, indicating the need for additional post-biological process for effective removal of both contaminants. This study highlights the critical need to develop cheap, effective treatment technologies for contaminants-laden leachate generated from open dumps and under-designed landfills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of humic substances removal from leachates originating from solid waste landfills in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Letícia S M S; De Almeida, Ronei; Quintaes, Bianca R; Bila, Daniele M; Campos, Juacyara C

    2017-07-29

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes for the removal of the recalcitrant component, in particular humic substances, from two different leachates generated in the Gericinó and Gramacho landfills in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). A coagulation/flocculation process, using FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O as the coagulant, was applied to the two leachate samples. In the case of the leachate from Gericinó landfill, the treatment removed 93% of color, 71% of TOC, 69% of COD, 76% of HS, 73% of humic acids (HA) and 82% of fulvic acids (FA). In addition, there was a 75% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm, using 3,000 mg L -1 of coagulant. In the case of the leachate from Gramacho landfill, the treatment removed 91% of color, 69% of TOC, 68% of COD, 77% of HS, 75% of HA and 80% of FA. In addition, there was a 70% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm using the same concentration of coagulant (3,000 mg L -1 ). The Fenton processes, using FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O and H 2 O 2 in a ratio of 1:5, were also applied to the two leachate samples. In the case of the Gericinó leachate, the Fenton treatment removed 95% of color, 75% of TOC, 68% of COD, 82% of HS, 77% of HA and 93% of FA. In addition, there was a 93% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm. In the case of the Gramacho leachate, the Fenton treatment removed 93% of color, 73% of TOC, 71% of COD, 81% of HS, 76% of HA, 90% of FA, and there was an 84% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm. The results of humic substances, color, organic matter and aromatic organic matter (absorbance at 254 nm) demonstrate that the coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes were efficient in the removal of recalcitrant organic matter from landfill leachates.

  15. Evaluating the ability of artificial neural network and PCA-M5P models in predicting leachate COD load in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Sama; Amiri, Hamid; Rakhshandehroo, G Reza

    2016-09-01

    Waste burial in uncontrolled landfills can cause serious environmental damages and unpleasant consequences. Leachates produced in landfills have the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater resources. Leachate management is one of the major issues with respect to landfills environmental impacts. Improper design of landfills can lead to leachate spread in the environment, and hence, engineered landfills are required to have leachate monitoring programs. The high cost of such programs may be greatly reduced and cost efficiency of the program may be optimized if one can predict leachate contamination level and foresee management and treatment strategies. The aim of this study is to develop two expert systems consisting of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Principal Component Analysis-M5P (PCA-M5P) models to predict Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load in leachates produced in lab-scale landfills. Measured data from three landfill lysimeters, including rainfall depth, number of days after waste deposition, thickness of top and bottom Compacted Clay Liners (CCLs), and thickness of top cover over the lysimeter, were utilized to develop, train, validate, and test the expert systems and predict the leachate COD load. Statistical analysis of the prediction results showed that both models possess good prediction ability with a slight superiority for ANN over PCA-M5P. Based on test datasets, the mean absolute percentage error for ANN and PCA-M5P models were 4% and 12%, respectively, and the correlation coefficient for both models was greater than 0.98. Developed models may be used as a rough estimate for leachate COD load prediction in primary landfill designs, where the effect of a top and/or bottom liner is disputed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Christenson, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater depends on an adequate supply of electron acceptors to stimulate biodegradation. In an alluvial aquifer contaminated with leachate from an unlined municipal landfill, the mechanism of recharge infiltration was investigated as a source of electron acceptors. Water samples were collected monthly at closely spaced intervals in the top 2 m of the saturated zone from a leachate-contaminated well and an uncontaminated well, and analyzed for ??18O, ??2H, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC), SO42-, NO3- and Cl-. Monthly recharge amounts were quantified using the offset of the ??18O or ??2H from the local meteoric water line as a parameter to distinguish water types, as evaporation and methanogenesis caused isotopic enrichment in waters from different sources. Presence of dissolved SO42- in the top 1 to 2??m of the saturated zone was associated with recharge; SO42- averaged 2.2??mM, with maximum concentrations of 15??mM. Nitrate was observed near the water table at the contaminated site at concentrations up to 4.6??mM. Temporal monitoring of ??2H and SO42- showed that vertical transport of recharge carried SO42- to depths up to 1.75??m below the water table, supplying an additional electron acceptor to the predominantly methanogenic leachate plume. Measurements of ??34S in SO42- indicated both SO42- reduction and sulfide oxidation were occurring in the aquifer. Depth-integrated net SO42- reduction rates, calculated using the natural Cl- gradient as a conservative tracer, ranged from 7.5 ?? 10- 3 to 0.61??mM??d- 1 (over various depth intervals from 0.45 to 1.75??m). Sulfate reduction occurred at both the contaminated and uncontaminated sites; however, median SO42- reduction rates were higher at the contaminated site. Although estimated SO42- reduction rates are relatively high, significant decreases in NVDOC were not observed at the contaminated site. Organic compounds more labile than the leachate NVDOC may be

  17. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Christenson, Scott C

    2006-08-10

    Natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater depends on an adequate supply of electron acceptors to stimulate biodegradation. In an alluvial aquifer contaminated with leachate from an unlined municipal landfill, the mechanism of recharge infiltration was investigated as a source of electron acceptors. Water samples were collected monthly at closely spaced intervals in the top 2 m of the saturated zone from a leachate-contaminated well and an uncontaminated well, and analyzed for delta(18)O, delta(2)H, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and Cl(-). Monthly recharge amounts were quantified using the offset of the delta(18)O or delta(2)H from the local meteoric water line as a parameter to distinguish water types, as evaporation and methanogenesis caused isotopic enrichment in waters from different sources. Presence of dissolved SO(4)(2-) in the top 1 to 2 m of the saturated zone was associated with recharge; SO(4)(2-) averaged 2.2 mM, with maximum concentrations of 15 mM. Nitrate was observed near the water table at the contaminated site at concentrations up to 4.6 mM. Temporal monitoring of delta(2)H and SO(4)(2-) showed that vertical transport of recharge carried SO(4)(2-) to depths up to 1.75 m below the water table, supplying an additional electron acceptor to the predominantly methanogenic leachate plume. Measurements of delta(34)S in SO(4)(2-) indicated both SO(4)(2-) reduction and sulfide oxidation were occurring in the aquifer. Depth-integrated net SO(4)(2-) reduction rates, calculated using the natural Cl(-) gradient as a conservative tracer, ranged from 7.5x10(-3) to 0.61 mM.d(-1) (over various depth intervals from 0.45 to 1.75 m). Sulfate reduction occurred at both the contaminated and uncontaminated sites; however, median SO(4)(2-) reduction rates were higher at the contaminated site. Although estimated SO(4)(2-) reduction rates are relatively high, significant decreases in NVDOC were not observed at the contaminated

  18. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong; Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr 6+ and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria

  19. Detailed landfill leachate plume mapping using 2D and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography - with correlation to ionic strength measured in screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurya, P.K.; Rønde, Vinni; Fiandaca, G.

    2017-01-01

    Leaching of organic and inorganic contamination from landfills is a serious environmental problem as surface water and aquifers are affected. In order to assess these risks and investigate the migration of leachate from the landfill, 2D and large scale 3D electrical resistivity tomography were used...... at a heavily contaminated landfill in Grindsted, Denmark. The inverted 2D profiles describe both the variations along the groundwater flow as well as the plume extension across the flow directions. The 3D inversion model shows the variability in the low resistivity anomaly pattern corresponding to differences...... in the ionic strength of the landfill leachate. Chemical data from boreholes agree well with the observations indicating a leachate plume which gradually sinks and increases in size while migrating from the landfill in the groundwater flow direction. Overall results show that the resistivity method has been...

  20. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of Landfill leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris L and survival of microorganisms of public health importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ortiz, Vanessa Ruby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In landfill, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generated leachate (LE, a chemical inorganic and organic mix an environmental pollutant to determine by Leachate Pollution Index (LPI. A bioassay could give certainty to its negative effect. To include pathogenic human microorganisms (PHM and mesophilic total aerobic bacteria (MTAB different than fecal and total coliforms would have health value. The objectives of this research were i analyzed the phytotoxicity of leachate on Phaseolus vulgaris and ii to detect in LE the existence of HPM and MATB. A bioassay "in vitro" was made in Petri dishes and Leonard jars using seeds P. vulgaris treated by diluted leachate. The response variables of bioassay were: germination percentage, phenotype: plant height and root length, biomass total: fresh and dry weight of root and plant. Including HPM and MATB detection. Experimental data was analyzed by Tukey p<0.05. The results indicated that LE caused inhibition and/or stimulation on P. vulgaris; Leachate´s phytoxicity was depending on its chemical composition and level dilution, this suggests that toxic effect is due its heavy metals and extreme alkalinity, killing HPM in leachate but not MATB. A bioassay P. vulgaris is useful to define degree of benefical and/or toxicity of LE, and validate LPI. While is important to know the role of HPM in LE and potential environmental biological contamination.

  1. Impact of Sediment-Bound Iron on Redox Buffering in a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    in the reduced zones close to the landfill, and the aquifer oxidation capacity (OXC) related to iron oxides was depleted. Less than 2% of the total Fe(ll) was recovered as dissolved Fe(ll), whereas 1-20% was ion-exchangeable on the sediments. The majority of the Fe(ll) was in the solid state either as pyrite......(ll). This study presents evidence of substantial iron reduction buffering the reducing power of landfill leachate entering a shallow aquifer. It is also proposed that reduced sedimentbound iron species form in the plume, thereby increasing the need for oxygen if the aquifer was to be remediated....

  2. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater sa...

  3. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  4. Is the IP response related to geology or contaminants in a leachate plume at the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ingelise; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Balbarini, Nicola

    a leachate plume from a landfill hosting both household and chemical waste, borehole IP data, geological samples, grain size, and contaminant concentrations in water samples are examined for correlations related to geology and concentrations of contaminants. Results relating the Cole-Cole parameters......Contaminants in leachate plumes from landfills and other contaminated sites are a threat to the environment. Efficient site characterization methods are needed. The perspectives of the IP method are investigated in combination with geological sampling and chemical analyses of water samples. Along...... with sediment types and pore water resistivity representing the concentrations of the contaminants show that the formation resistivity primarily is controlled by the contaminant concentrations while the IP parameters primarily are related to the clay content and grain size distribution of sandy sediments...

  5. Is the IP response related to geology or contaminants in a leachate plume at the Grindsted Landfill, Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ingelise; Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Balbarini, Nicola

    Contaminants in leachate plumes from landfills and other contaminated sites are a threat to the environment. Efficient site characterization methods are needed. The perspectives of the IP method are investigated in combination with geological sampling and chemical analyses of water samples. Along...... a leachate plume from a landfill hosting both household and chemical waste, borehole IP data, geological samples, grain size, and contaminant concentrations in water samples are examined for correlations related to geology and concentrations of contaminants. Results relating the Cole-Cole parameters...... with sediment types and pore water resistivity representing the concentrations of the contaminants show that the formation resistivity primarily is controlled by the contaminant concentrations while the IP parameters primarily are related to the clay content and grain size distribution of sandy sediments...

  6. Identification and assessment of water pollution as a consequence of a leachate plume migration from a municipal landfill site (Tucumán, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Diego S; Puchulu, María E; Georgieff, Sergio M

    2014-06-01

    Landfills constitute potential sources of different pollutants that could generate human health and environmental problems. While some landfills currently work under the protection of a bottom liner with leachate collection, it was demonstrated that migration could take place even yet with these cautions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pollution caused by a leachate plume from a municipal landfill that is affecting both groundwater and surface waters. The research was carried out at Pacará Pintado landfill in northwestern Argentina. Analysis of water samples indicates that leachate is affecting groundwater under the landfill area and an abandoned river channel hydraulically connected. In the center of the landfill area, the plume is anoxic and sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese reduction zones were identified. Leachate plume presented high concentration of organic matter, Fe, Mn, NH(4)(+), Cl(-) and Cr reaching an extension of 900 m. The presence of a leachate plume in a landfill site with a single liner system implies that the use of this groundwater pollution control method alone is not enough especially if permeable sediments are present below.

  7. Characterization and detoxification of a mature landfill leachate using a combined coagulation–flocculation/photo Fenton treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, Michel; Vasquez-Medrano, Ruben; Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A.; Ibanez, Jorge G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mature landfill leachate was characterized in terms of its pollutants and toxicity. ► A toxicity bioassay revealed an antagonistic behavior among its pollutants. ► The coagulation stage produced good results for TC and lead at an acidic pH. ► The photo Fenton treatment yielded good COD, ammonia and lead removals. ► Arsenic and mercury showed low removal efficiencies throughout the treatment. - Abstract: The aim of the present work was to characterize and treat a mature landfill leachate using a coagulation/flocculation process followed by a photo-Fenton oxidation treatment. The leachate was obtained from a landfill in Tetlama, Morelos (Mexico) during the drought season and was characterized in terms of its major pollutants. Considerable levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC) and NH 4 + were identified, as well as high concentrations of Hg, Pb, and As. Other heavy metals such as Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, and Mn were detected at trace levels. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of the leachate, evaluated on Artemia salina, was 12,161 ± 11 mg/L of COD, demonstrating an antagonistic interaction among the leachate's components. The treatment of this effluent consisted of a coagulation–flocculation process using an optimal dose of FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O of 300 mg/L. The supernatant was treated using a photo-Fenton process mediated with FeCl 2 ·4H 2 O and H 2 O 2 in a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) photo-reactor operating in batch mode using an R ratio (R = [H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ]) of 114. The global removal efficiencies after treatment were 56% for the COD, 95% for TC, and 64% for NH 4 + . The removal efficiencies for As, Hg, and Pb were 46%, 9%, and 85%, respectively.

  8. Organic matters removal from landfill leachate by immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium loaded with graphitic carbon nitride under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yutang; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Wan, Jia; Zeng, Yunxiong; Wang, Longlu; Wu, Haipeng; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Hu, Tianjue

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the technical applicability of a combination of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) with photocatalyst graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) for organic matters removal from landfill leachate under visible light irradiation. Photocatalyst g-C 3 N 4 was well immobilized on the hyphae surface of P. chrysosporium by calcium alginate. The typical absorption edge in visible light region for g-C 3 N 4 was at about 460 nm, and the optical absorption bandgap of g-C 3 N 4 was estimated to be 2.70 eV, demonstrating the great photoresponsive ability of g-C 3 N 4 . An optimized g-C 3 N 4 content of 0.10 g in immobilized P. chrysosporium and an optimized immobilized P. chrysosporium dosage of 1.0 g were suitable for organic matters removal. The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) reached 74.99% in 72 h with the initial TOC concentration of 100 mg L -1 . In addition, the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed that immobilized P. chrysosporium presented an outstanding removal performance for almost all organic compounds in landfill leachate, especially for the volatile fatty acids and long-chain hydrocarbons. The overall results indicate that the combination P. chrysosporium with photocatalyst g-C 3 N 4 for organic matters removal from landfill leachate may provide a more comprehensive potential for the landfill leachate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High efficiency bio-hydrogen production from glucose revealed in an inoculum of heat-pretreated landfill leachate sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.M.; Juan, J.C.; Ting, Adeline; Wu, T.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-hydrogen is a promising sustainable energy to replace fossil fuels. This study investigated bio-H 2 production from the inoculum of heat-pretreated landfill leachate sludge using glucose as model substrate. The seed sludge pretreated at 65 °C showed the highest amount of H 2 at the optimum condition of pH 6 and 37 °C. The maximum H 2 yield estimated by the modified Gompertz model was 6.43 mol H 2 /mol glucose. The high efficient of H 2 production is thermodynamically feasible with the Gibbs free energy of −34 kJ/mol. This study reveals that pretreated landfill leachate sludge has considerable potential for H 2 production. - Highlights: • Heat retreated landfill leachate sludge revealed high efficient H 2 production. • High efficient H 2 yield, 6.4 mol H 2 /mol glucose. • The synergisms between H 2 -producing bacteria may responsible for the high H 2 yield. • High H 2 yield is thermodynamically feasible with Gibbs free energy of −34 kJ/mol

  10. Impact of SRT on the performance of MBRs for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate

    KAUST Repository

    El-Fadel, M.

    2017-12-14

    This study examines the performance and fouling potential of flat sheet (FS) and hollow fiber (HF) membrane bioreactors (MBRs) during the treatment of high strength landfill leachate under varying solid retention times (SRT = 5–20 days). Mixed-liquor bacterial communities were examined over time using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis in an attempt to define linkages between the system performance and the microbial community composition. Similarly, biofilm samples were collected at the end of each SRT to characterize the microbial communities that evolved on the surface of the FS and HF membranes. In general, both systems exhibited comparable removal efficiencies that dropped significantly as SRT was decreased down to 5 days. Noticeably, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria were not detected at the tested SRTs. This suggests that the nitrifiers were not enriched, possibly due to the high organic and ammonium content of the leachate that led to low TN and NH3 removal efficiency. The steady-state fouling rate of both membranes increased linearly with the decrease in SRT at an estimated factor of 1.1 and 1.2 for the FS- and HF-MBR, respectively, when the SRT was reduced from 15 to 10 days and from 10 to 5 days. Similar dominant genera were detected in both MBRs, including Pseudomonas, Aequorivita, Ulvibacter, Taibaiella, and Thermus. Aequorivita, Taibaiella; Thermus were the dominant genera in the biofilms. Hierarchical clustering and non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that while the mixed liquor communities in the FS-MBR and HF-MBRs were dynamic, they clustered separately. Similarly, biofilm communities on the FS and HF membranes differed in the dynamic bacterial community structure, especially for the FS-MBR; however this was less dynamic than the mixed liquor community.

  11. Management and treatment of landfill leachate by a system of constructed wetlands and ponds in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, C H; Quek, B S; Shutes, R B E; Goh, K H

    2013-01-01

    Lorong Halus, Singapore's first landfill leachate treatment system, consists of a pre-treatment system (8,000 m(2)), five constructed reed beds (38,000 m(2)), five polishing ponds (13,000 m(2)), an education centre and a learning trail for visitors. Eight species of wetland plants (total 160,000 plants) were selected for their ability to uptake nutrients, tolerance to low phosphorus concentrations and resistance to pest infestations. The wetland was launched in March 2011 and water quality monitoring started in April 2011. The removal efficiencies of the pre-treatment system from April 2011 to August 2012 are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 57.4%; chemical oxygen demand (COD) 23.6%; total suspended solids (TSS) 55.1%; ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) 76.8%; total phosphorus (TP) 33.3% and total nitrogen (TN) 60.2%. Removal efficiencies of the reed beds are BOD5 47.0%; COD 42.2%; TSS 57.0%; NH4-N 82.5%; TP 29.3% and TN 83.9%. Plant growth is generally satisfactory, but the lower than designed volume of leachate has adversely affected some sections of plants and resulted in uneven flow distribution in reed beds. The plant management programme includes improving plant regrowth by harvesting of alternate strips of plants and replanting. The treated effluent meets water quality limits for discharge to the public sewer and is subsequently treated by the NEWater treatment system, which recycles water for industrial and indirect potable use.

