WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary engineering

  1. Sanitary engineering in fitness centres. Sanitaertechnik in Fitnesszentren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roskam, F. (Bundesinstitut fuer Sportwissenschaft, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Sport- und Freizeitanlagen); Broecker, H. (Ingenieurbuero R. Krawinkel, Krefeld (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-09-01

    The article gives important criteria for the planning and fitting-out of fitness centres. The space composition of the total facilities has to be carefully drawn up, organisation of groups of rooms has to be correct and design and material components have to fulfil great demands which are necessary for fitness centres. Aspects of water engineering of sanitary equipment such as water treatment rooms, sauna, whirl pool as well as conventional changing rooms, shower and sanitary appliances are described in detail. Partly also factors which influence room climate and building physics are mentioned. Plans of fitness centres as well as pictures of the described sanitary appliances are to round of the article and give information for own planning. (BR).

  2. Historical aspects about of environmental and sanitary engineering development in local, regional and world area; Aspectos historicos del desarrollo de la ingenieria sanitaria y ambiental en el ambito local, regional y mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2010-07-01

    The development of sanitary and environmental engineering has been significant progress over time reflected in the use of technology to solve problems of different communities not only have engineering aspects but always goes hand in hand with social and cultural. In a short, set out in this paper some significant historical facts before Christ until these days where development has been evident in the field of engineering. (Author) 27 refs.

  3. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  4. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  5. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  6. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  7. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  8. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  9. Sanitary Landfill Simulation - Test Parameters and a Simulator Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    ACSM -1~ for Nils ........... By L:R-yo/VAILaiL;1I CODES Library card Civil Engineering Laboratory SANITARY LANDFILL SIMULATION - TEST PARAMETERS AND...these landfills comply only marginally with Navy mandatory guidelines [2]. In a FY-74 report on this project [3], CEL presented the results of a...landfills are presently designed for burying solid waste in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) operational guidelines . These

  10. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. 71.501... COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. Sanitary toilets provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.500...

  11. Hammond Sanitary District Clean Water Act Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hammond Sanitary District (HSD), located in Hammond, Indiana, serves over 170,000 customers in the City of Hammond and Town of Munster, and also provides wastewater treatment to the customer communities of Highland, and Griffith.

  12. Sanitary-epidemiologic service in Perm region: 95th anniversary (dedicated to Russian Sanitary-epidemiologic service)

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Kostarev; V.А. Khoroshavin; А.V. Brazhkin

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines the first stages of sanitary activities development in Perm region. We highlight the fact that it was Perm where I.I. Molessson, the first official sanitary inspector in Russia, worked. Here one of the first sanitary inspection of a whole region was performed and "Perm sanitary bulletin" was first published. It was in Perm, where the first sanitary office was established in 1890, and in 1898 the first bacteriological laboratory was organized. Bodies and institutions of Rosp...

  13. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  14. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into the...

  15. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  16. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  17. [Toxicological and sanitary characterization of bentonite nanoclay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, V V; Tananova, O N; Shumakova, A A; Trushina, E N; Avren'eva, L I; Bykova, I B; Minaeva, L P; Soto, S Kh; Lashneva, N V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchnko, S A

    2012-01-01

    Intragastric administration of nanoclay to rats during 28 days led to reductions in the relative weight of the liver, the activity of its conjugating enzymes, the antagonistic activity of bifidoflora, and the hyperproduction of colonic yeast microflora. The findings lead to the conclusion that nanoclays that may be present in foods must be the object of sanitary regulation.

  18. [Sanitary control of food in Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, C; Vázquez-Barojas, S; Kawashima-Hashimoto, L; Farías-Rodríguez, A; García-Juárez, C

    1989-01-01

    This work was undertaken as to avoid health risks to tourism in the "XIIth Soccer World Cup, Mexico 86". The above project was carried out through proper quality control of foods, drinking water as well as a definite care of personal hygiene of all those involved in the catering business (132 restaurants were included). The mentioned report informs only of the work of the National Public Health Laboratory in the Sanitary Epidemiological Program. The following products were analyzed: 133 water samples, 272 animated and nonliving surfaces, and 399 foods. Twenty seven percent of water samples were rejected, as well as 85% of the different surfaces and 60% of the food samples. High counts of mesophilic aerobics, followed by coliforms, S. aureus and Salmonella sp., were the principal specimens encountered. Therefore, it was suggested the permanent development of a sanitary epidemiological program.

  19. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  20. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  1. [Frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Turan, Ayşe; Depecik, Fehime; Geçit, Ilhan; Ozer, Ali; Karcı, Erdal; Karadan, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of parasites generally occurs through fecal-oral means directly from human to human or through receiving eggs and cysts by means of nourishment. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions. Stool specimens were examined using native-lugol, Trichrome and acid-fast stains methods. 23.7% of the 2443 fecal specimens were found to be positive. The frequencies of parasites were found to be 9.8% for Entamoeba coli, 7.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 7.2% for Iodamoeba butschlii, 3.4% for Giardia intestinalis, 0.9% for Dientamoeba fragilis, 0.13% for Entamoeba histolytica, 0.08% for Chilomastix mesnilii, 0.04% for Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.04% for Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.04% for Hymenolepis nana, 0.04% for Taenia spp. and 0.04% for Enterobius vermicularis. This rate of parasite positivity among healthy subjects visiting hospital for porter examination suggests that intestinal parasites still constitute a public health problem in the region. Moreover, it can be considered that one important factor in the frequency of the parasite can be both the nature of the jobs of administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions and their interaction with people during sales.

  2. Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-03-06

    Mar 6, 2015 ... Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary operations in slaughterhouses in ... and sanitary practices for control strategies of slaughterhouse-related health problems. This has ..... infections with the meat and the environment. The educated individuals have more chances to get.

  3. SANITARY AND HYGIENIC PRECONDITIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF EXPLOSIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Turuchko, Ivan Ivanovych; Korshun, M.M.; Hubar, Inna Volodymyrivna

    2017-01-01

    The sanitary and hygienic characteristics of industrial explosives and their components are considered, the types of combinations of harmful substances in the air of the working zone at different technological stages of manufacturing explosives

  4. The methodological paths for the study of sanitary surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Célia Borges de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to assess the appropriateness of using quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing and understanding the sanitary surveillance object in its relation to epidemiology. Data Synthesis: After a brief background on the relationship between epidemiology and social sciences, and between quantitative and qualitative methods, the study analyzes characteristics of the sanitary surveillance object that may assist the understanding of its nature and, therefore, of the ...

  5. The methodological paths for the study of sanitary surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Célia Borges de Lucena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to assess the appropriateness of using quantitative and qualitative approaches to analyzing and understanding the sanitary surveillance object in its relation to epidemiology. Data Synthesis: After a brief background on the relationship between epidemiology and social sciences, and between quantitative and qualitative methods, the study analyzes characteristics of the sanitary surveillance object that may assist the understanding of its nature and, therefore, of the most...

  6. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  7. Combined Treatment of Old Sanitary Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Orescanin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate presents hardly treatable, highly complex and very toxic environmental effluent originated in the municipal solid waste degradation process. Although, numerous treatment methods were developed so far, none of them alone could achieve permissible limits of the primary pollutants to discharge into natural recipients. The current study aimed to develop and apply the process to treat landfill leachate by simultaneous application of electrochemical methods, ultrasound, electromagnetic field and ozonation to achieve the legal criteria for its discharge into natural recipient and minimize its adverse environmental impacts. For this purpose, old landfill leachate was taken from the Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia sanitary landfill. Prior to the treatment, the leachate was supplemented with NaCl (2 g/L and subjected to simultaneous treatment with stainless steel electrode plates, ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field. After 45 minutes, stainless steel electrode plates were replaced by iron electrodes and treated for another 10 minutes followed by 15 minutes of the treatment with aluminum electrode plates. Ultrasound and recirculation through electromagnetic field were also applied during Fe and Al electrode treatment. Finally, the electrodes were removed and the suspension was mixed with ozone for another 30 minutes and allowed to settle for an hour. Following the combined treatment, the removal efficiency for the turbidity, color, suspended solids, ammonium, phosphates and heavy metals was 99% or higher, while the removal of COD was 97%. All the measured parameters in the treated leachate were lower compared to upper permissible limit for discharge into natural recipient.

  8. [Sanitary and epidemiological examination of foods under carrying sanitary and epidemiological surveillance on the customer border and at in the territory of the Customers Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V; Chigireva, É I

    2011-01-01

    The article concerns peculiarities of sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic examination of foods under carrying of sanitary-epidemiologic surveillance on the customer border and of the custom territory of the Customers Union of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Byelorussia.

  9. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  10. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  11. International perspectives on municipal solid wastes and sanitary landfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carra, J.S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (US)); Cossu, R. (Universita di Cagliari (IT))

    1990-01-01

    This book provides a perspective on how different countries cope with the municipal solid waste problem politically, administratively, and technically with a particular focus on sanitary landfilling. Fifteen countries report on the quantities of such waste generated, its composition, and on various management methods used. In addition, they report on sanitary landfilling, the impacts of past practices, current practices for leachate control, and landfill gas management. Finally the role of government, new handling strategies, and likely future directions in waste management are also discussed.

  12. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  13. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  17. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  18. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  19. DESIGN OF SANITARY DISPOSAL OF POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1979-03-01

    Mar 1, 1979 ... by. NNAMDI EGBUNIWE. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ABSTRACT. The physical and biological characteristics of the chicken manure from the University of. Nigeria Poultry Farm are presented. Different methods of manure processing and disposal are reviewed.

  20. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work... SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.500 Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements. (a...

  1. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  2. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  3. On-site assessment of environmental and sanitary qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-site assessment of the sanitary location of the RWH system showed that 5% were located near a septic tank and another 5% in flooded area. The harvested rainwater was used for several domestic purposes including drinking. All respondent agreed that they use rainwater for washing while 10% of the respondent ...

  4. Sanitary Inspection of Wells in Enugu, Nigeria | Aghaji | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate health education of well constructors/users is highly recommended so as to minimize the health hazzards posed by the present uninformed practice. The government should set up a water supply surveillance agency within the health ministry. Key words: Sanitary inspection, wells, water supply. [Jnl College of ...

  5. Sanitary survey of residential areas using Ascaris lumbricoides ova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    high in temperate and tropical environments. Objective: To assess the sanitary conditions of soil using the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides ova as an indicator. ... an environmental health indicator could contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this area. A large scale study on ...

  6. Factors affecting workers' delivery of good hygienic and sanitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey assesses the levels of knowledge and preventive practices of workers on the hygienic and sanitary operations in slaughterhouses in Niger State, north-central Nigeria. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 385 workers aged 20 years and above between January 2013 and April 2013 using structured ...

  7. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  8. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service ...

  9. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  10. Policing hearts of darkness: aspects of the international sanitary conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, W F

    1993-01-01

    Internationalism became an important feature of medicine and medical science during the second half of the nineteenth century. Internationalism emerged in a climate of nationalism and the latter sometimes affected cooperation, especially after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, and the increased imperialism of the last third of the century. Against this backdrop, the International Sanitary Conferences, beginning with the first one in Paris in 1851, attempted to provide guidelines to control the spread of disease, especially cholera and plague. Quarantine was seen as a central feature of disease control, but it remained a controversial measure, since it disrupted trade and inhibited freedom of movement. Most of the early Sanitary Conferences failed to reach agreement, but by the early twentieth century, a broader series of control measures began to be effected, as knowledge of the mode of spread of infectious diseases was achieved.

  11. Sanitary/Storm Drainage Characterization Survey, Hurlburt Field, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Volatile Halocarbons (601) From the data, it seems that most of the storm drains contained volatiles that are major components of solvents. 4 b. Metals...period of the survey. The storm drains were evaluated with the flow that they had in them at the time of the survey. If the site did not contain flow...analytical results from the sites should prove or disprove this theory. Some oil was seen in the sanitary and storm drains . The oil/water separators

  12. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-0874A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  13. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  15. [Analyses of cosmetic sanitary quality in Hunan Province in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Sun, Zhenqiu; Shi, Jingcheng; Shen, Minxue; Hu, Jingxuan; Lei, Shiyue; Hu, Ming

    2012-05-01

    To establish a scientific foundation for cosmetic supervision and administration based on the analysis of the sanitary quality of cosmetics in Hunan Province during 2010. According to Cosmetic Sanitary Standards (set by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China), 150 random samples of cosmetics in Hunan were assayed both for microbial items (including total plate count, fungus and yeast, fecal coliform, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa) and chemical items (including 17 kinds of prohibited substances and 14 kinds of restricted substances). The total rate of cosmetics failing to meet the standards was 22.0% of the 150 samples; specific rates for failing perfumes, skin care products (eye cream) and deodorant products were, relatively, 70.6%, 60.00%, and 44.4%. Four kinds of prohibited substances, including diethyl phthalate, acrylamide, asbestos and neodymium, as well as 2 kinds of restricted substances, including triclosan and formaldehyde, were found to exceed standards. None of microbial items exceeded standard levels. The sanitary quality control of cosmetics is lax. Administrative departments should not only reinforce their post-production supervision with respect to cosmetics, but also consolidate their control over the process of cosmetic production in order to solve the problem of toxic residues or illegal and intentional adulterations.

  16. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  17. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  18. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  20. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  1. [Methodical approaches to studies of the efficiency and quality of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, G I; Manvel'ian, L V; Petruchuk, O E; Chigireva, E I; Berglezova, L N; Mosov, A V

    1999-01-01

    Current methodology and organization of evaluations of the efficiency of specialists and subdivisions of sanitary epidemiological institutions of the first level of managing are presented. The authors propose a method for quantitative evaluation of the efficiency for comparison of compatible and equivalent values. Definitions essential for evaluation of the efficiency the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance are formulated. A demonstration model of computer processing of the data for estimations of efficiency of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance has been developed.

  2. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  3. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  4. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  5. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  6. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy forms the cornerstone of almost every economic, social and cultural sector in modern societies. Energy is regarded as an irreplaceable ingredient in such societies’ industrial development. The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada’s sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed of. Biogas estimates were conducted in two stages: a waste characterisation study followed by implementing the regulations proposed by SCS Engineers (SCS Engineers, 2009 regarding the Mexican biogas model (version 2.0. The results showed that a large quantity of organic matter (around 70% is a key element in anaerobic degradation of waste. As to energy generation, it is believed that a full 1.90 MW capacity will be reached in 2019. Such energy could increase Ensenada’s current electricity generation capacity by 3.46% and provide 60% of the energy needed for street lighting, thereby leading to USD $1.423 million in savings.

  7. [Radio diagnostic risks control: an approach of sanitary surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marcus Vinícius Teixeira; Costa, Ediná Alves; Drexler, Günter Gustav

    2010-11-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is one of the main diagnosis tools in medicine and its role, in public health, depends on the quality of the exams, the regulatory responsibility fits, mainly, in the National System of Sanitary Surveillance. With this perspective, it was developed a mathematical evaluation model of potential risks in radiodiagnostic and, through its use in the Brazilian health services of Bahia state, with the analysis of the situation found and its determinants. With that model, 94 procedures were evaluated in 38 Bahia state radiodiagnostic services. The study showed that 5.3% of the services had all of the procedures in level of acceptable potential risk. 23.7% showed, at least, one procedure with level of tolerable potential risk and 71% showed, at least, one procedure with a level of unacceptable potential risk. The analyses shows that the main determinants of the encountered situation are the deficient inspection by the sanitary surveillance system of the health services and of the industrial sector, the absence of basics of radiological protection in the curriculum of medicine courses and the fragility of practices control, by the respective professional council.

  8. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  9. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  10. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.400 Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet... sanitary flush toilet facilities, as hereinafter prescribed, for the use of miners employed in the surface...

  11. PRIORITIZATION OF SANITARY RESTRICATIONS FACING U.S. EXPORTS OF BOVINE, PORCINE, AND OVINE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURVEILLANCE NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Philip L. Paarlberg; John G. Lee; Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; Mildred M.Haley

    2010-01-01

    This research uses databases of sanitary regulations facing U.S. livestock exports to examine the frequency and cost of sanitary barriers. Many sanitary regulations potentially face livestock exports; however, relatively few apply to most animals. As a share of the export unit value, regulations costs for cattle and bovine semen exports are smaller than those for swine and sheep. Most of the sanitary regulations appear justified from an animal health standpoint. While the cost savings from re...

  12. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.402 Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities, change...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities. 75.1712-3 Section 75.1712-3 Mineral Resources MINE... facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities shall be provided with adequate light, heat, and ventilation so as to maintain a...

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  15. Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

    2006-06-01

    Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed.

  16. [Sanitary quality of ham eaten in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, M C; Saldate-Castañeda, O; Rodríguez-Peralta, M C

    1989-01-01

    Microbiological results of 2,539 hams were analyzed (counts of mesophilic aerobes, Salmonella sp. and S. aureus) at the National Public health Laboratory from 1979 to 1987. In 58.7 percent of the cases the hams were not acceptable for human consumption, due to any of the above mentioned microbiological determinations. The main cause was the finding of high levels of mesophilic aerobes (57.5%), followed by Salmonella sp (4.4%) and S. aureus (0.43%). Raw, cooked and smoked hams presented the highest counts of mesophilic aerobes. Virginia, american style and blade hams presented the most elevated frequencies of Salmonella sp. Baked ham was the one in better sanitary conditions. The conclusion is that the quality of hams in Mexico City is bad.

  17. [Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet celebrates 75 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, G V; Brashkov, A A

    2010-08-01

    The history of the Centre of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Black Sea Fleet begun in the 1 April 1935 when the sanitary-epidemiological laboratory was founded. The article is concerned with the different stages of vivid development of this institute during 75 years. During this period organization, establishment and the name were changed many times. Since 2002 it got the current name and represents the scientific-methods institution which can solve the issues of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic supply of military personnel of the navy. Special attention is given to the high-readiness force.

  18. [Lation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being under the present conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, N N; Ivanenko, A V; Khizgiiaev, V I; Safonkina, S G; Beliavskiĭ, A R; Kicha, D I

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the basic principles in and approaches to the state regulation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being. The necessity of enhancing the role of state regulation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being stems from the intensive development of marketing relations and the complicated realization of the state role in the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The investigations provide evidence for the basic tasks of the sanitary-and-epidemiological service of Moscow under the specific conditions of the megalopolis.

  19. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  20. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen; Paul Taboada-González; Sara Ojeda-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    .... The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada's sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed...

  1. Complex Sanitary and Hygienic Characteristics of the Quality of the Megacity Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyazat Zh. Orakbay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex assessment of habitat factors that affect the level of sanitary-epidemiological well-being and health status of the population of Almaty city over the past 10 years is presented in this article.

  2. Evolution of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland in the years 1944-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek L; Kosińska, Bożena; Knap, Józef P

    2017-11-08

    This paper presents the history of sanitary-epidemiological services in the context of the health, economic and socio-political situation in Poland in the years 1944-2014, with a critical analysis of legal restraints, efficiency and achievements. Polish Sanitary Services, established in 1919, as a state service, have preserved for more than 95 years (also during World War II and the occupation) the continuity of its structures and essential objectives to enable their implementation in the field of public health protection. The unique effectiveness of actions was recorded in the years 1954-1998 and 2002-2009 in the time of central (vertical) subordination of sanitary-epidemiological services. The pre-accession preparation to the European Union (EU) strongly accelerated the development of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has promoted the implementation of the WHO document "Health for All in the 21st Century" and the reduction of "health inequalities".

  3. Sanitary survey of Malaspina Strait from Sliammon Point to Grief Point, British Columbia, 1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgs. T.W

    1976-01-01

    A sanitary survey of the area adjacent to Malaspina Strait between Sliammon Point and Grief Point was conducted by the author in conjunction with a personnel of the Environmental Protection Service, Pacific Region...

  4. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandatory requirements of the economic entities, performing economic or other activities. The sanitary-epidemiological audit may be associated with a system of certification for compliance with sanitary requirements and may assume the documented confirmation of the compliance issued by the authorized persons. The sanitary-epidemiological audit and the compliance certification to mandatory sanitary requirements can make an alternative to the planned supervision activities on facilities attributed to the category of low and moderate risk of harm to human health. The Russian sanitary legislation does not recognize the sanitary-epidemiological audit as a form of conformity assessment. The analysis of the international experience shows that it is necessary to consolidate the general rules and regulations of the sanitary-epidemiological audit at the legislative level and to develop a set of sublegislative documents in order to implement these norms. The crucial is a creation of the national system capable to regulate the registration and functioning of the organization having a right to conduct the audit activities in the field of hygienic safety. It is reasonable to develop the regulation on the list-register of auditors and to create a special training system for the auditors, who possess the methodology for health risk assessment. The key aspect of the successful introduction of the audit is a granting of presences to the economic entities having compliance

  5. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review)

    OpenAIRE

    I.V. May; E.V. Sedusova; T.M. Lebedeva

    2016-01-01

    The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandator...

  6. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Karelin; G. B. Yeremin; I. V. May; A. Yu. Lomtev; A. V. Kiselev; N. A. Mozzhukhina

    2015-01-01

    The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introductio...

  7. Design and Materials Selection: analysis of similar sanitary pads for daily use

    OpenAIRE

    M Pohlmann

    2016-01-01

    Hygiene practices have effects on vulvovaginal microbiota. Specific products for intimate female hygiene are available in the market, such as the sanitary pads. Since these pads were introduced in the market , they became the focus of research that seek to improve their shape, manufacturing processes and the properties of materials used in order to provide more benefits to users. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the fabrics used in daily sanitary pads, focusing on the development...

  8. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp: in food services

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Jozi Fagundes de; Rocha, Laura Braga da; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; Costa, Marisa da

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The ...

  9. Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    were constructed of acrylic to allow observa- tion and video recording of model fish movement mechanisms beneath the barges. Because of their large...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 2 Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Co as ta l a...default. ERDC/CHL TR-16-2 February 2016 Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

  10. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  11. [Incidence of intestinal parasites in municipal sanitary workers in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection.

  12. [Program of sanitary education for people with autistic spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Vizcaíno, C; Ventoso Roncero, R; Covaleda Rodrigo, A; Andériz Cebrián, D; de Oro Villora, E

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder that it is characterized by a qualitative alteration of social interaction, communication and repetitive and stereotyped behaviours, interests and activities. Recent studies about health are showing that people with autism have lower hope of life. Among other causes, difficulty to identify and to communicate uneasiness and resistance to allow medical explorations are important factors to consider. To design and to implant a specific program for people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with the objective of habituating them to the medical explorations so that they admit it and collaborate, facilitating the sanitary personnel's work. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and the maintenance of the potentials improvements. Our sample was formed by twenty-two children with ASD (mean chronological age, 9;10 years). A quasi-experimental design of interrupted temporary series was carried out. two grouping variables (clinical characteristics of the groups about QI and about linguistic abilities) as dependent variable a measure of percentage of success has been used through an observation protocol designed for this program. Improvements in all the groups. Results are not conditioned neither for the level of intellectual abilities (IQ) neither for the existence or not of linguistic abilities. Likewise, it is found that carrying out maintenance sessions in period of seven weeks allows to maintain long term achievements reached by the program. However, we found that those children which were severely impaired could obtain more benefit from more frequent maintenance sessions.

  13. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  14. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  15. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  16. [Preschool children's functional status in relation to the sanitary-and-hygienic well-being of a children's educational establishment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, E Iu; Setko, I M; Khaliulina, F F

    2009-01-01

    The functional status of preschool children was studied in relation to the sanitary-and-hygienic well-being, by evaluating the functional status of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Under poor sanitary-and-hygienic well-being, the children were ascertained to have lower indices of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems than those under satisfactory sanitary-and-hygienic well-being.

  17. ACTIVITIES OF SANITARY HYGIENE TECHNOLOGY FUND IN NIŠ ON SANATION OF RURAL AREAS IN TIMOK AREA OF MORAVA PROVINCE, BETWEEN WORLD WARS I AND II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Paunović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the largest part of the population (80% lived in poverty, ignorance and under poor hygienic conditions. The biggest problem was the supply of drinking water.In most villages, the population was supplied with drinking water from rivers, unsanitary wells and springs, ponds where water was polluted and unhealthy. That is why the outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease were frequent.Priority in the work of the Public Health Institute in Niš, in the province of Morava, between the two world wars, was the provision of safe (healthy drinking water. The activities of the Public Health Institute Nis (sanitary engineering, in the Timok area, present professional and technical solutions essential for the achievements of health care policy at that time in the Morava province. Great importance for Health Institute sanitary engineering in Niš was ascribed to about 15 health offices in the Timok area of the in Morava province, which existed after 1926.

