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Sample records for sanitary conventional combined

  1. RF torch discharge combined with conventional burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janca, J.; Tesar, C.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the combined flame-rf-plasma reactor and experimental examination of this reactor are presented. For the determination of the temperature in different parts of the combined burner plasma the methods of emission spectroscopy were used. The temperatures measured in the conventional burner reach the maximum temperature 1900 K but in the burner with the superimposed rf discharge the neutral gas temperature substantially increased up to 2600 K but also the plasma volume increases substantially. Consequently, the resident time of reactants in the reaction zone increases

  2. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines in Combination with Conventional Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, N.; Ellebaek, E.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...

  3. Therapeutic cancer vaccines in combination with conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Junker, Niels; Ellebaek, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of most therapeutic vaccines against cancer has not yet met its promise. Data are emerging that strongly support the notion that combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies, for example, radiation and chemotherapy may improve efficacy. In particular combination...

  4. Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant; Kombineret brugsvands- og rumvarmepumpe med CO{sub 2} som koelemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen Poulsen, C. [Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    This project report describes the implementation of the Danish project called 'Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant'. In the course of the project, a combined heat pump has been developed for heating sanitary hot water and producing domestic space heating. The project shows that CO2 has excellent properties in systems where a high temperature is desired on the gas cooler side and that it is possible to combine the production of sanitary hot water with the production of domestic space heating. During the project, a number of system solutions have been analysed and at the end of the project a prototype was built. It was tested in the laboratory according to a current Dutch standard for heat pumps for sanitary hot water. The prototype was constructed without the space heat part which solely has been analysed according to calculations. The reason is that there currently are no applicable European standards for the testing of combined systems and as the total efficiency of the system mainly depends on the temperature out of the gas cooler it was decided not to spend resources on the construction of the combined system in the prototype version of the unit. Instead, a number of proposals have been submitted to how the system with a space heat section could be constructed. The main components used in the prototype (compressor, exchangers, valve, control and tank) are all partly commercially available and therefore focus has been on the system construction. During the project, a number of CFD calculations have been carried out on the gas cooler in the hot water tank and the results show how important it is that the gas cooler is designed and placed correctly. The laboratory tests carried out on the unit show that the COP of the heat pump plant in connection with sanitary hot water tapping (according to Dutch standard) is 1.4 1.5 which is not immediately satisfactory. But when it is considered that the unit is a

  5. Conventional versus combined apgar scores in neonatal asphyxia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kamal Hardani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In asphyxiated neonates sensitivity and specificity of combined apgar were more than conventional apgar. With respect to this study, better assessment could be achieved by combined apgar score method instead of conventional Apgar.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of the combined use of conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmad Hafez Afifi

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... conventional sonography and sonoelastography in differentiating benign and ... Common presentation of cancer thyroid is solid solitary nodule and ..... and Itoh,9 was useful for comparing breast ultrasound and elastographic ...

  7. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  8. Efficacy evaluation of fluoxetine combined with conventional drug treatment on unstable angina patients complicated with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Liao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the efficacy of fluoxetine combined with conventional drug treatment on unstable angina patients complicated with depression. Methods:120 cases of unstable angina patients with depression were randomly divided into two groups. The anti-depression group received fluoxetine combined with conventional drug therapy; the conventional group received conventional drug therapy. Then contents of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites, antioxidants and inflammatory mediators of both groups were compared. Results:Serum monoamine neurotransmitters NE, 5-HT and HA levels of the anti-depression group were higher than those of the conventional group and metabolites 5-HIAA and HVA contents were lower than those of the conventional group; serum SOD, CAT, GSH and HSP-70 contents of the anti-depression group were higher than those of the conventional group, and hs-CRP, MMP9, MCP1 and HMGB1 contents were lower than those of the conventional group. Conclusion:Fluoxetine combined with conventional drug therapy can increase the contents of monoamine neurotransmitters and antioxidants, and reduce oxidative stress response and inflammatory response; it is an ideal method for treating unstable angina complicated with depression.

  9. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  10. Biogas of sanitary fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Camacho, Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes a methodology for the preliminary estimation of the energetic potential and environmental improvement derivates of the implementation of these technologies that allows to make the first estimative of biogas generation of sanitary fillers with base in the results of the simulation of three predictive model: One Mexican, other denominated Scholl-Canyon of North American origin and the designed by the EPA. The three models use different versions and constants for a differential equation of degradation of first degree

  11. Sanitary landfill in situ bioremediation optimization test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work was performed as part of a corrective action plan for the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company Environmental Restoration Department as part of final implementation of a groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. Primary regulatory surveillance was provided by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the US Environmental Protection Agency (Region IV). The characterization, monitoring and remediation systems in the program generally consisted of a combination of innovative and baseline methods to allow comparison and evaluation. The results of these studies will be used to provide input for the full-scale groundwater remediation system for the SRS Sanitary Landfill. This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill In Situ Optimization Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  12. Improvement of cancer therapy by the combination of conventional radiation and chemical or physical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The IAEA has since 1982 supported two co-ordinated research programmes (CRP's) aimed at improving conventional radiotherapy by means of its combination with chemical sensitizers, protectors and hyperthermia. This is a final report on the two CRP's and combines the two final reports prepared by the participants of the two final research co-ordination meetings held in Istanbul and Madras. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Collaborative Learning in Architectural Education: Benefits of Combining Conventional Studio, Virtual Design Studio and Live Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carolina; Hudson, Roland; Niblock, Chantelle

    2018-01-01

    Combinations of Conventional Studio and Virtual Design Studio (VDS) have created valuable learning environments that take advantage of different instruments of communication and interaction. However, past experiences have reported limitations in regards to student engagement and motivation, especially when the studio projects encourage abstraction…

  14. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  15. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rapper, Stephanie; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29). Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination. PMID:27891157

  16. The In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oil in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie de Rapper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender essential oil in combination with four commercial antimicrobial agents. Stock solutions of chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nystatin, and fusidic acid were tested in combination with L. angustifolia essential oil. The antimicrobial activities of the combinations were investigated against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 was selected to represent the yeasts. The antimicrobial effect was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC microdilution assay. Isobolograms were constructed for varying ratios. The most prominent interaction was noted when L. angustifolia essential oil was combined with chloramphenicol and tested against the pathogen P. aeruginosa (ΣFIC of 0.29. Lavendula angustifolia essential oil was shown in most cases to interact synergistically with conventional antimicrobials when combined in ratios where higher volumes of L. angustifolia essential oil were incorporated into the combination.

  17. Effect of alprostadil combined with conventional therapy on serum markers in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of alprostadil combined with conventional therapy on serum markers in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Patients with acute cerebral infarction treated in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received alprostadil combined with conventional therapy and control group received conventional treatment. Then serum markers of both groups were compared. Results: (1 contents of serum nerve function related molecules: serum NSE and S100β contents of observation group showed a decreasing trend, and BDNF and NGF contents showed an increasing trend; (2 contents of atherosclerosis related enzymes: serum GGT, iNOS and MPO contents of observation group showed a decreasing trend, and PON1 and PON2 contents showed an increasing trend; (3 platelet activation related molecules: serum PPARγ, CD62p, YKL-40, sCD40L and Fibulin-5 contents of observation group all showed a decreasing trend. Conclusions: Alprostadil combined with conventional treatment is helpful to alleviate neuronal damage and inhibit the processes of atherosclerosis and platelet activation; it’s an ideal method for treating acute cerebral infarction.

  18. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbaş, Z. Y.; Vural, H.; Aytac, S. A.

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball.

  19. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaş, Z Y; Vural, H; Aytaç, S A

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball.

  20. Combined effect of gamma-irradiation and conventional cooking on Aeromonas hydrophila in meatball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbaş, Z.Y.; Vural, H.; Aytac, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation combined with a conventional cooking procedure was applied to meatball and the effects on bacterial load and inoculated Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. Meatball samples were irradiated by using a 60Co source at the dose levels of 0, 0.30, 0.75, 1.50, 2.50 kGy and cold stored at 4 +/- 1 degrees C for 7 days. Bacterial load and the count of A. hydrophila decreased when the irradiation dose level increased. A minimum inhibition effect was found at the dose of 0.30 kGy. Irradiation in combination with a conventional cooking procedure was found to be more effective in reducing A. hydrophila and the bacterial load in meatball. This study indicated that a dose of 0.75 kGy was sufficient to destroy approximately 10(4) cfu/g of A. hydrophila in meatball

  1. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  2. Targeting chemotherapy-resistant leukemia by combining DNT cellular therapy with conventional chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Branson; Lee, Jong Bok; Kang, Hyeonjeong; Minden, Mark D; Zhang, Li

    2018-04-24

    While conventional chemotherapy is effective at eliminating the bulk of leukemic cells, chemotherapy resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a prevalent problem that hinders conventional therapies and contributes to disease relapse, and ultimately patient death. We have recently shown that allogeneic double negative T cells (DNTs) are able to target the majority of primary AML blasts in vitro and in patient-derived xenograft models. However, some primary AML blast samples are resistant to DNT cell therapy. Given the differences in the modes of action of DNTs and chemotherapy, we hypothesize that DNT therapy can be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy to further improve their anti-leukemic effects and to target chemotherapy-resistant disease. Drug titration assays and flow-based cytotoxicity assays using ex vivo expanded allogeneic DNTs were performed on multiple AML cell lines to identify therapy-resistance. Primary AML samples were also tested to validate our in vitro findings. Further, a xenograft model was employed to demonstrate the feasibility of combining conventional chemotherapy and adoptive DNT therapy to target therapy-resistant AML. Lastly, blocking assays with neutralizing antibodies were employed to determine the mechanism by which chemotherapy increases the susceptibility of AML to DNT-mediated cytotoxicity. Here, we demonstrate that KG1a, a stem-like AML cell line that is resistant to DNTs and chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-resistant primary AML samples both became more susceptible to DNT-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro following pre-treatment with daunorubicin. Moreover, chemotherapy treatment followed by adoptive DNT cell therapy significantly decreased bone marrow engraftment of KG1a in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, daunorubicin increased the expression of NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on KG1a; blocking of these pathways attenuated DNT-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of using DNTs as

  3. Conventional and advanced exergetic analyses applied to a combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana; Carassai, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Conventional exergy-based methods pinpoint components and processes with high irreversibilities. However, they lack certain insight. For a given advanced technological state, there is a minimum level of exergy destruction related to technological and/or economic constraints that is unavoidable. Furthermore, in any thermodynamic system, exergy destruction stems from both component interactions (exogenous) and component inefficiencies (endogenous). To overcome the limitations of the conventional analyses and to increase our knowledge about a plant, advanced exergy-based analyses have been developed. In this paper, a combined cycle power plant is analyzed using both conventional and advanced exergetic analyses. Except for the expander of the gas turbine system and the high-pressure steam turbine, most of the exergy destruction in the plant components is unavoidable. This unavoidable part is constrained by internal technological limitations, i.e. each component’s endogenous exergy destruction. High levels of endogenous exergy destruction show that component interactions do not contribute significantly to the thermodynamic inefficiencies. In addition, these inefficiencies are unavoidable to a large extent. With the advanced analysis, new improvement strategies are revealed that could not otherwise be found. -- Highlights: ► This is the first application of a complete advanced exergetic analysis to a complex power plant. ► In the three-pressure-level combined cycle power plant studied here, the improvement potential of the majority of the components is low, since most of the exergy destruction is unavoidable. ► Component interactions are generally of lower importance for the considered plant. ► Splitting the exogenous exergy destruction reveals one-to-one component interactions and improvement strategies. ► The advanced exergetic analysis is a necessary supplement to the conventional analysis in improving a complex system.

  4. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564

  5. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Guerra MONTEIRO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M. The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil. The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  6. Combination of acupressure with phoniatric conventional treatment in patients with tono-pathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Mora Yero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are bibliographic reports that set out the advantage about shortening the recovery time when conventional logo-phoniatric exercises are combined with natural and traditional medicine techniques, such as acupressure.Objective: to evaluate the possible effectiveness of the combination of logo-phoniatric exercises, together with digit pressure on Adam's apple, for normalizing the vocal tone and using the digital pinch mode in patients treated in the Logopedics and Phoniatrics consultation of "Dr. Ernesto Guevara" Teaching General Hospital in 2014.Methods: a quasi-experimental study was carried out in 30 patients who came voluntarily or referred because of vocal tone alterations, in the time and place mentioned above.Results: in the study population, there was prevalence of: males in 60 % of the patients; age group from 11 to 13 years old in a 63 % and over-acute tone in the 57 %.Rehabilitation of patients with tone from over-acute to grave was achieved in 94% and from ultra-grave to acute in 84%.Conclusions: in most of the patients the combination of acupressure with logo-phoniatric conventional rehabilitation exercises was effective in less than 20 sessions of treatment.

  7. Treatment of waste water by a combined technique of radiation and conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakumoto, A.; Miyata, T.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of waste water by radiation in combination with a conventional method such as biological oxidation, coagulation with Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and ozonation has been studied for reducing necessary dose. Ethylene glycol ethers, polyoxyethylene n-nonyl phenyl ether (NPE), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), ethylene glycol, phenol, and oxalic acid were used as a model pollutant. The combined use of radiation and biological oxidation markedly improved the removal of TOC in aqueous oxygenated solution of ethylene glycol ethers. The combined use of radiation and coagulation had remarkable effects on the reduction of TOC in aqueous deoxygenated solution of NPE or PVA. The simultaneous use of radiation and ozone gave a synergistic effect on oxidative degradation of organic pollutants. The synergistic effect was suggested to arise from chain reactions having a powerful oxidizing agent (OH radical). The rate of TOC removal by the process depended on dose rate. Aqueous solution of 150 mg/l oxalic acid was treated by the combined use of electron beams and ozone using a new type of irradiation vessel to reduce TOC with G(-TOC) of 87 at 2.3 x 10 7 rad/h. The simultaneous use of radiation and ozone is superior to the removal of TOC by other combined methods and can be applied irrespective of the type of organic matter. (author)

  8. Phononic band gap design in honeycomb lattice with combinations of auxetic and conventional core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Fabrizio Scarpa

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel design of a honeycomb lattice geometry that uses a seamless combination of conventional and auxetic cores, i.e. elements showing positive and negative Poisson’s ratio. The design is aimed at tuning and improving the band structure of periodic cellular structures. The proposed cellular configurations show a significantly wide band gap at much lower frequencies compared to their pure counterparts, while still retaining their major dynamic features. Different topologies involving both auxetic inclusions in a conventional lattice and conversely hexagonal cellular inclusions in auxetic butterfly lattices are presented. For all these cases the impact of the varying degree of auxeticity on the band structure is evaluated. The proposed cellular designs may offer significant advantages in tuning high-frequency bandgap behaviour, which is relevant to phononics applications. The configurations shown in this paper may be made iso-volumetric and iso-weight to a given regular hexagonal topology, making possible to adapt the hybrid lattices to existing sandwich structures with fixed dimensions and weights. This work also features a comparative study of the wave speeds corresponding to different configurations vis-a vis those of a regular honeycomb to highlight the superior behaviour of the combined hybrid lattice. (paper)

  9. Septic tank combined with anaerobic filter and conventional UASB: results from full scale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for domestic wastewater treatment, especially in warm climate regions. Two full-scale anaerobic schemes were investigated: septic tank combined with anaerobic filter (S T A NF and conventional UASB reactors. Treated effluents from these systems were subjected to disinfection by chlorination. The operational performance of 56 full-scale plants (36 S T A NF and 20 UASB provided a realistic view. Findings showed that the plants operated with low OLR (< 2.0 kg COD/m³.day. Despite this, the removal of organic material was below values suggested by the literature (around 60% for COD. A removal of 4.0 Log10 units of total coliform and E. coli can be reached with residual chlorine (R CL of at least 2.0 Cl-Cl2/l. Although UASB plants have performed better, improvement of maintenance is needed in both treatment configurations.

  10. Combined use of intraarterial digital subtraction angiography with conventional retrograde brachial vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Toshihide; Inugami, Atsushi; Kawata, Yasushi; Shishido, Fumio; Uemura, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    For 102 patients who had the examination of conventional bilaterally retrograde brachial vertebral angiography (retrograde VAG), intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was successively performed to investigate steno-occlusive lesions of proximal vertebral and subclavian arteries. All the patients had no complication due to the DSA procedure. In 50% of 72 ischemic stroke cases, positive findings were found either in the origin of the vertebral artery or in the subclavian artery. Stenosis of more than 50% of the lumen of the vertebral artery were found in 14% of the cases at the origin of the right one and also in 14% in the left one. Occlusion of the vertebral artery was found in 4% in the left side only. In 30 cases with non-ischemic brain diseases, positive findings were noted in 10%. Intraarterial DSA combined with retrograde VAG was thought to be useful, especially in the examination for ischemic stroke. (author)

  11. Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Mohamed A; El Shazly, Malak I

    2011-01-01

    To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium. Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49). The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon) intraocular lens (IOL). The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST), the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3). Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001). Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE). As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01). All changes of CCT, and ECD over time were found statistically significant using one-way ANOVA testing (P < 0.001). Both modes are safe in hard cataract surgery, however the pure torsional mode showed less US energy used.

  12. Effects of Combined exergame and conventional exercise to reduce and prevent fall risk among elderly people: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadeghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falling among old individuals has provoked ceaseless discussion among gerontologists and physical therapists and it is still one of the greatest issues among this population. Loss of the balance and functional mobility is the main reason of falling. There have been numerous studies conducting the effect of the conventional balance exercise and exergame independently on balance and functional mobility of elderly. Previous studies lacked dealing with the effect of combined exergame and conventional exercise on the balance and functional mobility. Combined exercises are enjoyable and may have more effective to improve balance and performance to reduce risk of fall among elderly people. This package would be preferable for older people. Objective: We hypothesize that while conventional balance exercise and exergame improve balance and functional mobility, combined both types of exercise would superior improvements in elderly performance. Conclusion: Ultimately we expect that this hypothesis will provide a useful framework for facilitating combined exergame and conventional balance intervention in older people.

  13. Effectiveness of combined laser-puncture and conventional wound care to accelerate diabetic foot ulcer healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiningsih Srilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired wound healing is a common complication of diabetes. It has complex pathophysiologic mechanisms and often necessitates amputation. Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined laser-puncture and conventional wound care in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.Methods: This was a double-blind controlled randomized clinical trial on 36 patients, conducted at the Metabolic Endocrine Outpatient Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, between May and August 2015. Stimulation by laser-puncture (the treatment group or sham stimulation (the control group were performed on top of the standard wound care. Laser-puncture or sham were done on several acupuncture points i.e. LI4 Hegu, ST36 Zusanli, SP6 Sanyinjiao and KI3 Taixi bilaterally, combined with irradiation on the ulcers itself twice a week for four weeks. The mean reduction in ulcer sizes (week 2–1, week 3–1, week 4–1 were measured every week and compared between the two groups and analyzed by Mann-Whitney test.Results: The initial median ulcer size were 4.75 (0.10–9.94 cm2 and 2.33 (0.90–9.88 cm2 in laser-puncture and sham groups, respectively (p=0.027. The median reduction of ulcer size at week 2–1 was -1.079 (-3.25 to -0.09 vs -0.36 (-0.81 to -1.47 cm2, (p=0.000; at week 3–1 was -1.70 (-3.15 to -0.01 vs -0.36 (-0.80 to -0.28 cm2, (p=0.000; and at week 4–1 was -1.22 (-2.72 to 0.00 vs -0.38 (-0.74 to -0.57 cm2, (p=0.012.Conclusion: Combined laser-puncture and conventional wound care treatment are effective in accelerating the healing of diabetic foot ulcer.

  14. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  15. Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the performance of the Sanitary Landfill Supplemental Test data, an evaluation of applicability, conclusions, recommendations, and related information for implementation of this remediation technology at the SRS Sanitary Landfill

  16. Torsional ultrasound mode versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound mode phacoemulsification for eyes with hard cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhry MA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Fakhry1,2, Malak I El Shazly11Department of Ophthalmology, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Cataract and Refractive Consultant, International Eye Hospital, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To compare torsional versus combined torsional and conventional ultrasound modes in hard cataract surgery regarding ultrasound energy and time and effect on corneal endothelium.Settings: Kasr El Aini hospital, Cairo University, and International Eye Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.Methodology: Ninety-eight eyes of 63 patients were enrolled in this prospective comparative randomized masked clinical study. All eyes had nuclear cataracts of grades III and IV using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III. Two groups were included, each having an equal number of eyes (49. The treatment for group A was combined torsional and conventional US mode phacoemulsification, and for group B torsional US mode phacoemulsification only. Pre- and post-operative assessments included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, slit-lamp evaluation, and fundoscopic evaluation. Endothelial cell density (ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT were measured preoperatively, 1 day, 7 days, and 1 month postoperatively. All eyes were operated on using the Alcon Infiniti System (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX with the quick chop technique. All eyes were implanted with AcrySof SA60AT (Alcon intraocular lens (IOL. The main phaco outcome parameters included the mean ultrasound time (UST, the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE, and the percent of average torsional amplitude in position 3 (%TUSiP3.Results: Improvement in BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (P < 0.001. Comparing UST and CDE for both groups revealed results favoring the pure torsional group (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for UST; P = 0.058 and P = 0.009 for CDE. As for %TUSiP3, readings were higher for the pure torsional group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01. All changes of CCT, and ECD

  17. A combination of small bowel imaging methods: conventional enteroclysis with complementary magnetic resonance enteroclysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, C. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Korman, U. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ugurk9@istanbul.edu.tr; Oguet, G. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Kurugoglu, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Urger, E. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Ulus, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Esen, G. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tasci, I. [Department of Surgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the overall findings of conventional enteroclysis (CE) with complementary magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE) in small bowel disease. METHODS: The study included 32 patients referred from various clinical departments, with known or suspected small bowel disease and abnormalities on CE. Immediately after CE, true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP), and unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequences with fat saturation were obtained. Mucosal, mural and luminal changes of the small bowel were evaluated by each technique. In addition, bowel wall thickening, bowel wall enhancement and perienteric changes were assessed by MRE. The radiological findings obtained were evaluated together as a combination, and the role of MRE in the determination of the activity and complications of the small bowel disease was assessed. Radiological findings were correlated with clinical evaluation and follow-up in all cases, including endoscopy in 14 cases and surgery in 5 cases. RESULTS: MRE provided important supplementary mural and extramural information, including degree of pathological wall thickness, mural enhancement pattern associated with disease activity, perivisceral collection, abscess formation, mesenteric fibrofatty proliferation, lymphadenopathy and increase in perienteric vascularity. Short strictures were not revealed on MRE; however, for patients with a history of abdominal malignancy, MRE helped characterize the level of any obstruction and the extent of the disease. CONCLUSION: We recommend MRE for patients who have findings of advanced inflammatory bowel disease or neoplasm on CE examination. The combination of these two techniques can provide important information on the degree and extent of the disorder.

  18. Bacteriophage Mediates Efficient Gene Transfer in Combination with Conventional Transfection Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Amanda; Yata, Teerapong; Bentayebi, Kaoutar; Suwan, Keittisak; Hajitou, Amin

    2015-12-08

    The development of commercially available transfection reagents for gene transfer applications has revolutionized the field of molecular biology and scientific research. However, the challenge remains in ensuring that they are efficient, safe, reproducible and cost effective. Bacteriophage (phage)-based viral vectors have the potential to be utilized for general gene transfer applications within research and industry. Yet, they require adaptations in order to enable them to efficiently enter cells and overcome mammalian cellular barriers, as they infect bacteria only; furthermore, limited progress has been made at increasing their efficiency. The production of a novel hybrid nanocomplex system consisting of two different nanomaterial systems, phage vectors and conventional transfection reagents, could overcome these limitations. Here we demonstrate that the combination of cationic lipids, cationic polymers or calcium phosphate with M13 bacteriophage-derived vectors, engineered to carry a mammalian transgene cassette, resulted in increased cellular attachment, entry and improved transgene expression in human cells. Moreover, addition of a targeting ligand into the nanocomplex system, through genetic engineering of the phage capsid further increased gene expression and was effective in a stable cell line generation application. Overall, this new hybrid nanocomplex system (i) provides enhanced phage-mediated gene transfer; (ii) is applicable for laboratory transfection processes and (iii) shows promise within industry for large-scale gene transfer applications.