  12. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Hearn, Laurence; Muller, Jochen F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • E-waste comprises approximately 6% of the waste mass going to landfill in South Australia. • Significant amounts of metal(loids)s and PBDEs are released from e-waste mixed with municipal solid in landfill leachates. • Significantly elevated concentrations of lead and PBDEs are detected in groundwater wells downgradient of landfills. • Significant temporal variation exists in electrical conductivity and in the concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in leachates. - Abstract: The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of South Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13–59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41–6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to attribute

  14. Supercritical water gasification of landfill leachate for hydrogen production in the presence and absence of alkali catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijin, Gong; Binbin, Li; Qingyu, Wang; Zuohua, Huang; Liang, Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Gasification of landfill leachate in supercritical water using batch-type reactor is investigated. Alkali such as NaOH, KOH, K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 is used as catalyst. The effect of temperature (380-500 °C), retention time (5-25 min), landfill leachate concentration (1595 mg L -1 -15,225 mg L -1 ), catalyst adding amount (1-10 wt%) on hydrogen mole fraction, hydrogen yield, carbon gasification rate, COD, TOC, TN removal efficiency are investigated. The results showed that gaseous products mainly contained hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide without addition of catalyst. However, the main gaseous products are hydrogen and methane with addition of NaOH, KOH, K 2 CO 3 , Na 2 CO 3 . In the absence of alkali catalyst, the effect of temperature on landfill leachate gasification is positive. Hydrogen mole fraction, hydrogen yield, carbon gasification ratio increase with temperature, which maximum value being 55.6%, 107.15 mol kg -1 , 71.96% is obtained at 500 °C, respectively. Higher raw landfill leachate concentration leads to lower hydrogen production and carbon gasification rate. The suitable retention time is suggested to be 15 min for higher hydrogen production and carbon gasification rate. COD, TOC and TN removal efficiency also increase with increase of temperature, decrease of landfill leachate concentration. In the presence of catalyst, the hydrogen production is obviously promoted by addition of alkali catalyst. the effect of catalysts on hydrogen production is in the following order: NaOH > KOH > Na 2 CO 3  > K 2 CO 3 . The maximum hydrogen mole fraction and hydrogen yield being 74.40%, 70.05 mol kg -1 is obtained with adding amount of 5 wt% NaOH at 450 °C, 28 MPa, 15 min. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Assessment on the leakage hazard of landfill leachate using three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence and parallel factor analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongwei; Lei, Hongjun; Liu, Xin; Wei, Huaibin; Liu, Shufang

    2017-09-01

    A large number of simple and informal landfills exist in developing countries, which pose as tremendous soil and groundwater pollution threats. Early warning and monitoring of landfill leachate pollution status is of great importance. However, there is a shortage of affordable and effective tools and methods. In this study, a soil column experiment was performed to simulate the pollution status of leachate using three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence (3D-EEMF) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) models. Sum of squared residuals (SSR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the optimal components for PARAFAC. A one-way analysis of variance showed that the component scores of the soil column leachate were significant influenced by landfill leachate (plandfill to that of natural soil could be used to evaluate the leakage status of landfill leachate. Furthermore, a hazard index (HI) and a hazard evaluation standard were established. A case study of Kaifeng landfill indicated a low hazard (level 5) by the use of HI. In summation, HI is presented as a tool to evaluate landfill pollution status and for the guidance of municipal solid waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition on methane production and waste decomposition in a simulated tropical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphoti, N; Towprayoon, S; Chaiprasert, P; Nopharatana, A

    2006-10-01

    In order to increase methane production efficiency, leachate recirculation is applied in landfills to increase moisture content and circulate organic matter back into the landfill cell. In the case of tropical landfills, where high temperature and evaporation occurs, leachate recirculation may not be enough to maintain the moisture content, therefore supplemental water addition into the cell is an option that could help stabilize moisture levels as well as stimulate biological activity. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition on municipal solid waste decomposition and methane production in three anaerobic digestion reactors. Anaerobic digestion with leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition showed the highest performance in terms of cumulative methane production and the stabilization period time required. It produced an accumulated methane production of 54.87 l/kg dry weight of MSW at an average rate of 0.58 l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 180. The leachate recirculation reactor provided 17.04 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.14l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 290. The control reactor provided 9.02 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.10 l/kg dry weight/d, and reached the stabilization phase on day 270. Increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) after the waste had reached the stabilization phase made it possible to increase the methane content of the gas, the methane production rate, and the COD removal. Comparison of the reactors' efficiencies at maximum OLR (5 kgCOD/m(3)/d) in terms of the methane production rate showed that the reactor using leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition still gave the highest performance (1.56 l/kg dry weight/d), whereas the leachate recirculation reactor and the control reactor provided 0.69 l/kg dry weight/d and 0.43 l/kg dry weight/d, respectively. However, when considering

  17. Recovery of nitrogen and water from landfill leachate by a microbial electrolysis cell-forward osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mohan; Molitor, Hannah; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)-forward osmosis (FO) system was previously reported for recovering ammonium and water from synthetic solutions, and here it has been advanced with treating landfill leachate. In the MEC, 65.7±9.1% of ammonium could be recovered in the presence of cathode aeration. Without aeration, the MEC could remove 54.1±10.9% of ammonium from the leachate, but little ammonia was recovered. With 2M NH4HCO3 as the draw solution, the FO process achieved 51% water recovery from the MEC anode effluent in 3.5-h operation, higher than that from the raw leachate. The recovered ammonia was used as a draw solute in the FO for successful water recovery from the treated leachate. Despite the challenges with treating returning solution from the FO, this MEC-FO system has demonstrated the potential for resource recovery from wastes, and provide a new solution for sustainable leachate management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane bioreactor performance in treating Algiers' landfill leachate from using indigenous bacteria and inoculating with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Latifa; Boudjema, Nouara; Aouichat, Fares; Kherat, Mohamed; Mameri, Nabil

    2018-02-13

    This study focuses on the treatment of both organic and metallic pollution in the Staoueli landfill leachate. This leachate contains a large amount of organic and inorganic matter and it must imperatively be treated before being released into the environment. Our work presents a comparative study between two membrane sequenced batch bioreactors (B2 contains indigenous leachate bacteria and B1 contains activated sludge). The purpose is to assess the best treatment to use, one that allows the reduction of the polluting load of the leachate and a reduction of membrane fouling. Performances were evaluated by measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the metal content of the leachate (zinc, iron). The results showed a similar COD removal efficiency in B2 (95%) and B1 (93%). Coupling the bioreactors with an ultrafiltration process allowed a notable reduction in zinc and iron concentrations: Fe of 35% and Zn of 78% for B1UF, and Fe of 71% and Zn of 74% for B2UF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation between acute toxicity for Daphnia magna, Aliivibrio fischeri and physicochemical variables of the leachate produced in landfill simulator reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Restrepo, José J; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; da Costa, Cristina H; Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; de Castilhos, Armando B; Matias, William G

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversified nature of municipal solid waste and the different stages of its decomposition, the formed leachates result in a complex chemical mixture with toxic potential. These chemicals can cause environmental problems, such as the contamination of surface or groundwater, thus affecting the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of leachates in Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri and to identify the main physicochemical variables that influence the toxicity of the landfill leachates produced in reactors within pilot simulations. Acute toxicity tests carried out on D. magna and A. fischeri showed that the leachates produced inside the reactors are highly toxic, presenting EC50 48h  magna and EC50 15min  < 12% for A. fischeri. This result indicates that microcrustaceans are more sensitive to leachates, making them more suitable to our study. Pb showed the highest correlation with EC50 48h , suggesting that Pb is the main chemical variable indicative of toxicity for the conditions of the experiment. In smaller scale, phosphate (PO 4 3- ) and nitrate (NO 3- ) were the macronutrients that most influenced the toxicity. Clearly, this correlation should be viewed with caution because the synergistic effects of this complex mixture are difficult to observe.

  20. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Landfill leachate treatment by coagulation/flocculation combined with microelectrolysis-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Pang, Ya; Li, Xue; Chen, Fei; Liao, Xingsheng; Lei, Min; Song, Yong

    2018-02-07

    Landfill leachate was pretreated by chemical flocculation with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as a flocculant, and subsequently purified by the microelectrolysis-Fenton (MEF) process. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the MEF process, and the optimal conditions were initial pH 3.20, H 2 O 2 concentration 3.57 g/L, and Fe-C dosage 104.52 g/L. The PAC coagulation combined with MEF processes obtained a superior decontamination performance, and the predicted chemical oxygen demand (COD) and humic acids (HA) removal were respectively 90.27% and 93.79%. The strong fluorescence peak at 425 nm and the trapping experiment showed that [Formula: see text] was generated during MEF, which had a strong oxidation ability to degrade organic recalcitrant pollutants. The ultraviolet-visible spectra and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (3D-EEMs) indicated that PAC coagulation could preferentially remove protein-like substances, while the MEF process was effective in destructing organic recalcitrant pollutants, especially humic-like and fulvic-like substances.

  2. Effect on heavy metals concentration from vermiconversion of agro-waste mixed with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Abu Bakar; Choy, May Yee; Noor, Zalina Mahmood; Noorlidah, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost mixed with livestock excreta, i.e. cow dung or goat manure, was contaminated with landfill leachate and vermiremediated in 75 days. Results showed an extreme decrease of heavy metals, i.e. Cd, Cr and Pb up to 99.81% removal as effect of vermiconversion process employing epigeic earthworms i.e. Lumbricus rubellus. In addition, there were increments of Cu and Zn from 15.01% to 85.63%, which was expected as non-accumulative in L. rubellus and secreted out as contained in vermicompost. This phenomenon is due to dual effects of heavy metal excretion period and mineralisation. Nonetheless, the increments were 50-fold below the limit set by EU and USA compost limits and the Malaysian Recommended Site Screening Levels for Contaminated Land (SSLs). Moreover, the vermicompost C:N ratio range is 20.65-22.93 and it can be an advantageous tool to revitalise insalubrious soil by acting as soil stabiliser or conditioner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A mass balance study on nitrification and deammonification in vertical flow constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G; Austin, D

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, mass-balance study was carried out on the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in four vertical flow wetland columns. Landfill leachate containing low organic matter, but a high concentration of ammoniacal-nitrogen, was treated under dissolved oxygen concentrations close to saturation. Influent total nitrogen (TN) comprised ammoniacal-nitrogen with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, negligible organic nitrogen, and very low BOD. Nitrification occurred in three of the four columns. There was a substantial loss of total nitrogen (52%) in one column, whereas other columns exhibited zero to minor losses (Nitrogen loss under study conditions was unexpected. Two hypotheses are proposed to account for it: (1) either the loss of TN is attributed to nitrogen transformation into a form (provisionally termed alpha-nitrogen) that is undetectable by the analytical methods used; or (2) the loss is caused by microbial denitrification or deammonification. By elimination and stoichiometric mass balance calculations, completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite (CANON) deammonification is confirmed as responsible for nitrogen loss in one column. This result reveals that CANON can be native to aerobic engineered wetland systems treating high ammonia, low organic content wastewater.

  4. Bioreactor treatment of municipal solid waste landfill leachates: characterization of organic fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Ana Isabel; Sanchez, Jesus; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in organic matter were studied at different stages of treatment in a bioreactor designed to process leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill. The particulate matter (PM) and macromolecular fractions of the dissolved organic matter with solubility properties comparable to humic (acid-insoluble) and fulvic (acid-soluble) acid fractions (AI, AS, respectively) from the incoming black liquid, the bioreactor content, and the final processed effluent were isolated, quantified, and characterized by visible and infrared (IR) spectroscopies. The macromolecular signature either aliphatic (glycopeptides, carbohydrates) or aromatic (coinciding with infrared patterns of lignin, tannins etc.) enabled us to characterize the different organic fractions during the course of microbial transformation. The results reveal significant changes in the nitrogen speciation patterns within the different organic fractions isolated from the wastewater. The final increase in the relative proportions of nitrogen in the least aromatic AS fraction during microbial transformation could be related to protein formation inside the bioreactor. After biological treatment and ultrafiltration, the amount of organic matter was reduced by approximately 70%, whereas aromaticity increased in all fractions, indicating preferential elimination of aliphatic wastewater compounds. Most of the remaining fractions at the end of the process consisted of a yellow residue rich in low molecular weight AS fractions.

  5. Pine-derived Biochar as Option for Adsorption of Сu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni and Decreasing of BOD5 in Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriia Chemerys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is a highly toxic and hazardous form of wastewater due to its complex composition characteristics, e.g. ammonia, metals, organic compounds. Landfill leachate treatment technologies, such as flotation, coagulation/flocculation, precipitation, oxidation, micro-, ultra-, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, are too expensive, because they require frequent regeneration of the media or generate secondary brine wastes that may pose a disposal problem. In the present study removal of Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu from Kazokiškės landfill leachate was studied. Kazokiškės landfill is the main site for disposal of Vilnius region municipal wastes. Operator of the landfill is interested in the alternative ways for the primary treatment of the landfill leachate for reducing the load on the expensive reverse osmosis. One of the proposed options for the primary landfill leachate treatment was adsorption by biochar. Due to the high specific surface area, well-developed porous structure and surface functionality biochar has been used as low-cost adsorbent for adsorption of PTEs from aqueous solutions. Biochar was produced from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trunk wood (after debarking by pyrolysis at the highest heating temperature of 700 °C for 45 min in the low-oxygen environment. Laboratory analysis showed that PTEs, such as Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, were present in the landfill leachate before water treatment plant. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate PTEs (Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu removal efficiency by adsorption by pine-derived biochar. Factors, affecting adsorption efficiency, such as biochar particle size (1, 2.5, 4, 5 mm and dosage of the biochar (1.01, 3.5, 6.05, 9.45, 13.25, 17.82 g/100 ml of leachate were studied. Effects of the biochar on pH of the landfill leachate, BOD5, PTEs adsorption were analyzed. The findings showed that optimal parameters for decreasing of BOD5 and retention of Cr and Pb were particle size 1 mm and dosage 6.05 g/100 ml

  6. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  7. Public health assessment for Freeway Sanitary Landfill, Burnsville, Dakota County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND038384004. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Freeway Sanitary Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site in Burnsville, Minnesota is situated in the Lower Minnesota River Valley. Shallow groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of volatile organic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Under current conditions, no human exposures to site-related contaminants are known to occur at levels of health concern. Based on currently available information, the Minnesota Department of Health concludes that the site poses an indeterminate public health hazard under current conditions because exposure to volatile gases released to the air is possible, but cannot be evaluated from the very limited information available. There are also a few physical hazards on the site which pose a risk of accident or injury if trespassing occurs. Otherwise, there are no indications that people have been, or are being, exposed to site-related contaminants at levels that would be of health concern. The Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Health Activities Recommendation Panel has evaluated the Freeway Sanitary Landfill Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up activities. The Panel has recommended that health education be considered to assist site workers in better understanding their potential for exposure to landfill gases

  8. Treatment of mature landfill leachate using hybrid processes of hydrogen peroxide and adsorption in an activated carbon fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljaiek-Urzola, Monica; Guardiola-Meza, Luis; Ghafoori, Samira; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2018-02-23

    In this study, the treatment of mature landfill leachate is evaluated by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) combined with adsorption in a granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed column to determinate the increase in the biodegradability index, the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as the increase in the useful life of the GAC bed. The sample leachate from Loma de Los Cocos Landfill (Cartagena de Indias, Colombia) has a very low biodegradability ratio ranging from 0.034 to 0.048 that makes it difficult to meet the required water quality level according to the regulations. The COD removal is initially monitored in the H 2 O 2 oxidation treatment process. The operating conditions such as pH, H 2 O 2 dosage, and the reaction time are optimized in this process based on the percentage of COD removal. A maximum COD removal of 29.9% is achieved at an initial H 2 O 2 concentration of 5000 mg L -1 with a pH of 8 and the reaction time of 60 min. The hybrid treatment by H 2 O 2 -GAC achieved 97.3% COD removal and 116% increase in the biodegradability ratio (from 0.072 to 0.134) while this ratio was increased by 6.5% with H 2 O 2 alone. Moreover, the useful life of the GAC bed is increased from 45 min in the column fed with raw leachate to 170 min in the column fed with pretreated leachate and 5000 mg L -1 of H 2 O 2 at pH of 8 that subsequently increased the activated carbon adsorption capacity. An adsorption model for leachate treated with H 2 O 2 is also developed.

  9. Electrocoagulation treatment of raw landfill leachate using iron-based electrodes: Effects of process parameters and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, N; Raman, A A A; Bello, M M; Ramesh, S

    2017-12-15

    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising many persistent organic pollutants which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. This study investigated the treatment of raw landfill leachate using electrocoagulation process. An electrocoagulation system was designed with iron as both the anode and cathode. The effects of inter-electrode distance, initial pH and electrolyte concentration on colour and COD removals were investigated. All these factors were found to have significant effects on the colour removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was also conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Under optimum conditions (initial pH: 7.73, inter-electrode distance: 1.16 cm, and electrolyte concentration (NaCl): 2.00 g/L), the process could remove up to 82.7% colour and 45.1% COD. The process can be applied as a pre-treatment for raw leachates before applying other appropriate treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. ► Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). ► Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. ► Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h −1 , and H 2 O 2 of 100 mg L −1 . - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p 2 O 2 , were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  11. Microbial Community Structure and Function at an Aquifer Contaminated with Landfill Leachate (Norman,OK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J. V.; Voytek, M. A.; Lowit, M. B.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Kirshtein, J. D.