  18. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  19. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  20. Solidarity: an innovative perspective in the management and organization of Sanitary Surveillance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This is a theoretical essay about the development of the concept of solidarity, a word used in the regulatory framework and in political proposals to reorient the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The methodology consisted of mapping authors addressing human action aspects related to this theme from Durkheim's tradition, linking them to his followers, like Marcel Mauss and authors from the "anti-utilitarianism" movement in social sciences. Solidarity is one way to express a "gift" and appears as a multidimensional action, where duty and freedom, instrumental interest and disinterest interpose and interlace. The planning and execution of sanitary surveillance (VISA) actions requires comprehension of organizational forms and solidary relationship management among agents involved in health risk control, transcending the strongly normative aspect of the prevailing supervision actions. The development of associative actions involving sanitary surveillance professionals, economic agents and consumers, aiming to share the responsibilities in the health risk control of products, services and environments subjected to Sanitary Surveillance action is suggested.

  1. Sanitary survey af produktionsområder i Løgstør Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    ’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice......, without compromising food safety. The report is supported by public assessible data from monitoring of microbiological contamination in Løgstør Broads, where the concentration of E. coli is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at fixed sampling points. The Danish monitoring of production areas...

  2. Note on liners for containment of Leachate in sanitary landfills to enhance sustainable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGE, O.O

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from waste degradation creep to neighboring natural soil and water bodies in undersigned landfills and impairs the quality of environment expose to man. This paper deals with the selection of materials for sealing layers in sanitary landfills. This layer is the most critical component of landfills top and bottom covers. Commonly used liners in sanitary landfills are compacted natural low permeability clayey soils, geosynthetic materials or combination of the two. Geotechnical conditions for natural soils to be useful as liners are also presented.

  3. performance optimizing of a sanitary towel production plant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. ... The aim of the study was to reduce the production downtime significantly, thereby optimizing the machine time, and consequently ..... the surface of the end products to aid its liquid ab- sorption.

  4. Sampling: the weak link in the sanitary quality control system of agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel

    2006-05-01

    To ensure a high level of consumer protection, the European Union has in the past years published several regulations setting very low limits for a given number of food contaminants (pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals) in many agricultural products (cereals, oilseeds, dry fruits, coffee, spices, etc). These new regulations regarding the sanitary quality of agricultural products, compel both economic operators and officials of different EU member states to set up sampling plans and rigorous analyses aimed at checking whether a product lot complies with the required standards prior to its release on the market. While the laboratory analysis management today is outstanding thanks to the validated and efficient detection methods and procedures available for quality assurance in laboratories (accreditation), this is not necessarily true of the sampling operation, which seems to be the weak link in the sanitary control system for agricultural products. The sampling operation is often the main source of error when assessing the sanitary quality of a lot of agricultural commodities, with both commercial (downgrading of the product) and sanitary (marketing of a product which poses a health risk for the consumer) consequences. Therefore, it is essential for the operators involved to be aware of the significance and difficulties of the sampling operation, which requires important equipment and human resources. Furthermore, drawing up specific standards and guidelines, as well as setting up quality assurance procedures, at the level in charge of carrying out this delicate and important operation, are necessary.

  5. [The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; de Noronha, Ana Beatriz Marinho; Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; de Souza, Adriana de Alvarenga Linhares; Oliveira, Catia Veronica dos Santos; Pontes Júnior, Durval Martins

    2010-11-01

    Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq). The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were 735 research groups, created mostly from 2000 to 2003 and 6,263 researchers concentrated in the Southeast Region and in CNPq sub area of Public Health. The great increase of the production lead to the conclusion that sanitary surveillance have been a locus of production only in the last decade, presented in scientific events of Public Health and until now concentrated just like others areas in Health.

  6. [Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-05-01

    A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil), examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data processing. Personnel of the surveillance service were found to have varied professional and educational backgrounds, with limited experience in the sanitary surveillance of drugstores, and insufficient technical training for the performance of the tasks assigned. Deficiencies of a managerial nature were detected in the service. Its operation is primarily focused on granting drugstore licenses, prioritizing attendance to spontaneous demand, thereby configuring a technological model of intervention based on sanitary inspection. The findings revealed a need for updating the service and the adoption of technologies to enhance control of risk, given that technological evolution provides drugs that are increasingly more potent, with a concomitant rise in levels risk.

  7. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  8. Can Sanitary Surveys Replace Water Quality Testing? Evidence from Kisii, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Gichaba Misati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Information about the quality of rural drinking water sources can be used to manage their safety and mitigate risks to health. Sanitary surveys, which are observational checklists to assess hazards present at water sources, are simpler to conduct than microbial tests. We assessed whether sanitary survey results were associated with measured indicator bacteria levels in rural drinking water sources in Kisii Central, Kenya. Overall, thermotolerant coliform (TTC levels were high: all of the samples from the 20 tested dug wells, almost all (95% of the samples from the 25 tested springs, and 61% of the samples from the 16 tested rainwater harvesting systems were contaminated with TTC. There were no significant associations between TTC levels and overall sanitary survey scores or their individual components. Contamination by TTC was associated with source type (dug wells and springs were more contaminated than rainwater systems. While sanitary surveys cannot be substituted for microbial water quality results in this context, they could be used to identify potential hazards and contribute to a comprehensive risk management approach.

  9. Sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence seen from battered women perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sánchez Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative study whose objective is to know battered women perception regarding sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence in Madrid Community. The results were validated by a triangulation process. Women identified sanitary assistance with those given when there exist physical injuries. However, if we keep questioning about it, they do express to look for something else from the professionals who attended them, although they are not able to say it before them.Somatizations that ill-treatment produces are treated by sanitary professionals without attending to the cause that caused them, and, when it is identified ill-treatment as the cause, rarely sanitary professionals send them to psychologies or psychiatrics. However, this is not identified as a bad practice, because women establish a very defined and rigid function for each professional, where, as they understand, Primary Care doctor will not be required to worry about psychic health and wellbeing of people who attend to their offices.We think, therefore, that it would be recommended that Madrid Community should create a specific health program to attend these women in order to guarantee, this way, a proper attention to people who may be in this situation as well as a minimum quality on the attention they received.

  10. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp: in food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozi Fagundes de Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%. Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8% was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  11. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health. PMID:25477940

  12. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-8...

  14. [Provision of armed force personnel with sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being under the current conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimkin, V G

    2010-01-01

    Health protection and provision of sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in military personnel are largely determined by the efficiency of the prophylaxis unit of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, which is part of the uniform federal state sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance system of the Russian Federation. The activity of the prophylaxis unit of a medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in maintaining sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in the troops (forces) of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation is accomplished in the presence of a number of unsolved problems to make sanitary-and-hygienic provision of military staff with vital activity and in that of the high epidemiological significance of acute respiratory infections, community-acquired pneumonias, streptococcal infections, childhood infections, tuberculosis, and meningococcal or HIV infections, etc. The author has defined the priority activities of the prophylaxis unit of a medical service in maintaining sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation under the present conditions, including the objectification of state sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance in its Armed Forces, by using the capabilities of a modernized laboratory base of sanitary-and-epidemiological facilities, improving the system for immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases, and organizing disinfection measures in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  15. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  16. Setting up a GIS Teaching Environment for Environmental Engineering Students at the Department of Sanitary Engineering, Mahidol University, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    This paper describes the establishment of a teaching environment for Geographical Information Sys-tems (GIS) at Mahidol University, Thailand, with assistance from Aalborg University, Denmark.......This paper describes the establishment of a teaching environment for Geographical Information Sys-tems (GIS) at Mahidol University, Thailand, with assistance from Aalborg University, Denmark....

  17. [40th anniversary of the 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Defense Ministry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveĭ, È P; Berskiĭ, O V; Ian'shin, L A

    2012-11-01

    In November 2012 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation celebrates 40th anniversary. It is a multidisciplanary prevention and treatment facility of high level standing at the top of the sanitary-epidemiological institutions of the army and navy. The Main Center is included into a united, centralized system of state sanitary-epidemiological control of Russia with the main purpose--organization and conduction of surveillance and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures in the army and navy. The article provides a consistent presentation of historical perspective of creation and development of the institution and its mission today.

  18. The Level of Adequacy of Sanitary Facilities for Girls in Primary Schools of Nakuru Municipality, Nakuru County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Muthoni Wambugu; Prof Paul Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    The adequacy of sanitary facilities is a critical issue in a girl’s life. Studies have shown that most aspects of a girl’s life are affected by lack of sanitary facilities thus lowering the girl’s esteem and confidence. The study sought to establish the level of adequacy of sanitary facilities for girls in primary education in Nakuru Municipality in Nakuru County, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used as the preferred research design. The study targeted the 59 public primary schools in ...

  19. The Effect of the Adequacy of Sanitary Facilities on Girls’ Participation in Primary Schools of Nakuru Municipality, Nakuru County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Muthoni Wambugu; Paul Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    The adequacy of sanitary facilities is a critical issue in a girl’s life. Studies have shown that most aspects of a girl’s life are affected by lack of sanitary facilities thus lowering the girl’s esteem and confidence. The study sought to determine how the adequacy of sanitary facilities affects girls’ participation in primary education in Nakuru Municipality, Nakuru County, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used as the preferred research design. The study targeted the 59 public primary...

  20. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  1. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  2. [To the 80th anniversary of the 637th center of the state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischugin, E Y; Mathis, A A; Tsintsadze, O G; Tarumov, R A

    2015-06-01

    In March 2015 marked the 80th anniversary of the creation of the 637th Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. The date of establishment of the Centre is rooted in the pre-war period, when sanitary-epidemiological laboratories of the Black Sea Fleet were organized as a scientific and methodological institution. During the Great Patriotic War, as well as during the early postwar period, the staff of the Centre carried out valuable work on provision of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the Black Sea Fleet. Later, soldiers of the Center participated in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, fulfilling their international duty in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, on the island of Dahlak, as well as in the Chechen Republic during the anti-terrorist operation. During its existence, the Centre repeatedly reorganized and is now an institution that successfully solves the problem of ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the troops in the area of responsibility.

  3. [Center of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district celebrates 70 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedniakov, V V; Kunaev, A V

    2012-04-01

    The history of the centre of state sanitary and epidemiological surveillance of Central military district stationed in Kazan is stated shortly. This institution originated in 104th sanitary and epidemiological detachment, which was formed in May 1942 in complement of Bryansk Navy. During 1942-1945 104th SED was allotted to Braynsk, Central, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Belarus's fronts. Nowadays this Center in Kazan is component part of the united territorial system of medical supply of troops stationed in republic of Tatarstan, Udmurtiya, Chuvashiya, Mariy Al. It is modern profile institution where work highly skilled physicians and medical stuff of medium-level. Employees of the center have great experience in realization of prophylactic and anti-epidemiological actions.

  4. Hygienic assessment of habitat adverse social and sanitary factors in the Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ushakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The materials on health status, socio-economic, sanitary living conditions of the population of the Altai Krai have been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the conditions of life and health outcomes in urban and rural settlements’ population has been performed. The estimation of health indicators’ correlation has been carried out in children of age group 0-1 years, children of age group 0-14 years, teens of age group 15-17 years and adults of age group over 18 years, depending on the type (urban or rural of settlement with indicators of social and sanitary environmental factors. Regression equations for the health outcomes of different age groups on the level of hygiene and social environmental factors are set, regional critical (reference values are justified. The hygienic assessment of unfavorable social, health and sanitation of the environment on the health of the population in the Altai Krai is provided.

  5. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  6. Sanitary land fills recommendations evolution; Evoluzione della normativa sulle discariche e sue implicazioni. Documento di indirizzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cecco, C.; Di Benedetto, E. [ENEA, Rome (Italy)]|[Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. IMAGE; Cossu, R. [Comitato Tecnico Discariche (Italy); Cirelli, A. [Federambiente, Rome (Italy); Cesco, P. [FISE-Assoambiente, Milan (Italy); Magagni, A. [Associazione Italiana Tecnici dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    In the sanitary landfills will be accepted only non reusable wastes at the purpose to reduce danger and volume. [Italian] Con il Decreto Ronchi (n. 22 del 5 febbraio 1997) si e' riaffrontata, in linea con le nuove strategie europee, la problematica rifiuti in tutta la sua complessita'. La gestione rifiuti si basa sul concetto di sistema di smaltimento integrato che presuppone alcuni principi fondamentali, tra cui il riciclaggio e il reimpiego.

  7. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  8. Role of veterinarian in securing sanitary hygiene of food of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Lazar; Katić Vera R.; Bunčić Olivera

    2005-01-01

    The consumer demands that to be provided with a sufficient quantity of articles of animal origin that meet the requirements of sanitary hygiene and are available at acceptable prices. Food articles of animal origin that are safe for human consumption can be obtained only from healthy animals. Veterinarians are daily concerned with the health of animals and are taking measures to prevent the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from animals to humans. The knowledge of epizootiology, micro...

  9. 1851 International Sanitary Conference and the construction of an international sphere of public health

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel De Almeida, Joao Jose

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on the 1851 International Sanitary Conference, this dissertation analyses an important episode in the international regulation of health, trade, passengers, and cargo in a period of epidemic crisis. It argues that a group of diplomats and physicians appointed to represent 12 European nations instituted a new international forum that extended – and occasionally rivalled – national and local agencies for epidemic governance. Together, delegates endeavoured to establish a...

  10. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. This document contains the analytical groundwater sampling data for these eight wells for the first two quarters of 1996.

  11. Sanitary Norms of the Design of Industrial Enterprises. SN 245-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-09

    processing/treatment of natural resins and their residue/remainders (coal-tar pitch, etc.). 7. production calcined soda using ammonium soda process in...small content of volatile hydrocarbons. QOC 79069402 PAGE 2. Enterprises for yield of rocks of VI-VII category: dolomite , magnesite, asbestos, *ars...quantity of more than 150,000 t/yr. 2. Production of magnesite, dolomite and fireclay vith firing in shaft, rotary and other kilns. Class II. Sanitary

  12. Proposal for the reinforcement of the environmental sanitary safety; Proposition pour un renforcement de la securite sanitaire environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegrzulka, O.; Aschieri, A. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    Facing the context of the public reliance crisis, the sanitary risks bound to the environment became more and more important. This report asked by the first Minister of France, takes stock on the government policy in this domain and the today institutions. The first part defines the problematic of the sanitary risks bound to the environment, the second one shows the non adapted answer offered by the actual government and the last one proposes new procedures and actions.

  13. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  14. Mineralogy and microstructure of hydrated phases during the pozzolanic reaction in the sanitary ware waste/Ca(OH)2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, César; Sáez del Bosque, Isabel F.; Asensio, Eloy; Frías, Moisés; Sánchez de Rojas, M. Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological improvements in its production process, the sanitary ware industry inevitably generates a certain volume of discards, products whose quality is not up to standard. The present paper is the first to scientifically explore claybased sanitary ware waste (SW) with a view to its valorization as an addition in the design of new, more environmentally friendly cements. The focus is on characterization of the waste and its pozzolanicity, as well as the struct...

  15. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  16. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  17. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  18. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  19. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  1. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATHER HASSAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite only. In addition to a-quartz and primary mullite, elongated needles of secondary mullite were also present in samples fired at 1200 and 1300oC. Unlike typical vitreous ceramics bodies, regions containing elongated secondary mullite originating from the clay relict and growing into the feldspar relict were few in number which is consistent with the high clay content in the starting body ingredients of the investigated samples. Another sample investigated for comparison purposes, contained all the phases mentioned above along with some corundum grains which indicated that the composition of sanitary ware varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detected high concentration of Fe in some regions in the bulk but the glaze did not contain any Fe.

  2. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  3. Effects of tow transit on the efficacy of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Electric Dispersal Barrier System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremiah J.; LeRoy, Jessica Z.; Shanks, Matthew R.; Jackson, Patrick Ryan; Engel, Frank; Murphy, Elizabeth; Baxter, Carey L.; McInerney, Michael K.; Barkowski, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers undertook a field study in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Romeoville, Illinois to determine the influence of tow transit on the efficacy of the Electric Dispersal Barrier System (EDBS) in preventing the passage of juvenile fish (total length electric field of an array in the EDBS concurrent with downstream-bound (downbound) loaded tows in 89.5% of trials. Smaller schools of juvenile fish (mean school size of 98 fish; n = 15) moved downstream and crossed the electric field of an array in the EDBS concurrent with upstream-bound (upbound) loaded tows in 73.3% of trials. Observed fish passages through the EDBS were always opposite to the direction of tow movement, and not associated with propeller wash. These schools were not observed to breach the EDBS in the absence of a tow and showed no signs of incapacitation in the barrier during tow passage. Loaded tows transiting the EDBS create a return current of water flowing between the tow and the canal wall that typically travels opposite the direction of tow movement, and cause a decrease in the voltage gradient of the barrier of up to 88%. Return currents and decreases in voltage gradients induced by tow passage likely contributed to the observed fish passage through the EDBS. The efficacy of the EDBS in preventing the passage of small, wild fish is compromised while tows are moving across the barrier system. In particular, downbound tows moving through the EDBS create a pathway for the upstream movement of small fish, and therefore may increase the risk of transfer of invasive fishes from the Mississippi River Basin to the Great Lakes Basin.

  4. [A functional subsystem of sanitary-and-epidemiological situation surveillance of the unified state system for prevention and elimination of emergence situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Smolenskiĭ, V Iu

    2011-01-01

    Mass destructions of the social infrastructure and household systems under stressors in the areas of emergency situations involve marked sanitary-and-epidemiological problems in a region's population, which in turn give rise to the activation of routes of transmission and formation of infectious and parasitic diseases. The most important lines of activities of supervising the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation under emergencies are to timely assess the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation, to predict, to organize, and to correct sanitary-and-antiepidemic measures.

  5. [Theoretical and conceptual considerations about the work in sanitary surveillance, as a specific field of the work in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gisélia Santana; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical-conceptual presupposes to the analysis of the work in sanitary surveillance in a social and historical perspective. As a work in health, the sanitary surveillance presents particularities that are inherent to the elements that are part of its process of work. These elements are inserted in the space of the production-consumption relationships, under the regulatory action of the State. The problematic of the work in sanitary surveillance occurs due to the specificities of its objects. It is identified in these objects a double dimension, at the same time as a "way of life" and "commodity". This confers to its working process a provisory and historical character, permeated by contradictions. The technical and social division of the work determines the organization of the working process in its "technical-scientific" and "political-administrative" organization, taking in account the necessity to guarantee the integrality in the actions of the health protection. It is expected that the sanitary surveillance should be organized and acting in several phases of the productive chain. It is identified and discussed the concepts of inter-dependence and inter-complementary as the principles to build the practices of sanitary control.

  6. [Facilitating factors and difficulties in the the implementation of sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Augusto Amorim; Costa, Ediná Alves; de Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo

    2011-09-01

    Drugstores are the health establishments where medications are dispensed, which is why sanitary surveillance is justified as a means of intervention. The health department uses various technologies to control risk in drugstores. In this study we used the theory of the process of work in health as a benchmark in order to describe and analyze the strengths and difficulties encountered in sanitary surveillance in drugstores in Salvador. Case study methodological strategy was adopted, the analytical categories being facilitating factors and difficulties inherent to technicians, drugstore, sanitary surveillance service and the social environment. Data were collected through direct observation techniques and semi-structured interviews, and the findings were assessed using content analysis. The body of information was processed and categorized using QSR N VIVO software. It was revealed that the nature of the facilitating factors and difficulties found in surveillance activities of drugstores indicate the need for urgent change within the scope of services and the sanitary culture in the country. It also stresses the possibilities of offering a quality service for the protection of health, in a setting conducive to the development of sanitary surveillance and the process of decentralization of these actions.

  7. A link between damaging behaviour in pigs, sanitary conditions, and dietary protein and amino acid supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Meer

    Full Text Available The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC, and fed a normal CP (NP vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine. The HSC pigs were vaccinated in the first nine weeks of life and received antibiotics at arrival at experimental farm at ten weeks, after which they were kept in a disinfected part of the farm with a strict hygiene protocol. The LSC pigs were kept on the same farm in non-disinfected pens to which manure from another pig farm was introduced fortnightly. At 15, 18, and 24 weeks of age, prevalence of tail and ear damage and of tail and ear wounds was scored. At 20 and 23 weeks of age, frequencies of biting behaviour and aggression were scored for 10×10 min per pen per week. The prevalence of ear damage during the finisher phase (47 vs. 32% of pigs, P < 0.0001 and the frequency of ear biting (1.3 vs. 1.2 times per hour, P = 0.03 were increased in LSC compared with HSC pigs. This effect on ear biting was diet dependent, however, the supplemented AA profile reduced ear biting only in LSC pigs by 18% (SC × AA profile, P < 0.01. The prevalence of tail wounds was lower for pigs in LSC (13 ± 0.02 than for pigs in HSC (0.22 ± 0.03 in the grower phase (P < 0.007. Regardless of AA profile or sanitary status, LP pigs showed more ear biting (+20%, P < 0.05, tail biting (+25%, P < 0.10, belly nosing (+152%, P < 0.01, other oral manipulation directed at pen mates (+13%, P < 0.05, and aggression (+30%, P < 0.01 than NP pigs, with no effect on ear or tail damage. In conclusion, both low

  8. Determination of mercury traces in sanitary landfill leachates by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mónica; Cuervo, Germán; Hoyos, Olga Lucía; Gutiérrez, Tania

    2009-07-01

    Particular attention is being paid to the presence of heavy metals--especially mercury--because of their tendency to accumulate in water. These toxic and persistent substances in the environment continuously accumulate and increase as a result of anthropogenic activity (Sonthalia et al., 2004). This paper presents the detection and measurement of the amount of dissolved mercury in young and mature leachates of a sanitary landfill, where the young leachates have had a technical environmental treatment compared with the mature leachates, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry as an instrumental technique. The results showed significant differences in mercury content in both leachates.

  9. Sanitary survey rapport 4: Lillebælt og det Sydfynske Øhav

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    Denne sanitary survey vurderer de potentielle mikrobiologiske forureningskilder, der kan have betydning for muslingeproduktionen i Lillebælt og det Sydfynske Øhav. Lillebælt og det Sydfynske Øhav er underopdelt i 11 produktionsområder, der er vurderet hver for sig. Bakterien E. coli er anvendt so...... ved lave forekomster af E. coli med relativt få observationer af E. coli i kritiske koncentrationer, men de fleste produktionsområder har dog for få prøvetagninger til at opnå en permanent klassificering. Rapporten indeholder forslag til en prøvetagningsplan, som tager udgangspunkt i EU...

  10. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) - a species of sanitary and forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired...... report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing...... for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised....

  11. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  12. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  13. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  14. [The necessity of new approaches to the elaboration of the projects for the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts around the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, health resorts and their natural medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Adilov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The international experience gained during the past two centuries indicates that the most efficient and rational way to ensure the protection of the territories occupied by the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, spa centres, and health resorts together with their natural medical resources is to set up sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones along the perimeter of these territories. Beginning from 2000, numerous changes and amendments have been annually introduced in the Russian legislation intended to ensure efficacious control over the rational exploitation of the territories of therapeutic and health-promotion value and their natural medical resources. These initiatives have negative effect on the activities of these organizations and the quality of the services they are expected to provide. Taken together these effects lead to the degradation of the spa and health resort business. Bearing in mind the current conditions for economic activities, it is proposed, in contrast to the former global approach, to envisage in the aforementioned projects the establishment of the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones and determine their borders based on the results of the assessment of their potential for the protection of therapeutic factors and other valuable resources. Equally important is the maximum reduction of the areas of the second and third zones taking into account their relevant objective characteristics. In certain cases, the protective district may coincide with the second zone. As far as the federal health resorts and large territories of special health-promotion value are concerned, some of them may have two or more sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts. Both the owners and the users of these territories should be provided the necessary and sufficient possibilities for the rational nature use at the grounds and in the adjacent water areas suitable for the development of health resort

  15. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  16. Research of sanitary, chemical and toxicological properties of silicone material «Silast-M» for removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedenko I.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to conduct sanitary, chemical and toxicological testing of the domestic cold-curing silicone material «Silast-M» for removable dentures. The object of the study included samples of silicone material «Silast-M» developed by CJSC «MEDSIL» in cooperation with the Department of Moscow State Medico-Stomatological University n.a. A. I. Evdokimov. Laboratory studies were carried out in the department of toxicology testing and researching materials and medical products VNIIIMT in accordance with the instructions on the sanitary, chemical and toxicological studies, developed and approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The results showed that all samples did not exceed the limit values. Conclusion. After successfully passed sanitary, chemical and toxicological studies clinical trials of the material have been started.