  19. Effluent and sanitary sewer monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.; Vasey, M.R.

    1977-03-01

    Two similar instruments that monitor the liquid wastes from the plutonium facility are described. The operation of the two instruments is completely automatic and performs a continuous surveillance in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards. One instrument controls the liquids from the facility and the other checks the sanitary sewer wastes. Both have self-diagnosing capabilities and take automatic actions in case of abnormal occurrences

  20. A combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape compared with conventional interrupted sutures for skin closure. A controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, M.; Porter, R. J.; Lord, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    We have conducted a controlled trial to compare skin closure using conventional interrupted sutures with a combination of subcuticular suture and sterile Micropore tape in 169 patients undergoing appendicectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, or saphenofemoral ligation. We have found that the combination technique consistently gives a better cosmetic result and that the tape acts well as a dressing, is convenient, and is well tolerated by patients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6344732

  1. Effect of burst TENS and conventional TENS combined with cryotherapy on pressure pain threshold: randomised, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L B; Josué, A M; Maia, P H B; Câmara, A E; Brasileiro, J S

    2015-06-01

    To assess the immediate effect of conventional and burst transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in combination with cryotherapy on pain threshold and tolerance in healthy individuals. Randomised, controlled trial. University laboratory. One hundred and twelve healthy women. Volunteers were allocated at random to seven groups (n=16): (1) control, (2) placebo TENS, (3) conventional TENS, (4) burst TENS, (5) cryotherapy, (6) cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS, and (7) cryotherapy in combination with conventional TENS. Pain threshold and tolerance were measured by applying a pressure algometer at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, before and after each intervention. The primary outcome measure was pressure pain threshold. A significant increase in pain threshold and tolerance at the 5% level of significance was recorded as follows: burst TENS {pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 1.2]; pain tolerance: mean difference 3.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 3.7)}, cryotherapy [pain threshold: mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.2); pain tolerance: mean difference 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0)] and cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS [pain threshold: mean difference 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.8); pain tolerance: mean difference 4.9 (95% CI 5.0 to 4.8)]. Cryotherapy in combination with burst TENS provided greater analgesia compared with the other groups (Pcryotherapy in combination with burst TENS to reduce induced pain, and suggest a potentiating effect when these techniques are combined. No such association was found between cryotherapy and conventional TENS. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combination Treatment of People with Multiple Sclerosis based on Collaboration between Conventional Healthcare Providers and Alternative Practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Lasse; Launsø, Laila; Pedersen, Inge Kryger

    2011-01-01

    The use of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) is prevalent among People with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) in Denmark as well as in other Western countries. Many PwMS combine conventional treatments and CAM; however there is little research-based knowledge about the outcomes that PwMS achieve...... from combined treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe which outcomes PwMS have experienced from combination treatment based on collaboration between conventional healthcare providers and CAM practitioners. A second purpose is to identify and study aspects of the courses of treatment...... that have generally characterized the achieved outcomes. During the course of their treatment, 59 PwMS participated in semi-structured individual or group interviews. The analyses show that the participants’ experienced outcomes can be classified in four ways 1) short-term positive outcomes; 2) long...

  3. Performance Comparison of Conventional Synchronous Reluctance Machines and PM-Assisted Types with Combined Star–Delta Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nabil Fathy Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares four prototype Synchronous Reluctance Motors (SynRMs having an identical geometry of iron lamination stacks in the stator and rotor. Two different stator winding layouts are employed: a conventional three-phase star connection and a combined star–delta winding. In addition, two rotors are considered: a conventional rotor without magnets and a rotor with ferrite magnets. The performance of the four SynRMs is evaluated using a two-dimensional (2D Finite Element Model (FEM. For the same copper volume and current, the combined star–delta-connected stator with Permanent Magnets (PMs in the rotor corresponds to an approximately 22% increase in the output torque at rated current and speed compared to the conventional machine. This improvement is mainly thanks to adding ferrite PMs in the rotor as well as to the improved winding factor of the combined star–delta winding. The torque gain increases up to 150% for low current. Moreover, the rated efficiency is 93.60% compared to 92.10% for the conventional machine. On the other hand, the impact on the power factor and losses of SynRM when using the star–delta windings instead of the star windings is merely negligible. The theoretical results are experimentally validated using four identical prototype machines with identical lamination stacks but different rotors and winding layouts.

  4. Comparison of an Innovative Rehabilitation, Combining Reduced Conventional Rehabilitation with Balneotherapy, and a Conventional Rehabilitation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Peultier-Celli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInstability of the knee, related to anterior cruciate ligament injury, is treated by surgical reconstruction. During recovery, a loss of proprioceptive input can have a significant impact. Few studies have evaluated the benefits of rehabilitation of the knee in aquatic environment on functional outcomes.ObjectiveThis study aimed to compare an innovative rehabilitation protocol combining reduced conventional rehabilitation with aquatic rehabilitation, with a conventional rehabilitation, according to the National French Health Authority, in terms of kinetics, development of proprioceptive skills, and functional improvement of the knee.Methods67 patients, who were amateur or professional athletes, were randomized into two groups: 35 patients followed the conventional rehabilitation protocol (Gr1 and 32 patients followed the innovative rehabilitation protocol (Gr2. Patients were evaluated before surgery, and at 2 weeks, 1, 2, and 6 months after surgery using posturography, and evaluation of muscular strength, walking performance and proprioception. This study is multicenter, prospective, randomized, and controlled with a group of patients following conventional rehabilitation (level of evidence I.ResultsFor the same quality of postural control, Gr2 relied more on somesthesia than Gr1 at 6 months. The affected side had an impact on postural control and in particular on the preoperative lateralization, at 2 weeks and at 1 month. Lateralization depended on the affected knee, with less important lateralization in Gr2 preoperatively and at 1 month. The quadriceps muscular strength was higher in Gr2 than in Gr1 at 2 and 6 months and muscle strength of the external hamstring was greater in Gr2 than in Gr1 at 6 months. The isokinetic test showed a greater quadriceps muscular strength in Gr2. Gr2 showed a greater walking distance than Gr1 at one month. Gr2 showed an improvement in the proprioceptive capacities of the operated limb

  5. Chemical modification of conventional cancer radiotherapy. Tumor sensitization combined with normal tissue protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    Nitrotriazole radiosensitizer, Sanazole (AK-2123, N-(2'-methoxyethyl)-2-(3''-nitro-1''-triazolyl) acetamide) developed by Kyoto University group was studied by 18 groups of 7 countries on fundamental aspects and clinical studies by 30 groups of 12 countries, and reported its effects on tumor sensitization of conventional cancer radiotherapy. On the other hand, the glucosides of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid glucoside, (AsAG) and water soluble derivative of vitamin-E (α-tocopherol glucoside, TMG) developed by Kyoto University group were studied fundamentally by 4 groups of 4 countries and clinically by 2 groups of 2 countries, and reported their effects on normal tissue protection in cancer treatments. These two studies of tumor sensitization and normal tissue protection were proposed as an advanced strategy of conventional cancer radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Combined use of miniscrews and clear appliances for the treatment of bialveolar protrusion without conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Chun; Park, Young-Chel; Jo, Yong-Min; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2009-05-01

    The increasing demand for esthetic orthodontic treatment has led to the development of tooth-colored and even "invisible" appliances. Although sequential removable clear aligners have several advantages over conventional bracket systems, they have some limitations in extraction treatment. This case report presents the esthetic extraction treatment of a patient with bialveolar protrusion; conventional brackets were not used. The treatment was completed in 2 steps. The first step involved segmental retraction of the anterior teeth by using miniscrews and an anterior lingual splint with a clear lever arm. The second step involved alignment and finishing by using sequential removable clear aligners. The patient's esthetic demands were fulfilled successfully during treatment, and satisfactory facial profile and occlusion were achieved after treatment.

  7. Combined antibacterial effects of tissue-tolerable plasma and a modern conventional liquid antiseptic on chronic wound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebes, Martin; Ulrich, Christin; Kluschke, Franziska; Patzelt, Alexa; Vandersee, Staffan; Richter, Heike; Bob, Adrienne; von Hutten, Johanna; Krediet, Jorien T; Kramer, Axel; Lademann, Jürgen; Lange-Asschenfeld, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Potential antimicrobial effects of sequential applications of tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) and the conventional liquid antiseptic octenidine dihydrochloride (ODC) were investigated. 34 patients with chronic leg ulcers were treated with TTP, ODC or a combination of both. The bacterial colonization was measured semi-quantitatively before and immediately after treatment and changes in the microbial strains' compositions before and after antiseptic treatments were analyzed. All antiseptic procedures reduced the bacterial counts significantly. The sequential application of TTP and ODC displayed the highest antimicrobial efficacy. Me combined use of TTP and conventional antiseptics might represent the most efficient strategy for antiseptic treatment of chronic wounds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The virtual promenade, didactic experiments on the potentials of combining conventional and digital modelling of the city experienced in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette; Bohn, Claus

    2014-01-01

    and digital modelling. The workshop serves as an education-based research project in which we want to investigate the potentials of working consciously with bodily movement as a generator in the creation of architecture by combining actual experience of the city with conventional model building and digital...... modelling seen through latest Virtual Reality technologies. Thus the research question is two-folded: What kind of architecture can we imagine and conjure through movement combining classical tools and methods with newest technology and how do we respond to these new tools and integrate them...

  9. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitary operations. 416.4 Section 416... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces of... compounds, sanitizing agents, processing aids, and other chemicals used by an establishment must be safe and...

  10. Combined thermophilic aerobic process and conventional anaerobic digestion: effect on sludge biodegradation and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, C; Perez, S; Paul, E; Lefebvre, X

    2010-04-01

    The efficiency of hyper-thermophilic (65 degrees Celsius) aerobic process coupled with a mesophilic (35 degrees Celsius) digester was evaluated for the activated sludge degradation and was compared to a conventional mesophilic digester. For two Sludge Retention Time (SRT), 21 and 42 days, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilisation and biodegradation processes, the methanisation yield and the aerobic oxidation were investigated during 180 days. The best results were obtained at SRT of 44 days; the COD removal yield was 30% higher with the Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion/Thermophilic Aerobic Reactor (MAD-TAR) co-treatment. An increase of the sludge intrinsic biodegradability is also observed (20-40%), showing that the unbiodegradable COD in mesophilic conditions becomes bioavailable. However, the methanisation yield was quite similar for both processes at a same SRT. Finally, such a process enables to divide by two the volume of digester with an equivalent efficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with conventional endodontic treatment to eliminate root canal biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S; Ribeiro, Martha S; Tegos, George P; Núñez, Silvia C; Jorge, Antonio O C; Hamblin, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT), standard endodontic treatment and the combined treatment to eliminate bacterial biofilms present in infected root canals. Ten single-rooted freshly extracted human teeth were inoculated with stable bioluminescent Gram-negative bacteria, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form 3-day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify bacterial burdens. PDT employed a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) as the photosensitizer (PS) and 660-nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 200-micro fiber, and this was compared and combined with standard endodontic treatment using mechanical debridement and antiseptic irrigation. Endodontic therapy alone reduced bacterial bioluminescence by 90% while PDT alone reduced bioluminescence by 95%. The combination reduced bioluminescence by >98%, and importantly the bacterial regrowth observed 24 hours after treatment was much less for the combination (Ptreatment. Bioluminescence imaging is an efficient way to monitor endodontic therapy. Antimicrobial PDT may have a role to play in optimized endodontic therapy. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Diagnostic value of digital radiography compared to conventional screen-film system combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Zaehringer, M.; Lackner, K.

    1997-01-01

    Digital projection radiography provides digital data in X-ray examinations, which used to be carried out by examinations screen-film system combinations. The technological basis and clinical performances of digital luminescent radiography (DLR) and digital radiography are reviewed. Digital projection radiography does not allow to reduce selenium exposure significantly, compared to screen-film system combinations. Digital luminescent radiography can be used for the entire spectrum of analogous projection radiography the only exception being extremely subtile structural changes. The clinical experiences with digital selenium radiography achieved so far in chest X-rays are promising and the technique is expected to be increasing used in other anatomic regions as well. (orig.) [de

  13. Combined chemometric analysis of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and stable isotope data to differentiate organic and conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, Sarah; Schill, Sandra; Annweiler, Eva; Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B

    2015-12-01

    The increased sales of organically produced food create a strong need for analytical methods, which could authenticate organic and conventional products. Combined chemometric analysis of (1)H NMR-, (13)C NMR-spectroscopy data, stable-isotope data (IRMS) and α-linolenic acid content (gas chromatography) was used to differentiate organic and conventional milk. In total 85 raw, pasteurized and ultra-heat treated (UHT) milk samples (52 organic and 33 conventional) were collected between August 2013 and May 2014. The carbon isotope ratios of milk protein and milk fat as well as the α-linolenic acid content of these samples were determined. Additionally, the milk fat was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The chemometric analysis of combined data (IRMS, GC, NMR) resulted in more precise authentication of German raw and retail milk with a considerably increased classification rate of 95% compared to 81% for NMR and 90% for IRMS using linear discriminate analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  15. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; Turgis, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Borsa, J. [MDS Nordion, 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario, K2K 2P7 (Canada); Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Han, J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  16. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  17. Overview of applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M, E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Severino, R. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Univ. of Salerno, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Vu, K.D. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Donsi, F. [Univ. of Salerno, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Fisciano, SA (Italy); Salmieri, S. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Laval, QC (Canada); Ferrari, G. [Univ. of Salerno, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Fisciano, SA (Italy); ProdAl Scarl, Competence Center on Agro-Food Productions, Fisciano, SA (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Natural antimicrobials (NA) were tested for their efficiency at increasing bacterial relative radiosensitivity (BRR) and, therefore, reducing the radiation dose necessary to eliminate pathogens in meat and vegetables. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility of using NA in combination to radiation to increase food shelf life, NA were added to food at low concentrations (which do not affect the sensory properties). Then, a bioactive coating formulation was developed to allow retention of the bioactivity of the NA during storage time. Results showed that NA, can increase BRR from 2 to 4 times and lower the dose necessary to eliminate a pathogen by a factor of 3 to 4. (author)

  18. Overview of applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M; Severino, R.; Vu, K.D.; Donsi, F.; Salmieri, S.; Ferrari, G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials (NA) were tested for their efficiency at increasing bacterial relative radiosensitivity (BRR) and, therefore, reducing the radiation dose necessary to eliminate pathogens in meat and vegetables. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility of using NA in combination to radiation to increase food shelf life, NA were added to food at low concentrations (which do not affect the sensory properties). Then, a bioactive coating formulation was developed to allow retention of the bioactivity of the NA during storage time. Results showed that NA, can increase BRR from 2 to 4 times and lower the dose necessary to eliminate a pathogen by a factor of 3 to 4. (author)

  19. Quercetin in Cancer Treatment, Alone or in Combination with Conventional Therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana Filipa; Ribeiro, Marina; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Pires, Ana Salomé; Teixo, Ricardo Jorge; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a problem of global importance, since the incidence is increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are generally limited. Thus, it becomes imperative to find new therapeutic targets as well as new molecules with therapeutic potential for tumors. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that may be potential therapeutic agents. Several studies have shown that these compounds have a higher anticancer potential. Among the flavonoids in the human diet, quercetin is one of the most important. In the last decades, several anticancer properties of quercetin have been described, such as cell signaling, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, growth suppression. In fact, it is now well known that quercetin has diverse biological effects, inhibiting multiple enzymes involved in cell proliferation, as well as, in signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, there are also studies reporting potential synergistic effects when combined quercetin with chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy. In fact, several studies which aim to explore the anticancer potential of these combined treatments have already been published, the majority with promising results. Actually it is well known that quercetin can act on the chemosensitization and radiosensitization but also as chemoprotective and radioprotective, protecting normal cells of the side effects that results from chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which obviously provides notable advantages in their use in anticancer treatment. Thus, all these data indicate that quercetin may have a key role in anticancer treatment. In this context, this review is focused on the relationship between flavonoids and cancer, with special emphasis on the role of quercetin.

  20. Combined effects of irradiation and conventional methods of meat preservation on pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinski, J.

    1987-03-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of irradiation (3 O 2 6 kGy) on the probability of outgrowth and toxin production by C. botulinum types A, B and E in inoculated cured pork during simulated temperature abuse. In addition, to determine whether lowering nitrite concentration and/or decrease in the risk of botulimum hazard could be achieved by combination of less curing salt, pasteurization and low dose irradiation of meat. The results demonstrated that increasing irradiation dose (0, 3, 6 kGy) systematically reduced spoilage and probability of toxin production by C. botulimum in pasteurized samples of cured meat at each level of added nitrite (0, 50, 100, 156 mg/kg). The level of nitrite presently used in some canned, pasteurized, cured meats (156 mg/kg) could be reduced to 100 mg/kg without increase of botulism hazard by irradiation with a dose of 3kGy. Decrease of botulism hazard and reduction of nitrite added into the meat could be achieved by combination of curing with 100mg/kg NaNO 2 , pasteurization and irradiation with a dose of 6kGy

  1. Benign and malignant skull-involved lesions: discriminative value of conventional CT and MRI combined with diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhanhai; Xiao, Zebin; Zheng, Yingyan; Huang, Hongjie; Yang, Libin; Cao, Dairong

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the value of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in distinguishing malignant from benign skull-involved lesions. Purpose To evaluate the discriminative value of DWI combined with conventional CT and MRI for differentiating between benign and malignant skull-involved lesions. Material and Methods CT and MRI findings of 58 patients with pathologically proven skull-involved lesions (43 benign and 15 malignant) were retrospectively reviewed. Conventional CT and MRI characteristics and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the two groups were evaluated and compared. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to assess the differential performance of each parameter separately and together. Results The presence of cortical defects or break-through and ill-defined margins were associated with malignant skull-involved lesions (both P benign and malignant skull-involved lesions. Conclusion The combination of CT, MRI, and DWI can help to differentiate malignant from benign skull-involved lesions. CT + MRI + DWI offers optimal sensitivity, while DWI offers optimal specificity.

  2. HTR-Based Power Plants’ Performance Analysis Applied on Conventional Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carbia Carril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In high temperature reactors including gas cooled fast reactors and gas turbine modular helium reactors (GT-MHR specifically designed to operate as power plant heat sources, efficiency enhancement at effective cost under safe conditions can be achieved. Mentioned improvements concern the implementation of two cycle structures: (a, a stand alone Brayton operating with helium and a stand alone Rankine cycle (RC with regeneration, operating with carbon dioxide at ultrasupercritical pressure as working fluid (WF, where condensation is carried out at quasicritical conditions, and (b, a combined cycle (CC, in which the topping closed Brayton cycle (CBC operates with helium as WF, while the bottoming RC is operated with one of the following WFs: carbon dioxide, xenon, ethane, ammonia, or water. In both cases, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHE is proposed to provide thermal energy to the closed Brayton or to the Rankine cycles. The results of the case study show that the thermal efficiency, through the use of a CC, is slightly improved (from 45.79% for BC and from 50.17% for RC to 53.63 for the proposed CC with He-H2O operating under safety standards.

  3. Efficiency of combined treatment and conventional physical treatment in bilateral knee arthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Bojičić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Degenerative joint disease, which is standardized in Europe by the name of arthrosis or osteoarthrosis, while in the Anglo-Saxon literature is in use for a long time by the name of osteoarthritis (OA although this is not a classical inflammation,is the most common joint disease in general and the most common cause of functional damage of the musculoskeletal system. Recently, the term osteoarthritisappears more frequently in domestic literature. Arthroses are degenerative joint diseases with progressive character, also one of the most frequent diseases in orthopedics. The disease fi rst affects the articular cartilage, then the bony edges of the articular surfaces, and then the articular lining.Methods: Retrospective analysis and evaluation of data of treated patients, with the "Praxis" physical treatment during the period of time from 2000 to the end of 2010 on a sample of 79 patients,valorized the efficacy of Praxis treatment. The  correlation of these results, with valorisation of the efficacy of standard physical treatment in clinics D.Z. " Novi Grad " on a sample of 81 patients, during the period of time from 2000 to the end of 2010, a statistical analysis was performed for comparing the effi cacy of the two methods.Results: There is a functional difference after therapy of bilateral gonarthrosis in clinics D.Z. "Novi Grad" and "Praxis" with statistical reliability.Conclusion: A combined approach in the treatment of knee arthrosis has a wider range of treatment procedures, comprehensively approaches to the problem and gives better results, so we can say that this method has priority compared to the standard approach to the knee arthrosis treatment.

  4. Combined effects of resistance training and carbohydrate-restrictive or conventional diets on weight loss, blood variables and endothelium function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello MEIRELLES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of either a carbohydrate-restrictive diets or a conventional hypoenergetic diet combined with resistance training. Methods: Twenty-one overweight and obese adults participated in an eight-week program consisting of progressive resistance training combined with carbohydrate-restrictive diets (initially set at <30 g carbohydrate; n=12 or conventional hypoenergetic diet (30% energetic restriction; carbohydrate/protein/lipid: 51/18/31% of total energy consumption; n=9. It was hypothesized that the carbohydrate-restrictive diets would induce greater weight loss but that both diets would elicit similar effects on selected health markers. Body mass, and body composition, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (flow-mediated brachial artery dilation; by ultrasound were used to assess changes due to the interventions. Results: Significant within-group reductions in body mass (-5.4±3.5%; p=0.001 versus -3.7±3.0%; p=0.015 and body fat (body fat; -10.2±7.0%; p=0.005 versus -9.6±8.8%; p=0.017 were identified for carbohydrate-restrictive diets and conventional hypoenergetic diet, respectively, but there were no significant differences between groups as the result of the interventions. Fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation did not significantly change, except for the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio, which was reduced 10.4±16.9% in carbohydrate-restrictive diets (p=0.037 and 0.5±11.3% in conventional hypoenergetic diet (p=0.398. Conclusion: Carbohydrate-restrictive diets associated with resistance training was as effective as conventional hypoenergetic diet in decreasing body mass and body fat, as well as maintaining fat free mass, blood variables and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation, however it was more effective at lowering the total cholesterol/low density lipoprotein ratio.