    2006-05-01

    Geochemical research at an aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate (Norman, OK) has shown that contaminated areas have significant increases in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and persistent anaerobic conditions as compared to uncontaminated areas. As a result, sulfate is depleted in the center of the contaminant plume with concomitant increases in Fe(II) and methane. These observations have been used to infer the dominant biogeochemical processes in this ecosystem which include Fe reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. Because each of these processes is microbially-mediated, the goal of this study was to use a combination of culture-based and molecular methods to determine the composition and diversity of the microbial community in the contaminant plume. Groundwater and sediment samples were collected along the flow path of contamination in June 2005. We used most probable number (MPN) analyses to determine the abundances of key functional groups of bacteria including methanogens, sulfate-reducers (SRB), and iron-reducers (FeRB). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine abundances of functional genes of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) and methyl coenzyme M-reductase (mcr) genes and the 16 rRNA genes targeting Geobacter spp. Results from the MPN analyses confirmed the presence of a relatively abundant and diverse anaerobic community in the groundwater at the landfill (e.g. 102 SRB, FeRB ml-1. In general, with increasing distance from the source of contamination, abundances of FeRB, SRB, and methanogens decreased to sensitive screening tool for quantifying abundances of functional groups. Collectively, these results suggest that the lack of an abundant microbial community in some parts of the contaminant plume may limit biogeochemical activity, even in the presence of adequate electron donors and/or acceptors. Furthermore, the complex relationship between the composition of the microbial community and the

  12. Effect of a solar Fered-Fenton system using a recirculation reactor on biologically treated landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihong; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Lin; Wu, Luxue; Qian, Yue; Geng, Jinyao; Chen, Mengmeng

    2016-12-05

    The effects of electrochemical oxidation (EO), Fered-Fenton and solar Fered-Fenton processes using a recirculation flow system containing an electrochemical cell and a solar photo-reactor on biochemically treated landfill leachate were investigated. The most successful method was solar Fered-Fenton which achieved 66.5% COD removal after 120min treatment utilizing the optimum operating conditions of 47mM H2O2, 0.29mM Fe(2+), pH0 of 3.0 and a current density of 60mA/cm(2). The generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) are mainly from Fered-Fenton process, which is enhanced by the introduction of renewable solar energy. Moreover, Fe(2+)/chlorine and UV/chlorine processes taking place in this system also result in additional production of OH due to the relatively high concentration of chloride ions contained in the leachate. The energy consumption was 74.5kWh/kg COD and the current efficiency was 36.4% for 2h treatment. In addition, the molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis and PARAFAC analysis of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy for different leachate samples indicated that the organics in the leachate were significantly degraded into either small molecular weight species or inorganics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Electrochemical, Flocculation and Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Jin, Xiuping; Pan, Yunbo; Zuo, Xiaoran

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the landfill leachate of different seasons in Liaoyang City is as the research object, and COD removal rate is as the main indicator. The electrochemical section’s results show that the optimal treatment conditions for the water of 2016 summer are as follows: voltage is 7.0V, current density is 40.21 A/m2, pH is equal to the raw water, electrolysis time is 1h, and the COD removal rate is 80.41%. The optimal treatment conditions for the 2017 fall’s water are: electrolysis voltage is 7.0 V, current density is 45.06 A/m2, electrolysis time is 4 hours, and COD removal rate is 28.03%. The flow rate of continuous electrolysis is 6.4 L/h using the water of 2016 fall, and the COD removal rate is 10.28%. The results of the flocculation process show that the optimal treatment conditions are as follows: pH is equal to the raw water; the optimal flocculant species is Fe-Al composite flocculant, wherein the optimal ratio of Fe-Al is n (Fe):n (Al)=0.5:1; the best dosage of flocculant is 2.0 g/L and COD removal rate is of 21.11%. The results of photocatalytic show that the optimal conditions are: pH is 4.5, Al2(SO4)3 is 1.0 g/L, FeSO4.7H2O is 700mg/L, H2O2(30%) is 4 mL/L, stirring and standing UV lamp light irradiation 3 hours, and adjusting pH to 6.0 or so, COD removal rate is 36.15%. +

  14. Sorptive removal of HgIIby red mud (bauxite residue) in contaminated landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinos, David A; Barral, María T

    2017-01-02

    The ability of red mud (RM) (bauxite residue) to remove Hg II from landfill leachate (LL) was assessed. The studied aspects comprised the effects of time, pH, Hg II concentration and the sorption isotherm, besides the influence of chloride and representative organic ligands. Hg II removal by RM exhibited a complex kinetics where initial rapid sorption was followed by desorption at longer times. The sorption of Hg II on RM was strongly pH-dependent. Outstanding maximum sorption was observed at pH∼4-5 (≥99.6%), while it abruptly dropped at higher pH values down to a minimum ∼28% at pH∼10.5. Chloride decreased Hg II sorption at acid pH and shifted the pH max towards higher pH∼9.4, which opposes to sorption in LL and suggests Cl - did not primarily control the process in LL. Amongst the organic ligands, acetate and salicylate slightly affected Hg II sorption. Conversely, glycine affected sorption in a pH-dependent manner resembling that in LL, which suggests the relevant role of the organic nitrogenated compounds of LL. EDTA suppressed Hg II sorption at any pH. Hg II speciation modelling and dissolved organic matter (DOM) sorption support complexation of Hg II by DOM as the primary factor governing the removal of Hg II in LL. The sorption isotherm was better described by the Freundlich equation, which agrees with the heterogeneous composition of RM. The results indicate that Hg II sorption on RM is favorable, but reveal differences in sorption and reduced efficiency, in LL media. Notwithstanding, RM possesses a notable capacity to remove Hg II , even under the unhelpful complexing and competing conditions of LL.

  15. Fuzzy-logic modeling of Fenton's strong chemical oxidation process treating three types of landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Hanife; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Ilhan, Fatih; Yazici, Senem; Kurt, Ugur; Apaydin, Omer

    2013-06-01

    Three multiple input and multiple output-type fuzzy-logic-based models were developed as an artificial intelligence-based approach to model a novel integrated process (UF-IER-EDBM-FO) consisted of ultrafiltration (UF), ion exchange resins (IER), electrodialysis with bipolar membrane (EDBM), and Fenton's oxidation (FO) units treating young, middle-aged, and stabilized landfill leachates. The FO unit was considered as the key process for implementation of the proposed modeling scheme. Four input components such as H(2)O(2)/chemical oxygen demand ratio, H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+) ratio, reaction pH, and reaction time were fuzzified in a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system to predict the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color, and ammonia nitrogen. A total of 200 rules in the IF-THEN format were established within the framework of a graphical user interface for each fuzzy-logic model. The product (prod) and the center of gravity (centroid) methods were performed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively, for the proposed prognostic models. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared to the outputs of multiple regression models by means of various descriptive statistical indicators, and the proposed methodology was tested against the experimental data. The testing results clearly revealed that the proposed prognostic models showed a superior predictive performance with very high determination coefficients (R (2)) between 0.930 and 0.991. This study indicated a simple means of modeling and potential of a knowledge-based approach for capturing complicated inter-relationships in a highly non-linear problem. Clearly, it was shown that the proposed prognostic models provided a well-suited and cost-effective method to predict removal efficiencies of wastewater parameters prior to discharge to receiving streams.

  16. Simultaneous removal of humic acid/fulvic acid and lead from landfill leachate using magnetic graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Gong, Ji-Lai, E-mail: jilaigong@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zenga, Guang-Ming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, Xiao-Ming [China National Engineering Research Center for Agrochemicals, Hunan Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Changsha 410014 (China); Jiang, Yan; Chang, Ying-Na; Guo, Min; Zhang, Chang; Liu, Hong-Yu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic graphene oxide was synthesized and used to simultaneously remove HA/FA and Pb(II) from landfill leachate. • In HA-Pb(II) system, Pb(II) removal rapidly increased to the maximum (about 87%) and considerably decreased with increasing HA concentration. However, in FA-Pb(II) system, Pb(II) removal slightly increased and remained constant as FA concentration increased. • In binary system, the removal efficiency of HA/FA by MGO was enhanced due to the increase of Pb(II) concentration. • In landfill leachate, MGO showed considerable removal efficiency for both Pb(II) and HA/FA. - Abstract: The elimination of organic matters and heavy metals in landfill leachate remains a longstanding challenge in wastewater treatment. In this study, magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) was synthesized and investigated to explore the possibility of applying in the simultaneous removal of HA/FA and Pb(II) from landfill leachate. MGO was characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope. In single system, the sorption isotherm for FA on MGO at 25 °C were better described by Freundlich model than Langmuir and Temkin models with a maximum adsorption capacity of 72.38 mg/g. The isotherm data for HA at 25 °C was fitted well both Freundlich and Temkin models with a maximum adsorption capacity of 98.82 mg/g, while the isotherm data for Pb(II) at 25 °C was fitted well both Langmuir and Temkin models with a maximum adsorption capacity of 58.43 mg/g. In binary system, results showed that TOC removal (both in HA and FA) enhanced with increasing Pb(II). Furthermore, TOC removal enhancement caused by the increase of Pb(II) in HA-Pb(II) system was greater than that in FA-Pb(II), which was caused by HA possessing more substantial aromatic rings than FA. Noticeably, Pb(II) removal steeply increased to the maximum (about 87%) with increasing

  17. Biodegradation of blend films PVA/PVC, PVA/PCL in soil and soil with landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation of blends films of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl chloride (PVA/PVC and poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(caprolactone (PVA/PCL blends films prepared with dimethylformamide under a variety of conditions by respirometry, spectrophotometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and contact angle. The films were buried in the garden soil and in the soil mixed with the landfill leachate for 120 days at 28ºC. Significant levels of biodegradation were achieved in fairly short incubation times in the soil. The results indicated that PVA was the most biodegradable film in the soil and in the soil with the leachate.

  18. Characterization and detoxification of a mature landfill leachate using a combined coagulation-flocculation/photo Fenton treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrenne, Michel [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe. 01219 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vasquez-Medrano, Ruben, E-mail: ruben.vasquez@uia.mx [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe. 01219 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Prato-Garcia, Dorian [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe. 01219 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km 14.5, 50200 Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Ibanez, Jorge G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe. 01219 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mature landfill leachate was characterized in terms of its pollutants and toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A toxicity bioassay revealed an antagonistic behavior among its pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coagulation stage produced good results for TC and lead at an acidic pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photo Fenton treatment yielded good COD, ammonia and lead removals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic and mercury showed low removal efficiencies throughout the treatment. - Abstract: The aim of the present work was to characterize and treat a mature landfill leachate using a coagulation/flocculation process followed by a photo-Fenton oxidation treatment. The leachate was obtained from a landfill in Tetlama, Morelos (Mexico) during the drought season and was characterized in terms of its major pollutants. Considerable levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC) and NH{sub 4}{sup +} were identified, as well as high concentrations of Hg, Pb, and As. Other heavy metals such as Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, and Mn were detected at trace levels. The lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) of the leachate, evaluated on Artemia salina, was 12,161 {+-} 11 mg/L of COD, demonstrating an antagonistic interaction among the leachate's components. The treatment of this effluent consisted of a coagulation-flocculation process using an optimal dose of FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O of 300 mg/L. The supernatant was treated using a photo-Fenton process mediated with FeCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) photo-reactor operating in batch mode using an R ratio (R = [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}]) of 114. The global removal efficiencies after treatment were 56% for the COD, 95% for TC, and 64% for NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The removal efficiencies for As, Hg, and Pb were 46%, 9%, and 85%, respectively.

  19. Presence, distribution, and diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria at a landfill leachate-impacted groundwater surface water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, R.; Gan, P.; Mackay, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) at a groundwater surface water interface (GSI) impacted by reduced groundwater originating as leachate from an upgradient landfill. IOB enrichments and quantifications were obtained, at high vertical resolution, by an iron/oxygen opposing...... gradient cultivation method. The depth-resolved soil distribution profiles of water content, Fe2+, and total Fe indicated sharp gradients within the top 10 cm sediments of the GSI, where the IOB density was the highest. In addition, the vertical distribution of iron-reducing bacteria at the same sampling...

  20. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  1. Impact of co-landfill proportion of bottom ash and municipal solid waste composition on the leachate characteristics during the acidogenesis phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pin-Jing; Pu, Hong-Xia; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2017-11-01

    Incineration has become an important municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment strategy, and generates a large amount of bottom ash (BA). Although some BA is reused, much BA and pretreatment residues from BA recycling are disposed in landfill. When BA and MSW are co-landfilled together, acid neutralization capacity and alkaline earth metal dissolution of BA, as well as different components of MSW may change environmental conditions within the landfill, so the degradation of organic matter and the physical and chemical properties of leachate would be affected. In this study, the effect of co-landfilled BA and MSW on the leachate characteristics during the hydrolysis and acidogenesis phase was studied using different BA/MSW ratios and MSW compositions. The results showed that the co-landfill system increased leachate pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity. For MSW with a high content of degradable components, the release and degradation of total organic carbon (TOC) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) from MSW were promoted when the BA ratio by wet weight was less than 50%, and the biodegradability of leachate was improved. When the BA ratio exceeded 50%, the degradation of organic matters was inhibited. For MSW with low content of degradable components, when the proportion of BA was less than 20%, the release and degradation of TOC and VFA from MSW were promoted and alkalinity increased. When the BA ratio exceeded 20%, the degradation of organic matters was inhibited. The 50% BA ratio could improve the bio-treatability of leachate indicated by the leachate pH and C/N ratio. However, BA inhibited the release of nitrogen (TN and NH 4 + -N) at all BA ratios and MSW compositions. At the same time, the addition of BA increased the risk of leachate collection system clogging due to the dissolution and re-precipitation of alkaline earth metals contained in BA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment by fenton, photo-fenton and fenton-like processes: Effect of some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zazouli Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced oxidation processes like Fenton and photo-Fenton have been effectively applied to oxidize the persistent organic compounds in solid waste leachate and convert them to unharmful materials and products. However, there are limited data about application of Fenton-like process in leachate treatment. Therefore, this study was designed with the objective of treating municipal landfill leachate by Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes to determine the effect of different variables, by setting up a pilot system. The used leachate was collected from a municipal unsanitary landfill in Qaem-Shahr in the north of Iran. Fenton and Fenton-like processes were conducted by Jar-test method. Photo-Fenton process was performed in a glass photo-reactor. In all processes, H2O2 was used as the oxidant. FeSO4.7H2O and FeCl3.6H2O were used as reagents. All parameters were measured based on standard methods. The results showed that the optimum concentration of H2O2 was equal to 5 g/L for the Fenton-like process and 3 g/L for the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The optimum ratio of H2O2: Fe+2/Fe+3 were equal to 8:1 in all processes. At optimum conditions, the amount of COD removal was 69.6%, 65.9% and 83.2% in Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes, respectively. In addition, optimum pH were 3, 5 and 3 and the optimum contact time were 150, 90 and 120 minutes, for Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes, respectively. After all processes, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio of the treated leachate was increased compared to that of the raw leachate and the highest increase in BOD5/COD ratio was observed in the photo-Fenton process. The efficiency of the Fenton-like process was overally less than Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, meanwhile the Fenton-like process was at higher pH and did not show problems.

  3. The effect of precipitation on municipal solid waste decomposition and methane production in simulated landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinee Chaiprasert

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate MSW degradation and methane production in a simulated landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation under conditions with and without water addition at the representative level of annual precipitation. Experiments were carried out in four simulated reactors using 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe of 1.25 m height. Two leachate recirculation reactors were operated with water addition and the other two were operated without water addition. The results showed that leachate recirculation with precipitation led to greater performance in terms of accelerated biological stabilization and the onset of methanogenesis. In the reactors operated with precipitation, the reduction of COD was 24-54 times higher than that in reactors without precipitation. The percentage of waste decomposition was 59.0-61.4% and the methane production rate was 0.479-0.638 l/kg dry waste/day at the stabilization phase in the reactors operated with precipitation. Conversely, 19.6-22.4% of waste decomposition and 0.01 l/kg dry waste of methane production were found in reactors operated without precipitation. In this experiment, the feasibility of introducing moisture only by leachate recirculation, with no precipitation, seemed to be unsuitable for recirculation due to the high concentration of leachate pollutant. A large quantity of buffering chemical was used. Therefore, during the hydrolysis and acidogenesis phases, precipitation or water added was important for the waste decomposition as to dilute and flush out high TVA concentration and create a favorable environment for methanogenesis.

  4. Effects of humic acids from landfill leachate on plants: An integrated approach using chemical, biochemical and cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina Marques; Souza, Iara da Costa; Rocha, Lívia Dorsch; Duarte, Ian Drumond; Martins, Ian Oliveira; Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Carneiro, Maria Tereza Weitzel Dias; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie

    2017-10-01

    Biological process treatment of landfill leachate produces a significant amount of sludge, characterized by high levels of organic matter from which humic acids are known to activate several enzymes of energy metabolism, stimulating plant growth. This study aimed to characterize humic acids extracted from landfill sludge and assess the effects on plants exposed to different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM C L -1 ) by chemical and biological analysis, to elucidate the influence of such organic material and minimize potential risks of using sludge in natura. Landfill humic acids showed high carbon and nitrogen levels, which may represent an important source of nutrients for plants. Biochemical analysis demonstrated an increase of enzyme activity, especially H + -ATPase in 2 mM C L -1 landfill humic acid. Additionally, cytogenetic alterations were observed in meristematic and F 1 cells, through nuclear abnormalities and micronuclei. Multivariate statistical analysis provided integration of physical, chemical and biological data. Despite all the nutritional benefits of humic acids and their activation of plant antioxidant systems, the observed biological effects showed concerning levels of mutagenicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of personal care products and hormones in leachate and groundwater from Polish MSW landfills by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelewska, Justyna; Kotowska, Urszula; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in leachate and groundwater samples from the landfill sites is very important because of the proven harmful effects of these compounds on human and animal organisms. A method combining ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven personal care products (PCPs): methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), buthylparaben (BP), benzophenone (BPh), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC), N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET), and two hormones: estrone (E1) and β-estradiol (E2) in landfill leachate and groundwater samples. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) values in landfill leachate and groundwater samples were in the range of 0.003-0.083/0.009-0.277 μg L(-1) and 0.001-0.015/0.002-0.049 μg L(-1), respectively. Quantitative recoveries and satisfactory precision were obtained. All studied compounds were found in the landfill leachates from Polish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills; the concentrations were between 0.66 and 202.42 μg L(-1). The concentration of pollutants in groundwater samples was generally below 0.1 μg L(-1).

  6. Optimization of treatment leachates from young, middle-aged and elderly landfills with bipolar membrane electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Fatih; Yazici Guvenc, Senem; Avsar, Yasar; Kurt, Ugur; Gonullu, Mustafa Talha

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) process, which is thought to be an effective treatment method for leachate, was evaluated for leachates of three different ages ('young', 'middle-aged' and 'elderly'). The leachates were pretreated to eliminate membrane fouling problems prior to the BMED process. Experimental studies were carried out to determine optimal operating conditions for the three differently aged leachates in the BMED process. According to the experiment results, there was a high removal efficiency of conductivity determined at 4 membrane - 25 V for young and elderly leachate and at 1 membrane - 25 V for middle-aged leachate. It was found that the operating times required to reach the optimal endpoints (at conductivity of about 2 mS/cm) of BMED process were 90, 180 and 300 min for the middle-aged, young and elderly leachates, respectively. Under the optimum operating conditions for the BMED process, removal efficiencies of conductivity and chemical oxygen demand were determined to be 89.5% and 60% for young, 82.5% and 30% for middle-aged and 91.8% and 26% for elderly leachate, respectively.