  17. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  18. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  19. Relationships between health, education and environment in Quito: the role of sanitary and environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sarrade Cobos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the ecological unbalance that affects a city like Quito, marked by an anarchic urban growth and problems on its environmental quality, it is interesting to relate three “Good Living” factors: Health, Education and Environment. There are numerous ways to establish links. Under this thought, based on scientific studies and public policies, we have defined to concrete facts: the impact of the environment on the health of the public and the possibility of reducing sanitary risks thru education. The economical, political and cultural dynamics of the Ecuadorian Capital could encourage the elaboration of programs and actions toward a better environmental and sanitary education. Which are the strategies, from the Municipal authorities, to create a collective dynamism that will take the population to become aware of the natural and anthropological risks? Many efforts have been realized to determine the natural threats, but little has been done in order to analyze the impact of the decay of the environment over our health. There are many different initiatives to sensitize the population on these risks. Nevertheless, there is a still lot to do with respect to the dissemination and follow up of programs and projects that are being carried out on the Distrito Metropolitano de Quito.

  20. [Sanitary and technologic evaluation of the rural processing of fresh goat cheese in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L; Sierra, C

    1988-12-01

    A sanitary and technological diagnosis of the goat cheese rural process was carried out. The purpose was to obtain more information for the planning of a program aimed to the improvement of this small agroindustry. Samples of milk, curdle, dry abomasum, rennet, water and cheese of 10% of the small industries of two rural villages in two agricultural seasons, were taken. Moreover, dilutions of the utensils and goat udders were prepared. The samples were subjected to microbiological analysis of mesophilic aerobic bacteria count, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms, and detection of Staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+), Salmonella typhi and Brucella melitensis. Proximate chemical analysis and determinations of sodium chloride and titratible acidity in milk, cheese, dry abomasum and rennet, were carried out. Goat milk was also subjected to analysis of density. It was found that significant sanitary failures are present during th whole goat cheese process, although the highest bacteria contamination occurred at the milking, curdling and filling stages. These are characterized by excessive handling and absolute lack of hygiene. The pathogen B. melitensis was absent; therefore the causes of poisoning were attributed to the toxin produced by S. aureus and to the significant count of fecal coliforms found in the goat cheese. Even though the goats are fed under a poor feeding system, the milk presented a normal physical and chemical composition. Nevertheless, protein and fat matter losses occur during cheese preparation, as a result of handling practices and lack of process control.

  1. [Sanitary surveillance: descentralization strategies in Mato Grosso (Brazil), 1996-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Miriane Silva; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The decentralization process of sanitary surveillance services to states and municipalities was improved after NOB/96, when funding transferences were defined. In Mato Grosso, this responsibility was incorporated by the Sanitary Surveillance Coordination (Visa/SES) which developed strategies to decentralize at first, the basic actions to all municipalities of the state. The objective of this research is to describe and analyze the strategies adopted by Visa/SES in decentralization of Visa actions to municipalities and the main difficulties found. This research is a qualitative study with documental and interview analysis. The results show as main adopted strategies: several training to professionals from regional, central and local levels; development of technical material to municipals services; assessment with join inspections between three levels of management; creation of law documents. It was observed an active performance in the decentralization, the Visa/SES keeps performing the high and middle complexity actions in almost all municipalities and even those of low complexity, in some, which impede other important tasks as supervision and evaluation of this process, besides continuous support and organization of municipalities services.

  2. [Exercise electrocardiography in the sanitary surveillance of workers with physical strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafa, F; Calsamiglia, G; Pala, G; Perotti, M R; Colombi, R; Candura, S M

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the opportunity of exercise electrocardiography (ECG) in the sanitary surveillance of workers with physical strain, we estimated the energy consumption of the duties of 22 electrical workers (males; age: 35-56 years). They subsequently underwent Treadmill exercise ECG, determining for each worker the maximal METs (multiples of basal metabolism) and the critical potency (P(CRIT)). In one subject, myocardial ischemia arose 9 minutes after the beginning of the test. The others interrupted the test after 7-13 minutes for tiring; 5 of them showed ventricular extra systoles, paired or isolated. Twelve subjects presented arterial hypertension, at rest and/or during exercise. Ergonomic analysis revealed that the occupational duties were between 1.5 and 8.0 METs. The energy consumption of the job on the whole was 4-6 METs (medium intensity). The maximal METs reached by the examined subjects were between 8.8 and 15.6; however, only 11 workers went reassuringly over the 4 METs required by duty analysis at P(CRIT). One subject was declared unfit for the job, and a judgement of partial idoneity was expressed for 3 workers. Preventive and therapeutic indications were given to 12 subjects. Aerobic training was suggested to 10 workers. The study indicates that an ergonomic evaluation is advisable for the most energy consuming occupational duties. In such cases, the sanitary surveillance should include a cardiologic assessment with exercise ECG, reproducing the physical strain of the specific job.

  3. [Integral care, a SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System) guideline for the sanitary surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Reis, Daniela Carla de Souza; da Silva, Luciana Leite Gonçalves

    2010-11-01

    The sanitary surveillance (Visa) performs several practices, on different objects and its actions are guided by principles and guidelines of the SUS. It was done a critical reflection on the interaction conditions of practice in Visa, with a constitutional proposition of the SUS: integral care. The analysis was based on the theory of structuration (Giddens) that considers mobilization of structural resources as dimensions of social interaction, which would justify the legitimacy exercised since the standards. Have been analyzed the following categories: Visa and its insertion within the SUS; the integral care and the Visa; and political impediments. The Visa has been organized by National Health Surveillance Agency. Nowadays it has as sanitary responsibilities, communication with society and health promotion. The proposal of the literature concerning integral care is based on the assistance issue. The organization of the services in the different federative entities is the sense of integral care most adopted by Visa. Political impediments focus on the institutional renewal, on the conflicts of interest arena, on the distance between formulated policies and established practices and gaps concerning work management and the insufficiency of financial support.

  4. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  6. Role of veterinarian in securing sanitary hygiene of food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Lazar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demands that to be provided with a sufficient quantity of articles of animal origin that meet the requirements of sanitary hygiene and are available at acceptable prices. Food articles of animal origin that are safe for human consumption can be obtained only from healthy animals. Veterinarians are daily concerned with the health of animals and are taking measures to prevent the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from animals to humans. The knowledge of epizootiology, microbiology, the sources and pathways of contamination of food articles of animal origin by microbiological and chemical pollutants, the procedures in the process of producing food articles in which such pollutants can be eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level, and the connection between these factors and human health, give veterinarians the key position in the securing of sanitary hygiene of articles of animal origin. The safety of articles of animal origin is a specialized field in the area of veterinary medicine that links all the activities of a veterinarian. In partnership with other professions, engaged in the chain of food production, veterinarians guarantee that food articles are safe for the health of consumers.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  8. The Evaluation of Sanitary-Epidemiological Service Conditions On a Submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żychliński Michał

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Service on a submarine is the most stressful and psychologically challenging form of military service. It is characterised by specific living and sanitaryepidemiological conditions which are far from typical. This work is based on the analyses of reports formulated from research conducted by a working environment laboratory, and on the control protocols of the sanitary supervision and control team (WOMP Gdynia, from the Kobben submersible vessels in the years 2014 and 2015. Military Centres of Preventive Medicine hold supervision over Military Units pursuant to generally applicable regulations in the civil environment and standardised NATO norms. Measurements concern the level of noise, mechanical vibrations, chemical agents, electromagnetic radiation, physiochemical and biological water and kitchenware tests. The objective of the research is to evaluate the service conditions on a submersible vessel with regard to sanitary-epidemiological aspects such as exposure to infectious and occupational diseases. In selected stations, the conducted measurements indicate an increased level of noise, electromagnetic radiation and excess quantities of bacteria colonies on kitchenware.

  9. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  10. Sanitary conditions of mozzarella and Minas frescal cheese production in northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marangon Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cheese due its rich nutritional composition provides a favorable environment for the multiplication of many kinds of microorganisms. The excess of total and thermotolerant coliforms indicates contamination from environmental and fecal origin, respectively, which characterizes low microbiological quality and unsatisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions during the cheese production process, besides the possibility of enteropathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hygienic condition of the production of Mozzarella and Minas Frescal cheeses, produced in Northern region of Paraná State, Brazil. Fifty samples were analyzed, of which 14 were of Mozzarella cheese and 36 were of Minas Frescal cheese covering the period from June 2011 to June 2016. The sanitary conditions of production were evaluated by counting the total and thermotolerant coliforms according to the methodology recommended by the Brazilian legislation. For the Mozzarella cheese, it was observed that all the samples presented counts according to the recommended standards for total and thermotolerant coliforms. However, it was observed that 55.6% of the Minas Frescal cheese samples were in disagreement with the standards established by the legislation for total coliforms, as well as 27.8% for thermotolerant coliforms. These results indicate that a considerable part of the Minas Frescal cheeses present unsatisfactory hygienic conditions during the stages of production, increasing consumer health risk. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt good practices of manufacturing, take corrective actions to fix the contamination problem and compliance with microbiological quality standards established and microbiological safety assurance.

  11. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  12. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  13. Health hazards in areas of military operations conducted in different climatic and sanitary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the most common health hazards occurring among personnel of peacekeeping and stabilization missions functioning within armed conflicts in the contemporary world. Military operations have been executed in diverse climatic and sanitary conditions, which are frequently unfamiliar for their participants. Some of them, e.g. the UN peacekeeping missions in the Middle East (Lebanon, the Golan Heights), have been carried out in a relatively stable geopolitical environment; whereas, stabilization missions in Iraq and Afghanistan, which are actually combat activities, undoubtedly fall into the group of the most perilous military operations in the world. Hot or cold climate, poor sanitary and hygienic conditions along with warfare facilitate the occurrence of numerous diseases and body injuries not only among the local people but also among peacekeepers, who represent the population of immigrants. Health hazards which pose major epidemiological threats in combat zones are arthropod-borne, food and water-borne, respiratory tract diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, enzootic diseases, battle injuries, and non- -battle injuries, e.g. traffic accidents. Another considerable health problem are psychiatric disorders, which can either appear directly after the occurrence of a traumatic event in a combat zone or indirectly, after some time had elapsed. In addition to the health hazards listed above, environmental factors such as changeable weather conditions and local fauna may also be life threatening.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  17. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  18. 24 CFR 5.703 - Physical condition standards for HUD housing that is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities). (3) If the dwelling unit includes its own sanitary facility, it must be in proper operating condition, usable in privacy, and adequate for personal hygiene and the disposal of human waste. (4) The.../driveways, play areas and equipment, refuse disposal, roads, storm drainage and walkways must be free of...

  19. [On risk-oriented model of sanitary epidemiologic surveillance in occupational hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseval, N V; Mai, I V; Kostarev, V G; Bashketova, N S

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, Federal Service on surveillance in consumers rights protection and public well-being set a task to organize planned work of regional agencies on basis of risk-oriented model of control and supervision. Based on results of pilot project in Rospotrebnadzor Department of Perm area and St-Petersburg, the article covers methodic approaches to classification of objects liable to surveillance in occupational hygiene. The classification considers possibility of sanitary law violation, severity of this violation consequences and number of workers exposed to risk factors including hazardous work conditions. The authors specified recommendations on periodicity and forms of planned inspections considering evaluation of potential risk for human health, determined problems that require solution in implementation of risk-oriented model of surveillance.

  20. Biodegradation and Detoxification of Sanitary Landfill Leachate by Stabilization Ponds System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rejane H R; Martins, Cláudia L; Fernandes, Heloísa; Velho, Viviane F

    2017-06-01

      The performance of a pilot stabilization ponds system was evaluated for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, focusing on effluent detoxification. Three serial ponds (anaerobic-P1, facultative-P2, and maturation-P3) were evaluated during two different operational conditions: natural condition (period 1) and 24 hours of artificial aeration in P2 (period 2). The ponds system exhibited removal efficiencies of 53% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 81% for filtered biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD), and 84% for NH4+-N during period 1 and 70% for SCOD, 80% for FBOD, and 96% for -N during period 2. Most metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and organic compounds in the leachate were significantly reduced in the treatment system, with greater reductions during period 2. Moreover, toxicity tests demonstrated the capacity of the system to reduce the toxicity of the raw leachate (up to 89% toxicity reduction).

  1. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the North Western Mediterranean Sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the North Western Mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, WRu and from atmospheric fall out, TXCs and sup(239 + 240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 V) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26.

  2. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  3. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  4. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  5. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  6. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrations in soil were sampled in landfill adjacent area. The significant, crescent and directly proportional relationship (R2 > 0.80; p < 0.001 were observed between the elements concentration analyzed in soil with the leaves tissues. Therefore, the studied landfill presences increased nutrients and metals concentrations in soil and leaf tissue, fact that did not occur in the control area.

  7. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  8. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  9. Heavy metals in sludge during anaerobic sanitary landfill: Speciation transformation and phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhu, Ying; Shan, Ranran; Shao, Yanqiu; Tian, Chao

    2017-03-15

    Sanitary landfill persists as a predominant sludge disposal method in particular in China. In this study, successive subsurface sludge samples (0.3 m deep) were collected from a bioreactor landfill unit where an anaerobic process took place during a 500 d period. The sludge samples were analyzed for total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and their species distributions, together with selected sludge chemical properties. In addition, the sludge samples were subjected to phytotoxicity testing. The results showed that the mobilities of Cd and Ni were decreased with landfill time, while the mobilities of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn remained consistently low over the landfill period. The residual amounts of all these heavy metals were increased with landfill time, suggesting that the anaerobic sanitary landfill is an effective sludge stabilization method to reduce the ecological risk of these heavy metals. The increase in the sludge pH value with landfill time tended to promote the precipitation of heavy metals. Moreover, the sludge stabilization was found to be indicated by the formation of humic substance (HS) and volatilization of volatile matter (VM). The germination index (GI) values of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis) seeds grown in the 500 d anaerobically stabilized sludge were approximately 5.2- and 4.1-times higher than the values of those grown in the fresh sludge. The final sludge extract did not cause any significant inhibitory effect on the germination of the two types of seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Ryus, Caitlin R; Dolan, Catherine S; Dopson, Sue; Scott, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education). The primary outcome was school attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, ppads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37), all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39). The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these results suggest that a large-scale cluster randomized trial is warranted. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201202000361337.

  11. SANITARY-HYGIENIC ASPECTS IN COMMERCIALIZATION IN FISH MARKET IGARAPÉ DAS MULHERES, MACAPÁ-AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Souza Silva Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being highly perishable, the fish requires special care from capture to arrival at the consumer's home. However, after the capture, the microbiota is altered at all stages. This study aimed to assess the sanitary conditions of marketing of fish in the Fish Friday, Macapá-AP, in order to identify critical points of the process. We used the direct observational method with the application of a checklist, based on the RDC nº216, items for building, equipment / instruments, utensils and hygiene, clothing, hygienic habits, personal protective equipment and quality raw material. The fair in question was rated in Group 2, failing to meet the requirements of industry topics Organization (marketing space extremely limited, national manager indefinite absence of good practice manual, along with the standard operating procedures; hygiene observation site (fish is exposed without ice, ice used only for storage, water use without treatment, and cleaned the handler (clothing unsatisfactory, tobacco consumption during marketing, simultaneous manipulation of money and food, no clean hands when handling food thus does not meet the provisions of the legislation. Such unconformities compromise the quality of products and endangers the health of the consumer, demonstrating that only the drafting of laws is not sufficient to ensure food safety without intense scrutiny in conjunction with the drafting resolutions appropriate to the reality of each region and training programs aimed at promoting recycling and the production of safe food hygiene and sanitary conditions in the question that reality cannot be changed. Keywords: marketing of fish; conditions of merchantability; market.

  12. SANITARY-HYGIENIC QUALITY OF FRESH AND FROZEN TILAPIA (Oreochromis spp. IN PUBLIC MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Xavier Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the sanitary quality of tilapia (Oreochromis spp. sold in public markets in the city of Mossoro-RN. For such we made use of a checklist and an observational study to evaluate good handling practices in 10 establishments that commercialize fish. We obtained 30 samples of tilapia and evaluated them as to their sensory and microbiological aspects (Salmonella spp., coliforms at 45 ºC, Staphylococcus ssp. count, psychrotrophic bacteria and enterobacteria, as well as to their pH and internal and external temperature. We observed that none of the studied establishments were in accordance with the standards recommended by the legislation. Regarding the sensory evaluation, 83.3% of the samples showed compliance with the requirements of the legislation. As for the coliforms at 45 °C essay, the results ranged from 0.477 to 1.509 log10 CFU/g; in the Staphylococcus spp. essay we found results from 4.854 to 5.397 log10 CFU/g; and further, we found values from 3.884 to 4.937 and from 4.707 to 5.463 log10 CFU/g for enterobacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. All the samples were within the requirements for contamination by Salmonella spp. (absence. The pH ranged from 5.99 to 6.18 and temperatures indicated non-compliance with the recommendations. Thus, we can infer that the sanitary quality of tilapia sold in public markets in Mossoro-RN was impaired, presenting a risk to consumer health due to unsatisfactory handling conditions. Keywords: best practices; microbiology; physio-chemistry.

  13. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  14. [Status and directions of improving of surveillance subsystem of sanitary-epidemiological situation in the service of emergency medicine of the Ministry of Defense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuchenko, O M; Karniz, A F; Iakovlev, S V; Korniushko, I G

    2011-07-01

    The article provides a description of the composition and tasks of government, forces and means of preventive direction of Disaster Medicine Service in countering the biological threats. The subsystem of supervision of sanitary-epidemiological situation, functioning at the central, regional and territorial levels is entrusted with the organization and conduct of monitoring activities, monitoring, assessment, prediction, prevention and elimination of the adverse health and sanitary emergencies. The author suggests the promising areas of optimization of the subsystem of supervision of sanitary-epidemiological situation.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. METHODS: A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education. The primary outcome was school attendance. RESULTS: After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, p<.001. After 5 months, puberty education alone improved attendance to a similar level (M = 91.26, SD = 7.82 as sites where pads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37, all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39. The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these

  17. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN PROVISIONS OF SANITARY NORMS AND RULES EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SAFETY FOUNTAINS OF UKRAINE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov MB

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main points of sanitary norms and rules of operation of fountains operating in recirculation mode (water recycling and their water supply from water bodies or water supply systems (flow mode, developed on the basis of standards of operation of swimming pools. Based on a proposal formulated standards specifications applicable to the disinfection system and water purification fountains operating in recirculation mode, implemented in the form of technology based on the bactericidal properties of silver ions and copper. The presented approach to biosecurity fountains found support from the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and has been the basis of input sanitary norms and regulations will come into effect in 2013.

  19. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. The production of hot sanitary water by condensing boilers: Analysis of the seasonal experimental results of a central heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliari, R.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.

    1988-12-01

    The use of condensing boilers in the production of hot sanitary water clearly evidences their advantages, since the highest operating temperatures are only around 60/degree/C. This paper examines performance test results relevant to a central heating plant (serving a residential area in Rovereto, Italy) with 112 kW of thermal power. The analysis reveals the excellent performance characteristics of the condensing boilers and points out the importance of proper management of the recirculation system.

  2. An analysis of the Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) subproject of the sanitary sewer rehabilitation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, W.; Siemiatkoski, S.

    1994-01-25

    The comprehensive rehabilitation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sanitary Sewer System centers around a Cured-in-Place Pipe project. Driven by regulatory requirements to eliminate the potential for exfiltration, a careful condition assessment of the existing infrastructure was conducted. Under programmatic constraints to maintain continuous operations, the INLINER USA cured-in-place pipe system was selected as the appropriate technology, and the project is currently under contract.

  3. [Organization and execution of surveillance of the sanitary and epidemiologic situation under conditions of the emergency situation of a natural character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Butaev, T M; Gadzieva, G K; Gusalova, L P; Tsgoeva, S K

    2003-01-01

    The data on the work of the formations and institutions of the sanitary and epidemiological service of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania under the conditions of the emergency situation of the natural character (high floods) in June 2002 and the liquidation of its consequences are presented. Experience in ensuring the interaction between the formations of the sanitary and epidemiological service on the problems connected with the realization of the epidemiological surveillance in the territories affected by the natural calamity is described.

  4. Biogas plant at the sanitary landfill of Vitoria-Gasteiz (ES); Planta de biogas en el vertedero de Vitoria-Gasteiz (ES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Orejas, J.C.; Beyebach Bendich, A.

    1995-06-01

    A biogas collecting and incineration plant has been set up in the sanitary landfill of Gardelegui, in Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain) at the end of 1994. There more, it is being studied the kind of biogas obtained in order to evaluate the possibility of an energy recovering. So the sanitary landfill reduces its environmental impact, reducing methane emissions to air and biogas filtering to near soils. (Author)

  5. The Effectiveness of Sanitary Inspections as a Risk Assessment Tool for Thermotolerant Coliform Bacteria Contamination of Rural Drinking Water: A Review of Data from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoad, Christian; Nagel, Corey; Bhattacharya, Animesh; Thomas, Evan

    2017-04-01

    AbstractThe use of sanitary inspections combined with periodic water quality testing has been recommended in some cases as screening tools for fecal contamination. We conducted sanitary inspections and tested for thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), a fecal indicator bacteria, among 7,317 unique water sources in West Bengal, India. Our results indicate that the sanitary inspection score has poor ability to identify TTC-contaminated sources. Among deep and shallow hand pumps, the area under curve (AUC) for prediction of TTC > 0 was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-0.61) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.54-0.62), respectively, indicating that the sanitary inspection score was only marginally better than chance in discriminating between contaminated and uncontaminated sources of this type. A slightly higher AUC value of 0.64 (95% CI=0.57-0.71) was observed when the sanitary inspection score was used for prediction of TTC > 0 among the gravity-fed piped sources. Among unprotected springs (AUC = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.38-0.55) and unprotected dug wells (AUC = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.66), the sanitary inspection score performed more poorly than chance in discriminating between sites with TTC 0. Aggregating over all source types, the sensitivity (true positive rate) of a high/very high sanitary inspection score for TTC contamination (TTC > 1 CFU/100 mL) was 29.4% and the specificity (true negative rate) was 77.9%, resulting in substantial misclassification of the sites when using the established risk categories. These findings suggest that sanitary surveys are inappropriate screening tools for identifying TTC contamination at water points.

  6. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  7. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (pfood hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  8. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  9. Post-rehabilitation flow monitoring and analysis of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Littlefield, D.C.; Villegas, M.

    1996-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated by the University of California under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Livermore site, approximately 50 miles southeast of San Francisco, occupies 819 acres. So far, there have been three phases in an assessment and rehabilitation of the LLNL sanitary sewer system. A 1989 study that used data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows. A Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, from October of 1991 to March of 1996, in which the system was assessed and rehabilitated. The third study is the post-rehabilitation assessment study that is reported in this document. In this report, the sanitary sewer system is described, and the goals and results of the 1989 study and the SSR project are summarized. The goals of the post-rehabilitation study are given and the analytical procedures and simulation model are described. Results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work or study are given. Field operations are summarized in Appendix A. References are provided in Appendix B.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  11. Fire prediction for a non-sanitary landfill “Bubanj” in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Emina R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the “Bubanj” landfill near the City of Niš, Serbia, which has been used for 47 years and which is categorized as a non-sanitary landfill. We utilised the LandGEM 3.02 model, used for estimating landfill gas emission rates, to calculate the amount of landfill gases. Additionally, we measured the amount and composition of landfill gas in section S4 of the landfill from July 2014 to June 2015. We utilised the ALOHA software to estimate the fire-vulnerable zone. The results of our analysis show that the measured average methane emission is higher than the calculated emission. The difference between the measured average emission and calculated emission of methane is logical, as the measurements were performed in an active section, where methane emission higher than in inactive sections is to be expected. Based on the measured methane emissions during one year, we conclude that the methane emission drops as the ambient temperature drops. This paper showcases the state of the “Bubanj” landfill, which is highly unsatisfactory in terms of environmental and fire protection because of landfill gas generation.