  5. Improvement of Risk Prediction After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement by Combining Frailty With Conventional Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Moser, André; Bertschi, Dominic; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Carrel, Thierry; Stuck, Andreas E; Stortecky, Stefan

    2018-02-26

    This study sought to evaluate whether frailty improves mortality prediction in combination with the conventional scores. European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) or Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score have not been evaluated in combined models with frailty for mortality prediction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This prospective cohort comprised 330 consecutive TAVR patients ≥70 years of age. Conventional scores and a frailty index (based on assessment of cognition, mobility, nutrition, and activities of daily living) were evaluated to predict 1-year all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression (providing hazard ratios [HRs] with confidence intervals [CIs]) and measures of test performance (providing likelihood ratio [LR] chi-square test statistic and C-statistic [CS]). All risk scores were predictive of the outcome (EuroSCORE, HR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.45 to 2.48], LR chi-square test statistic 19.29, C-statistic 0.67; STS score, HR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.21 to 1.88], LR chi-square test statistic 11.05, C-statistic 0.64; frailty index, HR: 3.29 [95% CI: 1.98 to 5.47], LR chi-square test statistic 22.28, C-statistic 0.66). A combination of the frailty index with either EuroSCORE (LR chi-square test statistic 38.27, C-statistic 0.72) or STS score (LR chi-square test statistic 28.71, C-statistic 0.68) improved mortality prediction. The frailty index accounted for 58.2% and 77.6% of the predictive information in the combined model with EuroSCORE and STS score, respectively. Net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement confirmed that the added frailty index improved risk prediction. This is the first study showing that the assessment of frailty significantly enhances prediction of 1-year mortality after TAVR in combined risk models with conventional risk scores and relevantly contributes to this improvement. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  7. Effectiveness of Hypnosis in Combination with Conventional Techniques of Behavior Management in Anxiety/Pain Reduction during Dental Anesthetic Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramírez-Carrasco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Anxiety/pain are experiences that make dental treatment difficult for children, especially during the time of anesthesia. Hypnosis is used in pediatric clinical situations to modify thinking, behavior, and perception as well as, recently, in dentistry; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques during infiltration anesthetic. Methods. Anxiety/pain were assessed with the FLACC scale during the anesthetic moment, as well as heart rate variability and skin conductance before and during the anesthetic moment, between the control and experimental group. Results. A marginal statistical difference (p=0.05 was found in the heart rate between baseline and anesthetic moment, being lower in the hypnosis group. No statistically significant differences were found with the FLACC scale or in the skin conductance (p>0.05. Conclusion. Hypnosis combined with conventional behavior management techniques decreases heart rate during anesthetic infiltration showing that there may be an improvement in anxiety/pain control through hypnotic therapy.

  8. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Chaban; Z.I. Shevtsova; V.V. Gaponov

    2017-01-01

    The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Slovi...

  9. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  10. Developing New Antimicrobial Therapies: Are Synergistic Combinations of Plant Extracts/Compounds with Conventional Antibiotics the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Matthew J.; Ilanko, Aishwarya; Blonk, Baxter; Cock, Ian E.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin nearly 90 years ago revolutionized the treatment of bacterial disease. Since that time, numerous other antibiotics have been discovered from bacteria and fungi, or developed by chemical synthesis and have become effective chemotherapeutic options. However, the misuse of antibiotics has lessened the efficacy of many commonly used antibiotics. The emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has seriously limited our ability to treat bacterial illness, and new antibiotics are desperately needed. Since the discovery of penicillin, most antibiotic development has focused on the discovery of new antibiotics derived from microbial sources, or on the synthesis of new compounds using existing antibiotic scaffolds to the detriment of other lines of discovery. Both of these methods have been fruitful. However, for a number of reasons discussed in this review, these strategies are unlikely to provide the same wealth of new antibiotics in the future. Indeed, the number of newly developed antibiotics has decreased dramatically in recent years. Instead, a reexamination of traditional medicines has become more common and has already provided several new antibiotics. Traditional medicine plants are likely to provide further new antibiotics in the future. However, the use of plant extracts or pure natural compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics may hold greater promise for rapidly providing affordable treatment options. Indeed, some combinational antibiotic therapies are already clinically available. This study reviews the recent literature on combinational antibiotic therapies to highlight their potential and to guide future research in this field. PMID:28989242

  11. The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Adler, Melanie; Amberg, Alexander; Brandenburg, Arnd; Callanan, John J.; Connor, Susan; Fountoulakis, Michael; Gmuender, Hans; Gruhler, Albrecht; Hewitt, Philip; Hodson, Mark; Matheis, Katja A.; McCarthy, Diane; Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern; Schmitt, Christina S.; Sieber, Max; Sposny, Alexandra; Suter, Laura; Sweatman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

  12. The combined use of conventional MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Amedeo [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Cocozza, Sirio, E-mail: siriococozza@hotmail.it [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Saccà, Francesco [Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Giorgio, Sara M.d.A. [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Morra, Vincenzo Brescia [Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Tedeschi, Enrico [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Marsili, Angela; Vacca, Giovanni [Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Palma, Vincenzo [U.O.C. Neurofisiopatologia, PO S. Gennaro ASL Napoli 1, Naples (Italy); Brunetti, Arturo [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University “Federico II”, Naples (Italy); Quarantelli, Mario [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council, Naples (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We assessed in ALS the diagnostic accuracy of MRI signal and MRS data used alone and in combination. • We found that T2-hypointensity and NAA decrease in motor cortex are two independent phenomena. • These two variables taken alone do not provide acceptable diagnostic accuracy in ALS. • The same variables, when used in combination, improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in ALS. - Abstract: Purpose: We aimed to assess, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the diagnostic accuracy of the combined use of conventional MRI signal changes (namely, hypointensity of the precentral cortex and hyperintensity of the corticospinal tracts on T2-weighted images), and N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) reduction in the motor cortex at Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), which are affected by limited diagnostic accuracy when used separately. Methods: T2-hypointensity and NAA/(Choline + Creatine) ratio of the precentral gyrus and T2-hyperintensity of the corticospinal tracts were measured in 84 ALS patients and 28 healthy controls, using a Region-of-Interest approach. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using Fisher stepwise discriminant analysis, and cross-validated using the leave-one-out method. Results: Precentral gyrus T2 signal intensity (p < 10{sup −4}) and NAA peak (p < 10{sup −6}) were significantly reduced in patients, and their values did not correlate significantly to each other both in patients and controls, while no significant differences were obtained in terms of T2-hyperintensity of the corticospinal tract. Sensitivity and specificity of the two discriminant variables, taken alone, were 71.4% and 75.0%, for NAA peak, and 63.1% and 71.4% for T2-hypointensity, respectively. When using these two variables in combination, a significant increase in sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (82.1%) was achieved. Conclusions: Precentral gyrus T2-hypointensity and NAA peak are not significantly correlated in ALS patients, suggesting that they

  13. The combined use of conventional MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervo, Amedeo; Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Giorgio, Sara M.d.A.; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Tedeschi, Enrico; Marsili, Angela; Vacca, Giovanni; Palma, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed in ALS the diagnostic accuracy of MRI signal and MRS data used alone and in combination. • We found that T2-hypointensity and NAA decrease in motor cortex are two independent phenomena. • These two variables taken alone do not provide acceptable diagnostic accuracy in ALS. • The same variables, when used in combination, improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in ALS. - Abstract: Purpose: We aimed to assess, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the diagnostic accuracy of the combined use of conventional MRI signal changes (namely, hypointensity of the precentral cortex and hyperintensity of the corticospinal tracts on T2-weighted images), and N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) reduction in the motor cortex at Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), which are affected by limited diagnostic accuracy when used separately. Methods: T2-hypointensity and NAA/(Choline + Creatine) ratio of the precentral gyrus and T2-hyperintensity of the corticospinal tracts were measured in 84 ALS patients and 28 healthy controls, using a Region-of-Interest approach. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using Fisher stepwise discriminant analysis, and cross-validated using the leave-one-out method. Results: Precentral gyrus T2 signal intensity (p < 10 −4 ) and NAA peak (p < 10 −6 ) were significantly reduced in patients, and their values did not correlate significantly to each other both in patients and controls, while no significant differences were obtained in terms of T2-hyperintensity of the corticospinal tract. Sensitivity and specificity of the two discriminant variables, taken alone, were 71.4% and 75.0%, for NAA peak, and 63.1% and 71.4% for T2-hypointensity, respectively. When using these two variables in combination, a significant increase in sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (82.1%) was achieved. Conclusions: Precentral gyrus T2-hypointensity and NAA peak are not significantly correlated in ALS patients, suggesting that they reflect

  14. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  15. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay) or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane). They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also ...

  16. First district sanitary doctor of Katerynoslav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Chaban

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Sloviansk resort, was the editor of a local newspaper. V.T. Skrylnikov is an author of many works on balneotherapy.

  17. Randomized Controlled Double-blind Trial Comparing Haloperidol Combined With Conventional Therapy to Conventional Therapy Alone in Patients With Symptomatic Gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Carlos J; Chambers, Kimberly A; Paniagua, Linda; Patel, Sonali; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Chathampally, Yashwant

    2017-11-01

    Gastroparesis is a debilitating condition that causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Management includes analgesics and antiemetics, but symptoms are often refractory. Haloperidol has been utilized in the palliative care setting for similar symptoms. The study objective was to determine whether haloperidol as an adjunct to conventional therapy would improve symptoms in gastroparesis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adult ED patients with acute exacerbation of previously diagnosed gastroparesis. The treatment group received 5 mg of haloperidol plus conventional therapy (determined by the treating physician). The control group received a placebo plus conventional therapy. The severity of each subject's abdominal pain and nausea were assessed before intervention and every 15 minutes thereafter for 1 hour using a 10-point scale for pain and a 5-point scale for nausea. Primary outcomes were decreased pain and nausea 1 hour after treatment. Of the 33 study patients, 15 were randomized to receive haloperidol. Before treatment, the mean intensity of pain was 8.5 in the haloperidol group and 8.28 in the placebo group; mean pretreatment nausea scores were 4.53 and 4.11, respectively. One hour after therapy, the mean pain and nausea scores in the haloperidol group were 3.13 and 1.83 compared to 7.17 and 3.39 in the placebo group. The reduction in mean pain intensity therapy was 5.37 in the haloperidol group (p ≤ 0.001) compared to 1.11 in the placebo group (p = 0.11). The reduction in mean nausea score was 2.70 in the haloperidol group (p ≤ 0.001) and 0.72 in the placebo group (p = 0.05). Therefore, the reductions in symptom scores were statistically significant in the haloperidol group but not in the placebo group. No adverse events were reported. Haloperidol as an adjunctive therapy is superior to placebo for acute gastroparesis symptoms. © 2017 by the Society for Academic

  18. [Recording of ventricular pressure by conventional catheter manometer systems. Efficiency of several combinations of conventional catheters, modern transducers and catheter-flush systems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellige, G

    1976-01-01

    The experimentally in vitro determined dynamic response characteristics of 38 catheter manometer systems were uniform in the worst case to 5 c.p.s. and optimally to 26 c.p.s. Accordingly, some systems are only satisfactory for ordinary pressure recording in cardiac rest, while better systems record dp/dt correct up to moderate inotropic stimulation of the heart. In the frequency range of uniform response (amplitude error less +/- 5%) the phase distortion is also negligible. In clinical application the investigator is often restricted to special type of cardiac catheter. In this case a low compliant transducer yields superior results. In all examined systems the combination with MSD 10 transducers is best, whereas the combination with P 23 Db transducers leads to minimal results. An inadequate system for recording ventricular pressure pulses leads in most cases to overestimations of dp/dtmax. The use of low frequency pass filters to attenuate higher frequency artefacts is, under clinical conditions, not suitable for extending the range of uniform frequency response. The dynamic response of 14 catheter manometer systems with two types of continuous self flush units was determined. The use of the P 37 flush unit in combination with small internal diameter catheters leads to serious error in ordinary pressure recording, due to amplitude distortion of the lower harmonics. The frequency response characteristics of the combination of an Intraflow flush system and MSD 10 transducer was similar to the non-flushing P 23 Db transducer feature.

  19. A highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced and conventional dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Ho, Kai-Siang; Yang, Chin-Tien; Wang, Jung-Hao; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-06-02

    The number and position of assembled nanowires cannot be controlled using most nanowire sensor assembling methods. In this paper, we demonstrate a high-yield, highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) and conventional dielectrophoresis (DEP). With the ODEP platform, optical images can be used as virtual electrodes to locally turn on a non-contact DEP force and manipulate a micron- or nano-scale substance suspended in fluid. Nanowires were first moved next to the previously deposited metal electrodes using optical images and, then, were attracted to and arranged in the gap between two electrodes through DEP forces generated by switching on alternating current signals to the metal electrodes. A single nanowire can be assembled within 24 seconds using this approach. In addition, the number of nanowires in a single nanowire sensor can be controlled, and the assembly of a single nanowire on each of the adjacent electrodes can also be achieved. The electrical properties of the assembled nanowires were characterized by IV curve measurement. Additionally, the contact resistance between the nanowires and electrodes and the stickiness between the nanowires and substrates were further investigated in this study.

  20. Proof-of-principle study of a small animal PET/field-cycled MRI combined system using conventional PMT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hao; Handler, William B.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Simpson, P.J.; Chronik, Blaine A.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several approaches to the development of combined PET/MRI systems, all of which need to address adverse interactions between the two systems. Of particular relevance to the majority of proposed PET/MRI systems is the effect that static and dynamic magnetic fields have on the performance of PET detection systems based on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). In the work reported in this paper, performance of two conventional PMTs has been systematically investigated and characterized as a function of magnetic field exposure conditions. Detector gain, energy resolution, time resolution, and efficiency were measured for static field exposures between 0 and 6.3 mT. Additionally, the short-term recovery and long-term stability of gain and energy resolution were measured in the presence of repeatedly applied dynamic magnetic fields changing at 4 T/s. It was found that the detectors recovered normal operation within several milliseconds following the end of large pulsed magnetic fields. In addition, the repeated applications of large pulsed magnetic fields did not significantly affect detector stability. Based on these results, we implemented a proof-of-principle PET/field-cycled MRI (FCMRI) system for small animal imaging using commercial PMT-based PET detectors. The first PET images acquired within the PET/FCMRI system are presented. The image quality, in terms of spatial resolution, was compared between standalone PET and the PET/FCMRI system. Finally, the relevance of these results to various aspects of PET/MRI system design is discussed.

  1. [Sanitary education of workers of bakeries and pastry enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'shchikov, M I; Nemets, M G; Novikova, O V; Gavrilenko, E V; Osipova, E M; Osinova, T I

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents experience with sanitary education of workers from food industrial enterprises. The study revealed a number of disadvantages of the methodological aspect of sanitary education of these workers. A sanitary education programme has been worked out for workers engaged in food and food processing industries (production of bread, baked goods, and confectionery) and approved by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department), Ministry of Health of Russia on March 1999.

  2. 21 CFR 129.35 - Sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.35... is not considered water of a safe, sanitary quality as required for use in bottled water by paragraph... comply with bottled water quality standards (§ 165.110(b) of this chapter) and section 402(a)(1) and (a...

  3. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  4. Analysis of biogas in sanitary landfill Caieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovano Candiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the biogas in the Sanitary Landfill Caieiras is qualitatively evaluated, emphasizing the influence of the geomembrana and cover system of vertical drains in the vicinity to capture the landfill. It was possible to detect an increase in the percentage of methane and oxygen reduction, aiming at the commercialization of carbon credits and electricity production.

  5. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into the...

  6. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  7. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable federal...

  8. The Value of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Combination With Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Improving Tumor Detection for Early Cervical Carcinoma Treated With Fertility-Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiulei; Wang, Ling; Li, Yong; Song, Peiji

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in combination with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery because of early cervical carcinoma. Fifty-four patients with stage Ia or Ib1 cervical carcinoma were enrolled into this study. Magnetic resonance examinations were performed for these patients using conventional MRI (including T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) and DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical carcinoma were analyzed quantitatively and compared with that of adjacent epithelium. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 2 sets of MRI sequences were calculated on the basis of histologic results, and the diagnostic ability of conventional MRI/DWI combinations was compared with that of conventional MRI. The mean ADC value from cervical carcinoma (mean, 786 × 10 mm/s ± 100) was significantly lower than that from adjacent epithelium (mean, 1352 × 10 mm/s ± 147) (P = 0.01). When the threshold ADC value set as 1010 × 10 mm/s, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating cervical carcinoma from nontumor epithelium were 78.2% and 67.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI for tumor detection were 76.0% and 70.4%, whereas the sensitivity and accuracy of conventional MRI/DWI combinations were 91.7% and 90.7%, respectively. Conventional MRI/DWI combinations revealed a positive predictive value of 97.8% and only 4 false-negative findings. The addition of DWI to conventional MRI considerably improves the sensitivity and accuracy of tumor detection in young patients treated with fertility-sparing surgery, which supports the inclusion quantitative analysis of ADC value in routine MRI protocol before fertility-sparing surgery.

  9. [Sanitary control of food in Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartí-Gutiérrez, E J; Parrilla-Cerrillo, C; Vázquez-Barojas, S; Kawashima-Hashimoto, L; Farías-Rodríguez, A; García-Juárez, C

    1989-01-01

    This work was undertaken as to avoid health risks to tourism in the "XIIth Soccer World Cup, Mexico 86". The above project was carried out through proper quality control of foods, drinking water as well as a definite care of personal hygiene of all those involved in the catering business (132 restaurants were included). The mentioned report informs only of the work of the National Public Health Laboratory in the Sanitary Epidemiological Program. The following products were analyzed: 133 water samples, 272 animated and nonliving surfaces, and 399 foods. Twenty seven percent of water samples were rejected, as well as 85% of the different surfaces and 60% of the food samples. High counts of mesophilic aerobics, followed by coliforms, S. aureus and Salmonella sp., were the principal specimens encountered. Therefore, it was suggested the permanent development of a sanitary epidemiological program.

  10. Comparison of frictional resistance among conventional, active and passive selfligating brackets with different combinations of arch wires: a finite elements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Sandra L; Montoya, Yesid; Garcia, Nora L; Virgen, Ana L; Botero, Javier E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance among conventional, passive and active selfligating brackets using Finite Elements Analysis (FEA). Seventynine (79) slide tests were performed by combining an upper first bicuspid conventional bracket, 0.018" stainless steel wires and 0.010" ligature by means of an INSTRON 3345 load system to obtain average maximum static frictional resistance (MSFR). This value was compared to the FR (frictional resistance) obtained by simulation of a slide of the same combination by FEA following conventional bracket modeling by means of Computer Aided Design (CAD). Once the FEA was validated, bracket CADs were designed (upper right first bicuspid conventional, active and passive selfligating bracket) and bracket properties calculated. MSFR was compared among conventional, active and passive selfligating brackets with different alloys and archwire cross sections such as 0.018", 0.019" x 0.025"and 0.020" x 0.020". Passive selfligating brackets had the lowest MSFR, followed by conventional brackets and active selfligating brackets. In conventional brackets, a 0.018" archwire produced a linear pattern of stress with maximum concentration at the center. Conversely, stress in 0.020 x 0.020" and 0.019 x 0.025" archwires was distributed across the width of the slot. The highest normal forces were 1.53 N for the 0.018" archwire, 4.85 N for the 0.020 x 0.020" archwire and 8.18 N for the 0.019 x 0.025" archwire. Passive selfligating brackets presented less frictional resistance than conventional and active selfligating brackets. Regardless of bracket type, greater contact area between the slot and the archwire and the spring clip increased frictional resistance. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  11. Rock and stone weathering at Citadel fortifications, Gozo (Malta): benefits from terrestrial laser scanning combined with conventional investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapete, D.; Gigli, G.; Mugnai, F.; Vannocci, P.; Pecchioni, E.; Morelli, S.; Fanti, R.; Casagli, N.

    2012-04-01

    Military architecture heritage is frequently built on rock masses affected by slope instability and weathering processes, which progressively undermine the foundations and cause collapses and toppling of the masonries. The latter can be also weakened by alteration of the stone surfaces, as a consequence of the interactions with the local environmental conditions. These conservation issues are emphasized for those sites, whose susceptibility to structural damages is also due to the similarity between the lithotypes constituting the geologic substratum and the construction materials. Effective solutions for the protection from such a type of phenomena can be achieved if the whole "rock mass - built heritage system" is analyzed. In this perspective, we propose a new approach for the study of the weathering processes affecting historic hilltop sites, taking benefits from the combination of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and conventional investigations, the latter including geotechnical and minero-petrographic analyses. In particular, the results here presented were obtained from specific tests on the fortifications of Citadel, Gozo (Malta), performed in co-operation with the Restoration Unit, Works Division, Maltese Ministry for Resources and Rural Affairs and the private company Politecnica Ingegneria e Architettura. The Citadel fortifications are built at the top of a relatively stiff and brittle limestone plate, formed by Upper Coralline Limestone (UCL) and overlying a thick Blue Clay (BC) layer. Differential weathering creates extensively fractured ledges on the cap and erosion niches in the strata beneath, thereby favouring block detachment, even rockfall events, such as the last one occurred in 2001. The locally quarried Globigerina Limestone (GL), historically employed in restoration masonries, is also exposed to alveolization and powdering, and several collapses damaged the underwalling interventions. Since the erosion pattern distribution suggested a

  12. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system

  13. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  14. [Prophylactic requirements for sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, B M; Maksimenko, L V; Fedotova, N N; Gololobova, T V; Konovalov, O E

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines the requirements for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance to prevent dental diseases. The investigations pose tasks to medical prevention centers to solve the problems in tooth prophylaxis, such as organizational-and-methodological, sanitary-and-educational, health-improving, and others. The sanitary-and-hygienic requirements for therapeutic-and-prophylactic dental facilities are defined. A procedure for keeping a management protocol for the prevention of tooth diseases is described.

  15. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  16. Florence Nightingale and the India sanitary reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J C

    1989-09-01

    After the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale persisted in researching the health conditions of British troops throughout the Empire. Undaunted by geographic limitations, she surveyed and publicized data that documented the mismanagement of living conditions and health care among the occupational forces on the Indian continent. Nightingale proposed widespread changes in the reporting of military health status and biostatistics, in sanitary engineering, and in self-care activities. With dogged persistence, she continued to gather follow-up data to measure the changing health status of soldiers in a land she never saw.

  17. Effects of Luteolin and Quercetin in Combination with Some Conventional Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman Amin, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Khan, Taj Ali; Faidah, Hani S; Ullah Shah, Zia; Ur Rahman, Shafiq; Haseeb, Abdul; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ullah, Naseem; Umar Khayam, Sahibzada Muhammad; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-11-22

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of flavonoids luteolin (L) and quercetin + luteolin (Q + L) in combination with commonly used antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates and S. aureus (ATCC 43300). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L and Q + L, as well as the MICs of flavonoids in combination with antibiotics were determined and results showed an increased activity of flavonoids with antibiotics. The synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships between flavonoids (L and Q + L) and antibiotics were also evaluated, and additive and synergistic effects were observed for some antibiotic + flavonoid combinations. In addition, some combinations were also found to damage the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, as assessed through potassium leakage assay. The effects of flavonoids and flavonoids + antibiotics on mecA gene mutations were also tested, and no functional variation was detected in the coding region.

  18. [Power and health in South America: international sanitary conferences, 1870-1889].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Cleide de Lima

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes the international sanitary conferences that were held in South America in 1873 and 1887, involving the Brazilian Empire and the Republics of Argentina and Uruguay, as an integral part of a series of similar events that took place in Europe and North America starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. The interests of the countries involved, namely trade relations and immigration from Europe - both directly affected by the epidemics - are discussed, and the repercussions of these sanitary agreements on the other countries in the Americas are indicated. The American health conventions in the late nineteenth century represented the first initiatives in the Americas to solve international public health problems.

  19. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 71.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary...