  7. Treatment of Navy Landfill Leachate Contaminated with Low Levels of Priority Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    leachate recirculation, contaminated groundwater, 160 carbon adsorption, ion exchange I6. PACE CODE 17. SECUIWTY CLASIFICATION 16. SECURTY CLASSIFICATION...tanks can be constructed of steel , concrete, or lined earthen materials. Provisions should be rade for mixing the leachate to prevent the deposition

  8. Environmental and human risk assessment of landfill leachate: An integrated approach with the use of cytotoxic and genotoxic stress indices in mussel and human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toufexi, Eirini; Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Efthimiou, Ioanna; Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Vlastos, Dimitris; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Landfill leachate poses a threat for aquatic biota and humans. • Leachate induces cytotoxic and oxidative effects on mussel hemocytes. • Increased levels of DNA damage were observed both in vivo and in vitro in hemocytes. • Leachate low doses enhance MN formation in human lymphocyte cultures. • Potential leachate aneugenic activity was detected in human lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The present study investigates leachate hazardous effects on marine biota and human cells, with the use of a battery of assays, both under in vivo and in vitro conditions. According to the results, mussels exposed for 4 days to 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) of leachate showed increased levels of DNA damage and micronuclei (MN) frequencies in their hemocytes. Similarly, enhanced levels of DNA damage were also observed in hemocytes treated in vitro with relevant concentrations of leachate, followed by a significant enhancement of both superoxide anions (·O 2 − ) and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde/MDA). On the other hand, human lymphocyte cultures treated with such a low concentrations of leachate (0.1, 0.2 and 1%, v/v), showed increased frequencies of MN formation and large MN size ratio, as well as decreased cell proliferation, as indicated by the use of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI) respectively. These findings showed the clear-cut genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of leachate on both cellular types, as well as its potential aneugenic activity in human lymphocytes

  9. Environmental and human risk assessment of landfill leachate: An integrated approach with the use of cytotoxic and genotoxic stress indices in mussel and human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toufexi, Eirini; Tsarpali, Vasiliki [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, GR 26500 Patras (Greece); Efthimiou, Ioanna; Vidali, Maria-Sophia; Vlastos, Dimitris [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi Str., GR 30100 Agrinio (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, GR 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Landfill leachate poses a threat for aquatic biota and humans. • Leachate induces cytotoxic and oxidative effects on mussel hemocytes. • Increased levels of DNA damage were observed both in vivo and in vitro in hemocytes. • Leachate low doses enhance MN formation in human lymphocyte cultures. • Potential leachate aneugenic activity was detected in human lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The present study investigates leachate hazardous effects on marine biota and human cells, with the use of a battery of assays, both under in vivo and in vitro conditions. According to the results, mussels exposed for 4 days to 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) of leachate showed increased levels of DNA damage and micronuclei (MN) frequencies in their hemocytes. Similarly, enhanced levels of DNA damage were also observed in hemocytes treated in vitro with relevant concentrations of leachate, followed by a significant enhancement of both superoxide anions (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde/MDA). On the other hand, human lymphocyte cultures treated with such a low concentrations of leachate (0.1, 0.2 and 1%, v/v), showed increased frequencies of MN formation and large MN size ratio, as well as decreased cell proliferation, as indicated by the use of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI) respectively. These findings showed the clear-cut genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of leachate on both cellular types, as well as its potential aneugenic activity in human lymphocytes.

  10. Comparing the Efficacy Rates of Lime and Poly Aluminum Chloride Coagulants in Cadmium Removal from the Landfill Leachate by Chemical Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafaii Gh. PhD,; Mazaheri Tehrani A.* MSc,; Salem A. BSc,; Tootooni Mofrad F. BSc,; Yazdankhah M. BSc,; Mosayebi M. MSc

    2015-01-01

    Aims Chemical precipitation is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective method for eliminating heavy metals found in landfill leachate. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy rates of cadmium removal with the coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and lime using chemical precipitation method. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, the raw studied samples were collected from the landfill located in Kahrizak, Iran, in May 2014. The elimination rates of c...

  11. Combined treatment of municipal waste-water and landfill leachate by means of membrane bioreactor: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannelli, R.; Lizza, E.; Giraldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the results of an experimental study focusing on the applicability of the membrane bioreactor technology for the combined treatment of municipal wastewater and landfill leachate. In the experiment we used both a micro-filtration unit and a traditional secondary settler in an innovative combined process that can present some economic advantages on the pure membrane separation, so as to evaluate and compare the efficiencies of the two adopted technologies. The experiment was carried out in two phases: first, we evaluated the system only with municipal wastewater; then we tested the treatment of a mixture of municipal wastewater and landfill leachate. We obtained good results in both cases for standard quality indicators (COD, TSS, NH 4 ), specific inorganic compounds such as Fe and Zn and microorganisms. The micro-filtrations unit had very good performances with respect to both treatment efficiency and hydraulic behaviour: after the first start-up period, we observed a regular running of the unit with no need for special chemical or mechanical treatment different from the ones adopted ordinarily in the MBR treatment systems [it

  12. Effect of increasing salinity on biogas production in waste landfills with leachate recirculation: A lab-scale model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Ogata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on anaerobic waste degradation and microbial communities were investigated, in order to propose an appropriate leachate recirculation process in a waste landfill in a tropical region. A salt concentration of 21 mS cm−1 of electrical conductivity (EC did not affect waste degradation, but a salt concentration of 35 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited CH4 generation. A higher salt concentration of 80 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited not only CH4 and CO2 generation, but also degradation of organic compounds. The bacterial and archaeal community compositions were affected by high salinity. High salinity can exert selective pressure on bacterial communities, resulting in a change in bacterial community structure. Ammonium caused strong, dominant inhibition of biogas production in the salt concentration range of this study. Quality control, especially of ammonium levels, will be essential for the promotion of waste biodegradation in landfills with leachate recirculation.

  13. Treatment of hazardous landfill leachate using Fenton process followed by a combined (UASB/DHS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sherif; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Fenton process for pre-treatment of hazardous landfill leachate (HLL) was investigated. Total, particulate and soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODt, CODp and CODs) removal efficiency amounted to 67%, 47% and 64%, respectively, at pH value of 3.5, molar ratio (H2O2/Fe(2+)) of 5, H2O2 dosage of 25 ml/L and contact time of 15 min. Various treatment scenarios were attempted and focused on studying the effect of pre-catalytic oxidation process on the performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), UASB/down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) and DHS system. The results obtained indicated that pre-catalytic oxidation process improved the CODt removal efficiency in the UASB reactor by a value of 51.4%. Overall removal efficiencies of CODt, CODs and CODp were 80 ± 6%, 80 ± 7% and 78 ± 16% for UASB/DHS treating pre-catalytic oxidation effluent, respectively. The removal efficiencies of CODt, CODs and CODp were, respectively, decreased to 54 ± 2%, 49 ± 2% and 71 ± 16% for UASB/DHS system without pre-treatment. However, the results for the combined process (UASB/DHS) system is almost similar to those obtained for UASB reactor treating pre-catalytic oxidation effluent. The DHS system achieved average removal efficiencies of 52 ± 4% for CODt, 51 ± 4% for CODs and 52 ± 15% for CODp. A higher COD fractions removal was obtained when HLL was pre-treated by Fenton reagent. The combined processes provided a removal efficiency of 85 ± 1% for CODt, 85 ± 1% for CODs and 83 ± 8% for CODp. The DHS system is not only effective for organics degradation but also for ammonia oxidation. Almost complete ammonia (NH4-N) removal (92 ± 3.6%) was occurred and the nitrate production amounted to 37 ± 6 mg/L in the treated effluent. This study strongly recommends applying Fenton process followed by DHS system for treatment of HLL.

  14. Decontamination of a municipal landfill leachate from endocrine disruptors using a combined sorption/bioremoval approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Castellana, Giancarlo; Senesi, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Sorption and biodegradation are the main mechanisms for the removal of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDs) from both solid and liquid matrices. There are recent evidences about the capacity of white-rot fungi to decontaminate water systems from phenolic EDs by means of their ligninolytic enzymes. Most of the available studies report the removal of EDs by biodegradation or adsorption separately. This study assessed the simultaneous removal of five EDs—the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA), ethynilestradiol (EE2), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), and the herbicide linuron and the insecticide dimethoate—from a municipal landfill leachate (MLL) using a combined sorption/bioremoval approach. The adsorption matrices used were potato dextrose agar alone or added with each of the following adsorbent materials: ground almond shells, a coffee compost, a coconut fiber, and a river sediment. These matrices were either not inoculated or inoculated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus and superimposed on the MLL. The residual amount of each ED in the MLL was quantified after 4, 7, 12, and 20 days by HPLC analysis and UV detection. Preliminary experiments showed that (1) all EDs did not degrade significantly in the untreatedMLL for at least 28 days, (2) the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus was largely stimulated by components of the MLL, and (3) the enrichment of potato dextrose agar with any adsorbent material favored the fungal growth for 8 days after inoculation. A prompt relevant disappearance of EDs in the MLL occurred both without and, especially, with fungal activity, with the only exception of the very water soluble dimethoate that was poorly adsorbed and possibly degraded only during the first few days of experiments. An almost complete removal of phenolic EDs, especially EE2 and NP, occurred after 20 days or much earlier and was generally enhanced by the adsorbent materials used. Data obtained indicated that both adsorption and biodegradation mechanisms contribute

  15. Combined coagulation-flocculation and sequencing batch reactor with phosphorus adjustment for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate: experimental kinetics and chemical oxygen demand fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Matar, F; Hashisho, J

    2013-05-01

    The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is challenging and relatively limited. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 7,760-11,770 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]: 2,760-3,569 mg/L, total nitrogen [TN] = 980-1,160 mg/L) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) preceded by a coagulation-flocculation process with phosphorus nutritional balance under various mixing and aeration patterns. Simulations were also conducted to define kinetic parameters and COD fractionation. Removal efficiencies reached 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD, and 72% for TN, similar to and better than reported studies, albeit with a relatively lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT). The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap toward managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications. The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate, which is challenging and relatively limited, was demonstrated using a combined coagulation-flocculation with SBR technology and nutrient balance adjustment. The most suitable coagulant, kinetic design parameters, and COD fractionation were defined using coupled experimental and simulation results contributing in filling a gap toward managing high-strength leachate by providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications and anticipating potential constraints related to the non-biodegradable COD fraction. In this context, while the combined coagulation-flocculation and SBR process improved removal efficiencies, posttreatment may be required for high-strength leachate, depending on discharge standards and ultimate usage of the treated leachate.

  16. Tertiary treatment of landfill leachate by an integrated Electro-Oxidation/Electro-Coagulation/Electro-Reduction process: Performance and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Wei, Liangliang; Huang, Huibin; Zhao, Qingliang; Hou, Weizhu; Kabutey, Felix Tetteh; Yuan, Yixing; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2018-06-05

    This study presents an integrated Electro-Oxidation/Electro-Coagulation/Electro-Reduction (EO/EC/ER) process for tertiary landfill leachate treatment. The influence of variables including leachate characteristics and operation conditions on the performance of EO/EC/ER process was evaluated. The removal mechanisms were explored by comparing results of anode, cathode, and bipolar electrode substitution experiments. The performance of the process in a scaled-up reactor was investigated to assure the feasibility of the process. Results showed that simultaneous removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous pollutants was achieved under optimal conditions. Ammonia removal was due to the free chlorine generation of EO while organic matter degradation was achieved by both EO and EC processes. Nitrate removal was attributed to both ER and EC processes, with the higher removal achieved by ER process. In a scaled-up reactor, the EO/EC/ER process was able to remove 50-60% organic matter and 100% ammonia at charge of 1.5 Ah/L with energy consumption of 15 kW h/m 3 . Considering energy cost, the process is more efficient to meet the requirement of organic removal efficiency less than 70%. These results show the feasibility and potential of the EO/EC/ER process as an alternative tertiary treatment to achieve the simultaneous removal of organic matter, ammonia, nitrate, and color of leachate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the civil construction debris layer in heavy metals removal of the leachate submitted to recirculation in landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Rossmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the ability of stabilized organic matter (old MSW and construction waste (RCC to retain heavy metals from leachate generated in landfills. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of MSW to remove old heavy metals in MSW leachate produced by freshly collected, and the effect of RCC in the concentration of heavy metals in effluents from MSW old. In three columns (CR, put a layer of RCC and then MSW old and, on the other three (SR, only MSW old. Analyzed in the leachate and effluent pH, EC, BOD and metals Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb. There were similar and efficient removal of BOD and heavy metals in both treatments. The presence of the layer of RCC was considered important to the overall improvement in effluent quality, but did not influence the concentration of metals in the effluent. The order of retention of metals in the columns was: Cu ~ Pb> Cd> Zn. With the exception of Cd and Zn, all other variables assessed in the effluent were below the maximum standards set in DN 01.08 COPAM / CERH for release effluent into water bodies.

  18. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H; Hearn, Laurence; Muller, Jochen F

    2014-11-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of South Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13-59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41-6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to attribute elevated contaminant levels to e-waste, we do not recommend continued disposal of e-waste in old landfills that were not originally designed to contain leachates. The survey also revealed temporal variation in the electrical conductivity and concentrations of As, Cd and Pb present in leachates of landfills in arid Mediterranean climates. These results are consistent with the marked variations in rainfall patterns observed for such climates. The solute concentration (EC and other ions including As

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping; Liao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH 4 –N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production

  20. Spray irrigation of landfill leachate: estimating potential exposures to workers and bystanders using a modified air box model and generalised source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Duncan; Pollard, Simon J.T.; Spence, Lynn; Smith, Richard; Gronow, Jan R.

    2005-01-01

    Generalised source term data from UK leachates and a probabilistic exposure model (BPRISC 4 ) were used to evaluate key routes of exposure from chemicals of concern during the spraying irrigation of landfill leachate. Risk estimates secured using a modified air box model are reported for a hypothetical worker exposed to selected chemicals within a generalised conceptual exposure model of spray irrigation. Consistent with pesticide spray exposure studies, the key risk driver is dermal exposure to the more toxic components of leachate. Changes in spray droplet diameter (0.02-0.2 cm) and in spray flow rate (50-1000 l/min) have little influence on dermal exposure, although the lesser routes of aerosol ingestion and inhalation are markedly affected. The risk estimates modelled using this conservative worst case exposure scenario are not of sufficient magnitude to warrant major concerns about chemical risks to workers or bystanders from this practice in the general sense. However, the modelling made use of generic concentration data for only a limited number of potential landfill leachate contaminants, such that individual practices may require assessment on the basis of their own merits. - Modelling approaches are used to assess human exposure routes to chemicals during spray irrigation of landfill leachates

  1. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Nagarajan Rajkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  2. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of landfill leachate using copper and nitrate co-doped TiO2 (Ti by response surface methodology.

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    Xiao Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, a statistically-based experimental design with response surface methodology (RSM was employed to examine the effects of functional conditions on the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of landfill leachate using a Cu/N co-doped TiO2 (Ti electrode. The experimental design method was applied to response surface modeling and the optimization of the operational parameters of the photoelectro-catalytic degradation of landfill leachate using TiO2 as a photo-anode. The variables considered were the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD concentration, pH and the potential bias. Two dependent parameters were either directly measured or calculated as responses: chemical oxygen demand (COD removal and total organic carbon (TOC removal. The results of this investigation reveal that the optimum conditions are an initial pH of 10.0, 4377.98mgL-1 initial COD concentration and 25.0 V of potential bias. The model predictions and the test data were in satisfactory agreement. COD and TOC removals of 67% and 82.5%, respectively, were demonstrated. Under the optimal conditions, GC/MS showed 73 organic micro-pollutants in the raw landfill leachate which included hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds and esters. After the landfill leachate treatment processes, 38 organic micro-pollutants disappeared completely in the photoelectrocatalytic process.

  4. Leachate and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Groundwater near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad. Methods: In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad. Results: Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the studied wells was below the national standards of drinking water of Iran, WHO, and the United States. Pearson correlation coefficients also indicated that there was a significant correlation among the studied metals in the wells. Conclusion: Cd and Cu concentrations in all of the wells (except Pb in winter and Ni in summer did not pose any significant water quality problems since these concentrations were below the standards acceptable levels of drinking water.

  5. Seasonal variations and the influence of geomembrane liners on the levels of PBDEs in landfill leachates, sediment and groundwater in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Sibiya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in leachate and sediment samples, and the influence of geomembrane liners on PBDE levels and the extent of their infiltration into groundwater on selected landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa were determined. Leachate and sediment samples were collected from seven operational landfill sites namely: Goudkoppies, Robinson Deep, Marie Louis, Soshanguve, Onderstepoort, Hatherly and Garankuwa from Johannesburg and Pretoria, in winter and summer. Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes from two landfill sites. Liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques were employed for the extraction of leachate and groundwater, and sediment respectively using dichloromethane. The extracted samples were subjected to column clean up and, thereafter, analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. PBDEs selected for the study were: BDE-17, -28, -47, -100, -99, -153, -154, -183 and -209. The ∑9PBDE concentrations in leachate samples for winter and summer ranged from 0.316–1.36 ng L−1 and 0.560–1.08 ng L−1 respectively. The ∑9 PBDE concentrations obtained for sediment in winter and summer were 3.00–4.91 ng g−1 and 2.50–3.71 ng g−1 respectively. Winter samples exhibited higher (p < 0.05 concentrations for both leachate and sediment samples compared to summer samples. This trend was attributed to high precipitation rate in summer which may have infiltrated into the landfills, subsequently diluting the leachate and sediment samples. In contrast, the winter period is generally dry and PBDEs are, therefore, more likely to be concentrated. The concentrations of PBDEs in leachate and sediment samples were higher in landfill sites with geomembrane liners compared to those without liners. Groundwater samples taken from the vicinity of selected landfill sites without geomembrane liners exhibited high

  6. Effect of dilution and operating parameters on ammonia removal from scheduled waste landfill leachate in a lab-scale ammonia stripping reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanira, N. M. L.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Rashid, M.; Luqman, C. A.; Abdullah, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    A lab-scale ammonia stripping reactor was used to treat raw and diluted (1:1) scheduled waste landfill (SWL) leachate containing ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Operating parameters such as air-liquid ratio, hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2] dosage, types of packing materials and packing heights were investigated with central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters affecting NH3-N removal from the leachate. The percentage removal on turbidity, colour and phosphate were also evaluated in this study. It was observed that the optimal conditions obtained from desirable response (NH3-N removal) for raw leachate were predicted at air-liquid ratio of 70, Ca(OH)2 dosage of 5 gL-1, packing height of 60 cm and types of packing material was number 3 (non-woven polyester) while for diluted leachate these were 70, 6 gL-1, 60 cm and Type 3 (non-woven polyester), respectively. Quadratic RSM predicted the maximum NH3-N removal to be 78% for raw leachate and 81% for diluted leachate at these optimal conditions concurred with the experiment which successfully removed 76% and 80% of NH3-N, respectively. However, higher removal efficiencies of turbidity (97%), colour (88%) and phosphate (93%) was observed in the treatment with diluted leachate compared to raw leachate merely up to 55%, 34% and 49%, respectively. The finding showed that the difference in the removal of NH3-N in diluted and raw SWL leachate was insignificant. However, turbidity, colour and phosphate showed a significant reduction in the diluted leachate during the treatment. The study suggests that the dilution of SWL leachate does not present a significant effect on the removal of ammonia in the stripping reactor.