  12. Occupational Health Hazards in Sanitary Workers of Chandrapur City, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka V. Patil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available About 198 sanitary workers work in Chandrapur Municipal Corporation, out of which 20 workers (10% of the population was selected as a sample size (all male workers. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Occupational health hazards of these workers were analyzed through questionnaire survey and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR analysis. The results of the study showed that, these workers were exposed to a number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (85%, exposure to harmful gases (65%, respiratory problems (45%, headache (40%, dermatological problem (35%, gastrointestinal (10% and leptospirosis (10% during work. It was further observed that the workers were suffering from cough and cold (90%, skin problems (50%, allergies (15%, malaria and typhoid (15%, bronchitis lung and asthmatic problems (10% and hearing disorder (5% etc. after completion of work. The PEFR values were lower in exposed workers. Reduction in PEFR values was directly proportional with exposure duration. To reduce occupational health hazards, workers must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments such as face mask, gloves, gum boots, caps, apron etc. should be encouraged.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-3, Jun-Aug 2017, page: 15-24

  13. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  14. Investigation of Demodex Spp. prevalence among managers and workers of health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali; Karaman, Ulku; Degerli, Serpil; Colak, Cemil; Karadan, Mesut; Karci, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Two Demodex species are known to live on people. Demodex folliculorum lives in the openings of hair follicles alone or in groups. D brevis lives in the depths of the sebaceous glands alone. There are different related on the epidemiology of Demodex species have been published. In this study, taking into account that the parasite is transmitted through close contact from person to person, we aimed to evaluate the relation between the presence of Demodex spp with gender and age among the Health hazard bearing and sanitary establishment operators and workers who came for porter examination. For this purpose, 862 male and 215 female patients with a total of 1077 volunteers from the face area of the standard superficial skin biopsy (SSSB) method and studied samples were taken. More than five mites in 1 cm(2) density was defined as positive. In investigated samples 37.3% Demodex spp. positivity was detected. Only two were found to be D brevis and the others were D folliculorum. The study revealed statistically significant relationships between the positivity of parasites with the occupational group, age and sex. Since the prevalence of Demodex among healthy individuals without any complaint was found to be 37%, we believe Demodex spp should be investigated in porter examinations of people who have dermatological complaints. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  16. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  17. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  18. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate.

  19. Water Hardness as Basic Indicator the Presence Fouling in Domestic Sanitary Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián–Soto F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the water quality was done in the central valleys of Oaxaca state, finding very high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and carbonate in the waters from of deep wells that are located in the periphery of the river Atoyac, unlike the water that comes from the high parts of Etla valley, where there are maximum hardnesses of 140ppm, so for the distribution of both effluent to the city of Oaxaca and neighboring municipalities, suggesting a further dilution of the water treatment plant in "Fortin" in the city of Oaxaca, that after determining the Langelier index and other, with software found in the universal bibliography. The results indicate that water from the river Atoyac, have corrosive properties. In laboratory doing tests, the best dilution was 60 to 40% by volume, of water from Etla Valley and the periphery of the river respectively. Langelier index was converted to a negative, indicating saturation with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and will tend to dissolve, avoiding the deterioration of the sanitary units.

  20. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  1. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Organization of the service of the state sanitary and epidemic surveillance in the northern regions of the Chechen Republic at the emergency situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Fedorov, Iu M; Bogdanov, I K; Efremenko, V I; Evchenko, Iu M; Rudnev, S M; Budyka, D A; Kostiukovskiĭ, V M

    2001-01-01

    The data characterizing the sanitary and epidemiological state of the population and the groups of persons, forced to quit the place of their permanent residence, on the territory embracing the Nadterechny, Naursky and Shelkovskoi regions of the Chechen Republic (CR) during the period of December 16, 1999, to February 19, 2000. A sharp deterioration of the situation which led to the renewal of hostilities on the whole territory of the CR was accompanied by the disorganization of all vitally important structures, including the systems of health service, sanitary and epidemiological surveilance. The above-mentioned regions of the CR were of great importance in the organization of sanitary-hygienic and antiepidemic measures, as it is on the territories of these regions that the camps with many thousands of persons, forced to move temporarily from Grozny and other regions affected by hostilities, are concentrated. The activity of specialized brigades of the antiepidemic service, working in cooperation with local organs of health service, the State Committee of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Federation and local services of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, was of great importance for the restoration of the structures and functions of sanitary and antiepidemic organs.

  3. Sanitary protection zoning based on time-dependent vulnerability assessment model - case examples at two different type of aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanović, Vladimir; Jemcov, Igor; Dragišić, Veselin; Atanacković, Nebojša

    2017-04-01

    Delineation of sanitary protection zones of groundwater source is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary task. Uniform methodology for protection zoning for various type of aquifers is not established. Currently applied methods mostly rely on horizontal groundwater travel time toward the tapping structure. On the other hand, groundwater vulnerability assessment methods evaluate the protective function of unsaturated zone as an important part of groundwater source protection. In some particular cases surface flow might also be important, because of rapid transfer of contaminants toward the zones with intense infiltration. For delineation of sanitary protection zones three major components should be analysed: vertical travel time through unsaturated zone, horizontal travel time through saturated zone and surface water travel time toward intense infiltration zones. Integrating the aforementioned components into one time-dependent model represents a basis of presented method for delineation of groundwater source protection zones in rocks and sediments of different porosity. The proposed model comprises of travel time components of surface water, as well as groundwater (horizontal and vertical component). The results obtained using the model, represent the groundwater vulnerability as the sum of the surface and groundwater travel time and corresponds to the travel time of potential contaminants from the ground surface to the tapping structure. This vulnerability assessment approach do not consider contaminant properties (intrinsic vulnerability) although it can be easily improved for evaluating the specific groundwater vulnerability. This concept of the sanitary protection zones was applied at two different type of aquifers: karstic aquifer of catchment area of Blederija springs and "Beli Timok" source of intergranular shallow aquifer. The first one represents a typical karst hydrogeological system with part of the catchment with allogenic recharge, and the second one

  4. Effect of preparation variables of plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Ochoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of various preparation conditions for making plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware. We investigated the relationships between the processing conditions, microstructure, and final properties of the plaster molds. The results showed that the rheological behavior, and hence, the time during which the plaster suspension is pourable for making the plaster molds (before an important increase in viscosity due to the precipitation of gypsum crystals were dependent on the preparation conditions. Variations in the chemical composition, pore size distribution, and microstructure explained the statistically significant effect of preparation variables (including the mixing time, water temperature, and water quality. Preparation conditions that promoted high initial viscosity of the plaster suspension (accelerative effect of the setting time developed less porous structure in the mold that principally increased the compressive strength (16%, deionized water instead of tap water and the casting rate (9%, water at 25 °C instead of 38 °C. According to the results are proposed optimum conditions to make the molds while avoiding unnecessary energy use. Resumen: Mediante un diseño factorial completo se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de preparación de moldes de yeso para colado tradicional de muebles sanitarios. Se investigó la relación entre procesamiento, microestructura y propiedades del molde. Los resultados mostraron que el comportamiento reológico y por lo tanto el tiempo durante el cual la suspensión de yeso se puede verter para conformar los moldes (antes de un incremento importante de viscosidad debido a la formación de cristales de yeso fueron dependientes de las condiciones de preparación. Variaciones en composición química, distribución de tamaño de poro y microestructura explicaron el efecto estadísticamente significativo de las variables de preparación (que incluyeron

  5. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  6. The wind prophylaxis. Repressive and sanitary institutions in argentina’s Patagonia, 1880-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohoslavsky, Ernesto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of some social control technologies and discourses, displayed in Argentina’s provinces between 1880 and 1940, with particular reference to the so-called ‘Territorios Nacionales’ of La Pampa, Río Negro and Neuquén, which were submitted to a direct federal authority. The main purpose is to analyze —within these areas— the building of repressive and sanitary institutions (i. e., police, prisons, asylums, hospitals as well as the enforcement of positivists studying and classifying methodologies, intended to identify ‘abnormality’. A straight and permanent rule of these ‘Territorios Nacionales’ on the federal State could have meant a longer attention to their social and economic development through a direct and intense presence of national, modernizing, positivist institutions. However, a deeper historical study of repressive and sanitary institutions allows to arrive to completely different conclusions. The sources show that these institutions had numerous daily problems, were frequently and severely under-budgeted, and were obliged to develop not originally foreseen functions and tasks. These situations imply revising not only these institutions’ real regulation capacities but also the very existence of a generalized, efficient social control programme in Argentina at the beginning of the 20th century, as many scholars focused on Buenos Aires’s study case have already argued.

    Este artículo avanza sobre el significado de las tecnologías y discursos del denominado «control social» en el interior argentino, haciendo hincapié en los Territorios Nacionales de La Pampa, Neuquén y Río Negro, entre 1880-1940. En esos espacios, de jurisdicción federal, se tomará en cuenta la conformación de instituciones represivas como policía y cárceles y sanitarias, como hospitales y asilos, así como la aplicación de metodologías positivistas para el estudio y el establecimiento de grillas

  7. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of sushi and sashimi sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Muscolino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, psycrophilic bacteria (PB, Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ranged from 3.53 to 5.03 log CFU/g and coagulase positive staphylococci were found in 16 samples (2.00 to 3.60 log CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 3 samples (1.70 to 4.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. was found in 15 of the sushi samples (1.70 to 3.70 log CFU/g. In sashimi, the AMB, PB and SSOs values were higher than 7.00 log CFU/g, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were from 6.00 to 8.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. were found in six samples with means of 2.00 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in all sushi and sashimi samples.

  9. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  10. Sanitary-epidemiological assessment of quality of atmospheric air in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the comparative assessment of the sanitary and epidemiological quality of the ambient air in Moscow and the Russian Federation, that demonstrate a decrease of the air pollution level in 2014 in comparison with 2012, both in Moscow and in the Russian Federation, are presented in this study. It has been noted that most of the excess of hygienic air quality standards in the areas of Russian cities are recorded on stationary observation stations situated close to the motorway, located in residential areas, and in Moscow – in the zones of industrial enterprises’ impact. It has been revealed that the tendency to the reduction of the negative impact from industrial enterprises on air pollution is registered in the whole of the Russian Federation and in Moscow. It is demonstrated that the high-priority contaminating agents, the content of which for the year 2014 in the Russian Federation exceeded the hygienic daily average standards in 5 and more times, are mainly: benzo (a pyrene, suspended substances, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. To assess the quality of the ambient air in Moscow, the method of "inverse distance" and inter- and extrapolation of the data obtained from the observation stations on the whole territory of Moscow has been used. The study shows that the air quality of the individual administrative districts of Moscow varies considerably, and is determined by the traffic load level as well as by the volume of emissions of the industrial enterprises and the wind rose. As high-priority contaminating agents affecting the air quality, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, benzene, suspended substances, ozone and formaldehyde are distinguished. It is noted that close to the highway near Moscow there is an excessive concentration of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, phenol, and carbon monoxide, and in areas close to industrial zones – nitrogen dioxide, phenol formaldehyde and benzo (a

  11. Characterization of Concrete made with Recycled Aggregate from Ceramic Sanitary Ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility of reusing the ceramic wastes of sanitary ware as coarse aggregate, in partial substitution (15, 20 y 25 % of natural coarse aggregates. Firstly, the characterization of recycled coarse ceramic aggregate was carried out subsequently proceeded to establish the parameters of dosage and manufacture of different concretes. Lastly, tests were conducted using these mixes to characterize physical and mechanical, and a study was carried out to identify the crystalline phases. Results showed that as the substitution proportion increased, the mechanical properties of the concrete improved, whilst physical properties remained practically constant. In view of these results, we conclude that it is possible to use this type of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate when mixing concrete destined for structural purposes.

    En este estudio se plantea la posibilidad de reutilizar los residuos cerámicos de sanitarios como árido grueso sustituyendo de forma parcial (15, 20 y 25 % al árido grueso natural. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la caracterización del árido cerámico reciclado y posteriormente se procedió a establecer los parámetros de dosificación y fabricación de los distintos hormigones. Finalmente, se realizó sobre los mismos unos ensayos de caracterización de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, y un estudio de las fases cristalinas. Los resultados indican que a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de sustitución se ven mejoradas las propiedades mecánicas de estos, mientras que las propiedades físicas se mantienen prácticamente constantes. A la vista de estos resultados se puede concluir que es posible la utilización de este tipo de residuo cerámico como árido grueso en la elaboración de hormigones con fines estructurales.

  12. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  13. Socio-sanitary profile and information for living kidney donors and recipients in three Andalusian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Calvo, Manuel-Ángel; Morgado Almenara, Isabel; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Moreno Rodríguez, Andrés; Puertas Cruz, Teresa; García Álvarez, Teresa; Carmona Vílchez, María Dolores

    2017-11-09

    Information provided by health professionals to potential donors and recipients is essential for an autonomous and objective decision to make a living kidney donation. To determine the characteristics of the information received by living kidney donors and recipients, to find out their socio-sanitary profile, their socio-demographics, financial and labour characteristics, health and the caregiving activity of these donors and recipients. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of the population of living kidney donors and recipients from the University Hospitals Puerta del Mar (Cádiz), Virgen del Rocío (Seville), and the University Hospital Complex of Granada, between 08/04/2014 and 08/06/2015. According to the 40 living kidney donors and their 40 recipients surveyed, it is mainly nephrologists who make people aware and provide information about living kidney donation. Almost half of recipients require more information so the evaluation processes and pre-donation information should be updated. In general, the living kidney donor is female, aged 50, with primary/secondary education, lives with a partner and is related to the kidney recipient. Also, the living kidney donor is in paid employment, is overweight, perceives her health as very good or good, and does not smoke or drink alcohol. However, the typical living kidney recipient is male, aged 44 and has completed secondary school studies and vocational training. Furthermore, he does not work, perceives his health as good or regular, and he is an independent person for activities of daily living. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A potential sanitary sewer overflow treatment technology: fixed-media bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2011-08-01

    Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BODs/m2 x h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment.

  15. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  16. To estimation of health risks of workers during classification of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and planning of state control (by the example of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When estimating of health risks of workers for planning tasks of audits of compliance with health legislation on facilities of Moscow, it is found that most often non-compliances with requirements for working conditions are registered in industrial enterprises, among other, on wood-shaving material production facilities; air and water transport facilities, and in a number of communication facilities. The most serious consequences of breach of statutory requirements for working conditions are typical for activity in the sphere of motor transport and industrial production. It is defined by the structure of the types of deterioration of health among which there are traumas, diseases of a cardiovascular and nervous system. Analysis of more than 35.5 thousand facilities of sanitary and epidemiological supervision showed that the highest levels of health risks for workers are formed on industrial facilities (the risks are classified as “average”, “significant” and “high”, in construction («significant» or «moderate», on a number of manufacturing activities and in energy engineering. For the mentioned facilities the risks to workers can define the main class of an object based on the risk of infliction of harm, in general, the audits must be based on profound analysis of working conditions and include a complete complex of laboratory researches. When checking of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, carrying out such kinds of activity as chain retailing, provision of services health care, education, etc., the highest risks are formed for consumers of goods and services. On these facilities the control in the sphere of occupational hygiene can occupy a smaller share in a total volume of a scheduled activity. Relevant direction of further perfection of the risk-based surveillance is formation of an exhaustive list of the statutory requirements for working conditions with differentiation of these requirements on levels of severity

  17. [The becoming of public medicine (second half of XVIII-first half of xix centuries). Report I: The origin of concept of medical police, governing bodies of medical sanitary business, physician sanitary legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotchik, A M; Zatravkin, S N; Stotchik, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present report covers the history of origination of concept of medical police in the second half of XVIII century. This body became one of the most important tool of state governance in Austria. France, Prussia and Russia. The relationship between origin of this concept and the results of scientific studies in area of investigation of epidemic constitutions is demonstrated. Two directions of activity of bodies of state governance are considered concerning the implementation of medical police--imposition of public administration of activities of physicians and development by joint efforts of physicians and lawyers of special physician sanitary legislation.

  18. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  1. A Study on historical-cultural architectural fabric of Bushehr Port an Urban, cultural and sanitary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    darioush Ranjbar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays ancient cultural historic sites are considered as a local cultural asset. The cultural historic fabric of Bushehr port is one of the most unique historical urban sites which is confronting destruction because of speedy urban development. Therefore, the viewpoints of the historic fabric inhabitants were investigated to map its pathological pattern through a multidisciplinary approach. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, the viewpoints of the inhabitants in the historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port was assessed, through a questionnaire, using random cluster multistage sampling method. The questionnaire was based on four dimensions including: social, sanitary, urban and cultural heritage. Results: A total of 218 residential units of the historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port were surveyed. A portion of one fifth of the inhabitants were familiar with cultural heritage item, yet more than 60% of them agreed upon a renovation of the historic fabric of Bushehr. Meanwhile, more than 80% of the residents received no facility to renew their houses. Drug abuses were mentioned as the most important factor regarding insecurity (52.8%. The most important prospect of people from the municipality of the historic fabric of Bushehr port was renewal and renovation of the residential units (36.7% and 24.9% asked for renovation of pathways and alleys. Providing a sewage collecting network and regular daily gathering of garbage were reported as the most important sanitary need by the inhabitants. Conclusion: The inhabitants of historic cultural fabric of Bushehr port are interested in preserving their residential units as a cultural heritage, but sanitary and urban problems such as sewage and garbage collection system and the lack of patronage from the side of responsible organizations for renovating this Iranian historic fabric architecture are the deep problematic points.

  2. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  3. A qualitative understanding of the effects of reusable sanitary pads and puberty education: implications for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Steinfield, Laurel; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-06-27

    The management of menstruation has come to the fore as a barrier to girls' education attainment in low income contexts. Interventions have been proposed and piloted, but the emerging nature of the field means limited evidence is available to understand their pathways of effect. This study describes and compares schoolgirls' experiences of menstruation in rural Uganda at the conclusion of a controlled trial of puberty education and sanitary pad provision to elucidate pathways of effect in the interventions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with schoolgirls who participated in the Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty trial concurrent with the final set of quantitative surveys. A framework approach and cross-case analysis were employed to describe and compare the experiences of 27 menstruating girls across the four intervention conditions; education (n = 8), reusable sanitary pads (n = 8), education with reusable sanitary pads (n = 6), and control (n = 5). Themes included: menstrual hygiene, soiling, irritation and infection, physical experience, knowledge of menstruation, psychological, social and cultural factors, and support from others. Those receiving reusable pads experienced improvements in comfort and reliability. This translated into reduced fears around garment soiling and related school absenteeism. Other menstrual hygiene challenges of washing, drying and privacy remained prominent. Puberty education improved girls' confidence to discuss menstruation and prompted additional support from teachers and peers. Findings have important implications for the development and evaluation of future interventions. Results suggest the provision of menstrual absorbents addresses one core barrier to menstrual health, but that interventions addressing broader needs such as privacy may improve effectiveness. Puberty education sessions should increase attention to body awareness and include strategies to address a wider range of practical menstrual challenges

  4. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  5. Role of Community in Swachh Bharat Mission. Their Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Sanitary Latrine Usage in Rural Areas, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Lawrence, D; Timsi, J; Sivaprakasam, P

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the "Swachh Bharat Mission" to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.

  6. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Umamaheswari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. It also found that organization’s career development provision alone is not enough and need to be modified according to the employer’s expectation. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.

  7. Dai bisogni di salute al consumo di risorse sanitarie in provincia di Bergamo: profilo degli indicatori di bisogno, domanda, offerta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zucchi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: la complessità interpretativa dei dati relativi ad alcuni fenomeni sanitari a livello territoriale impone la necessità di uno strumento semplice di lettura “epidemiologica”; tale lettura si fonda sull’utilizzo di una serie di “indicatori”, fondamenta di un processo dinamico di monitoraggio temporale e spaziale in grado di descrivere sinteticamente fenomeni di per sé complessi, al fine di fornire al decisore un supporto sintetico ma scientificamente solido.

    Obiettivi: istituzione di un sistema di monitoraggio sanitario community-based; definizione di indicatori sanitari comparabili tramite un esame critico dei dati esistenti; sviluppo di metodologie per la raccolta e la validazione dei dati; supporto alla creazione di un sistema efficace e affidabile di trasferimento e scambio dei dati e degli indicatori stessi con uso spinto della tecnologia telematica; elaborazione di metodi e di strumenti necessari alla produzione di analisi e relazioni.

    Materiali e metodi: gli indicatori analizzati fanno riferimento
    all’elenco definito dal decreto ministeriale n. 27 del 12 dicembre 2001 “sistema di garanzie per il monitoraggio dell’assistenza sanitaria”. A questo elenco ne sono stati aggiunti altri, per un totale di 127, divisi in grandi capitoli tematici: assistenza sanitaria, assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera, indicatori stato di salute, consumo di risorse sanitarie (cui è stato dato particolare enfasi, indicatori di domanda/accessibilità. Per definire infine un
    profilo di sintesi di questi grandi capitoli e delle relative
    eterogeneità territoriali si è successivamente applicata la tecnica statistica dello “z-score”.
    Risultati: le differenze emerse a livello distrettuale hanno permesso di disegnare una ‘mappa’ degli indicatori sanitari in provincia di Bergamo.

    Conclusioni:i risultati di

  8. New legal regime for phyto sanitary products; Un nuevo regimen juridico para los envases de productos fitosanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda Gomez, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the Cabinet celebrated on he 14 degree centigree of December of 2001, the Government approved an important Royal Decree by means of which a new legal regime for phyto sanitary products of agricultural use was settled down. Its high-priority objective is to assure that the packaging waste generated after their use would be gathered without harming the environment and the public health, also guaranteeing that its final management will be carried out by means of the more correct methods environmentally. (Author)

  9. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  10. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin

    2012-01-01

    production process on meeting the hygiene-sanitary conditions during the production process tself, which primarily implies adequate washing and disinfecting of the equipment, the required temperature regimen for the pasteurization of the cream and similar activities, as well as the immaculate hygiene of the workers engaged in the production process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Unapređenje i razvoj higijenskih i tehnoloških postupaka u proizvodnji stočne hrane sa ciljem proizvodnje visokokvalitetnih i bezbednih proizvoda konkurentnih na globalnom tržištu

  11. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after a second biological process, 6.2 kJ L(-1) UV energy and 36 kWh m(-3) electrical energy were consumed using SPEF with a BDD anode at 200

  12. Bacterial population development and chemical characteristics of refuse decomposition in a simulated sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlaz, M A; Schaefer, D M; Ham, R K

    1989-01-01

    Population development of key groups of bacteria involved in municipal refuse conversion to methane was measured from the time of initial incubation through the onset of methane production. Hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens, and acetate- and H(2)-plus-CO(2)-utilizing methanogens were enumerated by the most-probable-number technique with media containing oat spelt xylan, ball-milled cellulose, butyrate, acetate, and H(2) plus CO(2), respectively. Refuse decomposition was monitored in multiple replicate laboratory-scale sanitary landfills. A laboratory-scale landfill was dismantled weekly for microbial and chemical analysis. Leachate was neutralized and recycled to ensure methanogenesis. The methane concentration of the sampled containers increased to 64% by day 69, at which time the maximum methane production rate, 929 liters of CH(4) per dry kg-year, was measured. Population increases of 2, 4, 5, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude were measured between fresh refuse and the methane production phase for the hemicellulolytic bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, butyrate-catabolizing acetogens, and acetate- and H(2)-CO(2)-utilizing methanogens, respectively. The cellulolytic bacteria and acetogens increased more slowly than the methanogens and only after the onset of methane production. The initial decrease in the pH of the refuse ecosystem from 7.5 to 5.7 was attributed to the accumulation of acidic end products of sugar fermentation, to the low acid-consuming activity of the acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria, and to levels of oxygen and nitrate in the fresh refuse sufficient for oxidation of only 8% of the sugars to carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition was most rapid after establishment of the methanogenic and acetogenic populations and a reduction in the initial accumulation of carboxylic acids. A total of 72% of these carbohydrates were degraded in the container sampled after 111 days. Initially

  13. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the

  14. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  15. Evaluation of the potential for hysteresis in index-velocity ratings for the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Sinha, Sumit; Dutta, Som; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois, as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting is mandated by a U.S. Supreme Court decree in order to monitor, and limit, the State of Illinois’ annual diversion of Great Lakes water through the manmade CSSC. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics reviews USGS streamgaging practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee expressed concern that the index-velocity rating—the method used to estimate mean cross-sectional velocity from a measured index velocity—may be subject to hysteresis at this site because of the unique, unsteady hydraulics of the canal. Hysteresis in index-velocity ratings can occur at sites where the flow distribution in the channel varies significantly between the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph for the same discharge. Presently, hysteresis in index-velocity ratings has been documented only in tidally affected sites. This report investigates whether hysteresis can occur at this nontidal site, and the conditions under which it is likely to occur, by using both a theoretical approach and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The theoretical analysis investigated the conditions required for hysteresis in the index-velocity rating, and the modeling analysis focused on the effect of the timing of the inflows from the CSSC and the Cal-Sag Channel on the potential for hysteresis and whether highly resolved simulations of actual high-flow events show any evidence of hysteresis. Based on both a theoretical analysis using observed historical data and an analysis using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, there is no conclusive evidence for the existence of hysteresis in the index-velocity rating at the USGS

  16. [Sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in Brazil: a study of the law bills from 1988 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Isa Cristina Lopes; Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2010-11-01

    This study analyses law bills towards the sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in the mass media presented to the Brazilian Congress from 1988 to 2004. The sanitary control of this advertising is a controversial issue bringing about an ethical-political debate in which the health-protecting interests conflict with commercial ones even after scientific evidence has established increasing alcohol intake as a health and social issue worldwide. The content analysis of 67 of such law bills was carried out, and these proposals were shown to consist mostly of strategies to both cope with alcohol advertising by dissociating from the product those values that might interfere with the children and teenagers' building of their social identity and limit advertisement contents in the mass media given the higher vulnerability of the subjects in that age range. This study reveals complexes challenges for the control of alcohol advertisement that in turn lead to rethinking the action of the State apparatus in dealing with this major public health issue.