  20. Environmental monitoring of Domingo Rubio stream (Huelva Estuary, SW Spain) by combining conventional biomarkers and proteomic analysis in Carcinus maenas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes Nieto, Rafael [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Cordoba, Severo Ochoa Building, Rabanales Campus, Highway A4 Km 396a, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Garcia-Barrera, Tamara; Gomez-Ariza, Jose-Luis [Department of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Huelva, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, El Carmen Campus, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Lopez-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.e [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Cordoba, Severo Ochoa Building, Rabanales Campus, Highway A4 Km 396a, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Element load, conventional biomarkers and altered protein expression profiles were studied in Carcinus maenas crabs, to assess contamination of 'Domingo Rubio' stream, an aquatic ecosystem that receives pyritic metals, industrial contaminants, and pesticides. Lower antioxidative activities - glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, catalase - were found in parallel to higher levels of damaged biomolecules - malondialdehyde, oxidized glutathione -, due to oxidative lesions promoted by contaminants, as the increased levels of essential - Zn, Cu, Co - and nonessential - Cr, Ni, Cd - elements. Utility of Proteomics to assess environmental quality was confirmed, especially after considering the six proteins identified by de novo sequencing through capLC-muESI-ITMS/MS and homology search on databases. They include tripartite motif-containing protein 11 and ATF7 transcription factor (upregulated), plus CBR-NHR-218 nuclear hormone receptor, two components of the ABC transporters and aldehyde dehydrogenase (downregulated). These proteins could be used as novel potential biomarkers of the deleterious effects of pollutants present in the area. - Pollution assessment at 'Domingo Rubio' stream (Spain).

  1. [To the 90th anniversary of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service Formation in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, E N; Podunova, L G

    2012-01-01

    State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training of the Ministry of Health Care and Social Development Foundation of Russian Sanitary Epidemiologic Service dates back to September, 15, 1922, when a Decree on Sanitary Institutions of the Republic was signed. Afterwards the institutions of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service were improved: foundation of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1933-1951), approval of new concept of the Service and intensification of State Sanitary Inspectorate (1951-1991), foundation of State Sanitary Epidemiologic Service, centralization of management and financing of the Service, formation of Sanitary Epidemiologic Legislation (1991-2004), further restructurization of Sanitary Epidemiologic Service in accordance with administrative changes in Russia (2004 until now).

  2. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  3. Thermo economic comparison of conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems for small scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batens, Ellen; Cuellar, Rafael; Marissal, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    out a thermo economic comparison of a conventional micro combined heat and power systems with solid oxide fuel cell systems. A model to estimate the savings and cost targets for solid oxide fuel cell systems is presented. A comparison between fuel cell technologies in the danish market with “state......Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and electricity at the point of use. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently competitive to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. The goal of this paper is to carry...... of the art” traditional heat and power generation technologies currently used in Denmark is considered. The conventional method of covering electrical, heating (e.g. hot water) and cooling (e.g. space cooling) load demands is by purchasing electricity from the electricity network grid and with a fossil fuel...

  4. The effect of combined conventional and modified ultrafiltration on mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic changes in congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziyaeifard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased fluid accumulation around the heart which influences pulmonary and cardiac diastolic function. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of modified ultrafiltration (MUF versus conventional ultrafiltration (CUF on duration of mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic status in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 46 pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass throughout their congenital heart surgery. Arteriovenous MUF plus CUF was performed in 23 patients (intervention group and sole CUF was performed for other 23 patients (control group. In MUF group, arterial cannula was linked to the filter inlet through the arterial line, and for 10 min, 10 ml/kg/min of blood was filtered and returned via cardioplegia line to the right atrium. Different parameters including hemodynamic variables, length of mechanical ventilation, Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay, and inotrope requirement were compared between the two groups. Results: At immediate post-MUF phase, there was a statistically significant increase in the mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 only in the study group. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in time of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.004 and ICU stay (P = 0.007 between the two groups. Inotropes including milrinone (P = 0.04, epinephrine (P = 0.001, and dobutamine (P = 0.002 were used significantly less frequently for patients in the intervention than the control group. Conclusion: Administration of MUF following surgery improves hemodynamic status of patients and also significantly decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation and inotrope requirement within 48 h after surgery.

  5. The therapeutic effect of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy combined with conventional radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Feng; Lu Zhonghong; Yao Zhijun; Cao Yongzhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: 78 patients with NPC was treated by radiation schedule in two phases. In the first phase, nasopharyngeal lesions and metastases of all patients were treated by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) with a fraction of 2-5 Gy daily, 5 day per weeks, total dose 30 Gy. The second phase T1N0 or parts of T2N0 patients were done by Conventional radiotherapy with total dose 55 Gy on two small lateral opposing fields + with total dose 50 Gy on neck on tangential field,adding a 3 cm block. Patients with lymph node metastasis were given 55 Gy on the dacio-neck field (After 40 Gy, two small lateral opposing fields were used to boost the primary tumor while the spinal cord shielded) + with total dose 55 Gy on lower neck on tangential field. The upper bound of designed therapeutic field was set to connect with lower bound of main therapeutic field. Results: Three months after treatment,the rate of CR, PR, SD, PD were 38.5%, 55.1%, 5.1%, 1.3%, Total effective rate (CR+PR) were 93.6%. The 1-year, 2-year, 3-year and 5-year local-regional control rates were 92.3%, 88.5%, 78.2%, 70.5%.The 1-year, 2-year , 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate were 96.2%, 89.7%, 83.3%, 71.8%. Appearing early radiation response is well tolerated and no obviously mouth difficulties and cranial nerve damage observed. Conclusion: Clinical result of early-course three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is good. (authors)

  6. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A.

    2014-10-01

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  7. Tofacitinib in Combination With Conventional Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Patient-Reported Outcomes From a Phase III Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Vibeke; Kremer, Joel M; Gruben, David; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Zwillich, Samuel H; Wallenstein, Gene V

    2017-04-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib or placebo in combination with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In a 12-month, phase III randomized controlled trial (ORAL Sync), patients (n = 795) with active RA and previous inadequate response to therapy with ≥1 conventional or biologic DMARD were randomized 4:4:1:1 to tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID), tofacitinib 10 mg BID, placebo advanced to 5 mg BID, or placebo to 10 mg BID, in combination with stable background DMARD therapy. PROs included patient global assessment of arthritis (PtGA), patient assessment of arthritis pain (Pain), physical function (Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI]), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 health survey [SF-36]), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue [FACIT-F]), and sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep [MOS Sleep]). At month 3, statistically significant improvements from baseline versus placebo were reported in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, all 8 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 10 mg BID, and in PtGA, Pain, HAQ DI, 7 SF-36 domains, FACIT-F, and MOS Sleep with tofacitinib 5 mg BID. Improvements were sustained to month 12. Significantly more tofacitinib-treated patients reported improvements of greater than or equal to the minimum clinically important differences at month 3 versus placebo in all PROs, except the SF-36 role-emotional domain (significant for tofacitinib 10 mg BID). Patients with active RA treated with tofacitinib combined with background conventional DMARD therapy reported sustained, significant, and clinically meaningful improvements in PROs versus placebo. © 2016, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  8. A treatment for a chronic stroke patient with a plegic hand combining CI therapy with conventional rehabilitation procedures: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mary H; Taub, Edward; Uswatte, Gitendra; Delgado, Adriana; Bryson, Camille; Morris, David M; McKay, Staci; Mark, Victor W

    2006-01-01

    Constraint-Induced Movement therapy (CI therapy) is a recognized rehabilitation approach for persons having stroke with mild to moderately severe motor upper extremity deficits. To date, no rehabilitation treatment protocol has been proven effective that addresses both motor performance and spontaneous upper extremity use in the life situation for chronic stroke participants having severe upper extremity impairment with no active finger extension or thumb abduction. This case report describes treatment of a chronic stroke participant with a plegic hand using a CI therapy protocol that combines CI therapy with selected occupational and physical therapy techniques. Treatment consisted of six sessions of adaptive equipment and upper extremity orthotics training followed by a three-week, six-hour daily intervention of CI therapy plus neurodevelopmental treatment. Outcome measures included the Motor Activity Log for very low functioning patients (Grade 5 MAL), upper extremity portion of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment, Graded Wolf Motor Function Test - for very low functioning patients (gWMFT- Grade 5), and Modified Ashworth Scale. The participant showed improvement on each outcome measure with the largest improvement on the Grade 5 MAL. In follow-up, the participant had good retention of his gains in motor performance and use of his more affected arm for real world activities after 3 months; after a one-week brush-up at 3 months, and at one year post-treatment.

  9. Effects of Pulsed Versus Conventional Versus Combined Radiofrequency for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elawamy, Abdelraheem; Abdalla, Esam Eldein Mohamed; Shehata, Ghaydaa A

    2017-09-01

    During radiofrequency bursts of energy are applied to nervous tissue. The clinical advantages of this treatment remain unclear. We compared the effectiveness and pain relief for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) after continuous radiofrequency (CRF), pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), and combined continuous and pulsed radiofrequency (CCPRF) treatment of the Gasserian ganglion (GG). We conducted a randomized prospective study. Forty-three patients were included. Eleven patients were treated with PRF at 42°C for 10 minutes (PRF group), 12 patients received CRF for 270 seconds at 75 °C (CRF group), and 20 patients received PRF for 10 minutes at 42°C followed by CRF for at 60°C for 270 seconds (CCPRF group). Assuit University Hospital, Pain and Neurology outpatient clinics. Patients were assessed for pain, satisfaction, and consumption of analgesics at baseline and 7 days, one month, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after the procedure. The incidence of complications, anesthesia dolorosa, weakness of muscles of mastication, numbness, and technical complications, was evaluated after the procedure. Excellent pain relief was achieved after 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively in 95%, 85%, and 70% of patients with CCPRF; 75%, 75%, and reduced to 50% among patients with CRF; and 82%, reduced to 9.1%, and 0% of patients with PRF. No complications were recorded in 75% of patients in the CCPRF and PRF groups. There was one case of anesthesia dolorosa, 4 cases of masseter muscle weakness, and 5 cases of severe numbness recorded in the CRF group. There was a small number of patients in each group. The best results were observed in the CCPRF group, followed by the CRF group, and then the PRF group.Key words: Pulsed, continuous, radiofrequency, trigeminal neuralgia, Gasserian ganglion.

  10. Evaluation on the Clinical Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Activated Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Combined with Conventional Therapy in the Treatment of Malignant Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong WEI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of dendritic cell-activated cytokine-induced killer (DC-CIK cells combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors.Methods: A total of 100 patients with malignant tumors were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group received conventional therapy combined with DC-CIK while control group received conventional therapy alone. The short-term efficacy, adverse reactions and changes of lymphocyte subpopulation were all compared between two groups after treatment.Results: The overall response rate (ORR was higher in treatment group (86.00% than in control group (54.00%, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. White blood cell count (WBC reduced after treatment when compared with treatment before (P=0.001, but liver and kidney function had no obvious change in treatment group (P>0.05. WBC reduced markedly, but the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT increased obviously after treatment in control group (P<0.001. WBC was higher, but the level of ALT was lower in treatment group than in control group (P<0.001. However, there was no difference between two groups regarding serum creatinine (Scr and blood urea nitrogen (BUN (P>0.05. In treatment group, the levels of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, and CD3+CD56+ increased (P<0.05, but the level of CD4+/CD8+ had no significant change (P>0.05. In control group, the levels of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ reduced (P<0.05, while the levels of CD3+CD8+, CD3+CD56+ and CD4+/CD8+ had no significant change (P>0.05. The levels of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD56+ in treatment group were higher than those in control group (P<0.01, whereas CD4+/CD8+ was lower than that in control group (P<0.01.Conclusion: DC-CIK combined with conventional therapy, safe and effective, is capable of promoting the recovery of leukocytes and liver and kidney function, and improving the cellular immune function, which may provide a new therapeutic regimen for

  11. Differentiation of orbital lymphoma and idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor: combined diagnostic value of conventional MRI and histogram analysis of ADC maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiliang; Yuan, Ying; Wu, Yingwei; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2018-05-02

    The overlap of morphological feature and mean ADC value restricted clinical application of MRI in the differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoma and idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP). In this paper, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the combined diagnostic value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole-tumor histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in the differentiation of the two lesions. In total, 18 patients with orbital lymphoma and 22 patients with IOIP were included, who underwent both conventional MRI and diffusion weighted imaging before treatment. Conventional MRI features and histogram parameters derived from ADC maps, including mean ADC (ADC mean ), median ADC (ADC median ), skewness, kurtosis, 10th, 25th, 75th and 90th percentiles of ADC (ADC 10 , ADC 25 , ADC 75 , ADC 90 ) were evaluated and compared between orbital lymphoma and IOIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the most valuable variables for discriminating. Differential model was built upon the selected variables and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed to determine the differential ability of the model. Multivariate logistic regression showed ADC 10 (P = 0.023) and involvement of orbit preseptal space (P = 0.029) were the most promising indexes in the discrimination of orbital lymphoma and IOIP. The logistic model defined by ADC 10 and involvement of orbit preseptal space was built, which achieved an AUC of 0.939, with sensitivity of 77.30% and specificity of 94.40%. Conventional MRI feature of involvement of orbit preseptal space and ADC histogram parameter of ADC 10 are valuable in differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoma and IOIP.

  12. Combinative application of pH-zone-refining and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography for preparative separation of caged polyprenylated xanthones from gamboge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Baojun; Tan, Hongsheng; Xiu, Yanfeng; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-02-01

    An efficient method for the preparative separation of four structurally similar caged xanthones from the crude extracts of gamboge was established, which involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography for the first time. pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was performed with the solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (7:3:8:2, v/v/v/v), where 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid was added to the upper organic stationary phase as a retainer and 0.03% triethylamine was added to the aqueous mobile phase as an eluter. From 3.157 g of the crude extract, 1.134 g of gambogic acid, 180.5 mg of gambogenic acid and 572.9 mg of a mixture of two other caged polyprenylated xanthones were obtained. The mixture was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography with a solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:10:5, v/v/v/v) and n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (8:2:6:4,v/v/v/v), yielding 11.6 mg of isogambogenic acid and 10.4 mg of β-morellic acid from 218.0 mg of the mixture, respectively. The purities of all four of the compounds were over 95%, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the chemical structures of the four compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The combinative application of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography shows great advantages in isolating and enriching the caged polyprenylated xanthones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sanitary-epidemiologic service in Perm region: 95th anniversary (dedicated to Russian Sanitary-epidemiologic service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kostarev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the first stages of sanitary activities development in Perm region. We highlight the fact that it was Perm where I.I. Molessson, the first official sanitary inspector in Russia, worked. Here one of the first sanitary inspection of a whole region was performed and "Perm sanitary bulletin" was first published. It was in Perm, where the first sanitary office was established in 1890, and in 1898 the first bacteriological laboratory was organized. Bodies and institutions of Rospotrebnadzor in Perm region are known to be founded on September 15, 1922, when a Decree by Russian People's Commissars Council "On the Republic's sanitary bodies" was issued. A sanitary-hygienic faculty of Perm Medical Institute was set up in 1931 and it gave grounds for preparing qualified sanitary inspectors for state sanitary authorities. We described basic tasks which were tackled by sanitary inspectors during the Great Patriotic War and just after it. Rospotrebnadzor activities are proved to make for substantial improvements of sanitary-epidemiologic situation in the region. Currently more than 95 % of population are provided with drinking water which fully corresponds to the sanitary legislation requirements. We note constant improvements in catering objects quality and we also see that a quantity of food samples taken at such objects which don't correspond to hygienic standards remains stably low. A share of working places deviating from hygienic standards as per noise, vibration, and illumination, has reduced. Medical examinations are now available to 97.9 % of workers functioning under hazardous (dangerous working conditions. The lowest occupa-tional morbidity level over the last few years was registered in Perm region in 2016. The Service was among the first in the country to transfer to result-oriented budgeting and risk-oriented surveillance model. Organizational structure is constantly being developed; new legal, economic and organizational

  14. Simultaneous Response in Several Domains in Patients with Psoriatic Disease Treated with Etanercept as Monotherapy or in Combination with Conventional Synthetic Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Frank; Meier, Lothar; Prinz, Jörg C; Jobst, Jürgen; Lippe, Ralph; Löschmann, Peter-Andreas; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) receiving etanercept (ETN) monotherapy or ETN plus conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARD) to determine the proportion achieving a clinically meaningful response in arthritis, psoriasis, and quality of life simultaneously. A prospective, multicenter, 52-week observational study in patients with active PsA evaluated treatment with ETN in clinical practice (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00293722). This analysis assessed simultaneous achievement of 3 treatment targets: low disease activity (LDA) based on 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28); body surface area (BSA) involvement ≤ 3%; and a score > 45 on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component summary. Of 579 patients, 380 received ETN monotherapy and 199 received combination ETN plus csDMARD. At 52 weeks, data for all 3 disease domains were available for 251 patients receiving monotherapy and 151 receiving combination therapy. In the monotherapy and combination therapy groups, 61 (24.3%) and 37 (24.5%) patients, respectively, achieved all 3 treatment targets simultaneously. A significantly greater proportion of patients receiving monotherapy versus combination therapy achieved SF-12 > 45 (43.0% vs 31.8%; p < 0.05) and DAS28 LDA (72.5% vs 62.3%; p < 0.05). Conversely, BSA ≤ 3% was reached by a significantly greater proportion receiving combination therapy (75.5% vs 56.6%; p < 0.001). However, baseline BSA involvement was higher for the monotherapy group. While nearly half the patients achieved arthritis and psoriasis treatment targets simultaneously and one-fourth reached all 3 treatment targets, combining ETN and csDMARD did not substantially improve clinical response compared with ETN monotherapy in this real-world PsA patient population.

  15. Combination of robot-assisted and conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training improves gait in persons with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Labas, Michele P; Triche, Elizabeth W; Lo, Albert C

    2013-12-01

    The majority of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience problems with gait, which they characterize as highly disabling impairments that adversely impact their quality of life. Thus, it is crucial to develop effective therapies to improve mobility for these individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combination gait training, using robot-assisted treadmill training followed by conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training within the same session, improved gait and balance in individuals with MS. This study tested combination gait training in 7 persons with MS. The participants were randomized into the immediate therapy group (IT group) or the delayed therapy group (DT group). In phase I of the trial, the IT group received treatment while the DT group served as a concurrent comparison group. In phase II of the trial, the DT group received treatment identical to the treatment received by the IT group in phase I. Outcome measures included the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, velocity, cadence, and the Functional Reach Test (FRT). Nonparametric statistical techniques were used for analysis. Combination gait training resulted in significantly greater improvements in the 6MWT for the IT group (median change = +59 m) compared with Phase I DT group (median change = -8 m) (P = 0.08) and FRT (median change = +3.3 cm in IT vs -0.8 cm in the DT group phase I; P = 0.03). Significant overall pre-post improvements following combination gait training were found in 6MWT (+32 m; P = 0.02) and FRT (+3.3 cm; P = 0.06) for IT and Phase II DT groups combined. Combination of robot with body-weight-supported treadmill training gait training is feasible and improved 6MWT and FRT distances in persons with MS.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A62) for more insights from the authors.

  16. Factors associated with sanitary conditions of food and drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Food borne illness has been a global challenge and it persisted as a ... an absence of sanitary facilities for waste management was major cause. ... inspection on the establishments to promote and ensure proper hygiene and ...

  17. Comparison of the sanitary effects of energy chains. Methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1979-01-01

    Beyond technical and economical matters, the development of an industrial technology involves more or less numerous indirect consequences. From this viewpoint, the author analysis the methodological problems raised in evaluating the sanitary and ecological problems of the different energy-producing lines and considers successively the matter of technical interdependences, protection and safety regulations and selection of sites, classification of risks and measuring problems in relation to sanitary effects [fr

  18. Effect of combined Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet conventional western medicine treatment on plasma ET-1 and sICAM-1 levels in patients with DM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Qi Falian; Wang Bing; Ke Bingshen; Chen Yingjian; Yin Qiuxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical beneficial effect of Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet on lowering the plasma ET-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels in patients with DM2. Methods: Plasma ET-1 and sICAM-1 levels were determined with ELISA in 30 patients with DM2 randomly selected to be treated with conventional western only medicine and 30 other DM2 patients selected to be treated with additional Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet both before and after 3 months' treatment. The blood sugar level, HbAlc percentage and lipid test (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL) were also examined. Results: Blood sugar levels decreased significantly after 3 months' treatment in both groups. However, favorable changes of levels of other parameters (HbAlc, TC, TG, HDL, LDL, ET-1, sICAM-1) were demonstrated only in the patients treated with combined Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet and conventional western medicine (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Additional Jiqi hypoglycemic tablet might be desirable for the treatment of DM2 patients, especially due to the possible protection on vascular endothelium through lowering of the plasma ET-1 and sICAM-1 levels. (authors)

  19. Eight weeks of a combination of high intensity interval training and conventional training reduce visceral adiposity and improve physical fitness: a group-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Sakkis, Panikos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently promoted as an effective, low volume and time-efficient training method for improving fitness and health related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of a combination of a group-based HIIT and conventional gym training on physical fitness and body composition parameters in healthy adults. Thirty nine healthy adults volunteered to participate in this eight-week intervention study. Twenty three participants performed regular gym training 4 days a week (C group), whereas the remaining 16 participants engaged twice a week in HIIT and twice in regular gym training (HIIT-C group) as the other group. Total body fat and visceral adiposity levels were calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, speed, lower limb explosiveness, flexibility and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Both exercise programs were effective in reducing total body fat and visceral adiposity (Ptraining improved cardiorespiratory fitness levels (Ptraining (Ptraining improve various physical fitness parameters and reduce both total and visceral fat levels. This type of training was also found to be superior compared with conventional exercise training alone in terms of reducing more visceral adiposity levels. Group-based HIIT may consider as a good methods for individuals who exercise in gyms and craving to acquire significant fitness benefits in relatively short period of time.

  20. Aggressive combination therapy with intraarticular glucocorticoid injections and conventional DMARDs in early rheumatoid arthritis Two Year Clinical and Radiographic Results From The CIMESTRA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Junker, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of the 2nd year of the randomized, controlled double-blind CIMESTRA study. METHODS: 160 patients with early RA (any swollen joint in combination with step-up treatment with either methotrexate and placebo...... years, and the radiographic erosive progression was minimal. Addition of cyclosporine during the first 76 weeks resulted in significantly better ACR20 and ACR50 responses, but did not have any additional effect on remission rate and radiographic outcome.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether clinical and radiographic disease control can be achieved and maintained in patients with early, active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the 2nd year of aggressive treatment with conventional DMARD and intraarticular corticosteroid. This paper presents the results...

  1. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation by combining multiple-aperture interferometry and conventional interferometry: Application to the June 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.-S.; Lu, Z.; Won, J.-S.; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the volcano, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation.

  2. Organization of setting-up sanitary pass-control regime and sanitary treatment of injured persons in case of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostin, A.S.; Klochkov, V.N.; Yatsenko, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of sanitary pass-control regime is to prevent propagation of radioactive contamination outside the area of emergency-rescue works and guarantee of sanitary treatment of all persons having radioactive contamination. The paper has studied the questions of organization of sanitary pass-control regime, arrangement of sanitary treatment of the injured persons and rendering first aid in case of radioactive contamination of wounds. 5 refs

  3. Behavior of radionuclides in sanitary landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K C; Chian, E S; Pohland, F G; Cross, W H; Roland, L; Kahn, B

    1984-01-01

    his study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of disposing low-level radioactive waste in sanitary landfills with leachate containment to prevent environmental releases. To meet this objective, two simulated landfills, each 200 l. in volume and containing 55 kg of municipal refuse, were operated in the laboratory with simulated rainfall additions for a 9-month period to observe the extent to which radio-cobalt, -cesium, -strontium and tritium were leached into the liquid phase. One of the units was operated with leachate recycle, the other as a single pass control. Liquid samples were analyzed weekly for 3H, 58Co, 85Sr and 134Cs tracers. Weekly analyses were also performed for approximately 30 parameters to define the degree of stabilization of the waste. Major parameters included BOD, COD, pH and concentrations of specific organics, metals and gases. Concentrations of stable cobalt, strontium and cesium were also measured periodically. Soluble radioactivity levels in both systems were reduced by factors of 50 for 58Co, 5 for 85Sr and 7 for 134Cs, taking radioactive decay and dilution into account. Some radionuclide removal from the liquid phase was associated with major chemical changes in the landfills that occurred within 80 days for the control system and within 130 days for the recycle unit. Observed acid, sulfide, and CO2 concentrations suggested mechanisms for removing some of the radionuclides from leachate. Detection of 3H in the off-gas indicated that less than 1% of tritiated waste became airborne. The waste in the leachate recycle unit was more completely stabilized than in the control unit.