  7. Design of manuals sanitary landfills (II). Diseo de rellenos sanitarios manuales (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This period includes engineering projects, landscape and details of building; taking into account the circumstances that govern them, it must be made looking at the simplicity and quickness required to these type of works and trying to respect sanitary requirements. (Author)

  8. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  9. Study of Leachate Contamination in Bantar Gebang Landfill to Its Shallow Groundwater using Natural Isotope Tracers of 18O, 2H and 3H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaching from Bantar Gebang landfill, Jakarta’s main municipal landfill, especially from its two waste water treatment plants (plant A in zone-3 and plant B in Sumur Batu to underlying aquifer has been studied using isotope techniques. The study was based on the abundances of the heavier isotopes in water molocules namely 18O, 2H (deuterium and 3H (tritium. Because both water in the waste-water treatment plants and groundwater have undergone different independent physical processes, it was assumed that each water source has its own typical finger-print in term of the abundances of 18O, 2H (deuterium and 3H (tritium. Leachate from the two waste water treatment plants have higher 2H, 3H activities, and physical parameters (EC, TDS, and pH values than those of groundwater samples. Because of the age and size of the two waste water treatment plants are significantly different, it was also observed that the isotope contents of plant B, younger age and smaller size, was relatively lower in 2H values and 3H activities compared to those of plant A. These phenomena have been used to identify the leaching from waste-water treatment plants of Bantar Gebang landfill to the underlying aquifer. During the dry season, it was observed that 2H values in leachate were generally higher than those in rainy season. This result might be due to the extensive methane production in the treatment plants. Conversely, 18O-shifting in leachate from local meteoric line indicated that the leachate had experienced evaporation. Buried luminescent paints in the landfill were most likely the source of high tritium activity in leachate. Based on the samples collected from the study area (mostly from dug or bore wells, it was found that the underlying aquifer especially shallow groundwater has been contaminated up to as high as 33% with leachate

  10. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL).

  11. An analysis of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb) in leachate and water samples taken from San Mateo landfill and Payatas dumpsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almario, Christine D.; Benedicto, Ma. Victoria S.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals specifically Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb in leachate and water samples taken from the open dumpsite of Payatas and San Mateo landfill. The leachate samples were collected from the maturation pond of San Mateo landfill and from Payatas open dumpsite. The water samples were obtained from Pintong Bocaue and Sapinit deep wells from San Mateo landfill while for Payatas dumpsite deep well waters from the immediate vicinities were used. The sample obtained was then subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for quantitative determination of the heavy metals. The results of the analysis of concentration of trace metals were expressed in mg/L or ppm. (Authors)

  12. Sanitary Landfill. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson is an introduction to disposal of sludge by landfill. A brief explanation of the complete process is provided, including discussions of sludge suitability, site selection, method selection and operation, site closure, and ultimate reuse. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's guide contains a…

  13. Fertigation of Brassica rapa L. using treated landfill leachate as a nutrient recycling option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank O. Alaribe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimising nutrient availability and minimising plant metal contamination are vital in sustainable agriculture. This paper reports experiments in which treated leachate was used at different concentrations with predetermined N content for fertigation of Brassica rapa L. (leafy vegetable. An inorganic fertiliser, with N content equivalent to the leachate amount, was also prepared, as well as a control. Growth (leaf length, leaf width and stem height, harvest parameters (total number of leaves, root length and root dry weight and specific growth rates (mm/day were determined for three consecutive seasons. The dry weights of leaves, roots and stems in the leachate treatments were within the ranges of 1.95–3.60 g, 1.18–3.60 g and 0.33–1.37 g, with biomasses of 1.75 g, 1.14 g and 0.2 g, respectively, which were higher than those of the control. B. rapa L. fertigated with 25% diluted treated leachate recorded high specific growth rate and a leaf length of 0.53 mm/day and 0.23.17±0.58 cm, respectively (%N=0.023; p"less than"0.05. The maximum permissible mineral concentration set by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO was compared with that of the grown plants. Treated leachate can increase plant nutrient content.

  14. Ground-water hydrology and the effects of vertical leakage and leachate migration on ground-water quality near the Shelby County landfill, Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of potential leakage of leachate from the Shelby County landfill near Memphis, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1986-87. The migration of leachate from the landfill to the shallow alluvial aquifer system and the potential leakage to the deeper confined Memphis aquifer of Tertiary age were investigated. A network of observation wells was drilled to determine water levels and aquifer properties in the shallow and deep aquifers as well as in the confining layer. Water samples were collected to define potential leachate occurrence. A depression in the water table within the shallow alluvial aquifer was defined from the water-level data. Drawdowns within the cone of depression are as much as 14 feet lower than the adjoining Wolf River. Recharge from the river and leachate from the landfill moves toward the depression. The presence of leachate within the shallow aquifer was confirmed from determinations of dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations and comparisons with areas away from the aflected zone. Leakage from the water-table aquifer to the Memphis aquifer was confirmed from chemical analyses and hydraulic-head data. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples from the upper Memphis aquifer near the landfill are higher than in samples from the Memphis aquifer in unaffected areas. Tritium activities in water samples from the upper Memphis aquifer were as high as 34 pico-Curies per liter indicating recent recharge to the Memphis aquifer. The presence of synthetic organic compounds and elevated concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and trace metals indicate the leachate has aflected water quality in the alluvial aquifer. Vertical migration of ground water could transmit leachate down to the Memphis aquifer. Although water-quality data indicate that water is leaking from the alluvial aquifer to the Memphis aquifer, most of the data do not indicate the occurrence of leachate in the Memphis aquifer. Chemical data from one

  15. Ammoniacal nitrogen and COD removal from semi-aerobic landfill leachate using a composite adsorbent: fixed bed column adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Azhar Abdul; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Johari, Megat Azmi Megat; Ariffin, Kamar Shah; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2010-03-15

    The performance of a carbon-mineral composite adsorbent used in a fixed bed column for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and aggregate organic pollutant (COD), which are commonly found in landfill leachate, was evaluated. The breakthrough capacities for ammoniacal nitrogen and COD adsorption were 4.46 and 3.23 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) was 75 min. The column efficiency for ammoniacal nitrogen and COD adsorption using fresh adsorbent was 86.4% and 92.6%, respectively, and these values increased to 90.0% and 93.7%, respectively, after the regeneration process. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of soil and landfill leachate microorganisms in the degradation of PVC/PCL films cast from DMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of plastics continues to increase in our daily lives in a growing range products, these materials are very persistent in the environment. The blending of aliphatic polyesters with other thermoplastic polymers is a profitable way of producing materials with changed physical properties and biodegradability, which can facilitate microbial adhesion to the polymer matrix and help to reduce (post-consumer degradation time of these materials in landfills. This study was an investigation of the biodegradation of films of blends of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL by soil microorganisms and leachate, by means of respirometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR, differential calorimetry scanning (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle and weight loss. The results showed that in the soil, the films suffered oxidative biodegradation. The PCL promoted degradation of the PVC in the film of PVC/PCL and the PVC inhibited the rapid degradation of the PCL.

  17. Simulation of a membrane bioreactor pilot treating old landfill leachates with activated sludge model no. 1 and no. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleguillos, Marcelo; Keffala, Chéma; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2011-12-01

    Activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) and activated sludge model No. 3 (ASM3) can simulate correctly the behaviour of a pilot membrane bioreactor treating old landfill leachates. Both models show similar results, which are consistent with measured data. In this work, a simplified calibration procedure is applied including hydrodynamic and oxygen transfer characterization. The wastewater characterisation was based on a physical-chemical method combined with a BOD analysis for the COD fractions and on standard analysis for nitrogen forms. Default parameters were used for both models; despite this, good simulations were obtained showing the flexibility and accuracy of the well-achieved ASM family models. The sensibility analysis performed allows identification of the most important kinetic, stoichiometric and operational parameters that should be measured to confirm or replace default values. In this specific case, the simulation is most sensitive to heterotrophic yield, particularly under anoxic conditions.

  18. A comparison of the toxicity of landfill leachate exposure at the seed soaking and germination stages on Zea mays L. (maize).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangke; Chen, Junyan; Yan, Wei; Sang, Nan

    2017-05-01

    To compare the toxicity of landfill leachate exposure at the early stages of seed soaking and germination on maize, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the physiological aspects of growth, yield and potential clastogenicity of root-tip cells. The maizes were treated with leachate at levels of 2%, 10%, 20%, 30% or 50% (V/V). First, the change of physiological indexes, including chlorophyll (Chl), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, combined with yield all showed that soaking with leachate, but not germination, generated a greater ecological risk on maize. After a soaking treatment of maize with 50% leachate, the Chl, MDA and ROS levels during a vigorous growth period were 47.3%, 149.8% and 309.7%, respectively, of the control, whereas the yield decreased to 68.6% of the control. In addition, our results demonstrated that the leachate at lower levels could promote growth. This is mainly embodied in that the yield of maize treated with 10% leachate at the soaking stage increased to 116.0% of the control. Moreover, the cytological analysis experiment also demonstrated that the ecological risk of leachate still exists in both cases. Furthermore, the gray relational analysis showed that the ear row number and tassel branch number were the major factors affecting the yield of maize treated with 50% leachate at the stages of soaking and germination, respectively. In general, these results are helpful in understanding the phytotoxicity of leachate, which provides additional reference data for risk assessment and management of leachate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Adsorptive removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in landfill leachate by iron oxide nanoparticles (FeONPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Zaidi Ab; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Andas, Jeyashelly; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticle (FeONPs) adsorption for removing of DOM in landfill leachate. FeONPs was directly prepared via sodium borohydride (KBH4) reduction method. Adsorption kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies were developed to design the model for DOM removal. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order model have been studied to fit the experimental data. The regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics were more accurately represented by a pseudo second-order model. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion model was used to analyze the adsorption kinetics data. The plot of qt versus t1/2 represents multi linearity, which showed that the adsorption processes occurred in more than one step. Adsorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich, isotherms model. Equilibrium data were well fitted to the Dubinin- Radushkevich isotherm model. Maximum monolayer adsorption based on Langmuir was calculated to be 21.74 mg/g. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy changes (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were evaluated between temperatures of 25 °C and 40 °C. The ΔG° was noticed progressively decrease from -9.620 -9.820 -10.021, and -10.222 kJ/mol as the temperature increase. The ΔH° and ΔS° values were found to be 2.350 kJ/mol and 40.165 J/mol.K respectively. The results showed that the overall adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. The results from this study suggested that FeNPs could be a viable adsorbent in managing higher DOM problems associated with landfill leachate.

  20. Removal of organic matter and ammoniacal nitrogen from landfill leachate using the UV/H2O2 photochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, Rolando Nunes; Nagel-Hassemer, Maria Eliza; Matias, William Gerson; Muller, Jose Miguel; de Castilhos Junior, Armando Borges

    2017-12-04

    This study investigates the effects of pH, H 2 O 2 concentration and reaction time of the UV/H 2 O 2 photochemical process on the removal of organic matter and ammonia from biologically pre-treated landfill leachates in anaerobic stabilization ponds. The results show that the concentration of H 2 O 2 and the initial pH are significant factors, with no significant interaction between them. A pH of 3 is the optimum value for the UV/H 2 O 2 process for the removal of organic matter, resulting in 51.63% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in addition to the removal of aromatic compounds. The N-NH 3 removal showed little variation between pH values of 1, 5, 7, 11 and 13; the removal was on the order of 16.43 ± 2.00%. The consumption of H 2 O 2 was elevated at pH 9, 11 and 13; at these pH values, the average removal was 94.56 ± 0.43%, compared to 43.07% at pH 3. First-order polynomial models and reaction times on the order of 15 min are sufficient for optimization studies and for evaluation of the effects of the studied parameters. The results of this study support the optimization of the UV/H 2 O 2 process for the removal of organic matter and ammonia from landfill leachates.

  1. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese...... of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate...

  2. Aerobic treatment of landfill leachate using a submerged membrane bioreactor--prospects for on-site use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, S; Cicek, N; Van Gulck, J

    2008-08-01

    Submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for aerobic treatment of landfill leachate was studied in laboratory scale to evaluate its potential for on-site use. Three combinations of solid retention time (SRT) - hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60 days - 3.5 days, 60 days - 2 days and 30 days - 1 day, were examined to evaluate reactor performance under varying loading and biomass conditions. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal ranged from 54 to 78%, depending on the influent leachate source and loading conditions. The MBR showed excellent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) removal of 97% and higher, even at HRT as low as 1 day. Complete suspended solids retention and full nitrification of the incoming ammonia was observed despite highly variable loading. Significant removal of iron, lead, manganese, cadmium and aluminum was observed. No significant changes in the removal efficiency of metals, ammonia, and BOD5 were observed at different SRT-HRT. Toxicity removal decreased with increasing HRT. The produced effluent met current water quality guidelines for discharge into natural streams in Manitoba.

  3. Characteristics and kinetics of ammonia and N2O emissions of aged refuse irrigated from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jixi; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Xuezhang; Ding, Jian; Yu, Guanghui; Xu, Huacheng

    2013-05-01

    This is the first attempt to report the gaseous nitrogen emissions from landfill leachate filtration methods by irrigating the aged refuse. A first-order reaction model was a good fit for the increase in ammonia emissions from aged refuse, clay and sandy soil incubated for 120 h after adding the leachate-N solution. The emissions of ammonia and N2O by the three experimental materials fit well to first-order and zero-order models, respectively. The maximum ammonia emission from aged refuse was approximately 1.17 mg NH4(+)-Nkg(-1) d.w. and the calculated emission factor was 1.95‰, which was 3.76 and 2.67 times lower than that of sandy and clay soils, respectively. The tendencies of NH4(+)-N nitrification and NO3(-)-N generations fit well to the zero-order reaction model and the net nitrification rate by the aged refuse was 1.30 (pammonia. The emission factor for N2O from aged refuse was 8.28 (pammonia emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of cellulose as co-substrate on old landfill leachate treatment using white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, A; Yuan, Q; Siracusa, G; Chicca, I; Islam, M; Spennati, F; Tigini, V; Di Gregorio, S; Levin, D B; Petroni, G; Munz, G

    2017-10-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment technologies are ineffective for remediation of old LandFill Leachate (LFL), and innovative approaches to achieve satisfactory removal of this recalcitrant fraction are needed. This study focused on old LFL treatment with a selected fungal strain, Bjerkandera adusta MUT 2295, through batch and continuous tests, using packed-bed bioreactors under non-sterile conditions. To optimize the process performance, diverse types of co-substrates were used, including milled cellulose from beverage cups waste material. Extracellular enzyme production was assayed, in batch tests, as a function of a) cellulose concentration, b) leachate initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Soluble COD (sCOD), and c) co-substrate type. Bioreactors were dosed with an initial start-up of glucose (Rg) or cellulose (Rc). An additional glucose dosage was provided in both reactors, leading to significant performance increases. The highest COD and sCOD removals were i) 63% and 53% in Rg and ii) 54% and 51% in Rc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  6. Removal of ammonia nitrogen from leachate of Muribeca municipal solid waste landfill, Pernambuco, Brazil, using natural zeolite as part of a biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Cecilia Maria M S; Alves, Maria Cristina M; Campos, Juacyara C; Silva, Fabrícia Maria S; Jucá, José Fernando T; Lins, Eduardo Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4+.L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.

  7. Greenhouse gases emission from sanitary landfills in Lombardy: estimation and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, F.; Moretti, M.; Caserini, S.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of methane emissions from landfills is important to evaluate measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A census has been conducted across all landfills in Lombardy in order to get a double assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 1973-2007. The first approach is of a deterministic kind: it produced a GHG emission assessment of about 2,240 ktCO 2 (like 2.4% of GHG emission in Lombardy in 2005). The second approach is a probabilistic approach according to Monte Carlo simulation, and allows an assessment of probabilistic distribution of emissions and uncertainty. Uncertainty in GHG emission from landfill in Lombardy is about 20% and efficiency of LFG collection and biodegradable carbon content are the most relevant parameters in this assessment. Also, a projection of GHG emission was made. Two scenarios were analyzed for the 2008-2020 period: a business as usual (BAU) one and an alternative one. It results that we are expecting a 50% reduction of GHG emission, with alternative scenario, from 2007 level: at regional scale it is like a 1% of overall GHG emissions in Lombardy. [it

  8. Anaerobic biodegradation of alkylbenzenes and trichloroethylene in aquifer sediment down gradient of a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James J.; Borden, Robert C.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradability of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta- and para-xylene (BTEX) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in aquifer sediment down gradient of an unlined landfill. The major organic contaminants identified in the shallow unconfined aquifer are cis-dichloroethylene ( c-DCE) and toluene. The biodegradative potential of the contaminated aquifer was measured in three sets of microcosms constructed using anaerobic aquifer sediment from three boreholes down gradient of the landfill. The degradability of BTEX and TCE was examined under ambient and amended conditions. TCE was degraded in microcosms with aquifer material from all three boreholes. Toluene biodegradation was inconsistent, exhibiting biodegradation with no lag in one set of microcosms but more limited biodegradation in two additional sets of microcosms. TCE exhibited an inhibitory effect on toluene degradation at one location. The addition of calcium carbonate stimulated TCE biodegradation which was not further stimulated by nutrient addition. TCE was converted to ethylene, a harmless byproduct, in all tests. Benzene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers were recalcitrant in both ambient and amendment experiments. Biodegradation occurred under methanogenic conditions as methane was produced in all experiments. Bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES), a methanogenic inhibitor, inhibited methane and ethylene production and TCE biodegradation. The results indicate the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of TCE and toluene down gradient of the Wilder's Grove, North Carolina, landfill. The low concentrations of TCE in monitoring wells was consistent with its biodegradation in laboratory microcosms.