  17. [Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment.

  18. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  20. Research, development and demonstration in the design of sanitary landfill to optimize the generation and capture of compressible gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, M. E.; Teeple, F. E.; Buesch, S. C.

    1982-02-01

    The influences of selected factors on the generation and recovery of methane gas from sanitary landfills were investigated. The factors included encapsulation, shredding, air classifying, moisture, and pH. Facilities consisting of six model sanitary landfill cells, each with a capacity of approximately 450 cubic yards of municipal waste, and auxiliary subsystems were constructed. Municipal waste in each cell is contained in a 30-mil thick polyvinly chloride plastic sheeting forming a virtually gas-tight envelope. Two cells were filled with as-collected urban waste, two with shredded waste, and two with shredded and air classified waste, constituting three pairs of cells. One of each pair is a control cell with the other used as an experimental variable. Systems were provided for adding measured amounts of water, removing and recirculating leachate, and for extracting gas and measuring gas flow. During testing, gas production and internal cell characteristics were measured to determine the effects of mechanical processing, moisture content, and leachate pH.

  1. Definition of sanitary boundaries to prevent ISAv spread between salmon farms in southern Chile based on numerical simulations of currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Gonzalo; Sepúlveda, H. H.; Yannicelli, B.

    2015-06-01

    The infectious Salmon Anemia virus (ISAv) is a pathogen that mainly affects the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). It was detected in Norway in 1984 and in June 2007 appeared in Chile, producing a drop of more than 30% in the country's production level. It is expected that with certain regularity, outbreaks will continue to appear in Chile without the need of reintroducing the virus from foreign countries. We present a numerical study of the influence of winds and tides in the dispersion of lagrangian particles to simulate the transport of ISAv in the Aysen region, in southern Chile. This study combines the use of numerical models of the ocean and atmosphere, lagrangian tracking and biological aspects of ISAv infections. As in previous results, a wider dispersion of ISAv was observed during spring tides. Temporal changes in wind significantly modified the transport of viral particles from an infected center. Under similar forcing conditions, the areas of risk associated to culture sites separated by a few kilometers could be very different. Our main results remark the importance of the use of a detailed knowledge of hydrographic and atmospheric circulation in the definition of boundaries for sanitary management areas. We suggest that a methodology similar to the one presented in this study should be considered to define sanitary strategies to minimize the occurrence of native outbreaks of ISAv.

  2. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  3. Children Living near a Sanitary Landfill Have Increased Breath Methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in Their Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bezerra de Araujo Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher P<0.05 concentrations in those who lived in the slum near the landfill (3.16×107 CFU/g of feces, comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05×106 CFU/g of feces and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93×105 CFU/g of feces. The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  4. [Risk assessment of adverse environmental factors affecting the health of the Russian population by the Russian State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2003-01-01

    In the article there are adduced the practical aspects of realization of a concept of risk evaluation of the adverse environment factors influencing the health of the Russian population by the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. Epidemiological data on the influence of the most spread free air contaminants is summarized and a matter of monitoring food products safety is considered. There are outlined arrangements for the successful application of the evaluation of risk of the different environment factors influencing the populations health to practical activities of the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of Russia.

  5. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  6. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... approximately 30 miles from Lake Michigan and creates an electric field in the water by pulsing low voltage DC... hazards associated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' simultaneous operation of electric barriers IIA... sound method for preventing and reducing the dispersal of non-indigenous aquatic nuisance species...

  7. [Application of administrative enforcement while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobov, A E; Berskiĭ, O V; Nebredovskiĭ, V N; Zharkov, D A

    2013-05-01

    The article deals with the legal framework of an application of administrative enforcement. The authors analyzed the information about a quantity and structure of administrative violation in the sanitary and epidemiological welfare, revealed during 2009-2011 while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance by the Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense (TsGSEN MF RF) in military units and organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and applied administrative sanctions. The acquired data was compared with the same data acquired by The Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being (Rospotrebnadzor). The results of research give a reason to consider TsGSEN MF activity according to index of application of administrative enforcement as ineffective. It shows the significant underestimate of administrative sanctions for the failure to comply with requirements of the health legislation. The authors formulated practical recommendations for activation of legal mechanics application by the specialists of TsGSEN MF RF while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  8. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Methodological guide.; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorennec, Ph.; Nourry, L [Cellule Inter-Regionale d' Epidemiologie (France); Quenel, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The institute of sanitary watch has setting up an epidemiological surveillance plan in nine french towns in order to quantify and to keep a close eye to the relations existing between the urban air pollution and the populations health.The method is detailed with its advantages and its limits. (N.C.)

  9. Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

  10. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  11. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  12. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  13. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  14. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  15. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use...

  16. New aspects on air-conditioning and sanitary arrangements in fitness clubs today. Kuchoter dot eisei setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, T. (Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-05

    Conditions required for air conditioning systems are different largely in facilities of fitness clubs. Therefore, greatly required is a facilities plan which gives adequate consideration of features seen in the air conditioning systems, for example, in aerobics studios and hot-spa swimming pools. Trials to comfort the facility environment are described, such as introduction of the PMV (predicted mean vote) thermal environmental control, scent and sway. Also, the necessity of energy conservation by cogeneration for profitability improvement of the club management is described. Then, the points to be considered are written concerning installation of water-supply, hot water-supply and drain facilities and sanitary fixtures. As for a jacuzzi bath to be taken after exercises, improvement of functions and stability, in particular, is talked of. Last, composition of the information system indispensable to club management and service to users is mentioned. 7 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Engineering Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  18. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  19. [Development and use of a new growth medium for detection and identification of sanitary-indicative microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosenko, O V; Marchikhina, I I; Sholokhova, L P; Martovetskiĭ, M N; Khramov, M V

    2008-01-01

    Threat of emergence and spreading of dangerous intestinal infections determines the necessity to control for water quality in its sources in respect of sanitary-indicative microorganisms, thermo-tolerant coliforms and lactose-negative intestinal bacilli testifying fecal pollution. Standard techniques for isolation of enterobacteria are based on use of lactose-containing inhibitory and non-inhibitory growth media such as lactase-peptone and Kessler media. Development of standard, effective, and reliable for use in laboratory conditions accumulation medium for detection of enterobacteria aimed to increase reliability of sanitary-bacteriological monitoring of objects of aquatic environment. Two variants of Eikman medium with an added indicator were designed for differentiation of enterobacteria on the basis of lactose and glucose fermentation with application of a thermo-tolerance test at 44-46 degrees C. Maximal accumulation of coliforms on the developed media in static cultivation conditions and at sensitivity on the level of individual cells was observed after 16 +/- 2 hours, whereas in control inhibitory media--after 22 +/- 2 hours. Studies on sterilization of the developed media in disposable packages byy-irradiation were conducted to elucidate the possibility of their use in field conditions performing analysis in flasks for preservation of high growth properties. In order to reduce time for analysis on confirmation of detection of thermotolerant coliforms, addition of tryptophan in composition of the media was provided, which allows to perform an indole test and definitively confirm the detection of Escherichia coli. Pilot industrial samples of designed media were successively passed the approbation.

  20. Role of community in swachh bharat mission. their knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrine usage in rural areas, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the “Swachh Bharat Mission” to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. Objective: To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. Results: The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. Conclusions: To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.

  1. Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty: A Cluster Quasi-Randomised Control Trial of Sanitary Pad and Puberty Education Provision in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Steinfield, Laurel; Scott, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness. Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls' school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes. A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention). The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing. At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.77), with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7-25.5) greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls' self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation. Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls' school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted with caution in light of poor participant retention

  2. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  3. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  4. Evaluation of the sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Update version of the methodological guide; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Version actualisee du guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    In order to bring a help to the evaluation of effects of air quality on health, the Institute of Sanitary surveillance published in 1999 a method guide for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations of the urban air pollution. This work to prepare to an update version of the guide presents the first recommendations that can be made today for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations at short and long term at a local level, taking into account the knowledge evolution. (N.C.)

  5. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  6. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  7. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  8. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  9. Engineering knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Rosenberg; W. Edward Steinmueller

    2013-01-01

    In historical perspective, both the nature of and arrangements for the generation of engineering knowledge have evolved over the past 150 years. We examine the historical development of the search for ‘useful knowledge’ in agriculture, aeronautics and chemical engineering during the first half of this period and the evolving balance between public and private initiative in supporting this search. During this period, the US was engaged in the engineering knowledge was often empirical, practice...

  10. Cognitive Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S.; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  11. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  12. Selection of Ecologically Efficient and Energetically Economic Engineering-Ecological System for Municipal Solid Wastes Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary city cleaning is one of the most important sanitary and hygiene events, promoting protection of human health and environment. Sanitary cleaning includes a complex of works on solid municipal wastes (SMW collection, transportation, deactivation, processing and burial and urban territory cleaning. In order to improve the works on SMW handling and the ecological state of urban territories, enterprises of public and utility sphere operate, organizing all types of works listed above. However, processes of waste creation and accumulation are dynamic in their essence. Process of waste transportation depends on various factors. Management of this process often demands urgent correcting of earlier taken decisions or even cancellation of those decisions. Reasons of such changes could be of the most unpredictable nature, for example, traffic jams on motorways, vehicles breakage, repair works on the roads, etc. Thus, the enterprise (or, more precisely, the facilities serviced by it, the transport acting with the purpose of providing ecological safety to urban territories, is the source of E pollution by itself. One of the main stages of SMW handling is waste transportation, where sources of E pollution with wastes (accumulation points and enterprises on handling SMW are involved. That is why the solution of the pressing issue of increasing ecological safety of urban territories on the basis of ecologically efficient and energetically economic selection of engineering-ecological system of SMW transportation is represented in the article.

  13. Microbiological risk assessment of Agios Georgios source supplies in Northwestern Greece based on faecal coliforms determination and sanitary inspection survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulis, N; Maipa, V; Konstantinou, I; Albanis, T; Dimoliatis, I

    2005-03-01

    The assessment of potential risks from microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies is of greatest concern to human health. The study involves the examination of water samples from Agios Georgios source that supplies the capitals, the major towns and several villages of Arta, Preveza and Lefkada prefectures, in Northwestern Greece. The study includes the sanitary inspection survey of the source and the microbiological examination of water samples on a monthly basis during the period February 1996-June 1999 except of Augusts (n=38). The microbiological risk assessment (MRA) approach of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was applied to enhance the source protection. The faecal contamination of the source water was quantified using faecal coliforms (FC) as indicator bacteria. Microbiological analyses indicate that of the 38 samples analyzed the FC failure rate (positive samples) was 63.2% according to the limit set by the 98/83 directive of the European Union. The 36.8% of the source water samples was found in conformity with WHO guidelines, 42.1% of low risk, 21.1% of intermediate risk while there was not found samples of high or very high risk. Failure rates displayed a seasonal trend being greater during the winter, decreased during spring and autumn and lower during summer. This observation was explained partially by a significant positive relationship with the rainfall amount (r(Spearmann)=0.890, P=0.001). The sanitary inspection score was found 5/10 during the whole survey period that corresponds to an intermediate risk of source contamination. The color-code classification for FC contamination was found 36.8% A (blue, no risk), 42.1% B (green, low risk) and 21.1% C (yellow, intermediate risk). The previous risks were combined for the assessment of waterborne risk, which was determined as intermediate to high; therefore there is a need for high action priority. The potential remedial actions were also suggested in order to improve the source

  14. Multi-phase Temporal Seismic Imaging of a Slope Stability Mitigation Project at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill, San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, B. J.; Catchings, R.; Reed, D.; Goldman, M.

    2014-12-01

    Without slope stability mitigation, liquefaction-induced settlement in bay mud and Pleistocene alluvial deposits may lead to the collapse of levee walls surrounding sanitary landfills that are located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. To analyze the effectiveness of a slope stability mitigation project involving deep soil mixing at Newby Island Sanitary Landfill in San Jose, California, we acquired P- and S-wave seismic surveys along a transect through the mitigated region during, and two years after, completion of the mitigation project. Deep soil mixing involves the injection of a cement slurry in augered holes, resulting in groups of soil-cement columns (elements) that are intended to increase the strength and rigidity of the subsurface materials. For our seismic investigations, we used accelerated-weight-drop (AWD) and hammer impacts to generate P- and S-wave seismic sources, respectively, at 57 geophone locations, spaced 5 m apart. The resulting seismic data were recorded using 40-Hz, vertical-component (P-wave) and 4.5-Hz, horizontal-component (S-wave) sensors. Initially, we developed tomographic refraction (velocity) images along a progressive transition from a yet-to-be-mitigated area into a more recently mitigated area, located along the base of a steep slope composed of compacted landfill. The initial survey revealed an increase in seismic velocity in the treated area, seismic velocity increases with curing time for soil-cement elements, and a high-velocity zone beneath the active injection zone. The influence of the mitigation was most apparent from increases in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. To assess the long-term effects of the mitigation project, an identical, follow-up survey was acquired in July 2014, 23 months after the initial survey. We present a comparative analysis of the tomographic images from the two surveys, variations in Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios over time, and a comparison of in situ, time-varying seismic parameters with laboratory

  15. Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita C. Bragança de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira T.C.B., Curci V.C.L.M, Alves A.J.S., Morelli F.C.G., Buso D.S. & Queiroz L.H. [Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State.] Características higiênicas e sanitárias em propriedades produtoras de leite de assentamento da Região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:321- 326, 2015. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana, 793, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brasil. E-mail: lhqueiroz@fmva.unesp.br In order to check the hygienic and sanitary conditions of milk-producing farms from a settlement located at the northwestern region of São Paulo State, 62 of the resident families (246 people were interviewed by using a questionnaire which addressed since issues concerning to general infrastructure until animal health management. The results showed that: in all the farms water comes from wells and the sewage is disposed in septic tanks; the burning of domestic waste is a common practice in 90.3% of the farms; the average dairy herd cattle is 30.6 and the purchase of new animals is done from other farms within the same settlement; in all properties veterinary care is provided by ITESP’s (Land Institute of São Paulo State technicians and mastitis was the main disease of the herds occurring in 59,7% of the farms. Milk is collected in buckets or drums that are daily cleaned and stored in communal tanks distributed by the settlement. Alizarol is the only test performed every day. 100% of the farmers vaccinate their animals against foot and mouse disease and brucellosis, according to Official vaccination program. 62.9% of the interviewed owners do not eliminate correctly the carcasses. This study shows that properties needs infrastructure improvements, training of settlers to implementing measures of general and health

  16. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas Sannat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU. Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001. Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001 in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52, cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55, and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0 after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3, bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001 up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59, pass box (from 12

  17. Biosystems engineering

    OpenAIRE

    P. Ulger; E. Gonulol

    2015-01-01

    Higher agricultural education system has been getting multidiscipline as a result of the level oftechnology, recently. Biosystems Engineering has become popular in developed countries particularly afterelectronic and information technologies has been getting to be a part of agriculture and accompanied ofbiology. In this study definition of Biosystems Engineering discipline, working areas, research, publicationand job opportunities were discussed meticulously. Academic organization of Biosyste...

  18. Engineering Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  19. Engineering News

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn; Haugh, Lindsey; Simpkins, David

    2014-01-01

    Engineering News is the College of Engineering's annual newsletter sent to all alumni of the college. Virginia Tech leaders, along with counterparts in New Jersey, welcomed a late December approval by the Federal Aviation Administration to operate a test site to integrate unmanned aircraft into the national airspace.

  20. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  1. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  2. Women Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadtl, Sara Jane

    This booklet is designed to provide information to girls about the nature of and possible career opportunities in engineering. Following a brief introduction in which the characteristics of engineers are outlined (such as ability to solve problems, interest in science/mathematics, and urge to make creative use of their intelligence), answers to…

  3. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  4. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  5. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  6. [Basic activity of the Railroad Center of the State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Surveillance at the Vladikavkaz train station of the North Caucasus Railroad in the prevention of infectious diseases in an emergency situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisalov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the data on the activity of the Railroad (RR) Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance at the train station of Vladikavkaz of the North Caucasian RR at the period of the liquidation of the consequences of the natural calamity in June-July 2002. In accordance with the situation, the scheme of the interaction with the territorial services and departments were worked out, the operative plans of antiepidemic measures were rectified, the sanitary, hygienic and bacteriological control on the quality of drinking water supply and foodstuffs on RR trains and stations was strengthened, the work on sanitary education among the personnel and passengers in the zone of responsibility of the RR Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the North Caucasian RR was activated.

  7. Sewerage Pumping Stations, City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City of Brunswick., Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of unknown. City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City...

  8. Wastes and health: representation of sanitary risks linked to wastes and to their processing modes; Dechets et sante: representations des risques sanitaires lies aux dechets et a leurs modes de traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuilier, D.; Cochin, Y.

    1999-10-01

    This research has for objective the analysis of perception of sanitary risks in relation with wastes and the waste processing facilities. This work in at the intersection of the sociological study and the psychologic one. (N.C.)

  9. Vigilância Sanitária: uma proposta de análise dos contextos locais Sanitary Surveillance: a proposal for analyzing local environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Franke Piovesan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta pesquisa realizada em oito municípios do Estado da Paraíba, com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre os serviços de Vigilância Sanitária e os contextos sanitário, epidemiológico, político, social e econômico de seus territórios. O estudo, concluído em julho de 2003, foi desenvolvido pela Assessoria de Descentralização da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA e integra o Projeto Redevisa (Rede Descentralizada de Vigilância Sanitária, cuja proposta incluía a identificação de prioridades sanitárias e epidemiológicas locais e regionais para o repasse de recursos financeiros pela ANVISA. A pesquisa envolveu a visita aos municípios para a coleta de dados e informações, e seus resultados foram analisados à luz de forças restritivas e impulsoras para o desempenho dos Serviços de Vigilância Sanitária sob os aspectos relacionados à estrutura, processos de trabalho, gestão, contexto político e recursos financeiros. O estudo constatou a deficiente articulação entre o trabalho das Vigilâncias pesquisadas e o espaço sobre o qual atuam, tendo identificado fatores restritivos importantes para a ação de controle sanitário local. Neste artigo são expostas as idéias norteadoras da pesquisa, os resultados da análise, bem como o método proposto de reconhecimento e sistematização das informações indispensáveis para o planejamento em Vigilância Sanitária.This paper presents the results of a study carried out in eight municipalities of the state of Paraíba with the objective of analyzing the relationship between local services and the sanitary, epidemiological, political, social and economic contexts of these territories. The study, completed in July 2003, was developed by the Advisory Office for Decentralization of Sanitary Surveillance Actions from the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, and integrates the Redevisa Project (Sanitary Surveillance Decentralized Networking

  10. [Using modern information technology in the practice of the sanitary-epidemiological surveiliance during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Kuzkin, B P; Demina, Yu V; Dubyansky, V M; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Shayakhmetov, O Kh; Semenko, O V; Nazarenko, Yu V; Agapitov, D S; Mezentsev, V M; Kharchenko, T V; Efremenko, D V; Oroby, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaya, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Tesheva, S Ch; Rafeenko, G K

    2015-01-01

    To improve the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance at the Olympic Games has developed a system of GIS for monitoring objects and situations in the region of Sochi. The system is based on software package ArcGIS, version 10.2 server, with Web-java.lang. Object, Web-server Apach, and software developed in language java. During th execution of the tasks are solved: the stratification of the region of the Olympic Games for the private and aggregate epidemiological risk OCI various eti- ologies, ranking epidemiologically important facilities for the sanitary and hygienic conditions, monitoring of infectious diseases (in real time according to the preliminary diagnosis). GIS monitoring has shown its effectiveness: Information received from various sources, but focused on one portal. Information was available in real time all the specialists involved in ensuring epidemiological well-being and use at work during the Olympic Games in Sochi.

  11. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  12. [Assessment of the hygienic and sanitary conditions of housing in a sample in Chieti (central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, L; Savino, A

    2012-01-01

    The study describes the housing conditions of 106 dwellings in the town of Chieti (Abruzzo region, central Italy), inspected by Local Health Authority, in the period between the 1st of January 2009 and the 28th of February 2011. In 59.4% of them lived Italians, while in the remaining 40.6% lived foreigners. 35.8% of the houses met minimum law requirements, 24.5% were anti-hygienic, 24.5% anti-hygienic and overcrowded, 13.2% overcrowded, 1.9% uninhabitable. The main issues were moisture and molds (52.8%). The second one was the inadequacy of floor area in relation with inhabitants (37.7%). Other problems were bedrooms (9.4%), baths (8.5%) and kitchens not complying minimum law requirements, but also not sufficient both ceiling hights (3.7%) and windows (2.8%) of rooms. Considering that human population in richest countries spend up to 90% of their lives in indoor environment, especially at home, the links between housing and health are really strong, and more must be done to improve general consideration of these themes both in general population and involved professionists (i.e. physicians, other health professionists, social workers, architects and engineers).

  13. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  14. Effect of the Impact of Chemical and Environmental Factors on the Durability of the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Geogrid in a Sanitary Landfill

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kiersnowska; Eugeniusz Koda; Wojciech Fabianowski; Jacek Kawalec

    2016-01-01

    A high density polyethylene (HDPE) uniaxial geogrid was exhumed after twenty years of service in a sanitary landfill, and its properties were examined. A geogrid installed in a landfill is exposed to mechanical and chemical factors (e.g., a wide pH range and high temperatures), as well as different weather conditions. This paper presents the results of physical and mechanical analyses of virgin and aged HDPE geogrid samples. Structural changes observed by differential scanning calorimetry and...

  15. Un'Analisi antropologica della cultura organizzativa dei servizi socio sanitari e delle sue dinamiche socio-culturali di cambiamento in rapporto al fenomeno dell'immigrazione

    OpenAIRE

    Volpini, Maria Paola

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to help enlightening the processes of changement and re-organizazion inherent to the culture of the italian socio-sanitary system, as well as the wider cultural processes enacted by all social actors in their cultural contacts/encounters/clashes. Thus to underline the dynamics of redefinition of the organizational paradigms and their related praxis. These dynamics have promoted the recognition of stronghold categories even on the outside of their i...

  16. Draft of the new sanitary regulations for water recreational areas: the ground for inclusion of some requirements for the prevention of parasitic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Гаврилович Щербань

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to ground an inclusion of requirements for prevention of parasitic diseases into previously elaborated draft of the new sanitary regulations “eco-hygienic requirements for setting, keeping and organizing the routine of functioning of recreational areas of the water bodies”.Materials and methods: the state of the sand pollution was evaluated on the next indicators: the salts of heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogenic germs, helminthiasises harmful for humans. Laboratory investigations of sand were carried out before the beginning of the swimming season and also in the period of its most pollution (semination during the season and after the end of it.Results. On the parasitologic indicators the sand pollution in the beach areas of Kharkov region is in average more than 7% of the general number of assays during the last 5 years. On the sanitary-chemical indicators the sand pollution was absent and on microbiological ones – insignificant. An existing normative base that regulates the requirements for the conditions of recreation and sanitation on the water bodies doesn’t includes the full list of requirements for prevention of the parasitologic diseases, these requirements are presented in the large number of documents, it is imperfect and need changes. That’s why it is necessary to add into the new sanitary regulations the laboratory investigations of the sand (soil of the beaches while realization of the sanitary-parasitologic oversight on the recreational water bodies. Carrying out investigations it is necessary to take into account the 4 periods of semination of the sand with parasitogenic causative agents: 1 – the main one (March-May, 2. – the current summer one (June-August, 3. – the main autumn one (September-November, 4. – the sporadic period of the casual pollution (December-February. 