  4. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  5. Domestic hot water storage: Balancing thermal and sanitary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability

  6. Combination of diffusion tensor imaging and conventional MRI correlates with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations but not 1p/19q genotyping in oligodendroglial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ji [Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Shanghai (China); Tan, Wenli [Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Wen, Jianbo; Pan, Jiawei; Zhang, Jun; Geng, Daoying [Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Wang, Yin [Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To explore the correlations of conventional MRI (cMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) values with the 1p/19 codeletion and IDH mutations in oligodendroglial tumours (OTs). Eighty-four patients with OTs who underwent cMRI and DTI were retrospectively reviewed. The maximal fractional anisotropy and minimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curves, logistic regression analysis and four-table statistics analysis were performed to predict genotypings. OTs with 1p/19q codeletion or IDH mutations were prone to locate in frontal (P = 0.106 and 0.005, respectively) and insular lobes and were associated with absent or blurry contrast enhancement (P = 0.040 and 0.013, respectively). DTI values showed significant differences between OTs with and without IDH mutations (P < 0.05) but not in OTs with and without 1p/19q loss. The Ki-67 index significantly correlated with IDH mutations (P = 0.002) but not with 1p/19q codeletion. A combination of DTI and cMRI for the identification of IDH mutations resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 92.2 %, 75.8 %, 93.8 % and 71.1 %, respectively. Combination of DTI and cMRI correlates with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations but not 1p/19q genotyping in OTs. (orig.)

  7. Differentiation of Organically and Conventionally Grown Tomatoes by Chemometric Analysis of Combined Data from Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mid-infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Monakhova, Yulia; Erich, Sarah; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-11-04

    Because the basic suitability of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) to differentiate organic versus conventional tomatoes was recently proven, the approach to optimize (1)H NMR classification models (comprising overall 205 authentic tomato samples) by including additional data of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(18)O) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was assessed. Both individual and combined analytical methods ((1)H NMR + MIR, (1)H NMR + IRMS, MIR + IRMS, and (1)H NMR + MIR + IRMS) were examined using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and common components and specific weight analysis (ComDim). With regard to classification abilities, fused data of (1)H NMR + MIR + IRMS yielded better validation results (ranging between 95.0 and 100.0%) than individual methods ((1)H NMR, 91.3-100%; MIR, 75.6-91.7%), suggesting that the combined examination of analytical profiles enhances authentication of organically produced tomatoes.

  8. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  9. Ants avoid superinfections by performing risk-adjusted sanitary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pull, Christopher D; Metzler, Sina; Seif, Katharina; Naderlinger, Elisabeth; Grasse, Anna V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2018-03-13

    Being cared for when sick is a benefit of sociality that can reduce disease and improve survival of group members. However, individuals providing care risk contracting infectious diseases themselves. If they contract a low pathogen dose, they may develop low-level infections that do not cause disease but still affect host immunity by either decreasing or increasing the host's vulnerability to subsequent infections. Caring for contagious individuals can thus significantly alter the future disease susceptibility of caregivers. Using ants and their fungal pathogens as a model system, we tested if the altered disease susceptibility of experienced caregivers, in turn, affects their expression of sanitary care behavior. We found that low-level infections contracted during sanitary care had protective or neutral effects on secondary exposure to the same (homologous) pathogen but consistently caused high mortality on superinfection with a different (heterologous) pathogen. In response to this risk, the ants selectively adjusted the expression of their sanitary care. Specifically, the ants performed less grooming and more antimicrobial disinfection when caring for nestmates contaminated with heterologous pathogens compared with homologous ones. By modulating the components of sanitary care in this way the ants acquired less infectious particles of the heterologous pathogens, resulting in reduced superinfection. The performance of risk-adjusted sanitary care reveals the remarkable capacity of ants to react to changes in their disease susceptibility, according to their own infection history and to flexibly adjust collective care to individual risk.

  10. TC-325 versus the conventional combined technique for endoscopic treatment of peptic ulcers with high-risk bleeding stigmata: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Ang, Tiing Leong; Ong, Peng Lan Jeannie; Tan, Yi Lyn Jessica; Ang, Shih Wen Daphne; Law, Ngai Moh; Thurairajah, Prem Harichander; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2017-06-01

    Preliminary studies on a new topical hemostatic agent, TC-325, have shown its safety and effectiveness in treating active upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. However, to date there have been no randomized trials comparing TC-325 with the conventional combined technique (CCT). Our pilot study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of TC-325 with those of CCT in treating peptic ulcers with active bleeding or high-risk stigmata. This was a comparative randomized study of patients with upper GI bleeding who had Forrest class I, IIA or IIB ulcers. Altogether 20 patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 23-87 years) were recruited, including 16 men, with a mean hemoglobin of 97 g/L. Initial hemostasis was successful in 19 (95.0%) patients, including 90.0% (9/10) in the TC-325 group and 100% (10/10) in the CCT group. TC-325 monotherapy failed to stop bleeding in a patient with Forrest IB posterior duodenal wall ulcer. Rebleeding was seen in 33.3% (3/9) of the patients in the TC-325 group and 10.0% (1/10) in the CCT group. One patient required angio-embolization therapy while three had successful conventional endotherapy. Two patients from the TC-325 group had serious adverse events that were not procedure- or therapy-related. In patients with Forrest IIA or IIB ulcers, five received TC-325 monotherapy; none had rebleeding. Our pilot study showed that TC-325 has a tendency towards a higher rebleeding rate than CCT, when treating actively bleeding ulcers. Larger trials are necessary for definitive results. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Combined administration of synthetic RNA and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Belén; Blanco, Esther; Rodríguez Pulido, Miguel; Mateos, Francisco; Lorenzo, Gema; Cardillo, Sabrina; Smitsaart, Eliana; Sobrino, Francisco; Sáiz, Margarita

    2017-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. We have previously reported the use of RNA transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the FMDV RNA as potent type-I interferon (IFN) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an FMD vaccine in mice. Here, we describe the enhancing effect of RNA delivery on the immunogenicity and protection induced by a suboptimal dose of a conventional FMD vaccine in pigs. Animals receiving the RNA developed earlier and higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against homologous and heterologous isolates, compared to those immunized with the vaccine alone, and had higher anti-FMDV titers at late times post-vaccination. RNA delivery also induced higher specific T-cell response and protection levels against FMDV challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs inoculated with RNA and the vaccine had a higher IFN-γ specific response than those from pigs receiving the vaccine alone. When challenged with FMDV, all three animals immunized with the conventional vaccine developed antibodies to the non-structural viral proteins 3ABC and two of them developed severe signs of disease. In the group receiving the vaccine together with the RNA, two pigs were fully protected while one showed delayed and mild signs of disease. Our results support the immunomodulatory effect of these RNA molecules in natural hosts and suggest their potential use for improvement of FMD vaccines strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N combined with conventional dietary approaches reveal plasticity in central-place foraging behaviour of little penguins (Eudyptula minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre eChiaradia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine top and meso predators like seabirds are limited by the need to breed on land but forage on limited or patchily distributed resources at sea. Constraints imposed by such central-place foraging behaviour change during breeding or even disappear outside the breeding period when there is no immediate pressure to return to a central place. However, central place foraging is usually factored as an unchanging condition in life history studies. Here we used little penguin Eudyptula minor, a resident bird with one of the smallest foraging range among seabirds, to examine the different degree of pressure/constraints of being a central-place forager. We combined data on isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N, conventional stomach contents and body mass of little penguins breeding at Phillip Island, Australia over nine years (2003-11. We explored relationships between diet and body mass in each stage of the breeding season (pre-laying, incubation, guard, and post-guard in years of high and low reproductive success. Values of δ13C and δ15N as well as isotopic niche width had similar patterns among years, with less variability later in the season when little penguins shorten their foraging range at the expected peak of their central-place foraging limitation. Body mass peaked before laying and hatching in preparation for the energetically demanding periods of egg production and chick provisioning. An increase of anchovy and barracouta in the diet, two major prey for little penguins, occurred at the critical stage of chick rearing. These intra-annual trends could be a response to imposed foraging constraints as reproduction progresses, while inter-annual trends could reflect their ability to match or mismatch the high energy demanding chick rearing period with the peak in availability of high-quality prey such as anchovy. Our findings underline the key advantages of using a stable isotope approach combined with conventional dietary reconstruction to

  13. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining "1H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Brandão, Fátima; Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana; Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela; Canário, João; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  14. Insights into the mechanisms underlying mercury-induced oxidative stress in gills of wild fish (Liza aurata) combining {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics and conventional biochemical assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappello, Tiziana, E-mail: tcappello@unime.it [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandão, Fátima, E-mail: fatimabrandao@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria Ana [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Maisano, Maria; Mauceri, Angela [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Canário, João [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instítuto Superíor Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress has been described as a key pathway to initiate mercury (Hg) toxicity in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying Hg-induced oxidative stress in fish still need to be clarified. To this aim, environmental metabolomics in combination with a battery of conventional oxidative stress biomarkers were applied to the gills of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) collected from Largo do Laranjo (LAR), a confined Hg contaminated area, and São Jacinto (SJ), selected as reference site (Aveiro Lagoon, Portugal). Higher accumulation of inorganic Hg and methylmercury was found in gills of fish from LAR relative to SJ. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics revealed changes in metabolites related to antioxidant protection, namely depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and its constituent amino acids, glutamate and glycine. The interference of Hg with the antioxidant protection of gills was corroborated through oxidative stress endpoints, namely the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities at LAR. The increase of total glutathione content (reduced glutathione + oxidized glutathione) at LAR, in parallel with GSH depletion aforementioned, indicates the occurrence of massive GSH oxidation under Hg stress, and an inability to carry out its regeneration (glutathione reductase activity was unaltered) or de novo synthesis. Nevertheless, the results suggest the occurrence of alternative mechanisms for preventing lipid peroxidative damage, which may be associated with the enhancement of membrane stabilization/repair processes resulting from depletion in the precursors of phosphatidylcholine (phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine), as highlighted by NMR spectroscopy. However, the observed decrease in taurine may be attributable to alterations in the structure of cell membranes or interference in osmoregulatory processes. Overall, the novel concurrent use of metabolomics and conventional oxidative stress endpoints demonstrated to

  15. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the

  16. Prospective technologies and equipment for sanitary hygienic measures for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary hygienic conditions is a prerequisite for good health and performance of crews on extended space missions. There is a rich assortment of associated means, methods and equipment developed and experimentally tested in orbital flights. However, over a one-year period a crew of three uses up about 800 kg of ground-supplied wet wipes and towels for personal needs. The degree of closure of life support systems for long-duration orbital flights should be maximized, particularly for interplanetary missions, which exclude any possibility of re-supply. Washing with regenerated water is the ultimate sanitary hygienic goal. That is why it is so important to design devices for crew bathing during long-term space missions. Investigations showed that regeneration of wash water (WW) using membrane processes (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.), unlike sorption, would not require much additional expendables. A two-stage membrane recovery unit eliminated >85% of permeate from real WW with organic and inorganic selectivity of 82 95%. The two-stage WW recovery unit was tested with artificial and real WW containing detergents available for space crews. Investigations into the ways of doing laundry and drying along with which detergents will be the best fit for space flight are also planned. Testing of a technology for water extraction from used textiles using a conventional period of contact of 1 s or more, showed that the humidity of the outgoing air flow neared 100%. Issues related to designing the next generation of space life support systems should consider the benefits of integrating new sanitary hygienic technologies, equipment, and methods.

  17. Comparison of topical fixed-combination fortified vancomycin-amikacin (VA solution) to conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C-C; Lin, J-M; Chen, W-L; Chiu, Y-T; Tsai, Y-Y

    2009-02-01

    In an in vitro study, fixed-combination fortified vancomycin and amikacin ophthalmic solutions (VA solution) had the same potency and stable physical properties as the separate components. In this retrospective clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy of the topical VA solution in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer and comparison with separate topical fortified vancomycin and amikacin. Separate topical fortified eye drops was used prior to January 2004 and switched to the VA solution afterwards in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer. The medical records of 223 patients diagnosed with bacterial corneal ulcers between January 2002 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 122 patients in the VA group and 101 in the separate group. Cure was defined as complete healing of the ulcer accompanied by a nonprogressive stromal infiltrate on two consecutive visits. No significant difference was found between the VA and separate therapy group. The mean treatment duration was 15.4 days in the VA group and 16.1 days in the separate therapy group. The average hospital stay was 5.4 days (VA) and 7.2 days (separate antibiotics). Stromal infiltration regressed significantly without further expansion in both groups. All corneal ulcers completely re-epithelialized without complications related to drugs. VA solution provided similar efficacy to the conventional separate therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers; however, it is more convenient and tolerable, promotes patient's compliance, avoids the washout effect, and reduces nurse utilization. Hence, VA solution is a good alternative to separate therapy.

  18. Combined value of Virtual Touch tissue quantification and conventional sonographic features for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Shi, Qiusheng; Gu, Jiying; Jiang, Luying; Bai, Min; Liu, Long; Wu, Ying; Du, Lianfang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the value of sonographic features including Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA) for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm. Seventy-one thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm with pathologic diagnoses were included in this study. The conventional sonographic features and quantitative elasticity features (VTQ) were observed and compared between benign and malignant nodules. There were 39 benign and 32 malignant nodules according to histopathologic examination. When compared with benign nodules, malignant nodules were more frequently taller than wide, poorly defined, and markedly hypoechoic (P benign and malignant nodules. The VTQ value for malignant nodules (mean ± SD 3.260 ± 0.725 m/s) was significantly higher than that of benign ones (2.108 ± 0.455 m/s; P benign and malignant thyroid nodules smaller than 10 mm. When VTQ was combined with B-mode sonographic features, the sensitivity was improved significantly.

  19. Discerning Silk Produced by Bombyx mori from Those Produced by Wild Species Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Combined with Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qiushi; Li, Qingqing; Zheng, Hailing; Hu, Zhiwen; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Bing

    2017-09-06

    Recently, much interest has been paid to the separation of silk produced by Bombyx mori from silk produced by other species and tracing the beginnings of silk cultivation from wild silk exploitation. In this paper, significant differences between silks from Bombyx mori and other species were found by microscopy and spectroscopy, such as morphology, secondary structure, and amino acid composition. For further accurate identification, a diagnostic antibody was designed by comparing the peptide sequences of silks produced by Bombyx mori and other species. The results of the noncompetitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the antibody that showed good sensitivity and high specificity can definitely discern silk produced by Bombyx mori from silk produced by wild species. Thus, the antibody-based immunoassay has the potential to be a powerful tool for tracing the beginnings of silk cultivation. In addition, combining the sensitive, specific, and convenient ELISA technology with other conventional methods can provide more in-depth and accurate information for species identification.

  20. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  1. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  2. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  3. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria

  6. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  7. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01).

  8. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  9. Nutrition of pigs kept under low and high sanitary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    It is economically and environmentally important to match the nutrient supply to the nutrient requirements in pig production. Until now, the effects of different sanitary conditions on energy and nutrient requirements are not implemented in recommendations for nutrient composition of pig diets.

  10. NORTH PORTAL - SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY No.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the three main sanitary sewer lines serving the Change House Facility No.5008, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  11. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  12. Sanitary sewer rehabilitation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellinger, R. J.; Burton, R.; Fritschy, B.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are the following: to present LLNL`s collection system and innovative approach to sanitary sewer rehabilitation; share issues identified and lessons learned from over four (4) years of rehabilitation work; and discuss proposed system standards for ongoing maintenance and repair activities.

  13. DESIGN MANUAL: SULFIDE CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One characteristic by which sanitary sewage is known to the public is its potential for creating odor nuisances. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the source is a wastewater treatment plant. Yet there are wastewater treat...

  14. Conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control for combined cycle generating power stations.; Control supervisiorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, Miguel A; Sanchez P, Marino [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gonzalez Rubio S, Jose L [Cento Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Under the expectations of expansion of electric power generation in Mexico, this work exposes the development of a conventional and intelligent generalized supervisory control (CSG) for a combined cycle generation power plant. This one allows to obtain the optimal operation of the power plant through the automatic starting of the generating units and to obtain the maximum possible amount of electrical power in automatic and safe form. For the development of the CSG a control loop by temperature was implemented for the gas turbine system and a control loop by strangled pressure for the gas turbine and a control loop by strangled pressure for the steam turbine. The design of these supervisory systems was made with base in the critical limits on the involved variables of the process: blading average temperature, for the gas turbine (GT) and strangled pressure for the steam turbine (ST) [Spanish] Bajo estas expectativas de expansion de generacion de energia en Mexico, este trabajo expone el desarrollo de un control supervisorio generalizado (CSG) para una central generacion de ciclo combinado. Este permite lograr la operacion optima de la planta a traves del arranque automatico de las unidades generadoras y obtener la maxima cantidad posible de potencia electrica en forma automatica y segura. Para el desarrollo del CSG se implanto un lazo de control por temperatura para el sistema de turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de gas y un lazo de control por presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor. El diseno de estos sistemas supervisorio se realizo con base en los limites criticos de las variables del proceso involucradas: temperatura promedio de empaletado para la turbina de gas (TG) y presion estrangulada para la turbina de vapor (TV)

  15. Simple and Easy to Perform Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for β-thalassemia Major Using Combination of Conventional and Fluorescent Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemias are the most common monogenic disorders in many countries throughout the world. The best practice to control the prevalence of the disease is prenatal diagnosis (PND services. Extensive practicing of PND proved effective in reducing new cases but on the other side of this success high abortion rate is hided, which ethically unfair and for many couples, especially with a previous experience of a therapeutic abortion, or moral concerns, is not a suitable choice. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a strong alternative to conventional PND. At present PGD is the only abortion free fetal diagnostic process. Considering the fact that there are more than 6000 single gene disorders affecting approximately 1 in 300 live-births, the medical need for PGD services is significant. Materials and Methods: In the present study development of a PGD protocol for a thalassemia trait couple using nested multiplex fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the combination of polymorphic linked short tandem repeat (STR markers and thalassemia mutations is described. Restriction fragment length polymorphism used to discriminate between wild and mutated alleles. Results: In PGD clinical cycle, paternal and maternal alleles for D11S988 and D11S1338 STR markers were segregated as it was expected. PCR product for IVSII-1 mutation was subsequently digested with BtscI restriction enzyme to differentiate normal allele from the mutant allele. The mother's mutation, being a comparatively large deletion, was detectable through size differences on agarose gel. Conclusion: The optimized single cell protocol developed and evaluated in this study is a feasible approach for preimplantation diagnosis of β-thalassemia in our patients.

  16. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  17. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. 20.2003... Disposal § 20.2003 Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage. (a) A licensee may discharge licensed material into sanitary sewerage if each of the following conditions is satisfied: (1) The material is...

  18. Dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sea dumping of radioactive waste has, since 1983, been precluded under a moratorium established by the London Dumping Convention. Pressure from the nuclear industry to allow ocean dumping of nuclear waste is reported in this article. (author)

  19. Characterization of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum., is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1 min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time. PMID:24518341

  20. Effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel etched with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid combined with conventional adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Wiegand, Annette; Eden, Ece; Attin, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin (Icon) applied after either hydrochloric (HCl) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel. Failure types were analyzed. The crowns of bovine incisors (N = 20) were sectioned mesio-distally and inciso-gingivally, then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the following protocols to receive mandibular incisor brackets: 1) H3PO4 (37%)+TransbondXT (3M UNITEK); 2) H3PO4 (37%)+Icon+TransbondXT; 3) HCl (15%)+Icon (DMG)+TransbondXT 4) HCl (15%)+Icon+Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)+TransbondXT. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and thermocycled (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types were classified according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Contact angles of adhesive resins were measured (n = 5 per adhesive) on ceramic surfaces. No significant difference in SBS was observed, implying no difference between combinations of adhesive resins and etching agents (p = 0.712; ANOVA). The Weibull distribution presented significantly lower Weibull modulus (m) of group 3 (m = 2.97) compared to other groups (m = 5.2 to 6.6) (p group 1 (45.4 ± 7.9) > group 2 (44.2 ± 10.6) > group 3 (42.6 ± 15.5). While in groups 1, 3, and 4 exclusively an ARI score of 0 (no adhesive left on tooth) was observed, in group 2, only one specimen demonstrated score 1 (less than half of adhesive left on tooth). Contact angle measurements were as follows: Icon (25.86 ± 3.81 degrees), Heliobond (31.98 ± 3.17 degrees), TransbondXT (35 ± 2.21 degrees). Icon can be safely used with the conventional adhesives tested on surfaces etched with either HCl or H3PO4.

  1. Improvement of diagnostic efficiency in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules via conventional ultrasound combined with ultrasound contrast and elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Juan; Men, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Xi; Liu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of conventional ultrasound (US), ultrasound contrast (UC) and ultrasound elastography (UE) in distinguishing the benign and malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 100 patients with thyroid nodules receiving operative treatment were selected; they underwent the conventional US, UE and UC examinations before operation, respectively. The nodules received pathological examination after operation to distinguish benign from malignant lesions. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accordance rate of each diagnostic method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC was calculated. The manifestations of malignant thyroid nodules in conventional US examination were mostly the hypoecho, heterogeneous echo, irregular shape, unclear boundary, aspect ratio benign and malignant nodules in 2, 3 and 4 points were statistically significant (Pbenign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  2. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-01-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  3. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  4. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures: The Case of Mexican Avocados

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Nishita

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects on demand, supply, imports, and prices of partial easing of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) barriers to trade in the U.S. market in the case of Mexican avocados. The SPS Agreement plays a role in the avocado market studied here through its implications for negotiations between countries that have not utilized the formal channels of the WTO for resolving disputes. A quarantine in place from 1914 until very recently banned entry of Mexican avocados into the...

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  6. SANITARY ASPECT OF NUTRITION CONTROL IN PUBLIC KITCHEN IN NIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Milutinovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate sanitary condition of food preparation and distribution in the "Public kitchen" in Nis, as well as the meals’ quality in order to assess the health risks. The local inspection of the objects and microbiological analysis of swaps were done according to standard methods. Energetical values and biochemical structure of the meals were assessed by bromatological methods and energetical density was calculated. The study was being conducted from 2002 – 2005. The results show that sanitary conditions in the object were not adequate, because of a high percentage of incorrect samples (13.4% from the total number of samples. Energetical values of meals were usually adequate (1157 – 1564 kcal, 4837 – 6581 kJ, but constantly decreased. The chemical structure of the meals was adequate too, meaning that meals were very well- planed. The energetic density of meals was high (1,18 – 1,42 kcal/g. Our conclusion is that there are no alternatives to continuous health care education of the medical stuff and regular sanitary hygienic control, all with the aim to accomplish complete social function of the public kitchen and to protect the health of its consumers.