  9. Toxic metals (Ni2+, Pb2+, Hg2+) binding affinity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from different ages municipal landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikta, S. Y.; Tareq, Shafi M.; Uddin, M. Khabir

    2018-03-01

    Solid waste production is rapidly increasing in Bangladesh and landfill leachate is the consequence of the decomposition of this waste. These leachates contain heavy metals and significant amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is known to have considerable role in heavy metals speciation. Hence, it is important to characterize DOM/leachate and evaluate toxic metals binding affinity of DOM. The objectives of this study were to characterize the DOM in landfill leachate through physico-chemical and optical analyses and to investigate the toxic metals (Ni2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+) binding affinity of three different ages (fresh sample L-1, young sample L-2 and mature sample L-3) DOM samples. Results suggested that leachate is a potential pollutant which contained very high organic pollutant load. Conditional stability constant (Log K) and percentages of fluorophores that correspond to metal binding (% f) values indicated that young DOM sample (L-2) had the highest binding affinity to all the three metals ions. In general, DOM samples showed the following order affinity to the metal ions; Ni2+ binding affinity: L-2 > L-3 > L-1, Pb2+ binding affinity: L-2 > L-3 > L-1 and Hg2+ binding affinity: L-2 > L-1 > L-3.

  10. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  11. Influence of recirculation in a lab-scale vertical flow constructed wetland on the treatment efficiency of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Silviya; Koumanova, Bogdana

    2010-03-01

    Landfill leachate taken from a landfill situated in the north-western region of Bulgaria has been treated in a laboratory scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VF-CW) at different flow rates (40, 60 and 82 ml min(-1)) and recirculation ratios (time of water running through wetland to time of quiet water - 1:1; 1:2; 1:3). Young Phragmites australis was planted on the top layer of the reactor. The low flow rate (40 ml min(-1)) and recirculation ratio of 1:3 allowed removal efficiencies of 96% for COD (in 8 days), 92% for BOD(5) (in 3 days), 100% for ammonia (in 5 days) and 100% for total phosphorus (in 2 days). At the highest flow rate studied (82 ml min(-1)) and shorter quiet period (recirculation ratio 1:1) the water needs longer period of treatment (2 days more according to COD). The results of this study indicate that both flow rate and recirculation ratio should be taken into account for proper design of VF-CW. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of Important Parameter from Leachate Solid Waste Landfill on Water Quality, Case Study of Pesanggrahan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanidar, R.; Hartono, D. M.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Cipayung Landfill takes waste generation from Depok City approximately ± 750 tons/day of solid waste. The south and west boundaries of the landfill is Pesanggarahan River which 200m faraway. The objectives of this study are to indicate an important parameter which greatly affects the water quality of Pesanggrahan River and purpose the dynamic model for improving our understanding of the dynamic behavior that captures the interactions and feedbacks important parameter in river in order to identify and assess the effects of the treated leachate from final solid waste disposal activity as it responds to changes over time in the river. The high concentrations of BOD and COD are not the only cause significantly affect the quality of the pesanggrahan water, it also because the river has been contaminated in the upstream area. It need the water quality model to support the effectiveness calculation of activities for preventing a selected the pollutant sources the model should be developed for simulating and predicting the trend of water quality performance in Pesanggrahan River which can potentially be used by policy makers in strategic management to sustain river water quality as raw drinking water.

  13. The use of organic wastes at different degrees of maturity as carbon sources for denitrification of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüg, B D; Cibati, A; Trois, C

    2015-12-01

    In this study different garden refuses were investigated to ascertain their efficiency to act as carbon sources in a denitrification system. Six different garden refuse materials were studied: commercial and domestic garden refuse raw (CGR RAW, DGR RAW), immaturely composted domestic and commercial garden refuse (DGR 10 and CGR 10 respectively), commercial garden refuse composted by Dome Aeration Technology and by "turned windrow" technology (DAT and TW). Different concentrations of synthetic nitrate solution were used to assess the efficiency of each substrate. The results demonstrate that all substrates were able to sustain the denitrification process. However, due to its higher C/N ratio the CGR RAW was the better performing of the materials, reaching 100% removal after 8 and 12h for the 100 and 500 mg L(-1) respectively and after 11 days for 2000 mg L(-1). Kinetic studies revealed that the zero-order reaction better describes the process indicating a denitrification rate independent from the nitrate concentrations investigated when 100 and 500 mg L(-1) of nitrate were used. The study demonstrated the suitability of organic municipal solid wastes to sustain denitrification, opening a new scenario towards a low cost and in situ solution for treatment of landfill leachate by using wastes, otherwise disposed of in landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of the environmental effects of sanitary landfill in Pinto, Madrid (Spain); Estudio de la influencia del vertedero de residuos solidos urbanos de Pinto (Comunidad de Madrid) y su entorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorronsoro, J.L.; Carreras, N.; Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.; Sanchez, M.; Herranz, I.; Fernandez, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Here we report the results obtained in the studies of the environmental affection of a municipal solid waste (MSW) Landfill (Pinto, spain). For this purpose samples of waters, soils, sediments, vegetation and leachates were analyzed during three years (1990-1993). The results do not indicate environmental affection, due to the favourable situation (low permeability and runoff and low population density) of the landfill.

  15. Hydrological and geochemical factors affecting leachate composition in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Part II. The geochemistry of leachate from Landfill Lostorf, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Annette; Kaeppeli, Michael; Brandenberger, Sandro; Ulrich, Andrea; Baumann, Werner

    1999-12-01

    The leachate composition of the Landfill Lostorf, Buchs, Switzerland has been examined as a function rain events and dry periods between November 1994 and November 1996. Discharge and electrical conductivity of the central drainage discharge were monitored continuously, whilst samples for chemical analysis were taken at discrete intervals. The average total concentrations of Na, Cl, K, Mg, Ca and SO 4 are 44.5, 47.1, 11.8, 0.63, 8.2 and 12.4 mM, respectively. During rain events, the leachate is diluted by the preferential flow of rainwater into the drainage discharge. Drainage discharge pH values range between 8.68 and 11.28, the latter under dry conditions. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that CaSO 4, ettringite (3CaOAl 2O 3CaSO 4·32H 2O) and Al(OH) 3 may control the concentrations of the components Ca, SO 4 and Al. Dissolved Si may be in thermodynamic equilibrium with either Ca silicate hydrate or imogolite. Cadmium, Mo, V, Mn and Zn are also diluted during rain events and concentration changes agree with those of conductivity (representing the major constituents). Average concentrations are 0.012, 5.4, 2.3, 0.085, and 0.087 μM, respectively. Components such as Al, Cu, Sb and Cr increase in concentration with increased discharge. Average concentrations are 1.6, 0.27 and 0.21 μM, respectively. For Cu, the explanation lies in its affinity for total organic carbon (TOC). Thermodynamic calculations indicate that whilst dissolution/precipitation reactions with metal hydroxides and carbonates can explain the observed concentrations of Cd, sorption and complexation reactions probably influence the concentrations of Cu, Pb (average measurable concentration 0.013 μM), Zn and Mn. For the oxyanion species such as MoO 4 and WO 4 (average concentration 0.61 μM), it is probable that Ca metallate formation plays a dominant role in determining concentration ranges. Geochemical processes appear to determine concentration ranges and the hydrological factors, the

  16. Methodology for the determination of optimum power of a Thermal Power Plant (TPP) by biogas from sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Rodrigo; Barros, Regina Mambeli; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Dos Santos, Ivan Felipe Silva

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine theoretically, the electrical optimum power of LFG using the maximum net benefit (MNB) methodology, and taking into consideration the economic, demographic, and regional aspects of the Inter municipal Consortium of the Micro-region of the High Sapucaí for Sanitary Landfill (CIMASAS, as acronym in Portuguese), that is located in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To this end, the prognosis for a 20-year period of household solid waste generation in this region was estimated and quantified based on population data, in order to estimate the LFG production and the energy that can be generated. From this point, the optimum power for thermal power plant (TPP) by LFG was determined. The results indicated that the landfill in this region could produce more 66,293,282m 3 CH 4 (with maximum power of 997kW in 2036) in twenty years and that there would be no economic viability to generate energy from LFG, because the Net Present Value (NPV) would not be positive. The smallest population to that can achieve a minimum attractiveness rate (MAR) of 15% should be 3,700,000 inhabitants under the conditions studied. Considering the Brazilian National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) Resolutions, it would be 339,000 inhabitants with an installed power of 440kW. In addition, the outcome of the CIMASAS case-study demonstrated the applicability of MNB methodology for the determination of TPP optimum power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate treatment by ion exchange resin: isotherm and kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Foo, Keng Yuen

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the treatability of ion exchange resin (Indion MB 6 SR) for the removal of chromium (VI), aluminium (III), zinc (II), copper (II), iron (II), and phosphate (PO4)3-, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and colour from semi-aerobic stabilized leachate by batch test. A range of ion exchange resin dosage was tested towards the removal efficiency of leachate parameters. It was observed that equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir model for metal ions and Freundlich was ideally fit for COD, NH3-N and colour. Intra particle diffusion model, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order isotherm models were found ideally fit with correlation of the experimental data. The findings revealed that the models could describe the ion exchange kinetic behaviour efficiently, which further suggests comprehensive outlook for the future research in this field.

  18. Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated time of arrival of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the time of first arrival of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was

  19. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic characterization of iron oxides in solid waste landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huliselan, Estevanus Kristian; Bijaksana, Satria; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Kardena, Edwan

    2010-01-01

    Leachate sludge samples were taken from two municipal solid waste sites of Jelekong and Sarimukti in Bandung, Indonesia. Their magnetic mineralogy and granulometry were analyzed to discriminate the sources of magnetic minerals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and rock magnetism. SEM-EDX analyses infer that the main magnetic minerals in the leachate sludge are iron oxides. In terms of their morphology, the grains from Jelekong are mostly octahedral and angular, which are similar to the general shapes of magnetic grains from the local soils. The grains from Sarimukti, on the other hand, are dominated by imperfect spherule shapes suggesting the product of combustion processes. Hysteresis parameters verify that the predominant magnetic mineral in leachate sludge is low coercivity ferrimagnetic mineral such as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). Furthermore, comparisons of rock magnetic parameters show that the magnetic minerals of soil samples from Jelekong have higher degree of magnetic pedogenesis indicating higher proportion of superparamagnetic/ultrafine particles than those of soil samples from Sarimukti. The plot of susceptibilities ratio versus coercive force has a great potential to be used as a discriminating tool for determining the source of magnetic minerals.

  20. Paper for Publication in IOP: Conference Series Leachate Treatment using three Years Aged Lysimetric Bioreactor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Djoko M.; Andari Kristanto, Gabriel; Gusniani Sofian, Irma; Fauzan, Ahmad; Mahdiana, Ghanis

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted as a response to address the problem of land availability for Cipayung landfill that no longer able to accommodate waste generation Depok City and to protect water pollution in receiving water body. Law No. 8/2008 explained that local governments and cities are required to create a sanitary landfill as a final waste processing system to replace open dumping that had been done by almost all the final processing of waste in cities in Indonesia. Sanitary landfill is the final waste processing system that works best and is environmentally friendly. The sanitary landfill will generate leachate. Leachate is the result of precipitation, evaporation, surface runoff, water infiltration into the waste, and also including the water contained in the waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization of leachate generated by three years aged reactor.This study use a modeling tools as bioreactor landfill tank or so called lysimetric, that made of the polymer material that susceptible to high heat and pressure. This bioreactor landfill tank has a diameter of 0.83 m, with a surface area of 0.54 m2 and a height of 2.02 m, with the examination duration of 115 days. This tank consists of several layer, such as sand layer, solid waste layer, water layer and piping system. These layer has 3 year aged. The In this research, leachate recirculation in bioreactor landfills was conducted with waste layered loading systems with percolation system. This research has been conducted since the beginning of 2016, sampling, field measurement and analysis of leachate and waste quality carried out for approximately 115 days of field measurements.Several parameter were measured such as pH, BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite and TSS. From the analysis of the leachate quality parameters of pH, BOD, COD, nitrite, TSS, showed a reduction in the concentration of the three reactors. The concentration of parameters measured at the initial stage until the final stage, showed a

  1. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K

    2014-06-01

    The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10% by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10% (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification.

  2. Hydrological and geochemical factors affecting leachate composition in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Part I: The hydrology of Landfill Lostorf, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Annette; Richner, Gérald A.; Vitvar, Tomas; Schittli, Nina; Eberhard, Mark

    1998-10-01

    The objective of the investigation of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash landfill, Landfill Lostorf, was to determine the residence time of water in the landfill and the flow paths through the landfill. Over a period of 22 months, measurements of rainfall, landfill discharge and leachate electrical conductivity were recorded and tracer experiments made. Over the yearly period 1995, approximately 50% of the incident rainfall was measured in the discharge. An analysis of single rain events showed that in winter, 90-100% of rainfall was expressed in the landfill discharge, whereas in summer months, the value was between 9 and 40% depending on the intensity of the rain event. The response to rainfall was rapid. Within 30-100 h, approximately 50% of water discharged in response to a rain event had left the landfill. The discharge was less than 4 l/min for approximately 50% of the measurement periods. Qualitative tracer studies with fluorescein, pyranine and iodide clearly showed the existence of preferential flow paths. This was further substantiated by quantitative tracer studies of single rain events using 18O/ 16O ratios and electrical conductivity measurements. The proportion of rainwater passing directly through the landfill was found to be between 20 and 80% in summer months and around 10% in winter months. The difference has been ascribed to the water content in the landfill. The average residence time of the water within the landfill has been estimated to be roughly 3 years and this water is the predominant component in the discharge over a yearly period.

  3. First evidence of fish genotoxicity induced by heavy metals from landfill leachates: the advantage of using the RAPD-PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Capelli, Nicolas; Grisey, Elise; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-03-01

    Municipal leachates are loaded with heavy metals that can contaminate surface water before discharge into a receiving body of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic effects of heavy metals generated by domestic waste on the common roach Rutilus rutilus in the last of the four interconnected ponds at the Etueffont landfill. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) since it has been shown to be a powerful means of detecting a broad range of DNA damage due to environmental contaminants. Our results show the ability of RAPD analysis to detect significant genetic alterations in roach DNA, after contamination with a set of metals contained in the landfill leachates in comparison to a roach from a non-polluted reference pond. Analysis of electrophoresis profiles indicates apparent changes such as the appearance of new bands or disappearance of bands as compared to the control. In fact, mixed smearing and laddering of DNA fragments in muscle samples support the genotoxic effects of metal deposits in the roach. This study is the first evidence found via the RAPD-PCR technique in the detection of pollutant impacts on fish exposed to landfill leachates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spray irrigation of landfill leachate: estimating potential exposures to workers and bystanders using a modified air box model and generalised source term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Duncan; Pollard, Simon J T; Spence, Lynn; Smith, Richard; Gronow, Jan R

    2005-02-01

    Generalised source term data from UK leachates and a probabilistic exposure model (BPRISC(4)) were used to evaluate key routes of exposure from chemicals of concern during the spraying irrigation of landfill leachate. Risk estimates secured using a modified air box model are reported for a hypothetical worker exposed to selected chemicals within a generalised conceptual exposure model of spray irrigation. Consistent with pesticide spray exposure studies, the key risk driver is dermal exposure to the more toxic components of leachate. Changes in spray droplet diameter (0.02-0.2 cm) and in spray flow rate (50-1000 l/min) have little influence on dermal exposure, although the lesser routes of aerosol ingestion and inhalation are markedly affected. The risk estimates modelled using this conservative worst case exposure scenario are not of sufficient magnitude to warrant major concerns about chemical risks to workers or bystanders from this practice in the general sense. However, the modelling made use of generic concentration data for only a limited number of potential landfill leachate contaminants, such that individual practices may require assessment on the basis of their own merits.

  5. Biological Removal of Ammonia from Municipal Landfill Leachate (Kozodrza, Poland at Limited Oxygen Access and Presence of Kaldnes Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of filling the sequential batch reactor (SBR with Kaldnes biomass carrier media on the effectiveness of landfill leachate treatment was examined. The experiment was carried out under limited access to oxygen (0.5–1.0 mg·L -1 . The raw leachate was characterized with the COD concentration at the level of 7758 mg·L -1 , BOD5 – 904 mg·L -1 , and NH 4 + – 980 mg·L -1 . The nitrogen loading rate (NLR was low and amounted to 0.3 kg·m -3 ·d -1 . The fill fraction had no effect on the concentration of contaminants in effluents, but turned out to be significant as far as the ammonia nitrogen loss rate was concerned. During the first six hours of SBR operation, the reaction rate increased from 0.64 mg·L -1 ·h -1 to 6.85 mg·L -1 ·h -1 with increasing fill fraction. In the remaining time (7–23 h in the case of the reactor operating only with suspended activated sludge, and the one with 10% of filtration media, the reaction rate was comparable, i.e. 27.24 mg·L -1 ·h -1 and 27.02 mg·L -1 ·h -1 , respectively. Increasing the fill fraction to 20% resulted in a decrease of the reaction rate to 18.28 mg· L -1 ·h -1 .