  17. Role of Community in Swachh Bharat Mission. Their Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Sanitary Latrine Usage in Rural Areas, Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Lawrence, D; Timsi, J; Sivaprakasam, P

    2017-01-01

    Background: In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the “Swachh Bharat Mission” to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. Objective: To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conduc...

  18. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Okojie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%, of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%, refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%, wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%, hand towel, 210 (73.4%, and soap, 220 (76.9%. There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%, and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%. Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%, vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%, and primary education, 33 (27.3%. There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P=0.362. Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices.

  19. Sanitary conditions of food vending sites and food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: implication for food hygiene and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, P W; Isah, E C

    2014-01-01

    To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices.

  20. Disease management of type 2 diabetes: a follow-up analysis in a sanitary district of Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, A; Bianco, A; Pomara, F; Petrucci, M; Grosso, F; De Vita, A; Adamo, V; Palma, A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the Disease management of type 2 diabetes in a sanitary district of the Sicily Region (Italy). In a population of 9 698 subjects, we selected patients with known type 2 diabetes: a cohort of 385 subjects, (206 women and 179 men) following up for one year. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the analyzed population was 3.97%. A great lot of cohort was on a diet. After one year, a per cent reduction of obese and overweight subjects was observed. No differences were observed for Body Mass Index (BMI) at the beginning and at the end of the study. After one year, through educational meetings with the doctor, a significant increase of knowledge on the patient's conditions and on the diabetes complications was verified, but our data showed persistent poor attention by doctors. The poor knowledge of patients led to a difficult disease management. After one year, a great lot of cohort used antistroke and cardiovascular disease therapy, reducing significantly the cardiovascular disease risk. However, our study also highlights a gap between the therapeutic guidelines and the actual treatment, with wide variability in the delivery of secondary prevention. CONCLUSION. Our study showed that a persevering warning and a constant adjournment of doctors improves the disease management, reducing complications risk in type 2 diabetes patients.

  1. MONITORING OF THE INTESTINAL TRACT PARASITE LOAD AND OF THE SANITARY MANGEMENT AT A PACA BREEDING FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 rearing has shown development in all Latin America countries. Fresh feces samples were collected from the soil and analyzed by Willis Mollay and Hoffmann’s techniques, aiming at accompanying the sanitary management, determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, and their respective load, of pacas raised in captivity, and evaluating parasite control strategies, between the months of November/2012 and June/2013. A McMaster’s camera was used for quantification. The reading was accomplished by optical microscopy with 25x and 40x lenses, which revealed 21,433 eggs per gram of feces (EPG, with an average of 2,679,12 (± 41.0 Strongyloides spp., and 3,325 EPG, with average of 415.6 (± 57.0 Trychuris spp. Besides, 482,101 oocytes per gram of feces (OPG were found, with an average of 60,263 (± 15.93 Eimeria spp., and 51 larvae of Strongyloides spp., with an average of 6.3 (± 6.86 larvae. Two eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta were identified in only one stall. An anthelminthic (albendazole 10% and trimethopim associated with sulfadiazine were used to treat the disease. We concluded the great index of parasitic infestation presented by the animals, in spite of the anthelminthic treatments, can be associated with the rainfall rates observed, the physical conditions of the instalations, as well as the adequate cleaning and sanitization of the facilities.

  2. [Proposal for an evaluation method of the psyco-social risks (stress) and for the orientation of the sanitary surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangredi, G; Monaco, M R; Scano, L; Perfetti, B

    2007-01-01

    The interest for the problematics linked to the stress in work environments has been till now limited to the consideration of its effects on health, even if the D.Lgs 626/94 obliges the employer to evaluate also the psyco-social risk, as has confirmed a sentence of the European Court of Justice. The present survey, lacking valid instruments to be found in literature, aims to experiment and evaluate a principle for the identification of causes, thus creating a model for the evaluation of risk also according to the indications published in the Document for the Consent of SIMLII in 2005, which can be used by Prevention and Protection Services and by Competent Medical Doctors. In the area of risks evaluation and of the attainment deriving from them. The model of evaluation of the risk deriving from work organization (stress), object of the present survey, has been sperimented in a sample composed of 268 employees in 13 municipal administration belonging to biographically known categories for stress risk afferent to 23 homogenuous organizational structures (traffic officers and nursery school teachers). The valued risk has been introduced in the VDR document and the indications for the sanitary surveillance have been formulated.

  3. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goguadze Ketevan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided.

  4. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  5. A Preliminary Account on the Sanitary Status of Stone Fruits at the Clonal Genebank in Harrow, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michelutti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Field observations and laboratory tests were carried out in Harrow to evaluate the sanitary status of the Clonal Genebank collection of stone fruit. The presence of viruses and viroids was determined by ELISA, tissueprinting hybridization and GF305 woody indexing. A total of 645 trees (197 peach and nectarine, 183 sweet and sour cherries, 106 plum, 106 apricot, and 53 other cherries were tested by ELISA for the presence of Plum pox virus (PPV, Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV and Prune dwarf virus (PDV. No evidence of PPV infection was found in the collection. PNRSV and PDV were frequently detected in single and mixed infections. The overall average of virus infection rate was 20.3%. A total of 336 trees (116 peach and nectarine, 84 sweet and sour cherries, 54 plum, 44 apricot, and 38 other cherries were tested by tissue printing hybridization for the presence of Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd. Thirty samples were infected, 28 peaches and nectarines with PLMVd and 2 apricots with HSVd. This is the first report to date, of HSVd presence in Canada. Finally, 114 (38.4% out of 297 tested accessions were found infected with at least one virus and/or viroid.

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate: Influence of anode material, chloride concentration and current density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A; Santos, D; Pacheco, M J; Ciríaco, L; Lopes, A

    2016-01-15

    The influence of applied current density and chloride ion concentration on the ability of Ti/Pt/PbO2 and Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4 anodes for the electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate samples was assessed and compared with that of BDD anode. For the experimental conditions used, results show that both organic load and nitrogen removal rates increase with the applied current density and chloride ion concentration, although there is an optimum COD/[Cl-]0 ratio below which there is no further increase in COD removal. Metal oxide anodes present a similar performance to that of BDD, being the results obtained for Ti/Pt/PbO2 slightly better than for Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4. Contrary to BDD, Ti/Pt/PbO2 promotes lower nitrate formation and is the most suitable material for total nitrogen elimination. The importance of the optimum ratio of Cl-/COD/NH4 +initial concentrations is discussed.

  7. Sanitary status and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile within Canadian hotel rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changyun; Weese, Scott J; Namvar, Azadeh; Warriner, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The study described in this article aimed at establishing a baseline assessment of the sanitary status of ice and guest rooms within Canadian hotels. Collectively, 54 hotel rooms belonging to six different national chains were sampled. High-contact surfaces (comforter, alarm clock, bedside lamp, TV remote, bathroom countertop, faucet, and toilet seat) were sampled using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swabs and replicate organism detection and counting plates. ATP swab readings ranged from 2.12 to 4.42 log relative light units. Coliforms were recovered from 36% of surfaces with high prevalence being recovered from the comforter, TV remote, bathroom countertop, faucet, and toilet seat. Oxacillin-resistant bacteria were recovered from 19% of surfaces with 46% of isolates confirmed as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolates were recovered in the course of the study. Collectively, 24% of the ice samples harbored coliforms with a single sample testing positive for E. coli. The authors' study demonstrates that hotel rooms represent a potential source of community-acquired infections and the need for enhanced sanitation practices.

  8. Impact of a Letter-Grade Program on Restaurant Sanitary Conditions and Diner Behavior in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J. Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. Methods. We analyzed data from 43 448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. Results. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI = 88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI = 85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Conclusions. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool. PMID:25602861

  9. [Street food in the national agenda of food and nutrition security: an essay for sanitary qualification in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Aída Couto Dinucci; Mancuso, Ana Maria Cervato; Heitz, Sarah Jeanne Jorge

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the World Cup will be staged in Brazil. Is Brazil able to ensure safe street food is on offer? This paper seeks to elicit reflection on some problems relating to the sale of street food, thereby contributing to highlight this theme in the food security agenda in Brazil. The scope of this study is exclusively street food. Care is taken not to reduce the broader concepts of food security and the importance of sanitary and hygienic handling is stressed as one of the core components of food and nutrition security. In this context the following aspects are discussed: the credibility of the official data on insanitary outbreaks related to street food; street food security compared to that in other eating environments; and the training of people to modify inadequate food handling practices. Thus, in the discussion about problems in the street food market it is essential to improve the quantity and quality of the training of food handlers in order to implement food and nutrition security as promoting the human right to adequate food and ensure that the topic is urgently included on the national calendar of public health debates.

  10. Evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services from the perspectives of internal and external auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lize Stangarlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital nutrition and dietary services using external and internal auditors. Eleven hospitals were evaluated for their nutrition and dietary services using an evaluation checklist based on food safety requirements in the current legislation. The checklist was applied by an internal auditor (a technical supervisor and an external auditor (a professional with experience in food services between August and October 2011. According to the number of items on the evaluation checklist that were considered adequate, the hospital facilities were ranked as excellent, good, regular, bad, or very bad. The results obtained by the auditors were compared. According to these results, it can be said that most of the hospital nutrition and dietary services were rated as good for overall quality by the internal auditor, while the external auditor classified them as Regular. There was a clear difference between the evaluations of the auditors, both in terms of the number of items considered adequate and the overall requirements' average score. It can be concluded that hospital nutrition and dietary services should meet safety requirements in order to provide food. These facilities should have external audits conducted as a way to prevent routine problems from being perpetuated.

  11. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa R; McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. We analyzed data from 43,448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]=31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI=88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI=85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool.

  12. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  13. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  14. Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty: A Cluster Quasi-Randomised Control Trial of Sanitary Pad and Puberty Education Provision in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness.Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls' school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes.A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention. The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing.At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.77, with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7-25.5 greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls' self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation.Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls' school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted with caution in light of poor participant

  15. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  16. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  17. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  18. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  19. Coastal Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  20. Cognitive engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kyle M; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human-machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regarding the design of human-machine systems, cognitive engineering is a core, or fundamental, discipline within academic psychology. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:17-31. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1204 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no conflict of interest. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Engineering liver

    OpenAIRE

    Linda G Griffith; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2013-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the e...

  2. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  3. Geospatial Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    that enable terrain visualization . Geospatial engineers manipulate the TGD to create the SSGF. The SSGF is the foundation for the Web map service that...decision aids, and visualization products that enable the commander and staff to visualize the operational environment. Geospatial engineers aid in the...data that provides a common framework for visualizing an area of interest (AOI) to enable mission command and the planning and execution of operational

  4. Web Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Yogesh; Murugesan, San; Ginige, Athula; Hansen, Steve; Schwabe, Daniel; Gaedke, Martin; White, Bebo

    2003-01-01

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: a) why is it needed? b) what is its domain of operation? c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application develo...

  5. Climate engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Es klingt wie eine Mischung aus Größenwahn und Science Fiction: Wissenschaftler wollen das Klima mit Hightechverfahren beeinflussen. "Climate engineering" heißt der Fachbegriff. Natürlich geht es dabei nicht um den verregneten Sommer, sondern um den globalen Klimawandel. Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann hat sich bei den Umweltforschern der Uni Heidelberg umgehört, ob was dran ist am "climate engineering". Der Beitrag erschien in der Sendereihe "Campus-Report" - einer Beitragsreihe, in ...

  6. Offshore Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vannucci, P

    2008-01-01

    Master; This course on Offshore Engineering is a basic course serving as an introduction to the problems concerning design and construction of offshore platforms, normally used in oil industry. So, some topics will be considered in this course, namely the principal ones that concern the structural design of an offshore platform; some other topics, like for instance marine installation procedures, corrosion protection, facilities and plants engineering will not be considered here. The course i...

  7. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  8. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Rehabilitation Engineering What is rehabilitation engineering? How can future rehabilitation ... the area of rehabilitation engineering? What is rehabilitation engineering? Powered prosthetic leg. Source : M. Goldfarb, Vanderbilt U. ...

  9. Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Lin, Cynthia J; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J

    2017-11-28

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources before reaching the treatment facility, potentially contaminating the water source with gastrointestinal pathogens. The objective of this paper is to assess associations between SSO events and rates of gastrointestinal (GI) illness in Massachusetts. A case-crossover study design was used to investigate association between SSO events and emergency room (ER) visits with a primary diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) illness in Massachusetts for 2006-2007. ER visits for GI were considered exposed if an SSO event occurred in the county of residence within three hazard periods, 0-4 d, 5-9 d, or 10-14 d, before the visit. A time-stratified bidirectional design was used to select control days for each ER visit on the same day of the week during the same month. Fixed effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of ER visits following the SSO event. During the study period, there were 270 SSO events for northeastern Massachusetts and 66,460 ER admissions with GI illness listed as the primary diagnostic code. The overall odds ratio (OR) for ER visits for GI illness was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.16] in the 10-14 d period following an SSO event, with positive ORs for all age groups and for three of the four counties. The 0-4 d and 5-9 d periods following an SSO event were not associated with ER visits for GI illness overall, and associations by county or age were inconsistent. We demonstrated an association between SSO events and ER visits for GI illness using a case-crossover study design. In light of the aging water infrastructure in the United States and the expected increase in heavy rainfall events, our findings suggest a potential health impact associated with sewage overflows. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2048.

  10. Methodology for the determination of optimum power of a Thermal Power Plant (TPP) by biogas from sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Rodrigo; Barros, Regina Mambeli; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Dos Santos, Ivan Felipe Silva

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine theoretically, the electrical optimum power of LFG using the maximum net benefit (MNB) methodology, and taking into consideration the economic, demographic, and regional aspects of the Inter municipal Consortium of the Micro-region of the High Sapucaí for Sanitary Landfill (CIMASAS, as acronym in Portuguese), that is located in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To this end, the prognosis for a 20-year period of household solid waste generation in this region was estimated and quantified based on population data, in order to estimate the LFG production and the energy that can be generated. From this point, the optimum power for thermal power plant (TPP) by LFG was determined. The results indicated that the landfill in this region could produce more 66,293,282m3CH4 (with maximum power of 997kW in 2036) in twenty years and that there would be no economic viability to generate energy from LFG, because the Net Present Value (NPV) would not be positive. The smallest population to that can achieve a minimum attractiveness rate (MAR) of 15% should be 3,700,000 inhabitants under the conditions studied. Considering the Brazilian National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) Resolutions, it would be 339,000 inhabitants with an installed power of 440kW. In addition, the outcome of the CIMASAS case-study demonstrated the applicability of MNB methodology for the determination of TPP optimum power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure alter sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S. S.; Mayer, P. M.; Utz, R. M.; Cooper, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure. We compared a restored stream with 3 unrestored streams draining urban development and stormwater management over a 3 year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm d-1) compared with two urban unrestored streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm d-1) draining higher impervious surface cover. Peak runoff in the restored stream was more similar to a less developed stream draining extensive stormwater management (13.2 ± 1.9 mm d-1). Interestingly, the restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads at relatively lower streamflow than the 2 more urban streams, which exported most of their loads at higher and less frequent streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 g ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban unrestored streams (p storm drains. Goundwater sources, fluxes, and flowpath should also be targeted in efforts to improve stream restoration strategies and prioritize hydrologic "hot spots" along watersheds where stream restoration is most likely to succeed.

  12. The effectiveness of composite lining systems in controlling the leakage of leachate from sanitary landfills to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, T Y; Friesen, G

    1991-10-01

    Leachate, the hazardous liquid that percolated through the refuse layers of a sanitary landfill, if it leaks through the landfill lining system, can become a serious source of groundwater pollution. In the past, leaks have been detected in many landfills lined with flexible membrane liners (FML) whose failure may be attributed to flaws such as imperfect seaming, rips, and tears of the membrane, or from chemical attack that dissolves the membrane. Recent studies have shown that composite lining systems which include either a clayey subbase or a layer of geotextile in addition to the FML, can substantially reduce the leakage of leachate. Therefore in this study, four different lining systems are proposed and evaluated to determine their effectiveness in controlling leachate flow under various degree of flaws (referred to as leakage fraction LF) in the FML. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer model of the Environmental Protection Agency of USA, currently the most widely accepted model for predicting the performance of leachate collection systems in that country, is used to evaluate the following lining systems: (1) a single FML or liner, (2) a single FML with a clayey composite, (3) a single FML with a geotextile called Claymax, and (4) a double FML. Based on the climatic conditions and the present lining construction cost of Alaska, the study shows that a single FML or liner is the most economical but it is also the least effective in controlling leachate flow. Design (3), a single FML with a geotextile, costs about 50 percent more but it reduces the leakage of leachate by several orders. Design (2) is also effective but the cost incurred in constructing a 3 feet thick clayey subbase is prohibitive and thus to effectively and economically minimize the hazards of potential groundwater contamination by leachate, Design (3) is recommended as the composite lining system for future landfill sites.

  13. A 100-Year Review: A century of dairy processing advancements-Pasteurization, cleaning and sanitation, and sanitary equipment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A; Bradley, R L; Miller, G; Mildenhall, K B

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements. In the year 1917, depending on where one resided, most milk was presented to the consumer through privately owned dairy animals, small local or regional dairy farms, or small urban commercial dairies with minimal, or at best nascent, processing capabilities. In 1917, much of the retail milk in the United States was packaged and sold in returnable quart-sized clear glass bottles fitted with caps of various design and composition. Some reports suggest that the cost of that quart of milk was approximately 9 cents-an estimated $2.00 in 2017 US dollars. Comparing that 1917 quart of milk to a quart of milk in 2017 suggests several differences in microbiological, compositional, and nutritional value as well as flavor characteristics. Although a more comprehensive timeline of significant processing advancements is noted in the AppendixTable A1 to this paper, we have selected 3 advancements to highlight; namely, the development of milk pasteurization, cleaning and sanitizing technologies, and sanitary specifications for processing equipment. Finally, we provide some insights into the future of milk processing and suggest areas where technological advancements may need continued or strengthened attention and development as a means of securing milk as a food of high safety and value for the next century to come. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. La asistencia sanitaria en la corte de Isabel de Valois The sanitary care in Isabel de Valois ‘court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Cañadas-De la Fuente

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Entre los documentos referentes al funcionamiento de la corte de la reina Isabel de Valois es posible encontrar datos fundamentales para conocer el quehacer de los profesionales médico-sanitarios en el siglo XVI, en este caso circunscritos al ámbito regio. La necesidad de velar por la salud de la Corte resultaba tan relevante como cualquier otro asunto digno de la atención del alto funcionariado encargado de la correcta marcha de los asuntos de Estado. Por este motivo, la gestión y administración de los recursos sanitarios del círculo cortesano generaron una interesante documentación, conservada en la sección Casa y Sitios Reales del Archivo General de Simancas, de la que en este artículo se analiza una significativa muestra.Among the documents concerning the functioning of Queen Isabel de Valois ‘court, it is possible to find fundamental information to know something about the duty of sanitary professionals in the sixteenth century, in this case circumscribe to the royal environment. The necessity to watch over the health of the court was as outstanding as any other matter worthy of the attention of the high civil servants in charge of the correct course in the state affairs. For this reason, the management and administration of the health resources in the court environment generated an interesting documentation preserved in Casa y Sitios Reales of the Archivo General de Simancas, and we will analyze a significant sample of it in this article.

  15. Fractal engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Omid; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    1997-01-01

    Visual media processing is becoming increasingly important because of the wide variety of image and video based applications. Recently, several architectures have been reported in the literature to implement image and video processing algorithms. They range from programmable DSP processors to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). DSPs have to be software programed to execute individual operations in image and video processing. However they are not suitable for real-time execution of highly compute intensive applications such as fractal block processing (FBP). On the other hand, dedicated architectures and ASICs are designed to implement specific functions. Since they are optimized for a specific task, they cannot be used in a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we propose a parallel and pipelined architecture called fractal engine to implement the operations in FBP. Fractal engine is simple, modular, scaleable and is optimized to execute both low level and mid level operations. We note that implementation of the basic operations by fractal engine enables efficient execution of a majority of visual computing tasks. These include spatial filtering, contrast enhancement, frequency domain operations, histogram calculation, geometric transforms, indexing, vector quantization, fractal block coding, motion estimation, etc. The individual modules of fractal engine have been implemented in VHDL (VHSIC hardware description language). We have chosen to demonstrate the real-time execution capability of fractal engine by mapping a fractal block coding (FBC) algorithm onto the proposed architecture.

  16. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Energy consumption II; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Energy shohiryo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikaga, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    C-14 - C-16 reported the study result on energy use of offices, stores and public schools in 6 prefectures of Tohoku district. These papers reported the data on heat insulation measures, cooling and heating thermal source facilities, setting temperatures and annual energy consumptions for every area, age and scale. Energy consumption of office buildings was largely dependent on scale rather than area, that of stores was largely dependent on scale and business, and that of schools was largely dependent on the kind of schools and area. C-17 proposed the simple measurement system which can measure power consumption for every use by less measurement points and shorter measurement periods to diagnose energy saving conditions of existing small and middle buildings, and reported the verification result of its effectiveness based on measurement data of 4 office buildings. C-18 reported the survey result on 3 office buildings in Tokyo to obtain the basic data for energy saving diagnosis of existing buildings. The paper reported power consumption and cold and hot water consumption/floor area for every year, month and week day, and annual power consumption for every use. (translated by NEDO)

  17. FY1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Comfortability I; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Kaitekisei 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukai, K. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    E-57 reported the measurement result on thermal environment of a lecture theater during heating. The difference was found between target temperature and room temperature, and a comfortability was improved by adjusting ceiling diffusion systems. Discussion was held on clo data for calculating PMV. E-58 reported the study result on the comfortability of offices where many Japanese and foreigners are working. Many workers showed discomfort sensation because various workers like different thermal environments. Discussion was held on the difference in amount of metabolism and air flow sensation every season. Serial E-59 and E-60 reported the study result on the comfortability evaluation of outdoor thermal environments. For estimation of the whole body hot/cold sense under unsteady uneven outdoor environment, mean skin temperature was insufficient, while SET was roughly useful and an Fu model was useful enough. Discussion was held on overestimation of skin temperature by an Fu model, and an input method of measured solar radiation data into an Fu model. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  19. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  20. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  1. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  2. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  3. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  4. Metabolic Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    processes such as generation of energy, production of fundamen- tal building blocks required for structural organization and syn- thesis of biomolecules having specialized functions. ... Symbiosis International. University, Pune. His research interests are in metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for increasing their.

  5. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  6. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  7. The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: Using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Maud; Alarcon, Pablo; Karani, Maurice; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Onono, Joshua; Fèvre, Eric M; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Livestock food systems play key subsistence and income generation roles in low to middle income countries and are important networks for zoonotic disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use a value chain framework to characterize the broiler chicken meat system of Nairobi, its governance and sanitary risks. A total of 4 focus groups and 8 key informant interviews were used to collect cross-sectional data from: small-scale broiler farmers in selected Nairobi peri-urban and informal settlement areas; medium to large integrated broiler production companies; traders and meat inspectors in live chicken and chicken meat markets in Nairobi. Qualitative data were collected on types of people operating in the system, their interactions, sanitary measures in place, sourcing and selling of broiler chickens and products. Framework analysis was used to identify governance themes and risky sanitary practices present in the system. One large company was identified to supply 60% of Nairobi's day-old chicks to farmers, mainly through agrovet shops. Broiler meat products from integrated companies were sold in high-end retailers whereas their low value products were channelled through independent traders to consumers in informal settlements. Peri-urban small-scale farmers reported to slaughter the broilers on the farm and to sell carcasses to retailers (hotels and butcheries mainly) through brokers (80%), while farmers in the informal settlement reported to sell their broilers live to retailers (butcheries, hotels and hawkers mainly) directly. Broiler heads and legs were sold in informal settlements via roadside vendors. Sanitary risks identified were related to lack of biosecurity, cold chain and access to water, poor hygiene practices, lack of inspection at farm slaughter and limited health inspection in markets.
 Large companies dominated the governance of the broiler system through the control of day-old chick production. Overall government control was described as

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Insulation for sanitary and heating systems. Manufacturing of elastomer insulation materials; Daemmung von Anlagen im Sanitaer- und Heizungsbereich. Was ist bei der Verarbeitung von elastomeren Daemmstoffen zu beachten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, H.; Weber, M. [Armacell (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The following article presents the insulation of sanitary and heating systems and what is mentionable. Elastomer materials like from manufacturer SH/Armaflex offer good physical properties and due to their extraordinary flexibility are installed properly and quickly. [German] Bei Daemmungen von Anlagen im Sanitaer- und Heizungsbereich sind einige grundsaetzliche Dinge zu beachten, die im folgenden Artikel dargestellt werden. Elastomere Daemmstoffe, wie das vom Hersteller angebotene Produkt SH/Armaflex, bieten gute physikalischtechnische Werte und sind aufgrund ihrer ausserordentlichen Flexibilitaet sauber und schnell zu verarbeiten. (orig.)