  7. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  8. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Di Maria, Francesco; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m 3 . The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed

  9. Sanitary landfill energetic potential analysis: a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desideri, Umberto E-mail: umberto.desideri@unipg.it; Di Maria, Francesco E-mail: fdm@unipg.it; Leonardi, Daniela; Proietti, Stefania

    2003-07-01

    Waste disposal represents an important problem in developed countries. Many different techniques are available to reduce the amount of waste production and its environmental impact. In most cases, sanitary landfills have been and continue to be one of the most common ways to dispose of urban and industrial wastes. It is well known how landfilling produces an important environmental drawback due to gaseous, liquid and solid emissions that are dangerous for the environment. Landfill biogas emissions contain mainly carbon dioxide and methane. In particular, the methane concentration can be higher than 50% by volume. This means that the calorific value of sanitary landfill biogas can be higher than 18,000 kJ/N m{sup 3}. The utilization of such gas as fuel for electrical and thermal energy production can be an important way to reduce the landfill impact on the environment and represent an easy way to use a renewable energy source. In the following, the amount and composition of the biogas produced in a sanitary landfill situated in central Italy have been analysed. Experimental results have been discussed, and an energetic potential evaluation has been performed.

  10. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  11. [Warming acupuncture combined with conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guoqing; Ye, Ting; Sun, Zhongren

    2018-03-12

    To compare the clinical efficacy differences between warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis. A total of 64 patients were randomly divided into a warming acupuncture group and a conventional acupuncture group, 32 cases in each one. Based on basic treatment of blood glucose regulation, warming acupuncture was applied at Pishu (BL 20), Shenshu (BL 23), Guanyuanshu (BL 26), Zusanli (ST 36), Chongyang (ST 42), Quchi (LI 11) and Hegu (LI 4) in the warming acupuncture group, while acupuncture was applied at the identical acupoints in the conventional acupuncture group. Both the treatments were given once a day with an interval of one day every six days; totally the treatment was given for 4 weeks. The TCM symptom score, Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) before and after treatment were compared in the two groups. After treatment, the TCM symptom scores in the two groups were significantly reduced (both P nervus peroneus communis, as well as sensory nerve of tibial nerve and sural nerve was improved in the warming acupuncture group (all P 0.05). Warming acupuncture and conventional acupuncture could both increase TCM symptom score, improve NCV in patients of DPN with syndrome of yang deficiency and cold coagulation, obstruction of collaterals and blood stasis; warming acupuncture has advantage in symptom improvement.

  12. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  13. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm; Giacobbo, Alexandre; Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Meneguzzi, Alvaro; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm −2 , 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment

  14. The Use of Heat-Resistant Concrete Made with Ceramic Sanitary Ware Waste for a Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ogrodnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the concrete made of aggregate obtained from wastes of sanitary ceramics. Previous examinations proved high in strength and durability of concrete of this type, and it showed a resistance to high temperatures. The material was classified as a fireproof concrete. While searching for the optimal applications of such concrete, a series of examinations and analyses on its thermal energy storage (TES properties were performed. This paper describes the two-stage experiment on the thermal behavior of the concrete made with sanitary ceramic wastes during cooling processes in comparison to different building materials subjected to the same thermal conditions. On the basis of the thermal, infrared analysis, and suitable calculations, the thermal power and the ability of the composite to store thermal energy was estimated. Finally, it was stated that the concrete made of sanitary ceramic waste aggregate and alumina cement can be recommended as a heat-accumulating material, and in combination with high durability can be used, e.g., for the construction of fireplace bodies.

  15. Evaluation of percutaneous vertebroplasty in osteoporotic vertebral fractures using a combination of CT fluoroscopy and conventional lateral fluoroscopy; Perkutane Vertebroplastie osteoporosebedingter Wirbelkoerperfrakturen: Erfahrungen mit der CT-Fluoroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, M.B.; Schneider, J.; Brecher, B.; Herber, S.; Mohr, W.; Thelen, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken Mainz (Germany); Drees, P.; Eckardt, A.; Heine, J. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie, Universitaetskliniken Mainz (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of vertebroplasty using a combination of CT-fluoroscopy and conventional lateral fluoroscopy in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight patients (23male, 35 women, age 69.7 {+-} 10.2 years) with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures were treated with vertebroplasty in conscious sedation and local anesthesia. Spiral-CT with sagittal reconstructions of the respective vertebral bodies was used for classification of the fracture. The cannula was placed under CT-guidance in the ventral third of the respective vertebral bodies and cement instilled under CT fluoroscopy and lateral fluoroscopy. When cement migrated towards the vertebral canal, the injection was immediately stopped for 30-60 seconds. After polymerization in this location, the injection was continued until sufficient filling of the vertebra. Results were documented by spiral CT with sagittal reconstructions. Results: A total of 123 vertebral bodies were treated, comprising 39 thoracic and 84 lumbar vertebral bodies, with a mean of 2.1 {+-} 1.3 (range 1 to 6) vertebral bodies in each patient and a maximum of 3 vertebral bodies per session. All interventions were successfully completed in conscious sedation and local anesthesia. A mean volume of 5.9 {+-} 0.6 ml (range 2 to 14 ml) cement was applied for each vertebra, with 79.7% of procedures performed using a unilateral access. To achieve a sufficient cement deposit, a bilateral access was used in 20.3%. The dorsal wall of the vertebra was included in 23.6% of the fractures. In one case, cement migration into the spinal canal was detected, reducing the diameter of the canal by 30%. In two other cases, cement leakage was seen at the puncture site of the vertebra (one intercostotransversally in the 10{sup th} thoracic vertebra and one dorsolaterally in the 1{sup st} lumbar vertebra) with retrograde cement migration through the neuroforamen into the epidural space. In one of these cases, the

  16. Generalized conventional and intelligent supervisory control system for combined cycle generation power plants; Sistema de control supervisorio generalizado convencional e inteligente para centrales de generacion de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Morales, Miguel Angel

    2004-12-15

    The Mexican Electricity Utility (Comision Federal de Electricidad - CFE) growing program in Power Generation for the 2004 - 2008 period is based on Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). In accordance with [CFE, 2000], the expected power generation capacity developed during such period will rise by the amount of 12876 MW, 10655 MW belonging to CCPP (82.75 %). With such important program for the increasing of Power Generation in Mexico, researches have to receive new technologies for CCPP, some of them not completely tested and immature, with the compromise to make then more efficient and reliable. Under such idea and looking to increase the automation level for CCPP with better control algorithms, the Supervisory Generalized Control (SGC) for CCPP was developed in this thesis, based on PID strategies and intelligent (fuzzy) control strategies. With the SGC is possible to get the best performance for the whole CCPP through the automatic starting, synchronizing and loading of the generating units (two gas turbines and one steam turbine) with a minimum participation of operators. To get the increased efficiency, the SGC generates the reference paths for both gas turbines (GT) first, and the steam turbine (ST). The SGC accelerates each unit with a minimum effort and vibrations getting the synchronizing speed in a minimum time and wasted energy. Then the SGC synchronize each unit taking minimum load quickly and loading up to the highest electric power value. All these can be done in an automated operation. The SGC employs two critical-process variable- control strategies, based on blade path temperature average (BPT Average) for Gas Turbines (GT) and the throttle steam pressure for the Steam Turbine (ST). The control algorithms designed take both units, the GT and the ST, picking up load to the highest process value avoiding the alarms activation and shutdown. This is possible only with such an automated control strategy. Test performed showed that with the SGC

  17. Comparison of high ligation and stripping of the great saphenous vein combined with foam sclerotherapy versus conventional surgery for the treatment of superficial venous varicosities of the lower extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Li, Jun-Hai; Huang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of high ligation and stripping of the great saphenous vein (GSV) trunk combined with foam sclerotherapy with conventional surgery for the treatment of superficial venous varicosities of the lower extremity. One hundred and thirty eight patients with primary or secondary superficial venous varicosities of the lower extremity were included. 60 underwent conventional surgery and 78 were treated with high ligation and stripping of the GSV trunk and foam sclerotherapy of GSV branches, spider veins, and reticular veins. Surgical time and amount of bleeding of single limb, recurrence of varicose vein, complications and patients satisfactory were recorded. Compared with the conventional surgery group, the GSV trunk stripping and foam sclerotherapy group had a significantly lower surgical time (P 0.05). GSV trunk stripping and foam sclerotherapy group at a 6 months of follow up had a higher recurrence rate of varicosity as compared to the conventional surgery group (P sclerotherapy prior to conventional surgery for patients with superficial venous varicosities of the lower extremity with a shorter surgical time, fewer bleeding, duration of hospital stays and higher patients satisfactory scores. PMID:26221338

  18. SU-E-I-39: Combining Conventional Tomographic Imaging Strategy and Interior Tomography for Low Dose Dual-Energy CT (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J [Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging, New York- Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) affords quantitative information of tissue density and provides a new dimension for disease diagnosis and treatment planning. The technique, however, increases the imaging dose because of the doubled scans, and thus hinders its widespread clinical applications. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel hybrid DECT image acquisition and reconstruction strategy, in which one of the energies is dealt by interior tomography while the other one is obtained using conventional tomography approach. Methods: In the proposed hybrid imaging strategy, the projection data of one of the energies (e.g., high-energy) were acquired and processed in an interior scanning model, whereas the other energy in the conventional tomographic approach. It known that, if the ROI is piecewise constant or polynomial, the interior ROI can be reconstructed with TV or HOT minimization. Here we extend the TV based interior reconstruction method into dual-energy situation. The ROI images so obtained were overlaid in the context of conventional CT of the companion energy. A material based composition in ROI was used in the proposed reconstruction framework. Results: In the simulation experiment with a diagnostic DECT geometry and energies, we were able to derive the densities of soft-tissues and bones in the ROI with high fidelity. In the experimental CBCT study, both kV and MV data were collected using the on-board kV and MV imaging system. The MV data were truncated only across the ROI. Using the interior tomography reconstruction above, we were able to obtain the ROI images as that obtained using un-truncated MV data with known tissue densities. Conclusion: The proposed DECT imaging strategy provides an effective way to extract tissue density information in the ROI and in the context of anatomical images of CT imaging, with much reduced imaging dose.

  19. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R T [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  20. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  1. Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinaidy Suianny Rocha de Moura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Moura E.S.R., Abrantes M.R., Mendes C.G., Oliveira A.R.M, Souza E.S. & Silva J.B.A. [Hygienic-sanitary profile and microbiological dangers in public slaughterhouses.] Perfil higiênico-sanitário e perigos microbiológicos em abatedouros públicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:203-208, 2015. Departamento de Ciência Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, Bairro Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brasil. E-mail: jeanberg@ufersa.edu.br The aim of this study was to evaluate hygienic and sanitary conditions of municipal slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Norte. Through a check list, hygienic conditions of establishments and handlers were observed and the percentage of compliance was rated excellent (≥ 80%, good (60 to 79.9%, regular (40 to 59.9% and poor (<40%, according to official standards established by Brazilian legislation. Ten water samples were collected to analyze total and thermotolerant coliforms; and 200 swab samples, including 150 from the utensils, equipment, handlers, and cattle carcasses were investigated for Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteria, and 50 from the environment for Listeria sp. research. It was noted, through the check list, the existence of various inadequate parameters when compared to those established, and required by law. According to the percentage of compliance found in abattoirs during the assessment visits, no slaughterhouse was rated as excellent, only one was considered good, one was classified as regular and three were considered poor. As for the microbiological analyzes, the presence of coliforms was confirmed in water from two slaughterhouses. High bacteria counts were found in swabs from tools, handlers, and cattle carcasses, and the presence of Listeria sp. was observed in three slaughterhouses. Therefore, the precarious sanitary conditions of the municipal slaughterhouses studied in Rio Grande do Norte represent a risk to

  2. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  3. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleda, Ma Rosa [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Galceran, Ma Teresa [University of Barcelona, Department Analytical Chemistry, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, Francesc, E-mail: fventura@agbar.es [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies {>=}94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: > The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. > Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. > Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  4. Correlation between conventional MR imaging combined with diffusion-weighted imaging and histopathologic findings in eyes primarily enucleated for advanced retinoblastoma. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yanfen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shanxi Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shanxi Province Cancer Hospital, Taiyuan (China); Luo, Ran; Liu, Huanhuan; Zhang, Caiyuan; Zhang, Zhongyang; Wang, Dengbin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ruifen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2018-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional MRI in detecting tumour invasion of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma and to correlate ADC values with high-risk prognostic parameters. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and accuracies of MRI in detecting tumour-extent parameters of 63 retinoblastomas were determined. Furthermore, ADC values were correlated with high-risk prognostic parameters. MRI detected postlaminar optic nerve with a sensitivity of 73.3% (95% CI 44.9-92.2%) and a specificity of 89.6% (77.3-96.5%), while the specificity for choroidal invasion was only 31.8% (13.9-54.9%). Likewise, MRI failed to predicted early optic nerve invasion in terms of low sensitivity and PPV. In contrast, scleral and ciliary body invasion could be correctly excluded with high NPV. ADC values were significantly lower in patients with undifferentiated tumours, large tumour size, as with optic nerve and scleral invasion (all p < 0.05). However, no correlation was found between ADC values and the degree of choroidal or ciliary body infiltration. Additionally, ADC values were negatively correlated with Ki-67 index (r = -0.62, P = 0.002). Conventional MRI has some limitations in reliably predicting microscopic infiltration, with the diagnostic efficiency showing room for improvement, whereas ADC values correlated well with certain high-risk prognostic parameters for retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  5. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boleda, Ma Rosa; Galceran, Ma Teresa; Ventura, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies ≥94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: → The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. → Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. → Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  6. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleda, M A Rosa; Galceran, M A Teresa; Ventura, Francesc

    2011-06-01

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies ≥ 94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  8. Quality prediction of a leached produced in a sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto; Garcia R, Francisco Fernando; Rivera Mesa, Carolina

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed with the purpose of predicting the concentration of pollutants in the leached produced by the biological degradation of the solid wastes disposed in sanitary landfills. The model consists in a kinetic equation of first level, able to describe the degradation of the organic matter being the solid residuals. This model was calibrated using the results obtained from six laboratory scale lysimeters operated under different conditions. The model predicted the concentration of the pollutants in the leached with an accuracy of 94%

  9. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Banana fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater: postharvest and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernando Santos Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sewage may serve as a source of water and nutrients for plants. In this study, the effects of fertigation with treated sanitary wastewater from Janaúba Sewage Treatment Plant were evaluated on the postharvest and microbiological quality of ‘Prata-Anã’ banana. A randomized block experimental design was used. Four concentrations of wastewater were tested (70, 130, 170, and 200% of 150 kg ha-1 sodium. A wastewater-free control treatment was used for comparison. Two crop cycles were assessed for postharvest and microbiological quality. The parameters measured included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, pH, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms on both the peel and the pulp. In the first crop cycle, both soluble solids and fruit pulp pH decreased as wastewater level increased up to a maximum of 141.5%. These correlations were not observed in the second cycle. Wastewater management did not affect the titratable acidity of the soluble solids. The agricultural application of treated sanitary wastewater provided banana fruits with a microbiological profile similar to that obtained with the control (pure water and with mineral fertilizers. A microbial balance is necessary to maintain the nutritional status of the banana crop.

  11. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number reaches 10 7 per liter. Neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover, Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. Sanitizing of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. The sanitary effect of pasteurisation and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge was investigated. For this the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants was examined. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and sometimes 500 krad. A linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae was achieved with increasing radiation doses. A dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae. Less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gramm were found in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The effect found in the above mentioned model experiments could be perfectly confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by Enterobacteriaceae reduction, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurisation. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  13. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors versus combination intensive therapy with conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in established rheumatoid arthritis: TACIT non-inferiority randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David L; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Farewell, Vern; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Walker, David; Kelly, Clive; Birrell, Fraser; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Maddison, Peter; Heslin, Margaret; Patel, Anita; Kingsley, Gabrielle H

    2015-03-13

    To determine whether intensive combinations of synthetic disease modifying drugs can achieve similar clinical benefits at lower costs to high cost biologics such as tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis resistant to initial methotrexate and other synthetic disease modifying drugs. Open label pragmatic randomised multicentre two arm non-inferiority trial over 12 months. 24 rheumatology clinics in England. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were eligible for treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors according to current English guidance were randomised to either the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy or the combined disease modifying drug strategy. Biologic strategy: start tumour necrosis factor inhibitor; second biologic in six month for non-responders. Alternative strategy: start combination of disease modifying drugs; start tumour necrosis factor inhibitors after six months in non-responders. reduction in disability at 12 months measured with patient recorded heath assessment questionnaire (range 0.00-3.00) with a 0.22 non-inferiority margin for combination treatment versus the biologic strategy. quality of life, joint damage, disease activity, adverse events, and costs. Intention to treat analysis used multiple imputation methods for missing data. 432 patients were screened: 107 were randomised to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and 101 started taking; 107 were randomised to the combined drug strategy and 104 started taking the drugs. Initial assessments were similar; 16 patients were lost to follow-up (seven with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy, nine with the combined drug strategy); 42 discontinued the intervention but were followed-up (19 and 23, respectively). The primary outcome showed mean falls in scores on the health assessment questionnaire of -0.30 with the tumour necrosis factor inhibitor strategy and -0.45 with the alternative combined drug strategy. The difference between

  14. What does my patient's coronary artery calcium score mean? Combining information from the coronary artery calcium score with information from conventional risk factors to estimate coronary heart disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletcher Mark J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to produce post-test risk estimates, and to determine whether the score may add clinically useful information. Methods We measured the independent cross-sectional associations between conventional cardiac risk factors and the CAC score among asymptomatic persons referred for non-contrast electron beam computed tomography. Using the resulting multivariable models and published CAC score-specific relative risk estimates, we estimated post-test coronary heart disease risk in a number of different scenarios. Results Among 9341 asymptomatic study participants (age 35–88 years, 40% female, we found that conventional coronary heart disease risk factors including age, male sex, self-reported hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were independent predictors of the CAC score, and we used the resulting multivariable models for predicting post-test risk in a variety of scenarios. Our models predicted, for example, that a 60-year-old non-smoking non-diabetic women with hypertension and high cholesterol would have a 47% chance of having a CAC score of zero, reducing her 10-year risk estimate from 15% (per Framingham to 6–9%; if her score were over 100, however (a 17% chance, her risk estimate would be markedly higher (25–51% in 10 years. In low risk scenarios, the CAC score is very likely to be zero or low, and unlikely to change management. Conclusion Combining information from the CAC score with information from conventional risk factors can change assessment of coronary heart disease risk to an extent that may be clinically important, especially when the pre-test 10-year risk estimate is intermediate. The attached spreadsheet makes these calculations easy.

  15. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C

    2015-10-01

    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (P<0.0001). Multicomponent suction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces

  16. Combining of ETHOS Operating Ergonomic Platform, Three-dimensional Laparoscopic Camera, and Radius Surgical System Manipulators Improves Ergonomy in Urologic Laparoscopy: Comparison with Conventional Laparoscopy and da Vinci in a Pelvi Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokas, Theodoros; Gözen, Ali Serdar; Avgeris, Margaritis; Tschada, Alexandra; Fiedler, Marcel; Klein, Jan; Rassweiler, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Posture, vision, and instrumentation limitations are the main predicaments of conventional laparoscopy. To combine the ETHOS surgical chair, the three-dimensional laparoscope, and the Radius Surgical System manipulators, and compare the system with conventional laparoscopy and da Vinci in terms of task completion times and discomfort. Fifteen trainees performed the three main laparoscopic suturing tasks of the Heilbronn training program (IV: simulation of dorsal venous complex suturing; V: circular suturing of tubular structure; and VI: urethrovesical anastomosis) in a pelvi trainer. The tasks were performed conventionally, utilizing the three devices, and robotically. Task completion times were recorded and the surgeon discomfort was evaluated using questionnaires. Task completion times were compared using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test and ergonomic scores were compared using Pearson chi-square test. The use of the full laparoscopic set (ETHOS chair, three-dimensional laparoscopic camera, Radius Surgical System needle holders), resulted in a significant improvement of the completion time of the three tested tasks compared with conventional laparoscopy (psystem nullified heavy discomfort for Tasks IV and V and minimized it (6.7%) for the most demanding Task VI. Especially for Task VI, all trainees gained benefit, by using the system, in terms of task completion times and discomfort. The limited trainee robotic experience and the questionnaire subjectivity could be a potential limitation. The ergonomic laparoscopic system offers significantly improved task completion times and ergonomy than conventional laparoscopy. Furthermore, it demonstrates comparable results to robotic surgery. The study was conducted in a pelvi trainer and no patients were recruited. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On professional and official requirements to physicians in radiation health by sectoral sanitary and epidemiological stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Konkina, L.F.; Shishenina, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    Professional and official requirements (POR) to sanitary physician, which deals with radiation hygiene at the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES), are considered. These requirements determine minimum of professional skills and abilities in the field of radiation hygiene. Physician should contribute to the improvement of radiation safety and health indices for personnel and population, and in this case, his activity should not impede the further usage of ionizing radiation sources in the national economy. Sanitary physician, dealing with a actain branch of industry, concerning the problems of radiation hygiene should know the principles of deontology, aims and functions of SES establishment and departments in the field of radiation hygiene, legal principles of radiation safety is basic tasks are as follows: 1) State sanitary inspection of sanitary-hygienic measures for the environmental protection and radiation protection of population; 2) organizational and methodological activity; 3) activity in medical civil defense

  18. Phyto sanitary Treatment at SINAGAMA: Experience Sharing and Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofian Ibrahim; Jamilah Karim; Mohd Sidek Othman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Hasan Sham; Mohd Khairul Azfar Ramli

    2012-01-01

    After more than 22 years involved in sterilization and decontamination of products like medical devices, foods and herbs, Sinagama with the cooperation of SSDL, BAB, MARDI and Malaysia Department of Agriculture has make another step ahead by helping the local fruits farmers on phyto sanitary treatment in order to help them exporting their crops to United States. This report was prepared to discuss the challenges that have been faced by Sinagama during registration and certification process from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The challenges that Sinagama have to faced include Minimum Irradiation Dose, Dose Mapping Process, Biological Control, Training Records, Working Procedures and requirements that needed by Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Officer. All these challenged has been faced by Sinagama in order to make sure the ambition of our nation to help farming sector become reality. (author)

  19. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  20. Combined short- and long-axis ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to conventional techniques: A cross-over randomized controlled manikin trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeshita

    Full Text Available Visualizing the needle tip using the short-axis (SA ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization approach can be challenging. It has been suggested to start the process with the SA approach and then switch to the long-axis (LA; however, to our knowledge, this combination has not been evaluated. We compared the combined short- and long-axis (SLA approach with the SA approach in a manikin study.We performed a prospective randomized controlled cross-over study in an urban emergency department and intensive care unit. Resident physicians in post-graduate years 1-2 performed a simulated ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture using the SA and SLA approaches on manikins. Twenty resident physicians were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1 one group performed punctures using the SA approach followed by SLA; and (2 the other performed the same procedures in the opposite order. We compared the success rate and procedure duration for the two approaches. Procedural success was defined as insertion of the guide-wire into the vein while visualizing the needle tip at the time of anterior wall puncture, without penetrating the posterior wall.Six resident physicians (30% performed both approaches successfully, while 12 (60% performed the SLA approach, but not the SA, successfully. Those who performed the SA approach successfully also succeeded with the SLA approach. Two resident physicians (10% failed to perform both approaches. The SLA approach had a significantly higher success rate than the SA approach (P < 0.001. The median (interquartile range procedure duration was 59.5 [46.0-88.5] seconds and 45.0 [37.5-84.0] seconds for the SLA and SA approaches, respectively. The difference of the duration between the two procedures was 15.5 [0-28.5] seconds. There was no significant difference in duration between the two approaches (P = 0.12.Using the SLA approach significantly improved the success rate of internal jugular vein puncture performed by

  1. Sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Our investigations prove that sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number of organisms was 10 7 per litre. One of our most important findings was the fact that neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover we found that Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. The increasing number of Salmonella carriers among our herds of cattle and their striking accumulation during the grazing period demonstrate that such transmission represents a growing danger. Sanitation of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. In our investigation of the sanitary effect of pasteurization (70degC for 30 min) and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge, we examined the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and also 500 krad. We found a linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with increasing doses; a dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae; and there were less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gram in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The results of these model experiments could be completely confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurization. (author)

  2. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonirritating cleansing agent shall be provided for use at each shower. (2) Sanitary flush toilet facilities. (i..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... Rooms, and Sanitary Flush Toilet Facilities at Surface Coal Mines § 71.402 Minimum requirements for...