  6. A novel forward osmosis system in landfill leachate treatment for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and for direct fertigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Niu, Aping; Lu, Chun-Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Junaid, Muhammad; Strauss, Phyllis R; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Xiao; Ren, Yi-Wei; Pei, De-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH 4 HCO 3 ) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells. The water recovery rate was improved using the current protocol up to 86.6% and 91.6% by both the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode and the forward osmosis (FO) mode. Water flux increased with the increasing DS concentrations, but solution velocities decreased with the operation time. Toxicity tests revealed that the M-LL treated by NH 4 HCO 3 had no toxic effect on zebrafish and human cells. Moreover, green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the transgenic zebrafish Tg(cyp1a:gfp) induced by PAHs was very weak compared to the effects induced by untreated M-LL. Since the diluted DS met local safety requirements of liquid fertilizer, it could be directly applied as the liquid fertilizer for fertigation. In conclusion, this novel FO system using NH 4 HCO 3 as the DS provides a cheap and efficient protocol to effectively remove PAHs and other pollutants in LL, and the diluted DS can be directly applied to crops as a liquid fertilizer, indicating that this technique is effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of different types of LL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding leachate flow in municipal solid waste landfills by combining time-lapse ERT and subsurface flow modelling - Part II: Constraint methodology of hydrodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, M; Oxarango, L; Duquennoi, C; Touze-Foltz, N; Forquet, N; Clément, R

    2016-09-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal solid waste landfills as bioreactors. To ensure optimal water content distribution, bioreactor operators need tools to design leachate injection systems. Prediction of leachate flow by subsurface flow modelling could provide useful information for the design of such systems. However, hydrodynamic models require additional data to constrain them and to assess hydrodynamic parameters. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a suitable method to study leachate infiltration at the landfill scale. It can provide spatially distributed information which is useful for constraining hydrodynamic models. However, this geophysical method does not allow ERT users to directly measure water content in waste. The MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to delineate the infiltration area precisely during time-lapse ERT survey in order to avoid the use of empirical petrophysical relationships, which are not adapted to a heterogeneous medium such as waste. The infiltration shapes and hydrodynamic information extracted with MICS were used to constrain hydrodynamic models in assessing parameters. The constraint methodology developed in this paper was tested on two hydrodynamic models: an equilibrium model where, flow within the waste medium is estimated using a single continuum approach and a non-equilibrium model where flow is estimated using a dual continuum approach. The latter represents leachate flows into fractures. Finally, this methodology provides insight to identify the advantages and limitations of hydrodynamic models. Furthermore, we suggest an explanation for the large volume detected by MICS when a small volume of leachate is injected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Qingdao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Gong

    Full Text Available Various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. In this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index to evaluate the estrogenic activities in outlets from different stages of the leachate treatment process. The results indicated that 5 environmental estrogens (4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentrations in leachate samples were 6153 ng/L, 3642 ng/L, 2139 ng/L, 5900 ng/L, and 9422 ng/L, respectively. Leachate (1∶200 diluted induced the synthesis of plasma vitellogenin and led to decreased enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and gonadosomatic index in male goldfish (Carassius auratus after a 28-day exposure, while increased circulating 17β-estradiol level was also observed in males exposed to treated effluent. Although the target EEs were partially removed with removal rates varying from 87.2% to 99.77% by the "membrane bioreactor+reverse osmosis+aeration zeolite biofilter" treatment process, the treated effluent is still estrogenic to fish. The method combined chemical techniques with the responses of test organisms allowing us to identify the group of estrogen-like chemicals so that we were able to evaluate the overall estrogenic effects of a complex mixture, avoiding false negative assessments.

  9. Attenuation of xenobiotic organic leachate compounds from a landfill to surface water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milosevic, Nemanja

    Numerous landfill sites worldwide have been recognized as a threat to clean water resources. Many environmental legal acts have been issued and improved to tackle this problem. The main concern is caused by slow degradation of the disposed waste and the high complexity of field conditions (landfill...... water and to improve concepts, tools and methods for the degradation assessment. High complexity in the field is challenging, since it influences the spreading of contamination and attenuation processes such as sorption and degradation. Clay till, a glacial deposit of low permeable clay with interbedded...... established lines of evidence of natural attenuation. The conceptual model was formulated for hydrogeology and water chemistry, providing water flow balance and mass discharges of selected contaminants. The model was improved by analyzing in situ indicators of biodegradation, some of which were applied...

  10. The impact of compaction and leachate recirculation on waste degradation in simulated landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Yang, Fan; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of compaction and leachate recirculation on anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) at different methane formation phases. Two stainless steel lysimeters, C1 and C2, were constructed by equipping a hydraulic cylinder to apply pressure load (42kPs) on the MSW. When MSW started to produce methane, C1 was compacted, but C2 was compacted when the methane production rate declined from the peak generation rate. Methane production of C1was inhibited by the compaction and resulted in producing a total of 106L methane (44L/kgVS). However, the compaction in C2 promoted MSW degradation resulting in producing a total of 298L methane (125L/kgVS). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids and chemical oxygen demand showed temporary increases, when pressure load was applied. It was considered that the increased substrate accessibility within MSW by compaction could cause either the inhibition or the enhancement of methane production, depending the tolerability of methanogens on the acidic inhibition. Leachate recirculation also gave positive effects on methane generation from wet waste in the decelerated methanogenic phase by increasing mass transfer and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shallow groundwater hydrochemistry assessment of engineered landfill and dumpsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan; Hossain, Md Shabbir

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, hydrochemistry analysis was performed at two different landfill site that is Matang and Beriah landfills, to evaluate the environmental risks associated with leachate flowing into groundwater resources. Selected parameters considered were heavy metal and physico-chemical properties of the groundwater samples. Analysis for Matang Landfill shows that the pollutant species seem to accumulate within MT1 that were located at the southeast of the landfill site. The pollutant species have tendency to migrate and disperse toward the southeast side of the landfill site which are MT 1, MT4 AND MT5. Meanwhile, the analysis for Beriah Landfill site shows that the contaminant tends to migrate to the south west direction of the landfill where AP6 and AP7 show the highest concentration of Heavy Metals, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2. The concentration of heavy metal is higher in Beriah Landfill as compared to Matang Landfill which was due to the type of landfill itself, where Matang Landfill operates as sanitary landfill meanwhile Beriah Landfil function as a dumpsite or uncontrolled landfill.

  12. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  13. [Effects of Total Nitrogen and BOD5/TN on Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation-Denitrification Synergistic Interaction of Mature Landfill Leachate in Aged Refuse Bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-ying; Chen, Yi; Lj, Ming-jie; Xie, Bing

    2015-04-01

    Mature landfill leachate, featured with high ammonium (NH4+) content and low biodegrade ability (low BOD5/COD ratio), is hard to be treated. This study mainly focused on the effects of influent TN (total nitrogen) loading and BOD5/TN ratios on the nitrogen removal efficiency of landfill leachate by landfill bioreactors. The results showed that when the influent total nitrogen loading was in the range of 15 g x (m3 x d)(-1) to 25 g x (m3 x d)(-1), the TN removal loading could remain stable between 10 g x (m3 x d)(-1) and 12 g x (m3 x d)(-1), while the TN removal efficiency decreased from 67.7% to 60.2% with the increasing loading. Therefore, TN loading shocks would lower the bioreactor's TN removal rate, but would not affect its TN removal loading. When the influent BOD5/TN ratio was increased from 0.3 to 0.4 and the TN loading was controlled at 9 g x (m3 x d)(-1), the TN removal rates were increased from 79.9% to 89.9% and 86.2% in anaerobic and aerobic, respectively. This implied that properly enhancing BOD5/TN ratio could significantly increase the TN removal efficiency of the bioreactor, and the effect was more significant under anaerobic condition. Analysis of nitrogen removal pathways showed that denitrification and anammox could take place synergistically in landfill bioreactor.

  14. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Diwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Peng, Juan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Jia, Jinping, E-mail: jpjia@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h{sup -1}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 100 mg L{sup -1}. - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 {+-} 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 {+-} 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p < 0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  15. Characterization of dissolved organic matter during landfill leachate treatment by sequencing batch reactor, aeration corrosive cell-Fenton, and granular activated carbon in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Lin; Wang Kun; Zhao Qingliang; Wei Liangliang; Zhang Jing; Yang Junchen

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachate is generally characterized as a complex recalcitrant wastewater containing high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). A combination of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) + aeration corrosive cell-Fenton (ACF) + granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in series was proposed for the purpose of removing pollutants in the leachate. Fractionation was also performed to investigate the composition changes and characteristics of the leachate DOM in each treatment process. Experimental results showed that organic matter, in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was reduced by 97.2%, 99.1%, and 98.7%, respectively. To differentiate the DOM portions, leachates were separated into five fractions by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins: hydrophobic acid (HPO-A), hydrophobic neutral (HPO-N), transphilic acid (TPI-A), transphilic neutral (TPI-N), and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). The predominant fraction in the raw leachate was HPO-A (36% of DOC), while the dominant fraction in the final effluent was HPI (53% of DOC). Accordingly, macromolecules were degraded to simpler ones in a relatively narrow range below 1000 Da. Spectral and chromatographic analyses also showed that most humic-like substances in all fractions were effectively removed during the treatments and led to a simultaneous decrease in aromaticity.

  16. Distribution and composition of microbial populations in a landfill leachate contaminated aquifer (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, L.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Ringelberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    of the acridine orange direct count method (AODC). Numbers of dominant, specific groups of bacteria and total numbers of protozoa were measured by use of the most probable number method (MPN). Viable biomass estimates were obtained from measures of ATP and ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA...... at the border of the landfill. The presence of these lipid biomarkers correlated with the MPN results. There was, however, no significant correlation between the abundances of the specific PLFA biomarkers and quantitative measurements of redox processes. The application of AODC, MPN, PLFA, and ATP analyses...

  17. Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Bashir, Mohammed J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, landfill leachate was treated by using the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. Two types of the SBR, namely non-powdered activated carbon and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR) were used. The influence of aeration rate and contact time on SBR and PAC-SBR performances was investigated. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total dissolved salts (TDS), and sludge volume index (SVI) were monitored throughout the experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for experimental design, analysis and optimization. Based on the results, the PAC-SBR displayed superior performance in term of removal efficiencies when compared to SBR. At the optimum conditions of aeration rate of 1 L/min and contact time of 5.5 h the PAC-SBR achieved 64.1%, 71.2%, 81.4%, and 1.33% removal of COD, colour, NH 3 -N, and TDS, respectively. The SVI value of PAC-SBR was 122.2 mL/g at optimum conditions.

  18. Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Bashir, Mohammed J.K. [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-05-15

    In this study, landfill leachate was treated by using the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. Two types of the SBR, namely non-powdered activated carbon and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR) were used. The influence of aeration rate and contact time on SBR and PAC-SBR performances was investigated. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), total dissolved salts (TDS), and sludge volume index (SVI) were monitored throughout the experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for experimental design, analysis and optimization. Based on the results, the PAC-SBR displayed superior performance in term of removal efficiencies when compared to SBR. At the optimum conditions of aeration rate of 1 L/min and contact time of 5.5 h the PAC-SBR achieved 64.1%, 71.2%, 81.4%, and 1.33% removal of COD, colour, NH{sub 3}-N, and TDS, respectively. The SVI value of PAC-SBR was 122.2 mL/g at optimum conditions.

  19. Comparative study of ANN and RSM for simultaneous optimization of multiple targets in Fenton treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Allahyar

    2017-07-01

    In this study, two modeling methods, namely response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN), were applied to investigate the Fenton process performance in landfill leachate treatment. For this purpose, three targets were used to cover different aspects of post-treatment products such as supernatant and sludge: mass content ratio (MCR) and mass removal efficiency (MRE). It was observed that coagulation was dominant mechanism in all responses. The proposed models were evaluated based on correlation coefficient (R 2 ), root mean square error (RMSE) and average error (AE) and both models seemed satisfactory. However, the better results of 0.97-0.98 for R 2 , 1.45-1.86 for RMSE and 2-4% for error, indicated relative superiority of ANN compared to RSM. In addition, it was revealed that [H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mole ratio had the greatest effect in the targets, while Fe dosage and pH had lower ones. Finally, to investigate the predictive performance of both models, some additional experiments were conducted in expected optimum conditions that resulted to 27% sludge MCR, 14% effluent MCR, and 56% MRE. The results showed low deviation from predicted values with maximum errors of 8% and 9% for RSM and ANN, respectively. Though in most cases, ANN error values were lower than RSM values. Also, it was proved that setting RSM prior to ANN (as a feeding tool) improves the predictive capability of ANN significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Assessment of impacts of combined treatment of solid urban waste landfill leachate and sewage on aquatic biota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarino, Camille Ferreira; Moreira, Josino Costa; Ferreira, João Alberto; Arias, Ana Rosa Linde

    2013-11-01

    The impact on tilapia fish of combined treatment of landfill leachate and domestic sewage was monitored in a waste treatment plant that operated on a pilot scale using the activated sludge process. Biomarkers of sub-lethal toxicity were used to indicate the possibility of damage to organisms due to interaction with pollutants. The concentration of metallothioneins did not indicate the increased presence of metals in fish exposed than in control groups. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was inhibited in only one of the exposed groups, indicating the possible presence of organophosphate and/or carbamate pesticides in treated effluent. The PAHs used as biomarkers (naphthalene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene) indicated that exposed fish had a greater absorption of PAHs than control groups of fish, indicating the likely presence of these compounds in at least one of the combined treatment effluents. The frequencies of micronuclei and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities also indicate greater genotoxic damage in cells of organisms exposed than in control groups. The use of biomarkers proved to be important to permit an evaluation of sub-lethal damage present in organisms exposed to the pollution source studied.

  1. Understanding leachate flow in municipal solid waste landfills by combining time-lapse ERT and subsurface flow modelling - Part I: Analysis of infiltration shape on two different waste deposit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, M; Clément, R; Moreau, S; Duquennoi, C; Loisel, S; Touze-Foltz, N

    2016-09-01

    Landfill bioreactors are based on an acceleration of in-situ waste biodegradation by performing leachate recirculation. To quantify the water content and to evaluate the leachate injection system, in-situ methods are required to obtain spatially distributed information, usually electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In a previous study, the MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to improve the hydrodynamic interpretation of ERT results by a precise delimitation of the infiltration area. In this study, MICS was applied on two ERT time-lapse data sets recorded on different waste deposit cells in order to compare the hydrodynamic behaviour of leachate flow between the two cells. This comparison is based on an analysis of: (i) the volume of wetted waste assessed by MICS and the wetting rate, (ii) the infiltration shapes and (iii) the pore volume used by the leachate flow. This paper shows that leachate hydrodynamic behaviour is comparable from one waste deposit cell to another with: (i) a high leachate infiltration speed at the beginning of the infiltration, which decreases with time, (ii) a horizontal anisotropy of the leachate infiltration shape and (iii) a very small fraction of the pore volume used by the leachate flow. This hydrodynamic information derived from MICS results can be useful for subsurface flow modelling used to predict leachate flow at the landfill scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treating leachate by Fenton oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Iván Méndez Novelo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachates are formed from liquids, mainly rainwater, percolating through solid wastes during stabilisation. Their composition is variable and highly toxic; leachate treatment is therefore a complex task. Leachates represent a high risk to health due to the Yucatan Peninsula’s highly permeable soil. The results are presented from applying the Fenton process to treating leachate from the sanitary Merida landfill, Yucatan, Mexico. The Fenton process consists of treating the contaminant load with an H2O2 and FeSO4 combination in acidic conditions. Optimal reaction time, pH value, Fenton reagent dose, post treatment coagulation – flocculation doses and increased biodegradability index were all determined. Optimal oxidation conditions and doses were 202+ minute contact time, 4 pH, 600 mg/L H2O2 concentration and 1,000 mg/L Fe. Average organic matter removal rate, measured as CODS and TOC, were 78% and 87% respectively. The biodegradability index increased from 0.07 to 0.11 during the Fenton process and up to 0.13 when the Fenton process was followed by coagulation-flocculation.

  3. PENURUNAN TOKSISITAS LEACHATE (AIR LINDI DARI TPAS PUTRI CEMPO MOJOSONGO SURAKARTA DENGAN PAC (POLY ALUMINUM CHLORIDE (Toxicity Reduction of Leachate from Putri Cempo Municipal Landfill (TPAS Mojosongo Surakarta with PAC (Poly Aluminium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menetapkan persen penurunan toksisitas sesudah diperlakukan dengan PAC. Rancangan penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni dengan pretest-posttest with control group design. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah air lindi yang berasal dari TPAS Putri Cempo Mleachate toxicity reduction after treatment with PAC. The experimental design used was true experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group design. Population in this study was leachate from Putri Cempo Landfill (TPAS Putri Cempo Mojosongo Surakarta. The sample was 250 litres leachate obtained from the landfill outlet by quota sampling method. The results revealed the leachate toxicity based on LC50 24-96 hours were: (1 without PAC treatment: 25.06% (24 hours, 21.07% (48 hours, 17.49% (72 hours, and 14.97% (96 hours; (2 with PAC treatment: 89.44% (24 hours, 63.73% (48 hours, 49.99% (72 hours, and 40.96% (96 hours. Therefore, the toxicity reductions were: 64.38% (24 hours, 42.66% (48 hours, 32.50% (72 hours, and 25.99% (96 hours.

  4. Characterizing leachate contamination in a landfill site using Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baawain, Mahad S.; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed M.; Ebrahimi, A.; Omidvarborna, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) survey as well as drilling investigations were conducted to identify possible contamination of a dumping site in an unsaturated zone located in Barka, Oman. The method was applied to evaluate conductivity of the contaminated plumes in hot and arid/semiarid region, where high temperatures commonly ranged between 35 and 50 °C. The drilling investigation was carried out over the survey area to verify the geophysical results. The low-resistivity zone (waste disposal activities. The combination of TDEM survey results with the lithology of piezometers showed that higher resistivity (>90 Ωm) was correlated with compacted or cemented gravels and cobbles, particularly that of medium dense to very dense gravels and cobbles. Additionally, the TDEM profiles suggested that the plume migration followed a preferential flow path. The resistivity range 40-80 Ωm considered as contaminated areas; however, the drilling results showed the close resistivity domain in the depth >70 m below water table for some profiles (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4 and BL5). The combined results of drilling wells, piezometers, and TDEM apparent resistivity maps showed a coincidence of the migrated leachate plume and water table. Predicted zone of the probable contamination was located at the depth of around 65 m and horizontal offset ranges 0-280 m, 80-240 m, and 40-85 m in the sounding traverses of BL4, BL6 and BL7, respectively.

  5. Preparation of tamarind fruit seed activated carbon by microwave heating for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate: A laboratory column evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

    2013-04-01

    The preparation of tamarind fruit seed granular activated carbon (TSAC) by microwave induced chemical activation for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate has been attempted. The chemical and physical properties of TSAC were examined. A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough characteristics, by varying the operational parameters, hydraulic loading rate (5-20 mL/min) and adsorbent bed height (15-21 cm). Ammonical nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which provide a prerequisite insight into the prediction of leachate quality was quantified. Results illustrated an encouraging performance for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and COD, with the highest bed capacity of 84.69 and 55.09 mg/g respectively, at the hydraulic loading rate of 5 mL/min and adsorbent bed height of 21 cm. The dynamic adsorption behavior was satisfactory described by the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. The findings demonstrated the applicability of TSAC for the adsorptive treatment of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of landfill leachate: Oxidation at Ti/PbO{sub 2} and Ti/SnO{sub 2} anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossu, R.; Polcaro, A.M.; Mascia, M.; Palmas, S.; Renoldi, F. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy); Lavagnolo, M.C. [CISA, Cagliari (Italy)

    1998-11-15

    Leachate originating in landfills where municipal solid wastes are disposed is a wastewater with a complex composition that could have a high environmental impact. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of removing refractory organic pollutants and ammonium nitrogen from landfill leachate by electrochemical oxidation. The effects of current density, pH, and chloride concentration on the removal of both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen were investigated. Titanium coated with lead dioxide (PbO{sub 2}) or tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was used as the anode. An effective process was achieved in which the leachate was decolorized, COD was removed up to a value of 100 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and ammonia was totally eliminated. Average current efficiency of about 30% was measured for a decrease of COD from 1200 to 150 mg L{sup {minus}1}, while efficiency of about 10% was measured for a near complete removal of ammonium nitrogen, starting from an initial value of 380 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Results indicated that the organic load was removed by both direct and indirect oxidation. Indirect oxidation by chlorine or hypochlorite originating from oxidation of chlorides is believed to be mainly responsible for the nitrogen removal.