  10. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  11. Hygienic sanitary conditions of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia and detection of strains with antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological, physical and chemical qualities of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, as well as trace the resistance profile of the isolated strains against different commercial pharmacos. There were collected and analysed 36 samples of sun dried meat, acquired in 12 different establishment (supermarkets, mini-markets, butchers and a municipal market, and quantified mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, E. coli and presence of Salmonella spp., as well as specific content humidity, water activity (Aw and chloride. In 83% of the establishments, mesophilic bacteria counted > 105 CFU.g-1 and 58% coliforms at 35º C > 105 NMP.g- 1 and coliforms at 45ºC > 103 NMP.g-1. Escherichia coli was isolated in 75% of the establishments. Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 4.8 x 104 to 9.0 x 108 UFC.g-1, not being isolated Staphylococcus coagulase positive. Salmonella was found in 25% of the establishments. The humidity in the sun dried meat samples ranged from 52.37% to 74.69%, the Aw from 0.87 to 0.95 and the chloride from 3.16% to 5.98%. Salmonella was 100% resistant to tetracycline, acid nalidixic, cephalothin and erythromycin, with intermediate resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin. Escherichia coli was resistant to erythromycin (100%, ampicillin (68.7%, cephalothin (71.4%, tetracycline (64.2%, nalidixic acid (35.7% and gentamicin (12.5%. Multiresistant strains of E. coli were observed in 87.5% of the isolates, and it happened that in 28.6% of the resistance it was mediated by plasmids. Multidrug resistance profile was observed in all Salmonella, with a strain showing plasmid resistance. The marketing of sun dried meat in Cruz das Almas presents hygienic and sanitary failures due to it’s high microbial loads. This fact undermines the safety and product lifetime, and may also pose risk to public health since it markets strains with antimicrobial.

  12. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  14. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  15. Sanitary landfill liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  16. Engineering Tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John

    An ideal textbook for a first tribology course, this book provides an interdisciplinary understanding of the field. It includes materials constraints, real design problems and solutions (such as those for journal and rolling element bearing), cams and followers and heavily loaded gear teeth. Including physics, materials science, and surface and lubricant chemistry, the volume integrates quantitative material from a wide variety of disciplines with traditional engineering approaches.

  17. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  18. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  19. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  20. Los encuadres sanitarios en prensa. Gripe A y bacteria e.coli. / The Sanitary framing in Spanish press: Swine flu virus and E. coli bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma López Villafranca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la siguiente investigación se analizan los encuadres sobre dos crisis sanitarias, gripe A y bacteria e.coli en prensa, en los diarios de mayor tirada; El País, El Mundo y ABC. En este estudio se refleja cómo se produce un enfoque muy distinto de ambas crisis y la influencia en estos encuadres e importancia de las fuentes institucionales como principales portadoras de información frente a las fuentes sanitarias o científicas, con escasa relevancia para la prensa española.AbstractThe following analysis is focused on the approach made by newspapers such as El País, El Mundo and ABC about the sanitary crisis of A Flu and E.coli bacteria. The methodology used is the analysis of content of a wide range of news samples generated during both crisis. As a result of this analysis it is made clear that both crises have been approached by Spanish press in different ways, giving more importance to government and official sources in opposition to the lack of relevance given to scientific or sanitary ones.

  1. The effect of varying LED light sources and influent carbon/nitrogen ratios on treatment of synthetic sanitary sewage using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Cheng, Pu; Yan, Cheng; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2013-07-01

    Sanitary sewage can create serious environmental problems if discharged directly into natural waters without appropriate treatment. This study showed that red light is the optimum light wavelength for growing microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in microalgae biological wastewater treatment systems, given a harvest time of 144 h. Only moderate light intensities (1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 2,500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were able to remove nutrients from synthetic sanitary sewage, but higher light intensity led to better nutrient removal effects. Because of economic considerations, the optimum light intensity range for efficient nutrient removal was determined to be between 1,500 and 2,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Furthermore, nutrient removal efficiency was significantly affected by light wavelength, light intensity, the interaction of these two factors, and the interaction among light wavelength, light intensity, and influent carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal efficiency was also significantly affected by influent C/N ratios. Appropriate control of carbon and nitrogen source concentrations enabled optimal nutrient removal. The optimal influent C/N ratio was determined to be 6:1.

  2. Hygienic-sanitary working practices and implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in lobster processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Farias da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP hazards.

  3. Effects of different dietary tryptophan : lysine ratios and sanitary conditions on growth performance, plasma urea nitrogen, serum haptoglobin and ileal histomorphology of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Balachandar; Htoo, John K; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2017-05-01

    A total of 180 mixed-sex pigs (Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace); average initial body weight of 7.36 ± 0.2 kg) weaned at 21 ± 1 days were fed corn-soybean meal-wheat-based diets to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan to lysine ratio (Trp : Lys) in a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement (two sanitary conditions: clean (CL) and unclean (UCL), and five dietary treatments (SID Trp : Lys (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24%)). In each sanitary condition, blood was collected on days 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen and on day 14, ileal tissue (one pig per pen) was collected for the measurement of gut morphology. Pigs kept under UCL conditions had lower growth rate (P  0.10) on villous height (VH), crypt depth ( CD) and VH : CD. In conclusion, an SID Trp : Lys to optimize ADG for pigs raised under UCL conditions was higher (4%) than CL conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. [Sanitary and epidemiological well-being in children and adolescents: state-of-the-art and ways of solving the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    In the children and adolescents of the Russian Federation, there is an increase in the incidence of a number of nosological entities, a significant prevalence of chronic diseases, and a reduction in health quality in children. According to the statistical data, in the past 5 years, the overall incidence has increased by 16% in children (aged 0-14 years) (171268 per 100,000 children in 2005) by 18% in adolescents. The incidence of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, anemias, as well diseases of the respiratory, urogenital, and nervous systems, and congenital anomalies continues to increase. Along with socioeconomic causes, this is all due to the negative influence of environmental factors, dietary defects, and, in some cases, poor upbringing and teaching conditions, which do not comply with the hygienic standards and sanitary rules. Under the established conditions, the maintenance and improvement of children's health is the most important state task, the provision of their sanitary and epidemiological welfare being one of the major constituents in its accomplishment. In the past 3 years, the principal state sanitary inspector has issued 17 regulations on different aspects of the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of children and adolescents. The preparation of the draft "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" has been currently completed. The Group of Eight Summit has noted that resolute opposition to threats of infectious diseases, the leading cause of death in the world, is vital to the global development and welfare of mankind. It has adopted the resolution that it is essential to make specific achievements in the strengthening international cooperation in the surveillance and monitoring of infectious diseases; to intensify researches; to second the efforts of appropriate international organizations, which are aimed at effectively

  5. Electric power generation from the biogas coming from the sanitary landfill - study of case; Geracao de energia eletrica a partir do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario - estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: vpecora@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    One of the objective of the project was to implement an electric power generation from the biogas forthcoming from the treatment of urban solid residues in sanitary embankment. At the first stage of the project it was realized a sampling of the sanitary embankments of the Southeast, Northeast and Central-west of the country. So, it was executed a mapping of the embankments existent at those regions, also trying to identify the infra-structure presented in each of them. This criterion was important in the sense that it allowed to perform a pre-selection of the most adequate for the installation of the project.

  6. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  7. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  8. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  9. Raggiungimento degli obiettivi vaccinali nell'integrazione dei servizi sanitari aziendali: igienisti, pediatri e medici di famiglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cinquetti

    2003-05-01

    la seguente griglia di competenze/responsabilità: Servizi Vaccinali (afferenti funzionalmente/gerarchicamente ai Dipartimenti di Prevenzione: costituiscono il momento organizzativo ed operativo del programma vaccinale definito dall’Autorità Regionale.

    Curano l’approvvigionamento e la custodia dei vaccini, garantiscono il counselling prevaccinale, effettuano le vaccinazioni obbligatorie e raccomandate,
    curano il sistema informativo (anche in riferimento alle segnalazioni di reazioni avverse.

    Pediatri di Libera Scelta: costituiscono un anello fondamentale della catena organizzativa del sistema
    vaccinale, ovviamente in riferimento alla parte del
    programma inerente l’età evolutiva. Il loro coinvolgimento
    nella definizione dei programmi vaccinali deve avere carattere formale (devono essere inseriti nelle Commissioni Vaccinazioni nazionale, regionali e delle singole Aziende Sanitarie. Le decisioni strategiche sulla materia devono ottenere il consenso della categoria.

    Dal punto di vista operativo costituiscono
    compiti specifici dei Pediatri di Libera Scelta:
    la presentazione ai genitori dei nuovi nati del programma vaccinale, la verifica di eventuali controindicazioni
    all’immunizzazione (da segnalare al Servizio Vaccinale, la sorveglianza delle reazioni avverse. Medici di Medicina Generale: rappresentano la modalità più razionale per l’effettuazione di campagne vaccinali di massa su soggetti adulti ed anziani (esempio specifico la campagna di vaccinazione antinfluenzale, che richiede la somministrazione di enormi numeri di vaccino in poche settimane.
    Questo ruolo operativo dei Medici di Famiglia dovrebbe essere inserito in un più ampio pacchetto di interventi coordinati di prevenzione e di promozione della salute (collaborazione ai programmi di screening, prevenzione del tabagismo e dell’alcolismo, prevenzione dei traumi stradali, ecc..

  10. Engineering Encounters: Teaching Educators about Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina M.; Raman, D. Raj; Lamm, Monica H.; Sundararajan, Sriram; Estapa, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. This month's issue describes preservice elementary teachers learning engineering principles from engineers. Few elementary teachers have experience with implementing engineering into the classroom. While engineering professional development opportunities for inservice teachers…

  11. Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bin-shi

    2004-01-01

    Nano surface engineering and remanufacture engineering are introduced, and the relationship between them is set forth. It points out the superiority of nano surface engineering to the traditional one, and reveals the advantages of remanufacture engineering. Taking some nano surface techniques as samples, such as nano-materials brush electroplating, nano-materials thermal spraying and nano-materials self-repairing antifriction additive technology, it shows the applications of nano surface engineering technology to remanufacturing mechanical parts.

  12. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  13. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  14. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  15. Nature and part of the sanitary arguments in the negotiations about the incinerators implementations, synthesis report; Nature et place des arguments sanitaires dans les negociations autour des implantations d'incinerateurs, rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurans, Y.; Dubien, I.

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the implementation of incinerators, the ADEME realized a study on the impacts of the public relations in the negotiation on the wastes management problem. The objectives of the study are a better knowledge of the conflict to better take it into account and the part of the sanitary arguments in the processes of wastes processing installations. (A.L.B.)

  16. [The urgency of the application of the medical sanitary passport in the system for chemical safety in the areas of location of high-risk chemical facilities in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombarova, M Iu; Radilov, A S; Dulov, S A

    2012-01-01

    The main provisions concerning the need for a creation of medical and sanitary passport for territories in the protective measures zones (PMZ) of storage facilities and facilities for the destruction of chemical weapons (FDCW) are presented in the article. The assessment of results of certification of the territory of PMZ and FDCW in "Maradykovsky" in the Kirov region has been done.

  17. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations; Evaluation des risques sanitaires et environnementaux resultant du naufrage de l'ERIKA et des operations de nettoyage des cotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicolella, A

    2000-03-15

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  18. [The activity of the State Sanitary Inspectorate after implementation of the act of January, 23 2009 "Amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaś, Dariusz; Skórczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The restructuring of the State Sanitary Inspectorate was determined by the need to adjust the existing system to the new structure- and task-oriented standards introduced by the administrative reforms at the provincial level. This brought about a lot of changes in the way State County Sanitary Inspectors operate. For first few months after the enforcement of the Act of January 23.2009 amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level (Journal of Laws, No. 92, item. 753, 2009) brought about a lot of ambiguities and expectations. Such unresolved issues are typical for the initial or transition period after implementation of a new law. The approach to the operation of the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level depicted in the article lays the emphasis on the challenges in the legal and task-oriented domain that arose after coming into force of the aforementioned amendment. By way of conclusion, the authors of the article briefly summaries the practical outcomes of the transformations undergone by the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level.

  19. Nature and part of the sanitary arguments and negotiations about the incinerators implementations, final report; Nature et place des arguments sanitaires dans les negociations autour des implantations d'incinerateurs, rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurans, Y.; Dubien, I.

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the implementation of incinerators, the ADEME realized a study on the impacts of the public relations in the negotiation on the wastes management problem. The objectives of the study are a better knowledge of the conflict to better take it into account and the part of the sanitary arguments in the processes of wastes processing installations. (A.L.B.)

  20. The Influence of the Water Supply Indoor Installations Pipes Wear and Clogging on Water Consumption and Hygiene and Sanitary Comfort Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure and increase the hygiene and sanitary comfort degree in buildings older than 25 years, rehabilitation and modernization of water supply indoor installations is required. The rate at which these capital repairs were made to the common facilities is very low, which explains the increasing number of commercial buildings that claims flooded basements due to rusty, clogged or broken pipes. In this regard, the paper analyzes the situation of an apartment building, located in Timisoara, which is 48 years old and to which were made only partial rehabilitation works. The solutions resulted from the performed analysis lead to the necessity of performing the rehabilitation and modernization works by replacing the installation distribution and columns that shows a high wear and clogging degree.

  1. Ukrainian Sanitary and Phytosanitary Laws Approximation to EU Acquis Under Association Agreement Including Agreement on Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepych Taras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the achievements to date in legal approximation in the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS field in Ukraine. Effective regulatory approximation in the SPS field was critical to anchoring the reform process in Ukraine and to fostering further progress in EU’s relations with this Eastern Partnership (EaP country. This paper highlights three major problems in Ukraine that were hindering reform in the SPS field: inconsistency between Ukrainian and EU food safety legislation, lack of uniformity between animal health law regimes, absence of a single SPS regulator. Legal implementation of approximated legislation still remains as key challenge. The paper offers recommendations to improve the Ukraine’s approach so that the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA is part of the Association Agreement (AA between the EU and the Republic of Ukraine could fulfill its potential.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:9, 1607-F2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-29

    The 100-F-26:9 underground pipeline subsite consists of the sanitary sewers servicing the 105-F, 108-F, 184-F, 185-F, and 190-F buildings, and the 1700-F administration and service buildings (1704-F, 1707-F, 1707-FA, 1713-F, 1717-F, 1719-F, and 1722-F). In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory and verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Developments in sanitary techniques 2011-2012. Important progress through studies in 2011; Ontwikkelingen sanitaire technieken 2011-2012. Belangrijke vorderingen door studies in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, W.

    2011-12-15

    In 2011, new laws and regulations were the main theme in sanitary techniques (ST). Libraries have been updated in the areas of tap water installations and sewer systems of buildings. Some important progress was made in the framework of several ST preliminary studies conducted by TVVL and Uneto-VNI. Still, the start-up of new ST studies and projects in 2012 is lagging behind compared to previous years. [Dutch] Het vakgebied van sanitaire technieken (ST) stond in 2011 vooral in het teken van nieuwe wet- en regelgeving. Zowel op het gebied van leidingwaterinstallaties als riolering van bouwwerken zijn de bibliotheken geactualiseerd. In het kader van enkele ST-voorstudies, uitgevoerd door TVVL en Uneto-VNI zijn belangrijke vorderingen gemaakt. De opstart van nieuwe ST-studies en -projecten in 2012 blijft echter achter ten opzichte van voorgaande jaren.

  5. The responsibilities of engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  6. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    What is an engineer? Or maybe better: how are engineers, and how are they “gebilded” in order to be able to be called engineers? In order to shed some light on this question we could ask: How is the relation between engineering and the making of an engineer, or the relation between engineering...... and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern....

  7. Fostering Creative Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    . As the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this paper...... that engineering students should master. This paper aims to illustrate deeply why engineering education needs to foster creative students to face the challenges of complex engineering work. So a literature review will be provided by focusing on the necessity of developing creativity in engineering education...... contributes to rethinking the engineering profession in a social context and a link between creativity research and engineering education....

  8. Reflexões sobre segurança sanitária em reprocessamento de produtos para saúde / Thoughts regarding sanitary safety in medical device reprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um artigo de revisão bibliográfica sobre a segurança sanitária do repro-cessamento de produtos para saúde. Aborda a complexidade da assistência hospitalar possibilitada pelo avanço das tecnologias de saúde, especificamente dos produtos para saúde, que trazem benefícios e riscos, principalmente quando na condição de reúso e de reprocessamento. Ressalta a responsabilidade crescente do Estado, especificamente da Vigilância Sanitária e dos serviços de saúde, para prevenir danos aos pacientes usuários desses dispositivos. Introduz o conceito de risco residual, como elemento sinalizador da possibilidade da ocorrência de eventos adversos relacionados com o reprocessamento de produtos. Finaliza com as possíveis perspectivas futuras para o reprocessamento de produtos para saúde. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Medical products used in health services are highly complex. Despite their contribution to hospital assistance, those products are also the bearers of several risk factors, and give rise to concerns regarding safety and effectiveness of the processes related to their reprocessing and re-utilization. This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with ob-jective to present thoughts regarding sanitary safety in medical device reprocessing, and point out that there is immediate need to implement a risk management system in these hospitals, and need for greater sanitary control by the State in order to protect the health of patients. This study finish with possibles perspectives about the medical devices reprocessing.

  9. Research on compatibility mechanism of recycled poly(vinyl chloride) materials coming from flexible sheet with styrenic by-product, for application on hydro-sanitary sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Sanoguera, David

    The treatment of waste is a topic that has grown in interest, due especially to the problem about location as a result of the fast growth of plastic waste during the last years. The PVC substitution by PET in packing sector has originated the disappearance of a residual source of excellent quality characterized by a good stiffness and used by other industries, like hydro-sanitary sector, main consumer of recycled PVC. The use of PVC coming from flexible sheets arises as alternative; however, in front of the residual coming from the packing industry, the PVC coming from credit cards presents a lower stiffness, since the origin product possesses high flexibility. For this reason, this material is not appropriate for hydro-sanitary sector which has a strict normative. The aim of this work is about the improvement of performance of recycled PVC coming from credit cards by means of mixing with different styrenic materials (SAN and ABS virgin and recycled), characterized by their high thermal stability. Previous degradation has been quantified in the recycled materials used by means of infrared analysis (FTIR), as well as miscibility has been determined in the different blends by means of Differential Scan Calorimetry (DSC). Also, the influence of styrenic materials on thermal stability of recycled PVC has been analyzed. Finally it has been carried out the study of mechanical properties of the different blends. On the other hand, different additives have been introduced in the blends, with the purpose of evaluating their influence in thermal and mechanical properties. It is necessary to take into account the low cost of recycled materials, as a consequence the additives cost will be a restrictive factor to consider for reaching some requirements, and also obtain an industrial application.

  10. Women in Engineering Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Naomi J.

    Engineering as a profession for women is examined. Although 1.0% of the engineering population is presently female, undergraduate enrollment has been increasing steadily since 1970. Some universities today have women representing 10-15% of their engineering enrollment. Beginning salaries are higher for female engineers than for male engineers, but…

  11. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  12. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz,Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  13. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  14. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  15. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  16. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  17. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  18. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  19. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina Dípteros de importancia sanitaria asociados al compostaje de biosólidos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.OBJETIVO: Los compuestos odoríferos producidos en la Planta de Compostaje de Biosólidos de Bariloche (NO Patagonia atraen diferentes insectos, principalmente moscas (Orden Diptera. Con el objeto de caracterizarlas, se colectaron especímenes que fueron identificados taxonómicamente. Se describieron sus características comunitarias y se determinó su importancia

  20. Condições higiênico-sanitárias de uma dieta hospitalar Hygienic and sanitary conditions of a hospital diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Lúcia Sousa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se avaliar as condições higiênico-sanitárias da dieta branda servida em um hospital geral da cidade de Belém, Pará, através da análise microbiológica de seus componentes (coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella e dos utensílios, equipamentos e mãos de funcionários (coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus aureus, bem como elaborar um Relatório Técnico de Inspeção da Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição do hospital, baseado no Anexo II da Portaria 1428 de 26/11/1993, para a implantação das Boas Práticas de Fabricação. Em nenhuma das amostras foi detectada a presença de Salmonella ou Staphylococcus aureus; entretanto, os componentes da dieta, equipamentos e utensílios apresentaram 100% de coliformes fecais, assim como as mãos de duas funcionárias. Os principais pontos observados para o relatório técnico foram: padrão de identidade e qualidade, condições ambientais, instalações e saneamento, equipamentos e utensílios, recursos humanos, tecnologia empregada, controle de qualidade, garantia de qualidade, armazenagem, desinfecção e desinfestação. Através desta avaliação foram constatadas as péssimas condições higiênico-sanitárias da referida Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the hygienic and sanitary conditions of a light diet of a hospital in the city of Belém, state of Pará (Brazil, using microbiological analysis of its compounds (fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella and of utensils, equipment's and employees' hands (fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, and to provide an inspection technical report of the hospital Food and Nutrition Unit, according to Annex II of the 1428th Regulation (11/26/1993 of the Ministry of Health to verify the implementation of the Good Manufacturing Practices. None of the samples presented Salmonella or Staphylococcus aureus; however, the compounds, utensils and equipments presented 100% of

  1. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  2. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  3. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  4. Quantum mechanical Carnot engine

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, C.M.; Brody, D. C.; Meister, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    A cyclic thermodynamic heat engine runs most efficiently if it is reversible. Carnot constructed such a reversible heat engine by combining adiabatic and isothermal processes for a system containing an ideal gas. Here, we present an example of a cyclic engine based on a single quantum-mechanical particle confined to a potential well. The efficiency of this engine is shown to equal the Carnot efficiency because quantum dynamics is reversible. The quantum heat engine has a cycle consisting of a...

  5. Health care engineering management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, W B

    1980-01-01

    Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.

  6. Gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Sik

    2001-08-15

    This book deals with gs turbine engine, including historical background of development of gas turbine engine, classification, definition and conception of it, torque and power, shock waves, subsonic inlets, basic turbojet cycle, turbo-shaft engine, degree of reaction, gas burner, after-burner and water injection method, design of cycle and analysis of performance, characteristic and control of engine noise of aircraft, materials and use of gas turbine engine.

  7. Mathematics in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Anindya

    2005-01-01

    I try to convey some of the variety and excitement involved in the application of mathematics to engineering problems; to provide a taste of some actual mathematical calculations that engineers do; and finally, to make clear the distinctions between the applied subject of engineering and its purer parents, which include mathematics and the physical sciences. Two main points of this article are that in engineering it is approximation, and not truth, that reigns; and that an engineer carries a ...

  8. Mechanical engineer's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marghitu, Dan B

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineer's Handbook was developed and written specifically to fill a need for mechanical engineers and mechanical engineering students throughout the world. With over 1000 pages, 550 illustrations, and 26 tables the Mechanical Engineer's Handbook is very comprehensive, yet affordable, compact, and durable. The Handbook covers all major areas of mechanical engineering with succinct coverage of the definitions, formulas, examples, theory, proofs, and explanations of all principle subject areas. The Handbook is an essential, practical companion for all mechanic

  9. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. Design 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. Setting 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Participants Primary schoolgirls 14–16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. Interventions 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against ‘usual practice’ control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Conclusions Provision of

  10. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  11. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tax Area Boundaries, Utility, sanitary, lake, technical college, and other miscellaneous districts with taxing authority in Washing County are all maintained as attributes of the parcel feature., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Tax Area Boundaries dataset current as of 2013. Utility, sanitary, lake, technical college, and other miscellaneous districts with taxing authority in Washing County...

  13. Sewerage Collection Lines, City of Emporia Sanitary Sewer System. The data contains points and lines. Data includes some depth information and manholes. We are in process for GPSing manhole locations., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia / Lyon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Collection Lines dataset current as of 2011. City of Emporia Sanitary Sewer System. The data contains points and lines. Data includes some depth information...

  14. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  15. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a) Engine...