  3. Rectal cancer: assessment of complete response to preoperative combined radiation therapy with chemotherapy--conventional MR volumetry versus diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvo-Semedo, Luís; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique; Thywissen, Thomas; Mehsen, Rana T; Lammering, Guido; Beets, Geerard L; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2011-09-01

    To determine diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for assessment of complete tumor response (CR) after combined radiation therapy with chemotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by means of volumetric signal intensity measurements and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements and to compare the performance of DW imaging with that of T2-weighted MR volumetry. A retrospective analysis of 50 patients with LARC, for whom clinical and imaging data were retrieved from a previous imaging study approved by the local institutional ethical committee and for which all patients provided informed consent, was conducted. Patients underwent pre- and post-CRT standard T2-weighted MR and DW MR. Two independent readers placed free-hand regions of interest (ROIs) in each tumor-containing section on both data sets to determine pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes and tumor volume reduction rates (volume). ROIs were copied to an ADC map to calculate tumor ADCs. Histopathologic findings were the standard of reference. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare performance of T2-weighted and DW MR volumetry and ADC. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate interobserver variability and the correlation between T2-weighted and DW MR volumetry. Areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) for identification of a CR that was based on pre-CRT volume, post-CRT volume, and volume, respectively, were 0.57, 0.70, and 0.84 for T2-weighted MR versus 0.63, 0.93, and 0.92 for DW MR volumetry (P = .15, .02, .42). Pre- and post-CRT ADC and ADC AUCs were 0.55, 0.54, and 0.51, respectively. Interobserver agreement was excellent for all pre-CRT measurements (ICC, 0.91-0.96) versus good (ICC, 0.61-0.79) for post-CRT measurements. ICC between T2-weighted and DW MR volumetry was excellent (0.97) for pre-CRT measurements versus fair (0.25) for post-CRT measurements. Post-CRT DW MR

  4. Detailed test plan on co-disposal of deminumum levels of LLRW and sanitary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, E.S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The major objectives of this investigation are: (1) to study the attenuation mechanisms for radionuclides (LLRW) in simulated sanitary landfills with and without leachate recycle; and (2) to determine the complexation potential of ligands (viz., sulfides, humic substances) present in the leachate during different stages of landfill stabilization. Since the major emphasis of this research is on containment and isolation of LLRW within a sanitary landfill the following key elements have been incorporated into the design of the simulated pilot-scale sanitary landfills: (1) containment of LLRW within the landfills by placing the municipal refuse and LLRW in polymeric membrane-lined cells (30-mil, HDA, Gundline liner, Gundle, TX) with a leachate collection system; (2) enhancement of stabilization by leachate recycle; and (3) recovery of the gas produced from the sanitary landfills. The proposed research program addresses the fate of LLRW in municipal sanitary landfills thereby, establishing a data base to predict radionuclide pathways in sanitary landfills and to aid in assessing the environmental impacts of codisposal of LLRW within sanitary landfills. The outcome of this study may also serve to alleviate the current concern of unnecessary filling of limited space in existing licensed shallow-land burial sites. 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... analyses. The theoretical quest of both Conventions and Institutional Logics has been to understand the increasing indeterminacy, uncertainty and ambiguity in people’s lives where a sense of reality, of value, of moral, of feelings is not fixed. Both approaches have created new theoretical insights...

  6. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  7. Combining ability of tropical maize cultivars in organic and conventional production systems Capacidade de combinação de milho tropical em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify maize germplasm for the organic productions system and to compare the genetic effects of the grain yield of maize cultivars in organic and conventional production systems. Diallel crosses were made between six maize cultivars and the hybrid combinations were evaluated in conventional and organic production systems. The hybrid combinations produced different grain yields in the two production systems. The interaction between general combining ability and production systems was significant for grain yield, ear height and number of ears. This indicates that the additive genetic effects differ in organic and conventional production systems. The specific combining abilities (SCA were significant for grain yield and plant height, indicating a significant difference between the non-additive effects. However, the SCA x production systems interactions were not significant for those traits. It was concluded that for the development of maize cultivars for the organic production system, selection must be made in the specific environment for the expression of favorable alleles that confer advantages for adapting to this system; the general combining ability of genitors is different for the two production systems, but the specific combining ability isn't different in organic and conventional systems.Os objetivos foram identificar germoplasma de milho para o sistema de produção orgânica e comparar os efeitos genéticos da produtividade de grãos de cultivares de milho em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional. Para isso, cruzamentos dialélicos foram realizados entre seis cultivares de milho e as combinações híbridas avaliadas em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional. Os híbridos apresentaram diferentes produtividades de grãos nos dois sistemas de produção. A interação entre a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC e os sistemas de produção (SP foi significativa para produtividade de gr

  8. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  9. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  10. COMBINED-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO), along with sanitary-sewer overflow and stormwater are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater t...

  11. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  12. Problems of sanitary-hygienic arrangements in case of emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Borisov, B.K.; Volkov, N.N.; Grachev, M.I.; Korostin, A.S.; Prostakishin, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The planning and carrying out sanitary-hygienic arrangements in emergency situation are based on scientific-research, organizing-methodical and practical trends of activities including: the necessity of taking into consideration the risk of sanitary-hygienic complications as a result of emergency situation; elaboration of criteria and classification of hazards potential danger of industrial plants and territories; the establishment of system of providing sanitary-hygienic measures in emergency situation; working out prophylactic measures for prevention, localization and liquidation of sanitary-hygienic after-effects of emergency situation; development of the system of control and express-analysis of hazardous factors; elaboration of rating-methodical base and arrangements aimed at protection of health and life of people. 5 refs

  13. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.; Cucereanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  14. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Sanitary-epidemiological audit in russia and abroad: challenges and growth prospects (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The shaping the system of control and surveillance activities in the Russian Federation, which affects the bodies of the sanitary-epidemiological surveillance, requires the development of new forms of cooperation between authorities and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and population. Such a form may be represented by the sanitary and epidemiological audit as an independent objective assessment of reputable third parties. The audit is intended to check the compliance with the mandatory requirements of the economic entities, performing economic or other activities. The sanitary-epidemiological audit may be associated with a system of certification for compliance with sanitary requirements and may assume the documented confirmation of the compliance issued by the authorized persons. The sanitary-epidemiological audit and the compliance certification to mandatory sanitary requirements can make an alternative to the planned supervision activities on facilities attributed to the category of low and moderate risk of harm to human health. The Russian sanitary legislation does not recognize the sanitary-epidemiological audit as a form of conformity assessment. The analysis of the international experience shows that it is necessary to consolidate the general rules and regulations of the sanitary-epidemiological audit at the legislative level and to develop a set of sublegislative documents in order to implement these norms. The crucial is a creation of the national system capable to regulate the registration and functioning of the organization having a right to conduct the audit activities in the field of hygienic safety. It is reasonable to develop the regulation on the list-register of auditors and to create a special training system for the auditors, who possess the methodology for health risk assessment. The key aspect of the successful introduction of the audit is a granting of presences to the economic entities having compliance

  16. Zoo-sanitary aspects of goat husbandry in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Maria Guimarães Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the largest one out of the four states that comprise the southeastern region of Brazil, with the bigest goat herd of this region. The characterization of health aspects of dairy goat husbandry was done in 84 dairy herds in 81 municipalities and 200 beef herds in 70 municipalities in the State of Minas Gerais. A questionnaire was filled out for each herd, requesting data regarding the farm, the herd and the farmer by the veterinarians within the Agriculture and Livestock Institute of Minas Gerais (Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária – IMA. A data bank was developed in Windows Excel and analyzed using the Epi-Info system. Comparisons of categorical variables were based on Chi-square test. The individual identification of the animals was done at 73.8% of dairy farms and at 7.5% of beef farms, use of quarentine at 15.5% and 4.0%, isolation of sick animals at 30.9% and 11.0%, requisition of sanitary certificate in the acquisition of new animals at 28.6% and 1.5%, regular veterinary monitoring at 52.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The main health problems reported at dairy and beef farms, respectively, were abortion (50.0% and 49.5%, mastitis (41.7% and 19.0%, pneumonia (37.4% and 16.5%, diarrhea (34.5% and 16.5% and caseous lymphadenitis (20.2% and 43.0%.

  17. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  18. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    ATHER HASSAN; YASEEN IQBAL; SYED ZAFAR ILYAS

    2017-01-01

    The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar) industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite o...

  19. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  20. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the “virtual” X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  1. Three-dimensional (3D)- computed tomography bronchography and angiography combined with 3D-video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) versus conventional 2D-VATS anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiao-Wei; Gu, Yun-Bin; Xu, Chun; Li, Chang; Ding, Cheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Compared to the pulmonary lobe, the anatomical structure of the pulmonary segment is relatively complex and prone to variation, thus the risk and difficulty of segmentectomy is increased. We compared three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography (3D-CTBA) combined with 3D video-assisted thoracic surgery (3D-VATS) to perform segmentectomy to conventional two-dimensional (2D)-VATS for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively reviewed the data of randomly selected patients who underwent 3D-CTBA combined with 3D-VATS (3D-CTBA-VATS) or 2D-VATS at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Hospital, from January 2014 to May 2017. The operative duration of 3D group was significantly shorter than the 2D group (P 0.05). The extent of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative drainage in the 3D group was significantly lower than in the 2D group (P 3D group was shorter than in the 2D group (P 0.05). However, hemoptysis and pulmonary air leakage (>3d) occurred significantly less frequently in the 3D than in the 2D group (P 3D-CTBA-VATS is a more accurate and smooth technique and leads to reduced intraoperative and postoperative complications. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article investigates the formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. The relevance of this article due to the need to systematize the individual areas of water law, including the protection of water and sanitation of the twentieth century. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The article devoted to the study of formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. Paper objective. The relevance of this article due to the need to identify viable methods and instruments of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water during the formation of the main areas of water legislation of Ukraine in the twentieth century. Terms used in the legal protection of water, sanitary water use rules, the bodies of sanitary supervision, the state sanitary inspection. Conclusions. Research in the field of water legislation, and therefore the individual concerned and its protection issues, many scientists were engaged as ecologists and environmentalists. However, the special historical and legal work in a range twentieth century. no. This gap makes it difficult to analyze the current state of affairs in the field of sanitary protection of water. Detection of historical stages of development of water legislation in this area, identifying the main patterns and dynamics of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water in specific historical circumstances will improve the current regime of water protection. The author analyzes the main laws and regulations in the field of materials of

  3. Automatic online and real-time tumour motion monitoring during stereotactic liver treatments on a conventional linac by combined optical and sparse monoscopic imaging with kilovoltage x-rays (COSMIK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Jenny; Toftegaard, Jakob; Hansen, Rune; Worm, Esben S.; Wan, Hanlin; Parikh, Parag J.; Weber, Britta; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per R.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, validate and clinically demonstrate fully automatic tumour motion monitoring on a conventional linear accelerator by combined optical and sparse monoscopic imaging with kilovoltage x-rays (COSMIK). COSMIK combines auto-segmentation of implanted fiducial markers in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections and intra-treatment kV images with simultaneous streaming of an external motion signal. A pre-treatment CBCT is acquired with simultaneous recording of the motion of an external marker block on the abdomen. The 3-dimensional (3D) marker motion during the CBCT is estimated from the auto-segmented positions in the projections and used to optimize an external correlation model (ECM) of internal motion as a function of external motion. During treatment, the ECM estimates the internal motion from the external motion at 20 Hz. KV images are acquired every 3 s, auto-segmented, and used to update the ECM for baseline shifts between internal and external motion. The COSMIK method was validated using Calypso-recorded internal tumour motion with simultaneous camera-recorded external motion for 15 liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients. The validation included phantom experiments and simulations hereof for 12 fractions and further simulations for 42 fractions. The simulations compared the accuracy of COSMIK with ECM-based monitoring without model updates and with model updates based on stereoscopic imaging as well as continuous kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) at 10 Hz without an external signal. Clinical real-time tumour motion monitoring with COSMIK was performed offline for 14 liver SBRT patients (41 fractions) and online for one patient (two fractions). The mean 3D root-mean-square error for the four monitoring methods was 1.61 mm (COSMIK), 2.31 mm (ECM without updates), 1.49 mm (ECM with stereoscopic updates) and 0.75 mm (KIM). COSMIK is the first combined kV/optical real-time motion

  4. FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 2. COUNTIES: BROWARD, CALHOUN, CHARLOTTE, CITRUS, CLAY, COLLIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

  5. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  6. [The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomarev, A M; Vaĭsman, Ia I; Zaĭtseva, T A; Glushankova, I S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

  7. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  8. Removal of COD and Colour from Sanitary Landfill Leachate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flocculation process using FeCl3 as a conventional coagulant and Ca(OH)2 as base-precipitant. The second method involved integration of Fenton's reagent into the coagulation/flocculation process. Concentration of FeCl3 that reduced chemical ...

  9. Solidarity: an innovative perspective in the management and organization of Sanitary Surveillance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches; Teixeira, Carmen Fontes de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This is a theoretical essay about the development of the concept of solidarity, a word used in the regulatory framework and in political proposals to reorient the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). The methodology consisted of mapping authors addressing human action aspects related to this theme from Durkheim's tradition, linking them to his followers, like Marcel Mauss and authors from the "anti-utilitarianism" movement in social sciences. Solidarity is one way to express a "gift" and appears as a multidimensional action, where duty and freedom, instrumental interest and disinterest interpose and interlace. The planning and execution of sanitary surveillance (VISA) actions requires comprehension of organizational forms and solidary relationship management among agents involved in health risk control, transcending the strongly normative aspect of the prevailing supervision actions. The development of associative actions involving sanitary surveillance professionals, economic agents and consumers, aiming to share the responsibilities in the health risk control of products, services and environments subjected to Sanitary Surveillance action is suggested.

  10. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places

  11. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  12. [Evaluation of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in public and philanthropic daycare centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mariana de Novaes; Brasil, Anne Lise Dias; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of kitchens in philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo using a tool of easy application. Information on the hygienic-sanitary conditions was gathered observing the operational conditions of five public and philanthropic daycare centers in the city of São Paulo. A score was developed for classifying the risks of food contamination. The operational conditions in the kitchens of the studied philanthropic and public daycare centers in the city of São Paulo can result in contamination of the prepared food. Among the most important risk factors for food contamination is the behavior of the workers who handle the food. Training and continuous supervision of the involved personnel are the best and easiest alternatives for assuring the appropriate hygienic-sanitary conditions and quality of the food offered to the children in these daycare centers.

  13. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Use of combined binary power generation systems at new geothermal fields on Mindoro Island, the Philippines, and comparison with conventional power generation systems); 1999 nendo Philippines koku Mindoro to no shinki chinetsutai ni okeru combined binary hatsuden hoshiki no tekiyo seika hokokusho. Conventional hatsuden hoshiki tono hikaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the Manito Lowlands geothermal field and the Montelago geothermal field where the systems are to be newly installed, the geothermal reservoir characteristics are assessed, and cost effectiveness is compared between different power generating systems. According to the investigations conducted into the two geothermal fields in the past, they are supposed to have geothermal potentials of the medium grade. Chemical analyses are conducted anew on this occasion into the hot spring water and fumarole gas, and the MT (magnetotelluric) method is implemented for the survey of reservoir distribution. It is now expected that approximately 20MWe will be exploited from each of the two geothermal fields. The power generation systems studied are the single flash type and double flash type for the conventional power generation system, and the cascade type, bottoming type, and two-phase binary type for the combined binary power generation system. As the result, it is concluded that the double flash type or two-phase binary type will be advantageous to the Manito Lowlands geothermal field, and the double flash type or bottoming type or two-phase binary type will be advantageous to the Montelago geothermal field. (NEDO)

  15. Sanitary services in the perm region during the Great Patriotic war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Horoshavin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the formation of the Medical Service of the (Molotov region during the war. We describe the problems encountered sanitary doctors in the war years, the direction of the main measures to address these problems. It is shown that the organizers of the health service – A.V. Kostina, V.A. Ryazanov, their colleagues have made every effort to prevent epidemics and save health of both local and evacuees. It is showed the role of volunteers, doctors of medical units at the plants, the Department of Health Medical Institute to improve the sanitary conditions in the region.

  16. Combined SPECT/CT improves detection of initial bone invasion and determination of resection margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared to conventional imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Mund-Kiefer und Gesichtschirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Schuster, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Chlebowski, A.; Kesting, M.; Bissinger, O.; Weitz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich (Germany); Lange, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Munich (Germany); Scheidhauer, K.; Schwaiger, M.; Dinges, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of bone infiltration is crucial for planning the resection of potential bone-infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Routinely, plain-film radiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for preoperative staging, but they show relatively high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate has the ability to show increased metabolic bone activity. If combined with anatomical imaging (e.g. (SPECT)/CT), it facilitates the precise localization of malignant bone lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the indications and advantages of SPECT/CT compared with standard imaging modalities and histology with regard to specificity and sensitivity A longitudinally evaluated group of 30 patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC adjacent to the mandible underwent {sup 99m}Tc-bisphosphonate SPECT/CT, MRI, MSCT and conventional radiography before partial or rim resection of the mandible was performed. Bone infiltration was first evaluated with plain films, MSCT and MRI. In a second reading, SPECT/CT data were taken into account. The results (region and certainty of bone invasion) were evaluated among the different imaging modalities and finally compared with histological specimens from surgical resection as the standard of reference. For a better evaluation of the hybrid property of SPECT/CT, a retrospectively evaluated group of 20 additional patients with tumour locations similar to those of the longitudinally examined SPECT/CT group underwent SPECT, MSCT and MRI. To assess the influence of dental foci on the specificity of the imaging modalities, all patients were separated into two subgroups depending on the presence or absence of teeth in the area of potential tumour-bone contact. Histologically proven bone infiltration was found in 17 patients (57 %) when analysed by conventional imaging modalities. SPECT/CT data

  17. Combined SPECT/CT improves detection of initial bone invasion and determination of resection margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck compared to conventional imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Schuster, T.; Chlebowski, A.; Kesting, M.; Bissinger, O.; Weitz, J.; Lange, P.; Scheidhauer, K.; Schwaiger, M.; Dinges, J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of bone infiltration is crucial for planning the resection of potential bone-infiltrating squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Routinely, plain-film radiography, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for preoperative staging, but they show relatively high rates of false-positive and false-negative findings. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-bisphosphonate has the ability to show increased metabolic bone activity. If combined with anatomical imaging (e.g. (SPECT)/CT), it facilitates the precise localization of malignant bone lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the indications and advantages of SPECT/CT compared with standard imaging modalities and histology with regard to specificity and sensitivity A longitudinally evaluated group of 30 patients with biopsy-proven HNSCC adjacent to the mandible underwent 99m Tc-bisphosphonate SPECT/CT, MRI, MSCT and conventional radiography before partial or rim resection of the mandible was performed. Bone infiltration was first evaluated with plain films, MSCT and MRI. In a second reading, SPECT/CT data were taken into account. The results (region and certainty of bone invasion) were evaluated among the different imaging modalities and finally compared with histological specimens from surgical resection as the standard of reference. For a better evaluation of the hybrid property of SPECT/CT, a retrospectively evaluated group of 20 additional patients with tumour locations similar to those of the longitudinally examined SPECT/CT group underwent SPECT, MSCT and MRI. To assess the influence of dental foci on the specificity of the imaging modalities, all patients were separated into two subgroups depending on the presence or absence of teeth in the area of potential tumour-bone contact. Histologically proven bone infiltration was found in 17 patients (57 %) when analysed by conventional imaging modalities. SPECT/CT data revealed

  18. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  19. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 228 - Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... steady sound level which in 8 hours would contain the same acoustic energy as the time-varying sound... changed regularly. 7. Lavatories. (a) Lavatories should be made available to all rail employees housed in... sanitary condition. (e) Sanitary storage. No food or beverages should be stored in toilet rooms or in an...

  1. Law no. 2001-398 of the 9 may 2001 creating a french Agency of sanitary and environmental safety (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This law text indicates the goal and the missions of the french sanitary and environmental safety Agency, defined by the law no.2001-398: to assure the public health the Agency has to contribute to the the sanitary safety in the environment domain and to evaluate the risk bonded to the environment. (A.L.B)

  2. Determination of the gaseous emission of toxic substances in the Curva de Rodas sanitary landfill in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Renteria, Francisco Fernando; Agudelo Garcia, Ruben Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Results of the investigation conducted at the sanitary landfill Curva de Rodas, aimed to determine the emission and migration of toxic substances are presented. Traces of benzene, toluene, hexane, vinyl chloride and xylene were found. Concentrations of these substances were, however, below threshold limits at the landfill and below detectable limits in the air of populated areas adjacent to the sanitary landfill

  3. The Hague Judgments Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2011-01-01

    The Hague Judgments Convention of 2005 is the first global convention on international jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. The author explains the political and legal background of the Convention, its content and certain crucial issues during...

  4. Initial Experience With Tofacitinib in Clinical Practice: Treatment Patterns and Costs of Tofacitinib Administered as Monotherapy or in Combination With Conventional Synthetic DMARDs in 2 US Health Care Claims Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, James; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Gerber, Robert; Gruben, David; Koenig, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tofacitinib can be administered as a monotherapy or in combination with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). This study describes RA patients' characteristics, treatment patterns, and costs for those initiating tofacitinib treatment as monotherapy or combination therapy, using US claims data from clinical practice. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients aged ≥18 years with RA (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 714.xx) and with ≥1 tofacitinib claim in the Truven Marketscan (TM) or the Optum Clinformatics (OC) database. Index was defined as the first tofacitinib fill date (November 2012-June 2014). Patients were continuously enrolled for ≥12 months before and after index. Adherence was assessed using the proportion of days covered (PDC) and medication possession ratio (MPR). Persistence was evaluated using a 1.5× days' supply gap or switch. All-cause and RA-related costs in the 12-month pre- and post-index periods were evaluated. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted on data on treatment patterns and costs stratified by monotherapy status. A total of 337 (TM) and 118 (OC) tofacitinib patients met the selection criteria; 52.2% (TM) and 50.8% (OC) received monotherapy and 83.7% (TM) and 76.3% (OC) had pre-index biologic DMARD experience. Twelve-month mean PDC values were 0.56 (TM) and 0.53 (OC), and 12-month mean MPR was 0.84 (TM) and 0.80 (OC), with persistence of 140.0 (TM) and 124.6 (OC) days. Between 12-month pre- and post-index periods, mean (SD) 12-month RA-related medical costs decreased by $5784 ($31,832) in TM and $6103 ($25,897) in OC (both, P tofacitinib knowledge base and will enable informed clinical and policy decision making based on valuable datasets independent of randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Planning, design and technological criteria of conventional and nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoon, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis aims to establish a special criteria for building the shelters in two types. The conventional and nuclear, in respect to planning design and technological aspects, and finally establishing a special reference of planning, design and technology for Iraq which can be used when planning or designing a conventional or nuclear shelter. The thesis included four chapters, the first chapter included definition of shelters, and explanation of the effects of all types of weapons on buildings, and the second chapter included definition of planning and design concepts of shelters in its two types and analytical studies for international examples. The third chapter covered definition for technologies of structural, mechanical, electrical and sanitary systems. The fourth chapter included details of a case study in order to approach the results of research which included the conclusions, recommendations, criteria and prospects of planning design and technological aspects. 51 tabs.; 180 figs.; 32 refs.; 15 apps

  6. The sanitary officer: first aid coordinator on EDF nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The internal organisation for first aid to the injured in case of an accident on E.D.F. nuclear power plant calls for the immediate assistance of a first aid team, consisting of five workers, under the direction of a principal first aid officer; one of the first aid workers, the sanitary officer who instructs the first aid workers intervention awaiting the arrival of an external medical. When the 'Sanitary on-site Emergency Plan' was up' dated, twenty medical doctors and seventy members of staff from five different sites were questioned as to the function of the sanitary officer. The conclusions revealed a notable difference of training amongst the different sites, and concerning first aid organisation, difference of priority of actions, extent of their participation once the medical team arrives and their participation in case of decontamination treatment. The medical doctors and staff lay a particular stress on importance of defining on a national scale the limits of role and responsibilities of the sanitary officer and establish a more specific training in this field, consequently motivating commitment and professionalism involvement. There is a great difference between the training and coaching of the first aid assistance and fire protection teams. To conclude, we propose that the first aid officer be known as first aid coordinator and the qualification of 'Certificat de Formation aux Premiers Secours en Equipe' in compliance with the current legislation together with a specific nuclear module and they should undergo regular on-site drills. (author)

  7. Evolution of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland in the years 1944-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Grabowski

    2017-11-01

    The pre-accession preparation to the European Union (EU strongly accelerated the development of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has promoted the implementation of the WHO document “Health for All in the 21st Century” and the reduction of “health inequalities”.