  7. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    under specific circumstances. Initially a general water balance equation is defined for a typical landfill, and the different parts of the water balance are discussed. A separate section discusses water flow and the hydrogeology of landfilled wastes and considers the impact of water short......Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...

  8. Hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment with novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Son Dong; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2017-04-01

    A novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent was synthesized and tested as coagulant/catalyst in a hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H 2 O 2 oxidation process to treat leachate. Two different types of leachates, one from municipal solid waste (MSW) tipping hall (MSWIL) and second from an MSW landfill site (MSWLL), were collected and characterized. The morphology, elemental composition, and mineral phases of the nano-Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coagulation process with 2.5 g L -1 nano-Ca/CaO attained 64.0, 56.0, and 20.7% removal of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) in MSWLL. With only 1.0 g L -1 of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, relatively high color, COD and TSS removal was achieved in MSWLL at 67.5, 60.2, and 37.7%, respectively. The heavy metal removal efficiency reached 91-99% after treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO in both leachate samples. The coupling process, using 1.0 g L -1 of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and 20 mM H 2 O 2 doses, achieved enhancement removal of color, COD, and TSS, up to 95%, 96%, and 66%, respectively, without initial pH control. After this treatment, the color, COD, TSS, and heavy metals were significantly decreased, fitting the Korean discharge regulation limit. A hybrid coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H 2 O 2 oxidation process with novel nanosized metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples. Conventional treatments (biological or physicochemical) are not sufficient anymore to reach the level of purification needed to fully reduce the negative impact of landfill leachates on the environment. This implies that new treatment alternatives species must be proposed. A coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H 2 O 2 oxidation process proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples. Coagulation with nFe/Ca/CaO allows 91

  9. Removal of organic matter from stabilized landfill leachate using Coagulation-Flocculation-Fenton coupled with activated charcoal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Ahmad Razali; Hamid, Fauziah Shahul; Mohamad, Sharifah; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6. Then, the pretreated SLL was subjected to the Fenton reaction. Nearly 50% of TOC removal was achieved when the reaction was carried out at pH 3, H 2 O 2 :Fe 2+ ratio of 20:1, H 2 O 2 dosage of 240 mM and 1 h of reaction time. By coupling the coagulation-flocculation with the Fenton reaction, the removal of TOC, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and turbidity of SLL were 85%, 84% and 100%, respectively. The ecotoxicity study performed using zebrafish revealed that 96 h LC 50 for raw SLL was 1.40% (v/v). After coagulation-flocculation, the LC 50 of the pretreated SLL was increased to 25.44%. However, after the Fenton reaction, the LC 50 of the treated SLL was found to decrease to 10.96% due to the presence of H 2 O 2 residue. In this study, H 2 O 2 residue was removed using powdered activated charcoal. This method increased the LC 50 of treated effluent to 34.48% and the removal of TOC and COD was further increased to 90%. This finding demonstrated that the combination of the selected treatment methods can be an efficient treatment method for SLL.

  10. Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-09-15

    In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

  11. Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trois, Cristina; Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile; Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l -1 . Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

  12. Combination of sunlight irradiated oxidative processes for landfill leachate: heterogeneous catalysis (TiO2 versus homogeneous catalysis (H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Cobra Guimarães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the treatment of landfill leachate liquid in nature, after the use of a combination of advanced oxidation processes. More specifically, it compared heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2 to homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, both under photo-irradiated sunlight. The liquid used for the study was the leachate from the landfill of the city of Cachoeira Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in a semi-batch reactor open to the absorption of solar UV radiation, with 120 min reaction time. The factors and their respective levels (-1, 0 and 1 were distributed in a experimental design 24-1 with duplicate and triplicate in the central point, resulting in an array with 19 treatment trials. The studied factors in comparing the two catalytic processes were: liquid leachate dilution, TiO2 concentration on the reactor plate, the H2O2 amount and pH level. The leachate had low photo-catalytic degradability, with NOPC reductions ranging from 1% to a maximum of 24.9%. When considering each factor alone, neither homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, nor heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2, could degrade the percolated liquid without significant reductions (5% level in total NOPC. On the other hand, the combined use of homogenous catalysis with H2O2 and heterogeneous catalysis H2O2 resulted in the greatest reductions in NOPC. The optimum condition for the NOPC reduction was obtained at pH 7, dilution of percolated:water at 1:1 (v v-1 rate; excess of 12.5% H2O2 and coating plate reactor with 0.025 g cm-2 TiO2.

  13. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-03-23

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  15. A water budget model for operating landfills: an application in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Athiniotou, Angeliki

    2014-08-01

    The goal of the work was to develop and verify a one-dimensional monthly water budget model (MWBM) to predict leachate generation rates from operating landfills. Although there has been a considerable modelling work on the hydraulic behaviour of landfills after they reach closure, less attention has been given on such modelling for operating landfills that have a continuously changing geometry. A MWBM was developed here that accounted for landfill cell development, precipitation and evaporation, the change of the water holding capacity of a waste cell and waste decomposition. The MWBM was verified using a two-year leachate generation rate database from a new operating sanitary landfill in Greece. The MWBM results showed a very good agreement with field data whilst it was observed that peak precipitation rates followed a parallel trend with peak leachate generation rates. A distinct two-month lag phase between the model results and actual values was observed during a certain period, which is a likely indication of the presence of channelling within the waste mass. A sensitivity analysis performed in the MWBM showed that the leachate is affected by the initial municipal solid waste moisture content as well as by the precipitation rates. A linear regression empirical model showed that precipitation can still be an adequate predictor of leachate generation rates in operating landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates in landfill leachate using sand, activated carbon and peat filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Moona, Nashita; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Björklund, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Landfill leachates are repeatedly found contaminated with organic pollutants, such as alkylphenols (APs), phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at levels exceeding water quality standards. It has been shown that these pollutants may be present in the colloidal and truly dissolved phase in contaminated water, making particle separation an inefficient removal method. The aim of this study was to investigate sorption and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), selected APs, bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and PAHs from landfill leachate using sand, granulated activated carbon (GAC) and peat moss filters. A pilot plant was installed at an inactive landfill with mixed industrial and household waste and samples were collected before and after each filter during two years. Leachate pre-treated in oil separator and sedimentation pond failed to meet water quality standards in most samples and little improvement was seen after the sand filter. These techniques are based on particle removal, whereas the analysed pollutants are found, to varying degrees, bound to colloids or dissolved. However, even highly hydrophobic compounds expected to be particle-bound, such as the PHCs and high-molecular weight PAHs, were poorly removed in the sand filter. The APs and BPA were completely removed by the GAC filter, while mass balance calculations indicate that 50-80% of the investigated phenols were removed in the peat filter. Results suggest possible AP degradation in peat filters. No evidence of phthalate degradation in the landfill, pond or the filters was found. The PHCs were completely removed in 50% and 35% of the measured occasions in the GAC and peat filters, respectively. The opposite trend was seen for removal of PAHs in GAC (50%) and peat (63%). Oxygenated PAHs with high toxicity were found in the leachates but not in the pond sediment. These compounds are likely formed in the pond water, which is alarming because sedimentation ponds are commonly used

  17. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  18. Structure and diversity of bacterial communities in two large sanitary landfills in China as revealed by high-throughput sequencing (MiSeq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Lu, Wenjing; Liu, Yanting; Ming, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yanjun; Meng, Ruihong; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-05-01

    Landfill disposal has been considered as a very economically viable management practice for municipal solid waste in mainland China. However, insufficient knowledge of the bacterial community structure and diversity in landfills hampers effectively landfill disposal. In this study, the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in two large sanitary landfills in northern and western parts of China were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. Nearly 1million effective sequences (981,575) were obtained from the 20 samples collected from four independent sites with different deposit depths (up to 18m). These sequences contained high amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 2511-9955 OTUs at a cutoff level of 3% and a sequencing depth of 23,928. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the samples. Clear geographical differences between the sampling sites were revealed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Most of the samples from the same sampling site could be clustered together. Thus, the heterogeneity of the bacterial community structures was more significantly affected by the sampling site than by sampling depth. Redundancy analysis results suggested that seven physicochemical attributes, namely NH 4 + -N, NO 2 - -N, moisture, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO 4 2- and total Cu element, significantly affected the bacterial community structures (Plandfills and discerned the relationships between bacterial community structures and physicochemical attributes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is among the first to characterize bacterial community structures in landfills by using this novel high-throughput sequencing approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of moisture control and air venting on H2S production and leachate quality in mature C&D debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianye; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-10-21

    The effect of air venting and moisture variation on H2S production and the leaching of metals/metalloids (arsenic, copper, chromium, and boron) from treated wood in aged mature construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills were examined. Three simulated C&D debris landfill lysimeters were constructed and monitored, each containing as a major debris component either wooden pallets, chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, or alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) treated wood. The lysimeters were operated with alternating periods of water addition (a total of 160 L in four equal amounts) and air venting (68.4 m(3)per day for 121 days in two phases). Moisture addition did not increase H2S levels in the long term, and a significant drop in H2S concentration was observed (up to 99%) when aerobic conditions were promoted through air venting. H2S concentrations increased after venting stopped up to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than observed prior to venting. Venting had the immediate consequence of suppressing biological H2S production, and the longer-term effect of decreasing organic matter that could otherwise be utilized in this process. Under aerobic conditions, the levels of arsenic, chromium, and boron in leachate decreased up to 96%, 49%, and 68%, respectively, while copper was found to increase up to 200% in CCA and 445% in ACQ column leachates.

  20. An autotrophic nitrogen removal process: short-cut nitrification combined with ANAMMOX for treating diluted effluent from an UASB reactor fed by landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zuo, Jian'e; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Shuquan; Kuang, Sulin; Wang, Kaijun

    2010-01-01

    A combined process consisting of a short-cut nitrification (SN) reactor and an anaerobic ammonium oxidation upflow anaerobic sludge bed (ANAMMOX) reactor was developed to treat the diluted effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating high ammonium municipal landfill leachate. The SN process was performed in an aerated upflow sludge bed (AUSB) reactor (working volume 3.05 L), treating about 50% of the diluted raw wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiency and the ratio of NO2- -N to NOx- -N in the effluent were both higher than 80%, at a maximum nitrogen loading rate of 1.47 kg/(m3 x ay). The ANAMMOX process was performed in an UASB reactor (working volume 8.5 L), using the mix of SN reactor effluent and diluted raw wastewater at a ratio of 1:1. The ammonium and nitrite removal efficiency reached over 93% and 95%, respectively, after 70-day continuous operation, at a maximum total nitrogen loading rate of 0.91 kg/(m3 x day), suggesting a successful operation of the combined process. The average nitrogen loading rate of the combined system was 0.56 kg/(m3 x day), with an average total inorganic nitrogen removal efficiency 87%. The nitrogen in the effluent was mostly nitrate. The results provided important evidence for the possibility of applying SN-ANAMMOX after UASB reactor to treat municipal landfill leachate.

  1. Effects of electric potential, NaCl, pH and distance between electrodes on efficiency of electrolysis in landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erabee, Iqbal K; Ahsan, Amimul; Jose, Bipin; Arunkumar, T; Sathyamurthy, R; Idrus, Syazwani; Daud, N N Nik

    2017-07-03

    This study investigated the effects of different parameters on the removal efficiencies of organic and inorganic pollutants in landfill leachate treatment by electrolysis. Different parameters were considered such as the electric potential (e.g., 24, 40 and 60 V), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (e.g., 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min), sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (e.g., 1, 3, 5 and 7%), pH (e.g., 3, 7 and 9), electrodes materials [e.g., aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe)] and distance between electrodes (e.g., 1, 2 and 3 cm). The best operational condition of electrolysis was then recommended. The electric potential of 60 V with HRT of 120 min at 5% of NaCl solution using Al as anode and Fe as cathode (kept at a distance of 3 cm) was the most efficient condition which increased the removal efficiencies of various parameters such as turbidity, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals (e.g., Zn and Mn). The higher removal percentages of many parameters, especially COD (94%) and Mn (93%) indicated that the electrolysis is an efficient technique for multi-pollutants (e.g., organic, inorganic and heavy metals) removal from the landfill leachate.

  2. Comparing the Efficacy Rates of Lime and Poly Aluminum Chloride Coagulants in Cadmium Removal from the Landfill Leachate by Chemical Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafaii Gh. PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Chemical precipitation is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective method for eliminating heavy metals found in landfill leachate. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy rates of cadmium removal with the coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and lime using chemical precipitation method. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, the raw studied samples were collected from the landfill located in Kahrizak, Iran, in May 2014. The elimination rates of cadmium at 1000, 1500 and 2000mg/l concentrations of lime; at 100, 150 200mg/l concentrations of poly aluminum chloride; at 7, 9, 11 pH levels; and during 20, 40 and 60min of the reaction time were studied. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software using ANOVA, independent T and repeated measurement tests. Findings The maximum elimination rate of cadmium in both lime and poly aluminum chloride were seen at pH=11. The maximum rates of cadmium removal occurred at minute 40 in 2000mg/l concentration of lime (99.4% and 200mg/l concentration of poly aluminum chloride (98%. Conclusion Both lime and poly aluminum chloride have the best cadmium removal rate from leachate at pH=11 after 40 minutes of precipitation process. Being more inexpensive and easily available than poly aluminum chloride, lime is considered as an appropriate coagulant.

  3. A case study of coupling upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and ANITA™ Mox process to treat high-strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting; George, Biju; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to study the treatability of high-strength landfill leachate by a combined process including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), carbon removal (C-stage) moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and ANITA™ Mox process. The major innovation on this pilot study is the patent-pending process invented by Veolia that integrates the above three unit processes with an effluent recycle stream, which not only maintains the low hydraulic retention time to enhance the treatment performance but also reduces inhibiting effect from chemicals present in the high-strength leachate. This pilot study has demonstrated that the combined process was capable of treating high-strength leachate with efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removals. The COD removal efficiency by the UASB was 93% (from 45,000 to 3,000 mg/L) at a loading rate of 10 kg/(m(3)·d). The C-stage MBBR removed an additional 500 to 1,000 mg/L of COD at a surface removal rate (SRR) of 5 g/(m(2)·d) and precipitated 400 mg/L of calcium. The total inorganic nitrogen removal efficiency by the ANITA Mox reactor was about 70% at SRR of 1.0 g/(m(2)·d).

  4. A model for prioritizing landfills for remediation and closure: A case study in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubavin, Dejan; Agarski, Boris; Maodus, Nikola; Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Budak, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The existence of large numbers of landfills that do not fulfill sanitary prerequisites presents a serious hazard for the environment in lower income countries. One of the main hazards is landfill leachate that contains various pollutants and presents a threat to groundwater. Groundwater pollution from landfills depends on various mutually interconnected factors such as the waste type and amount, the amount of precipitation, the landfill location characteristics, and operational measures, among others. Considering these factors, lower income countries face a selection problem where landfills urgently requiring remediation and closure must be identified from among a large number of sites. The present paper proposes a model for prioritizing landfills for closure and remediation based on multicriteria decision making, in which the hazards of landfill groundwater pollution are evaluated. The parameters for the prioritization of landfills are the amount of waste disposed, the amount of precipitation, the vulnerability index, and the rate of increase of the amount of waste in the landfill. Verification was performed using a case study in Serbia where all municipal landfills were included and 128 landfills were selected for prioritization. The results of the evaluation of Serbian landfills, prioritizing sites for closure and remediation, are presented for the first time. Critical landfills are identified, and prioritization ranks for the selected landfills are provided. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:105-119. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from CCA-treated wood and their potential impacts on landfill leachate in a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamchanawong, S; Veerakajohnsak, C

    2010-04-01

    This study looks into the potential risks of arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from disposed hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in a tropical climate. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Waste Extraction Test (WET) were employed to examine new CCA-treated Burseraceae and Keruing woods, weathered CCA-treated teak wood, and ash from new CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. In addition, a total of six lysimeters, measuring 2 m high and 203 mm in diameter were prepared to compare the leachate generated from the wood monofills, construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, containing CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. The TCLP and WET results showed that the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached higher metal concentrations (i.e. 9.19-17.70 mg/L, 1.14-5.89 mg/L and 4.83-23.89 mg/L for arsenic, chromium, and copper, respectively) than the CCA-treated Keruing wood (i.e. 1.74-11.34 mg/L, 0.26-3.57 mg/L and 0.82-13.64 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively). Ash from the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached significantly higher metal concentrations (i.e. 108.5-116.9 mg/L, 1522-3862 mg/L and 84.03-114.4 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively), making this type of ash of high concern. The lysimeter study results showed that the MSW lysimeter exhibited higher reducing conditions, more biological activities and more dissolved ions in their leachates than the wood monofill and C&D debris lysimeters. All leachates generated from the lysimeters containing the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood contained significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in comparison to those of the untreated wood: in the range of 0.53-15.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that the disposal of CCA-treated Burseraceae wood in an unlined C&D landfill or a MSW landfill has the potential to contaminate groundwater.

  6. Enhancing forward osmosis water recovery from landfill leachate by desalinating brine and recovering ammonia in a microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a microbial desalination cell (MDC) was employed to desalinate the FO treated leachate for reduction of both salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The FO recovered 51.5% water from a raw leachate and the recovery increased to 83.5% from the concentrated leachate after desalination in the MDC fed with either acetate or another leachate as an electron source and at a different hydraulic retention time (HRT). Easily-degraded substrate like acetate and a long HRT resulted in a low conductivity desalinated effluent. Ammonia was also recovered in the MDC cathode with a recovery efficiency varying from 11 to 64%, affected by current generation and HRT. Significant COD reduction, as high as 65.4%, was observed in the desalination chamber and attributed to the decrease of both organic and inorganic compounds via diffusion and electricity-driven movement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.