  17. [Provision of the population with sanitary-and-epidemiological wellbeing under conditions of extended use of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2010-01-01

    As of now, work is ever increasingly and successfully proceeding on the development of nanotechnologies and promising nanomaterials. By 2015, the nanotechnology product market may be expected to amount to US$ 1.2-2.9 trillion. Nanotechnology as a set of methods for the controlled manipulation of material objects with the sizes of less than 100 nm makes it possible to use a substance with a traditional chemical composition to design structures in the nanometer range (nanomaterials) and to endow them with fundamentally new properties, such as unique mechanical strength, special spectral, electrical, magnetic, chemical, and biological characteristics. Among the main domains for applications of nanomaterials, we should now single out optics, power engineering, researches, wildlife conservation, etc. The specific physicochemical properties of nanomaterials suggest that they can be toxic to humans. That is the reason that society should be keenly aware of what the nanomaterials are. Despite the fact that nanomaterials have been already used worldwide for more than 10 years, none kind has been fully investigated for its safety in any country.

  18. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering - two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art.

  19. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  20. Hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and evaluation of treatments for the elimination of indigenous E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 from the surface of leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ytana oliveira; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro; Guimarães, Alaise Gil; Almeida, Paulo Fernando de

    2010-01-01

    p.1083-1089 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and irrigation water and assess the effectiveness of lemon juice and vinegar in reducing E. coli strains inoculated on lettuce. One hundred and forty samples of vegetables and 45 samples of irrigation water were investigated for thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella spp. In order to verify the effectiveness of natural household sanitizers in reducing E. coli in inoculated lettuce, four treatm...

  1. Process Engineering App lied to the Production of Bioethanol Using Banana Rejection Urabá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flórez Alvarado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most countries either financially or in advanced stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of waste and organic waste; these can be treated in different ways, for example by reducing its volume or processing any useful substance using physicochemical transformation processesbananas in bioethanol and analyzing environmental impacts to meet sanitary standards.The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for ethanol production from banana and the study and application of process engineering in ethanol production using banana rejection as feedstock in the region of Urabá.Bioethanol is obtained by fermentation and distillation of rejected bananas where the results are reflected in the operational controls and leaf pattern obtained in the standardization process.

  2. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  3. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  4. [Hygienic-sanitary quality in abattoirs from Tucuman province, Argentina. Detection, isolation and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Terrazzino, Gabriela B; Condorí, Marina S; López Campo, Alejandro; Vega, Silvia; Carbonari, Carolina; Chinen, Isabel; Rivas, Marta; de Castillo, Marta C; Jure, María A

    Cattle are the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and the strategies to prevent the transmission of these microorganisms are concentrated in the slaughtering plant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality and the frequency of detection of STEC in beef carcasses in abattoirs from Tucuman province. Two hundred and seventy four beef carcass sponges were processed; the count of generic E. coli was marginal in 9 (3,3%) of them. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated in 4 (1,4%) samples; 2 of which were characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA whereas the other 2 were non-toxigenic strains. Non-O157 E. coli ONT:H49, stx2a/ehxA/saa was isolated from 1 sample (0,4%). In this work the quality of the analyzed product indicates that the good practices of manufacture are fulfilled in slaughtering facilities in Tucumán province. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  7. La cuestión sanitaria en el debate modernidad-posmodernidad The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Iriart

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo situa a la cuestión sanitaria en el debate modernidad-posmodernidad. Tal análisis se realiza desde una posición filosófica que plantea la crisis de la modernidad y cuestiona la torsión ideológica que a la misma le propicía la posmodernidad obturando las visiones cuestionadoras. Propiciando una vision alternativa de lo político pensada desde el plano de la potencia, recuperando el rol del sujeto en la decisión de producir transformaciones.This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  8. Simultaneous Inoculation of Malbec (Vitis vinifera Musts with Yeast and Bacteria: Effects on Fermentation Performance, Sensory and Sanitary Attributes of Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Massera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malolactic fermentation has important consequences for the quality of wine. The present study analyzes the effect of timing of inoculation with bacteria on the performance of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation in Malbec musts from a warm climate wine growing region during two consecutive vintages, with a specific consideration for the sensory and sanitary wine parameters. In this study traditional vinification, where malolactic bacteria were inoculated after the completion of alcoholic fermentation, was compared with a simultaneous inoculation with yeast and bacteria. The experiment was made on pilot scale which closely reproduces winery conditions. The obtained results point out that simultaneous inoculation resulted in a reduction of total time of fermentation and a better control of the malolactic fermentation due to the early dominance of a selected bacterial strain. There were no negative effects on yeast population and alcoholic fermentation performance observed. Differences between the wine sensory attributes were no significant or they were in favour of simultaneous inoculations. No statistical differences in the biogenic amine levels between different timings of inoculation were found.

  9. [Strategies for integration of health care practices and sanitary surveillance in the context of the implementation of Rede Cegonha - a Brazilian mother and infant health care network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Roberta Zanelli Sartori; Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia

    2014-11-01

    Mother and infant mortality has been the scope of analysis throughout the history of public health in Brazil and various strategies to tackle the issue have been proposed to date. The Ministry of Health has been working on this and the Rede Cegonha strategy is the most recent policy in this context. Given the principle of comprehensive health care and the structure of the Unified Health System in care networks, it is necessary to ensure the integration of health care practices, among which are the sanitary surveillance actions (SSA). Considering that the integration of health care practices and SSA can contribute to reduce mother and infant mortality rates, this article is a result of qualitative research that analyzed the integration of these actions in four cities in the State of São Paulo/Brazil: Campinas, Indaiatuba, Jaguariúna and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. The research was conducted through interviews with SSA and maternal health managers, and the data were evaluated using thematic analysis. The results converge with other studies, identifying the isolation of health care practices and SSA. The insertion of SSA in collectively-managed areas appears to be a potential strategy for health planning and implementation of actions in the context under scrutiny.

  10. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  11. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  12. Hygienic-sanitary diagnosis and microbiological evaluation of dairy products from a dairy industry located in Tucuruí – Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lopes Figueiredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the degree of compliance of a dairy industry in relation to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP. The objectives were to identify the Critical Control Points (CCP and Control Points (CP in the pasteurized milk and strawberry yogurt processing chain; to evaluate the microbiological quality of the products, as well as the contamination index of the processing surfaces of a dairy industry located in the municipality of Tucuruí, Pará. Regarding the GMP evaluation, it was used the Collegiate Board Resolution 275 verification sheet. The steps of the flowcharts of the dairy products manufacturing chain were evaluated in order to identify PCCs and PCs and potential health hazards to the consumers. The microbiological analysis of the dairy products (total and thermo-tolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus counts and Salmonela research followed the official methods of the American Public Health Association. Also, swab of 12 surfaces involved in the processing chain of the products were submitted to the same microbiological analysis. Based on the degree of compliance with GMP, the dairy industry was placed within the Group 1 category. The results of microbiological analysis in pasteurized milk and yoghurt were found to comply with the legal requirements. However, although the surfaces were in accordance with the specifications for thermo-tolerant coliforms, a high contamination rate with Staphylococcus aureus and total coliforms were found, which indicates hygienic-sanitary failure in the dairy industry.

  13. Effect of the Impact of Chemical and Environmental Factors on the Durability of the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Geogrid in a Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kiersnowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE uniaxial geogrid was exhumed after twenty years of service in a sanitary landfill, and its properties were examined. A geogrid installed in a landfill is exposed to mechanical and chemical factors (e.g., a wide pH range and high temperatures, as well as different weather conditions. This paper presents the results of physical and mechanical analyses of virgin and aged HDPE geogrid samples. Structural changes observed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectroscopy correlate with the mechanical properties of the aged geogrid. The mechanical properties were found to have changed only slightly. In the FT-IR spectrum of the topmost layer of the aged geogrid samples, no significant changes were observed compared to the spectrum of the top layer of the virgin samples. This indicates the strong chemical resistance of the HDPE material, which is able to withstand environmental conditions for at least 20 years of service in a landfill.

  14. Numerical modeling of simultaneous tracer release and piscicide treatment for invasive species control in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenduo; Motta, Davide; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-01-01

    In December 2009, during a piscicide treatment targeting the invasive Asian carp in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Rhodamine WT dye was released to track and document the transport and dispersion of the piscicide. In this study, two modeling approaches are presented to reproduce the advection and dispersion of the dye tracer (and piscicide), a one-dimensional analytical solution and a three-dimensional numerical model. The two approaches were compared with field measurements of concentration and their applicability is discussed. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements were used to estimate the longitudinal dispersion coefficients at ten cross sections, which were taken as reference for calibrating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in the one-dimensional analytical solution. While the analytical solution is fast, relatively simple, and can fairly accurately predict the core of the observed concentration time series at points downstream, it does not capture the tail of the breakthrough curves. These tails are well reproduced by the three-dimensional model, because it accounts for the effects of dead zones and a power plant which withdraws nearly 80 % of the water from the canal for cooling purposes before returning it back to the canal.

  15. Sociological dimension in the handling habit and sanitary quality of hand-dug well water from oil-producing area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Eucharia O; Ejechi, Bernard O

    2007-11-01

    A previous report showed that the physical and sanitary quality of hand-dug wells from an oil-producing area of Nigeria was poor in spite of the presence of well protective features. The hypothesis that handling habits is associated with the well water quality was therefore, tested. A structured questionnaire with scales for measuring handling habits was administered to 60 female (>18 years) hand-dug well users/owners randomly selected from three towns in the oil-producing area. The respondents' wells were analysed for coliform bacteria. The findings showed that poor handling habits were the trend (habit score: Mean, 9.23 vs. 20 total available points). Handling habit indicated by scores, significantly negatively correlated (-0.89; P water, widespread skepticism of the potential hazards of non-drinking domestic uses (e.g., cooking, washing of plates, cups, cutleries etc.) was evident. Discontent with some aspects of science was indicated. It is concluded that there is need for social discourse and more public health campaign aimed at transforming skepticism to consent.

  16. LOW- CAPACITY SLAUGHTERHOUSES STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT FOR THE APPROVAL PROVIDED FOR BY 853/2004 REGULATION. EXPERIENCES OF THE LOCAL SANITARY AUTHORITY OF THE PROVINCE OF BERGAMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paladino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For effect of CE 853/04 Regulation slaughterhouses authorized as low-capacity establishments under 91/497/CEE directive and 286/94 Decree, had to obtain the approval by 31/12/2009 to continue operating. This work illustrates the experience of the Veterinay Department of Bergamo Local Sanitary Authority about adjustment of low-capacity slaughterhouses to the requirements for by 852/04 and 853/04 Regulation. Here it’s illustrated the activity of the Veterinary Department and the evolution of slaughterhouses reality form 2006 to 2009. From a starting number of 154 low-capacity slaughterhouses operating in 2006, among which none conforming to the European Regulation, at the end of the adjustment activities we’ve reached the number of 85 approved slaughterhouses. To the significant reduction of the number of the establishments we associate the clear improvement of the hygiene standards, thanks to the punctual respect of the structural and functional requirements provided for by Regulations

  17. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies document the prevalence of Taenia solium infections in Nigeria, yet these studies do not cover porcine cysticercosis in private home slaughter slabs where there is no routine meat inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria. Slaughter premises were inspected for availability of basic facilities and questionnaires were used to elicit necessary informative data. Butchers were examined for taeniasis by stool microscopy and copro-antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) to ascertain T. solium - taeniasis. Pigs slaughtered at the premises were examined for cysticerci. Home slaughter conditions were substandard, unhygienic and lacked the basic facilities of a proper slaughterhouse. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 9.3%. The butchers participating in the study had very poor knowledge of T. solium infections and 30% tested positive for taeniasis by copro-Ag ELISA at the time of the study. Home slaughter of pigs in the areas studied should be considered and integrated as a component of prevention and control programmes - particularly through educational interventions - in order to equip individuals involved with a good understanding of the risks associated with animal husbandry and human practices.

  18. Analysis of ground vibrations produced by an 80 in3 water gun in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Lemont, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Carolyn Michelle

    Since its completion in 1910, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) has become a pathway for invasive species (and potentially Asian carp) to reach the Great Lakes. Currently, an electric barrier is used to prevent Asian carp migration through the canal, but the need for a secondary method is necessary, especially when the electric barrier undergoes maintenance. The underwater Asian carp "cannon" (water gun) provides such a method. Analysis of the ground movement produced by an 80 in3 water gun in the CSSC was performed in order to establish any potential for damage to the either the canal or structures built along the canal. Ground movement was collected using 3-component geophones on both the land surface and in boreholes. The peak particle velocities (PPVs) were analyzed to determine if damage would be caused to structures located along the canal. Vector sum velocity ground movement along the canal wall was as high as 0.28 in/s (7.11 mm/s), which is much lower than the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) ground vibration damage threshold of 0.75 in/s (19.1 mm/s), causing no potential for damage to structures along the canal wall. The dominant frequency of ground motion produced by the water gun is primarily above 40 Hz, so the wave energy should attenuate fairly quickly away from the canal wall, with little disturbance to structures further from the wall.

  19. The Phillips Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Stirling engine and its development from the heavy cast-iron machine of the 19th century to that of today. It is a history of a research effort spanning nearly 50 years, together with an outline of principles, and some technical details and descriptions of the more important engines. Contents include: the hot-air engine; the 20th-century revival; the Stirling cycle; rhombic-drive engines; heating and cooling; pistons and seals; electric generators and heat pumps; exotic heat sources; the engine and the environment; swashplate engines; and the past and the future.

  20. Becoming an Engineer or a Lady Engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, Janwillem; Udas, Pranita Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, using the Department of Irrigation in Nepal as a case study, we argue that professional performance in irrigation engineering and water resources development is gendered and normalised as ‘masculine’. In Nepal, the masculinity of professional performance in irrigation engineering is

  1. Engineering Encounters: Identifying an Engineering Design Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek, Lisa; VanMeeteren, Beth; McDermott, Mark; Uhlenberg, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Engineering is an intriguing way for students to connect the design process with their knowledge of science (NRC 2012). This article describes the "Engineering a Pancake Recipe" design process which was created to make the structure and properties of matter more meaningful for fifth grade students. The whole pancake recipe engineering…

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  3. Vigilância Sanitária em Serviços de Saúde: os desafios da prática / Surveillance Sanitary in health services: the challenge’s of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Os serviços de saúde vêm agregando as tecnologias mais recentes lançadas no mercado de saúde, acentuando a probabilidade de erros, exigindo da Vigilância Sanitária a expertise necessária para o controle dos produtos, processos e serviços assistenciais realizados nos seus ambientes. Este artigo objetiva analisar o papel da Vigilância Sanitária nos serviços de saúde, bem como fornecer elementos teóricos para subsidiar uma prática de controle sanitário mais integrada e condizente com a realidade dos serviços de saúde. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, tendo-se realizado uma revisão sistemática da literatura na área da vigilância sanitária e serviços de saúde, sem restrição de tempo e idioma, com o auxílio de descritores específicos. O texto traz uma análise histórica da vigilância sanitária em serviços de saúde, avaliando sua trajetória e tecnologias de trabalho frente a esses serviços, apontando diretrizes para uma ação mais integrada com a realidade dessas organizações. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Health services have incorporated a wide variety of technological innovations, specialty in hospitals services. This article presents an analysis of the role of Sanitary Surveillance in hospital services, and offers subsidies that help make the practice of sanitary control in Brazilian hospitals more compatible with the reality of hospital organization in the country. It is a descriptive study, built on a bibliographic search in the area of Sanitary Surveillance and hospital organization, with no restrictions on date or language, and with the help of specific descriptors. The text offers a historical analysis of health services in Brazil, with an evaluation of the evolution of Sanitary Surveillance and the technologies it handles, in comparison to the dynamic transformations of hospital institutions. The text contains suggestions of initiatives that could make Sanitary

  4. Siege engine dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2005-07-01

    The medieval siege engine is a historically important machine that has latterly been adopted for the purpose of physics instruction. Here we analyse the historical developments and show why these engines ultimately evolved into the highly efficient trebuchet.

  5. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Louis

    1978-01-01

    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  6. Social engineering attack framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available link. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by; using various manipulation techniques in order to elicit sensitive; information. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy; stages with regards to formal definitions and attack...

  7. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  8. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  9. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene into a cell of another plant or animal. Function Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or bacteria and other very small organisms. Genetic engineering allows scientists to move desired genes from ...

  10. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  11. Seeking Tomorrow's Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickason, Donald G.

    1971-01-01

    The engineering student recently motivated primarily by the Protestant ethic, is now described as peer oriented" and other directed." The recruitment and production of engineers under new circumstances is described. (Author)

  12. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  13. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  14. Schnabel Engineering Lecture

    OpenAIRE

    Cording, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Schnabel Engineering is pleased to bring you Dr. Edward J. Cording as our eighth lecturer of this series. Dr. Cording is Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he has taught and performed research in geotechnical engineering, focusing on rock mechanics, soil-structure interaction, and underground construction. The field has been his laboratory, on engineering projects; beginning in the 1960's with large deep caverns ...

  15. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  16. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  17. COBRA Main Engine Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  18. Object Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    Based Systems Engineering ( MBSE ) has shifted the emphasis of the Systems Engineering community away from documents towards view-based artifacts. These...Engineering lies primarily in these objects, not the containers that deliver them. FIGURE 1: Evolution of Systems Engineering Practice MBSE ...capture minority viewpoints and discussion threads associated with each object of interest. If the majority view doesn’t lead to success, this data may

  19. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  20. Aircraft engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennepohl, F.

    An overview of the main aircraft engine noise sources is given. Special emphasis is devoted to turbomachinery/rotor noise, which plays an important role in all engine concepts appropriate to regional aircraft, such as turbofans, propellers, or new propfan engine concepts. The noise generating mechanisms, including propagation within the engine, and calculation methods used are described. Noise reduction methods are considered, with emphasis on cutoff design of turbomachines. Some noise features of counter rotating propellers and swept rotor blades are mentioned.

  1. Vascularization Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Rivron, N.C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the amount of clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering is still limited. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is its inability to provide sufficient blood supply in the initial

  2. Principles of Naval Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of shipboard machinery, equipment, and engineering plants are presented in this text prepared for engineering officers. A general description is included of the development of naval ships, ship design and construction, stability and buoyancy, and damage and casualty control. Engineering theories are explained on the background of ship…

  3. Women in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion of the history of women in engineering in Great Britain covers (1) the founding and activities of the Women's Engineering Society, (2) women engineers in the 1930's, in wartime, in the postwar period, in the present, and in the future, and (3) attitudes about sex roles in the face of changing social values. (SH)

  4. Alternate fuels for engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, P.S.N.

    1981-06-01

    Field trials with SVC 5, single-cylinder, high-speed diesel engines have been conducted by Cooper Engineering Ltd, substituting alcohol, gobar gas and LPG, one by one, for diesel oil. The experiments have shown that the engines can be successfully operated with one of the three alternate fuels after making minor modifications in their design.

  5. Kali Linux social engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to learning and performing SET attacks with multiple examples.Kali Linux Social Engineering is for penetration testers who want to use BackTrack in order to test for social engineering vulnerabilities or for those who wish to master the art of social engineering attacks.

  6. Engineering honours program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir Antoine waal; Ir. Peter van Kollenburg

    2011-01-01

    In September 2009 the department of Engineering of Fontys University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands has started a pilot honours program for excellent engineering students called PRogram OUstanding Development (PROUD). Aim of this program is to give those engineering students, who have the

  7. Engineering Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Ken M.; Ahmed, Saeema; Bracewell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The need to improve engineering knowledge management is driven by the current challenges facing manufacturing organisations in the emerging global economy and, in particular by the important role knowledge plays in the engineering design process. Industrial organisations are facing increasing...... international competition, and in response their engineering products are improving in terms of performance, reliability and cost of ownership....

  8. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  9. The Engineers' Innovation Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Vaneker, T.H.J.; Lutters, D.

    2008-01-01

    Most engineers nowadays receive a mono-disciplinary education: Mechanical engineering, Electrical engineering etc. Contradictory, the products they have to design are ever more multidisciplinary and integrated. This requires a different mindset. This paper discusses four tools that fit in the

  10. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  11. Ethics and engineering design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering

  12. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  13. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  14. CF 6 engine diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, R.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the activities which led to defining deterioration rates of the CF6 family of engines, a description of what was learned, and an identification of means of conserving fuel based upon the program findings are presented. The program to define the deterioration levels and modes for the CF6 family of engines involved four distinct phases: analysis of inbound engine test results, analysis of airline cruise data, analysis of airline test cell data resulting from testing of refurbished engines, and inspection of engine hardware.

  15. Integrative metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H McArthur IV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in experimental and computational synthetic biology are extremely useful for achieving metabolic engineering objectives. The integration of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering within an iterative design-build-test framework will improve the practice of metabolic engineering by relying more on efficient design strategies. Computational tools that aid in the design and in silico simulation of metabolic pathways are especially useful. However, software helpful for constructing, implementing, measuring and characterizing engineered pathways and networks should not be overlooked. In this review, we highlight computational synthetic biology tools relevant to metabolic engineering, organized in the context of the design-build-test cycle.

  16. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan

    2010-01-01

    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  17. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  18. Integralidade, uma diretriz do SUS para a vigilância sanitária Integral care, a SUS (Brazilian Unified Health System guideline for the sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele O'Dwyer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A vigilância sanitária atua através de práticas e objetos diversos e suas ações são orientadas pelos mesmos princípios e diretrizes do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Propusemos uma reflexão crítica sobre as condições de interação da prática de vigilância sanitária com uma proposição constitucional do SUS, a integralidade. Realizou-se uma análise baseada na Teoria da Estruturação, de Giddens, que considera a mobilização de recursos estruturais como uma dimensão de interação social que justifica a legitimação exercida pela sanção de normas. Foram ordenadas como categorias de análise: Visa e sua inserção no SUS; o princípio da integralidade e a Visa; e entraves políticos. A vigilância sanitária vem-se organizando a partir da Anvisa e atualmente assume novas responsabilidades sanitárias, entre elas a comunicação com a sociedade e ações de promoção da saúde. A discussão na literatura para a integralidade baseia-se no aspecto assistencial. A organização dos serviços nos diferentes entes federativos é o sentido de integralidade mais incorporado pela Visa. Os entraves políticos estão na renovação institucional, na arena de conflitos de interesses, na distância entre políticas formuladas e instituídas, e nas lacunas referentes à gestão do trabalho e à insuficiência do financiamento.The sanitary surveillance (Visa performs several practices, on different objects and its actions are guided by principles and guidelines of the SUS. It was done a critical reflection on the interaction conditions of practice in Visa, with a constitutional proposition of the SUS: integral care. The analysis was based on the theory of structuration (Giddens that considers mobilization of structural resources as dimensions of social interaction, which would justify the legitimacy exercised since the standards. Have been analyzed the following categories: Visa and its insertion within the SUS; the integral care and the

  19. Restaurantes self-service: segurança e qualidade sanitária dos alimentos servidos Self-service restaurants: food safety and sanitary quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gardin Alves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esse trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a temperatura e a qualidade sanitária de alimentos servidos nos balcões de distribuição em restaurantes self-service no município de Taubaté (SP, com vistas à discussão da segurança alimentar. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas quatro amostras, sendo dois alimentos quentes e dois alimentos frios de 16 restaurantes; antes da coleta mediu-se a temperatura dos alimentos expostos nos balcões de distribuição. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos seguintes parâmetros: contagem de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas, determinação de coliformes a 35ºC e a 45ºC, contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e detecção de Salmonella. RESULTADOS: Cinquenta e seis (87,5% alimentos estavam em temperaturas inadequadas, alimentos frios expostos em temperaturas acima de 10ºC e alimentos quentes abaixo de 60ºC. Bactérias aeróbias mesófilas em contagem acima de 10(6 UFC/g foram detectadas em 11% das amostras e coliformes a 35ºC e coliformes a 45ºC foram detectadas em 76,6% e 43,7% das amostras, respectivamente. Dois alimentos, sendo um frio e um quente, provenientes de um mesmo restaurante, apresentaram contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positivo acima de 10(4 UFC/g. Todas as amostras apresentaram ausência de Salmonella. CONCLUSÃO: A manutenção dos alimentos servidos, nos balcões de distribuição, em temperaturas abusivas e a presença de microrganismos indicadores de qualidade sanitária em número elevado comprometem a segurança e podem colocar em risco a saúde dos consumidores, em restaurantes self-service. Os instrumentos utilizados demonstraram-se como ferramentas importantes de avaliação da segurança das refeições servidas.OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to assess the temperature and sanitary quality of the foods available on the buffet table of self-service restaurants located in the city of Taubaté (SP, in order to discuss food safety. METHODS: Four samples, two of cold dishes

  20. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F

    2016-11-23

    Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against 'usual practice' control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Provision of menstrual cups and sanitary pads for ∼1 school-year was associated with a lower STI risk, and cups with a lower