  8. Extra environmental impact assessment and recommendable measures for their minimization in arranging sanitary inspection room site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rud'ko, V.M.; Batij, V.G.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Paskevich, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments during the works for preparation of sanitary inspection room site are presented. A range of measures to minimize environmental impact from the works to be implemented,is offered. Impacts on such environmental components as soil,air and aqueous medium,are considered

  9. Design of manuals sanitary landfills (II). Diseo de rellenos sanitarios manuales (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    This period includes engineering projects, landscape and details of building; taking into account the circumstances that govern them, it must be made looking at the simplicity and quickness required to these type of works and trying to respect sanitary requirements. (Author)

  10. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  11. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR MITIGATION PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...

  12. NORTH PORTAL-SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING No.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Blackstone

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to determine the demand on the waste system and to size the sanitary sewer line serving the Shop Building No.5006 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2)

  13. Attitudes towards the Use of the Medical and Sanitary Services in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Manouchehr

    1977-01-01

    Describes research methodology and findings of a survey in Iran to determine relationships between educational level, age, residence, and other variables involved in attitudes regarding the use of medical and sanitary services. Public health education is seen to be needed. For journal availability, see SO 506 019. (Author/AV)

  14. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... maintained sanitary sewer systems are meant to collect and transport all of the sewage that flows into them... sewage from these overflows can contaminate our waters, causing serious water quality problems. It can... influent flows to exceed the treatment capacity of existing secondary treatment units. Known as ``peak...

  15. Flooding the sanitary city : Planning discourse and the materiality of urban sanitation in Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schramm, S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban water flows are constitutive elements of Hanoi’s morphology. Regular floods across the city illustrate that Hanoi’s amphibious character is a central impediment to the installa- tion of a ‘dry and sanitary city’, the global modernist ideal of a separation of urban waste- water flows from

  16. Innovative in situ treatment approach for DOE Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, J.; Suer, A.

    1994-01-01

    Pursuant to a settlement agreement reached between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site will be closed. This paper addresses the approach used to select the innovative in situ treatment alternative for the groundwater and the vadose zone associated with the landfill

  17. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY.... Construction on Barrier IIB has been completed. Operational and safety testing was conducted in February 2011... dispersal barrier IIA and IIB. This safety zone will be enforced daily from 7 a.m. to 11 a.m. and from 1 p.m...

  18. 30 CFR 71.400 - Bathing facilities; change rooms; sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flush toilet facilities. 71.400 Section 71.400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... installations and at the surface worksites of such mine. (Note: Sanitary facilities at surface work areas of...

  19. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements. 71.500 Section 71.500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND...

  20. Effect of linear alkylbenzene mixtures and sanitary sewage in biochemical and molecular responses in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Nunes, Fabrício; Mattos, Jacó J; Zacchi, Flávia L; Serrano, Miguel A S; Piazza, Clei E; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Bicego, Márcia C; Melo, Cláudio M R; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2015-11-01

    Urban effluents are rich in nutrients, organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, hydrocarbons, surfactants, and others. Previous studies have shown that oysters Crassostrea gigas accumulate significant levels of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sanitary sewage contaminated sites, but there is little information about its toxicological effects in marine bivalves. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription of genes in two tissues of C. gigas exposed for 12, 24, and 36 h to LABs or sanitary sewage. Likewise, the activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes was measured in oysters exposed for 36 h in all groups. Oysters exposed to LABs and oysters exposed to sanitary sewage showed different patterns of transcriptional responses. LAB-exposed oysters showed lower level of biological responses than the oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Despite the ability of the oyster C. gigas to accumulate LABs (28-fold), the data indicate that these contaminants are not the cause for the transcriptional responses observed in oysters exposed to sanitary sewage. Possibly, the biological changes observed in the sanitary sewage-exposed oysters are associated with the presence of other contaminants, which might have caused synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. The results show that FABP-like and GST-ω-like messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have a rapid response in tissues of oyster C. gigas exposed to sanitary sewage, suggesting a possible protective response and a role in maintaining homeostasis of these organisms.

  1. Development of a fibre-optic sensor system for the continuous monitoring of a sanitary landfill for low-halogenated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Baumann, T.; Gahr, A.; Mueller-Ackermann, E.; Panne, U.; Niessner, R.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a mobile fibre-optic sensor system for monitoring the ground water aquifer in the area of a landfill. Not only are the analytical methods to be developed further; but the system's performance in the field is to be tested as well. As a large part of knowledge on the long-time safety of mineral sealing systems of sanitary landfills derives from damage events, a measuring area was additionally established at the Augsburg-Nord landfill. This measuring area is to permit monitoring of the sealing also during operation and reclamation. Within the measuring area and in the environs of the landfill, both conventional sensors for temperature, conductibility, etc., and the specially developed fibre-optic sensors for on-line in-situ monitoring will be used. (orig.) [de

  2. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  3. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2:188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Pará, 1720, Bloco 2T, Jardim Umuarama, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902, Brasil. E-mail: keniacarrijo@ famev.ufu.br To compare the concordance of the diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP by post-mortem Sanitary Inspection with other methods (histophatology and immunohistochemistry - IHC, were used lung tissue samples from 100 pigs slaughtered under sanitary inspection, and 50 of these had macroscopic lesions suggestive of PEP and 50 had no such lesions. These were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed by routine procedures for paraffin embedding and IHC technique for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using a monoespecific polyclonal antibody. The study demonstrating that there is concordance between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with histophatology, between the diagnosis of Sanitary Inspection with IHC and histophatology with IHC. It can be conclude that when the lung has gross lesions of PEP, the probability the result is positive to M. hyopneumoniae by IHC and the presence of microscopic lesions increases. Thus, the microscopic diagnosis for PEP is feasible because it is associated to the other, so that the diagnosis given by the officials of Sanitary Inspection in slaughterhouses is not wrong; the macroscopic diagnosis is therefore a valid method for the diagnosis of PEP, it being understood this is not to say that the detection of M. hyopneumoniae.

  4. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  5. The process of biosorption of heavy metals in bioreactors loaded with sanitary sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Morais Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work on the process of biosorption of nickel and chromium in an ascendant continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor of sanitary sewage sludge was conducted in a search for solutions to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the absorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of the heavy metals studied at about 9.0 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of over 90.0% for the two metals. Chemometric study results demonstrated that 20 days of the experimental system function were sufficient for achieving the maximum efficiency of sorption of the heavy metals studied by the sanitary sewage sludge employed.

  6. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994

  7. Hygienic assessment of habitat adverse social and sanitary factors in the Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ushakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The materials on health status, socio-economic, sanitary living conditions of the population of the Altai Krai have been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the conditions of life and health outcomes in urban and rural settlements’ population has been performed. The estimation of health indicators’ correlation has been carried out in children of age group 0-1 years, children of age group 0-14 years, teens of age group 15-17 years and adults of age group over 18 years, depending on the type (urban or rural of settlement with indicators of social and sanitary environmental factors. Regression equations for the health outcomes of different age groups on the level of hygiene and social environmental factors are set, regional critical (reference values are justified. The hygienic assessment of unfavorable social, health and sanitation of the environment on the health of the population in the Altai Krai is provided.

  8. Relativistic electron influence on sanitary-model microorganisms and antibiotics in model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.S.; Berezhna, I.V.; Kovpik, O.F.; Babych, E.M.; Voliansky, Yu.L.; Sklar, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    A series of the investigations of the electron beam influence on sanitary-model test cultures and antibiotics in model solutions has been carried out. For each of the test objects, the authors have found the boundary doses of the absorbed radiation. The higher doses cause the sharp increase in the bactericidal influence, which becomes complete. The sanitary-bactericidal indices of the water samples remain sable during 6 days. The samples of antibiotics in various concentrations (from 100 UA) have been irradiated. It is proved that the substratum processing by the beam (in the regimes 30 kGy) causes diminution and complete neutralization of the antibacterial activity in all probes of the samples

  9. Cleaner mites: sanitary mutualism in the miniature ecosystem of neotropical bee nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biani, Natalia B; Mueller, Ulrich G; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-01

    Cleaning symbioses represent classic models of mutualism, and some bee mites are thought to perform cleaning services for their hosts in exchange for suitable environments for reproduction and dispersal. These mutual benefits, however, have not been rigorously demonstrated. We tested the sanitary role of bee mites by correlating mite loads with fungal contamination in natural nests of Megalopta genalis and Megalopta ecuadoria and by experimentally manipulating mite loads in artificial cells with developing brood. Field observations revealed significant correlations between the presence of mites and the absence of fungi inside the brood cells, as well as between the absence of mites and increased bee mortality. Likewise, experimental brood cells with mites have fewer fungal colonies than do cells without mites. Field observations and experimental manipulations, therefore, provide clear evidence of the sanitary effect of mites in nests of Megalopta bees. This bee-mite association constitutes one of the few examples of terrestrial cleaning mutualisms.

  10. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  11. Frequency of anti hepatitis C virus antibodies amongst sanitary workers in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.Z.; Razzaq, K.; Ansari, J.K.; Niazzi, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti Hepatitis C Virus antibodies in sanitary workers at Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to identify additional risk factors in them for hepatitis C infection. Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Department of medicine, Military Hospital (M.H.), Rawalpindi, Pakistan over six months. Patients and Methods: All sanitary workers working at Military Hospital Rawalpindi were tested for anti HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA. Results: Six percent of the study population was found to be positive for anti HCV antibodies. Conclusion: The frequency of anti HCV antibodies is fairly high in sanitary workers, working in this tertiary care hospital studied. HCV infection is more frequent in those sanitary workers who have longer duration of service. (author)

  12. Do sanitary ceramic workers have a worse presentation of chest radiographs or pulmonary function tests than other ceramic workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Tsao

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that sanitary ceramic workers were at a similar risk to other ceramic workers for moderate to severe silicosis when older age and longer working duration were accounted for.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF SANITARY-HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTILAYER POLYMER FILMS USED FOR VACUUM PACKAGING MODIFIED BY NATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research works related to investigation of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of multilayer polymer film materials where the inner layer contacting directly with food product is modified by native antimicrobial components.

  14. Veterinary-sanitary supervision of food from radiation-hygienic aspect in border crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.; Vicentijevic, M.; Kljajic, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we presented the result of radiation control for imported food under the veterinary-sanitary supervision with radiation-hygienic aspect. The activity level of 137 Cs was from background to 18,8 Bq/kg and determined by gamma spectrometry. We discussed about results because 137 Cs relevance for radiation-hygienic certification and some samples of food was not satisfied maximum permitted levels. (author)

  15. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Otacílio Antunes Santana; José Imanã Encinas; Rodrigo Studart Corrêa; Antônio Felipe Couto Júnior

    2008-01-01

    This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB) on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrat...

  16. Biogas recuperation in sanitary landfills; Recuperacao de biogas em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luiz Mario Queiroz [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This work shoes a retrospective about recovering biogas activity in sanitary landfill, where in the genesis of methane is emphasized. Also, a conceptual review was made and discussed focusing the technological aspects of the landfill methods. Further, two important aspects of the genesis of methane were discussed: the enhancement mechanisms for acceleration of the formation of methane and the production of biological input from leachate in landfill. (author) 36 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Flooding the sanitary city : Planning discourse and the materiality of urban sanitation in Hanoi

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, S.

    2016-01-01

    Urban water flows are constitutive elements of Hanoi’s morphology. Regular floods across the city illustrate that Hanoi’s amphibious character is a central impediment to the installa- tion of a ‘dry and sanitary city’, the global modernist ideal of a separation of urban waste- water flows from public space through their redirection into large underground networks. Currently, the first attempt by the city government to construct a citywide sewerage network since the colonial period is taking p...

  18. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Salimi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Afsane Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS) based on the Oleckno index method (OIM). Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Resul...

  19. Discussion of 10 CRF 20 rules for waste of effluents in sanitary sewerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.

    1986-12-01

    An interpretation of the Code of Federal Regulations, volume 10 part 20 (10 CFR 20) from Nuclear Regulatory Commission is proposed, aiming at his easier use in waste of radioactive liquid effluents to the environment, by sanitary sewerage. The study is based on recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICPR 2) and International Atomic Energy Agency (Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection). (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Kênia Machado de; André,Maria Cláudia Porfirio; Campos,Maria Raquel Hidalgo; Díaz,Mário Ernesto Piscoya

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. Th...

  1. Proposal for the reinforcement of the environmental sanitary safety; Proposition pour un renforcement de la securite sanitaire environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegrzulka, O; Aschieri, A [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    Facing the context of the public reliance crisis, the sanitary risks bound to the environment became more and more important. This report asked by the first Minister of France, takes stock on the government policy in this domain and the today institutions. The first part defines the problematic of the sanitary risks bound to the environment, the second one shows the non adapted answer offered by the actual government and the last one proposes new procedures and actions.

  2. Mineralogy and microstructure of hydrated phases during the pozzolanic reaction in the sanitary ware waste/Ca(OH)2 system

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, César; Sáez del Bosque, Isabel F.; Asensio, Eloy; Frías, Moisés; Sánchez de Rojas, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite technological improvements in its production process, the sanitary ware industry inevitably generates a certain volume of discards, products whose quality is not up to standard. The present paper is the first to scientifically explore claybased sanitary ware waste (SW) with a view to its valorization as an addition in the design of new, more environmentally friendly cements. The focus is on characterization of the waste and its pozzolanicity, as well as the struct...

  3. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site

  4. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  5. Conceptual design report, 200 Area sanitary sewer system: Project 96L-EWL-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Project L-116 will install an integrated sanitary sewer system in the 200 Area. This new system will connect existing sewer systems for facilities that have a foreseeable future, provide capacity and routing for future facilities, and install new septic sewer systems for existing facilities that cannot be feasibly connected to the new sewer system and have a mission that will extend beyond the year 2000. Project L-116 will construct a sanitary sewer collection, treatment, and disposal system for facilities in the 200-East and -West Areas and adjacent areas located on the 200 Area plateau. The existing septic systems will be abandoned or decommissioned in accordance with applicable Washington State and local codes and regulations. The conceptual design for the sanitary sewer system is designed around population forecasts of 5,000 people for 200-West Area and 9,000 people for 200-East Area. The definitive design will be based on the latest forecast populations at the time definitive design is initiated

  6. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  7. [Street food: analysis of hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Giovanna Carbonera; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Andrade, Anderson Assunção; Alves, Luciene

    2015-08-01

    The consumption of street food is an economical and practical alternative for the population. However, concerns regarding the safety of these foods are increasing. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the street food trade in Uberaba in the State of Minas Gerais. For this purpose, 30 street vending sites were evaluated using a structured questionnaire and microbiological analysis of food handlers' hands and food contact recipients and surfaces. The findings showed low adequacy of street food regarding hand hygiene and food contact surfaces. With respect to surfaces, the results for mesophilic aerobic microorganisms revealed that only 23.3% had satisfactory sanitary conditions. The level of contamination of hands by fecal thermotolerant coliforms and/or Coagulase positive Staphylococci was unsatisfactory in approximately 47% of food handlers. The conclusion drawn is that the hygienic and sanitary conditions of food handlers in Uberaba are poor. It is therefore necessary to adopt effective and permanent training programs on food safety for food handlers urgently.

  8. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  9. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  10. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  11. Effects of supplement with sanitary landfill leachate in gas exchange of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Junior, Francisco H; Freitas, Valdineia S; Mesquita, Rosilene O; Braga, Brennda B; Barbosa, Rifandreo M; Martins, Kaio; Gondim, Franklin A

    2017-10-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is one of the major problems arising from disposal of urban waste. Sanitary landfill leachate may, however, have use in agriculture. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze initial plant growth and gas exchange in sunflower seedlings supplemented with sanitary landfill leachate and subjected to drought stress through variables of root fresh mass (RFM), shoot fresh mass (SFM), total fresh mass (TFM), relative chlorophyll content (CL), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), net photosynthetic rate (A), ratio of internal to external CO 2 concentration (Ci/Ca),water use efficiency (EUA), instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), and electron transport rate (ETR). The experimental design was a completely randomized 2 (irrigated and non-irrigated) × 4 (sand, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 organic fertilizer, sand + 100 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate, and sand + 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate) factorial with five replicates. Under drought stress conditions, leachate treatment supplemented with 100 kg N ha -1 exhibited higher plant fresh weights than those of the treatment containing 150 kg N ha -1 . Increases in fresh mass in plant treatments supplemented with 100 and 150 kg N ha -1 sanitary landfill leachate were related to higher photosynthetic rates.

  12. Food Safety and Sanitary Practices of Selected Hotels in Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis of Proposed Enhancement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province as basis of proposed enhancement measures. The study utilized descriptive method to describe food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province with a total of 8 hotels (256 respondents. Purposive sampling was used in the study. The questionnaires were designed using the provision of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, validated and finalized to come up with legitimate results. The study showed that there were eight (8 hotel respondents classified as two, three, four star with considerable years of experience and adequate number of employees. The hotels demonstrated the food safety and sanitary practices always in the areas of restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service. The significant pair-wise comparison for restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service shows that 2 star hotels greatly differs. The researcher recommends that the management should maintain high standard of food safety and sanitary practices among its staff, upgrade the food safety and sanitary practices for food safety accreditation, continuous training of the hotel managers/employees on food safety and sanitary practices.

  13. Use of germicidal lamps in the disinfection of sanitary wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of germicidal lamps in the tertiary treatment of sewage to control pathogens. The performance of the photochemical reactor used in the tests was monitored by microbiological analyses to quantify E. coli (bacteria indicator, C. perfringens (protozoa indicator, coliphages (virus indicator. The experiments were performed with effluent from an UASB reactor installed at the WTP- USP São Carlos campus subjected to an aerated submerged biological filter and a photochemical reactor with radiation UV at 254 nm. The results showed that the indicators coliphages and E. coli showed the least resistance to UV radiation reaching removal from 1.70 to 3.90 log and 1.60 to 5.20 log, respectively. On the other hand, the indicator C. perfringens was more resistant to the effect of germicidal lamps reaching values between 0.0 (no inactivation and 1.30 log. For SST concentrations greater than 100.0 mg.L-1, the effect of the germicidal lamps became less pronounced. However, in practice it was possible to notice significant results in tests with TSS concentrations of 135.0 mg.L-1. The experimental approach proved the usefulness of the combined method for inactivating pathogens commonly found in domestic sewage. Besides meeting the standards established by the Brazilian regulation, the final effluent is in agreement with the guidelines defined by WHO. This allows the reuse of the final effluent for unrestricted irrigation, although complementary examination must be performed.

  14. Biological and sanitary effects of non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugere, H.; Hours, M.; Seze, R. de; Bernier, M.; Letertre, Th.; Aurengo, A.; Burais, N.; Bedja, M.; Merckel, O.; Decat, G.; Lagroye, I.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier de Gannes, F.; Aurengo, A.; Souques, M.; Cesarini, J.P.; Lagroye, I.; Aurengo, A.; Cesarini, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this day was to encourage the collaborations, especially multidisciplinary, on the biological, clinical, epidemiological and dosimetry aspects. The different presentations are as follow: the magneto reception among animals; the health and radio frequencies foundation; expo-metry to radio frequency fields: dosemeters evaluation; the electro-optical probes as tool of hyper frequency dosimetry; characterisation of emissions produced by the low consumption fluo-compact lamps in the perspective of persons exposure; strong and weak points of epidemiology; numerical dosimetry in low frequency magnetic and/or electric field; exposure of the French population to the 50 Hz magnetic field: first results for the Ile-de-france and Rhone alpes areas; characterisation of the exposure to the very low frequency magnetic fields in the town of Champlan; measurement of the residential exposure of children to the extremely low frequency, very low frequency and radiofrequency (E.L.F., V.L.F. and R.F.) fields and modeling of the high voltage magnetic field face to the child leukemia; effects of radiofrequency signals of wireless communications on the young animals; study of combined effects of 2.45 GHz microwaves and a known mutagen on DNA by two different approaches; effects on the oxidizing stress of nervous cells exposure to an (enhanced data rates for GSM evolution) E.D.G.E. signal; is environmental epidemiology still a science; cardiac implants and exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields in occupational environment; the tanning by artificial UV radiation: norms and legislation; mobiles phones, Wi Fi and other wireless communications; effects on health of 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields; natural and artificial ultraviolet radiations: a proved risk. (N.C.)

  15. Climate change convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Principles that guide Canada's Green Plan with respect to global warming are outlined. These include respect for nature, meeting environmental goals in an economically beneficial manner, efficient use of resources, shared responsibilities, federal leadership, and informed decision making. The policy side of the international Framework Convention on Climate Change is then discussed and related to the Green Plan. The Convention has been signed by 154 nations and has the long-term objective of stabilizing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at levels that prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Some of the Convention's commitments toward achieving that objective are only applicable to the developed countries. Five general areas of commitment are emissions reductions, assistance to developing countries, reporting requirements, scientific and socioeconomic research, and education. The most controversial area is that of limiting emissions. The Convention has strong measures for public accountability and is open to future revisions. Canada's Green Plan represents one country's response to the Convention commitments, including a national goal to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000

  16. An in vitro Evaluation of Friction Characteristics of Conventional Stainless Steel and Self-ligating Stainless Steel Brackets with different Dimensions of Archwires in Various Bracket-archwire Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, K; Sandbhor, Shailesh; Rajasekaran, U B; Sam, George; Ramees, M Mohamed; Abraham, Esther A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to compare the frictional attributes of stainless steel conventional brackets and self-ligating stainless steel brackets with different dimensions of archwires. The test was carried with two sets of maxillary brackets: (1) Conventional stainless steel (Victory Series), (2) stainless steel self-ligating (SmartClip) without first premolar brackets. Stainless steel, nickel-titanium (NiTi), and beta-Ti which are the types of orthodontic wire alloys were tested in this study. To monitor the frictional force, a universal testing machine (Instron 33R 4467) that comprises 10 kg tension load cell was assigned on a range of 1 kg and determined from 0 to 2 kg, which allows moving of an archwire along the brackets. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the difference between groups. To analyze the statistical difference between the two groups, Student's t-test was used. For Victory Series in static friction, p-value was 0.946 and for kinetic friction it was 0.944; at the same time for SmartClip, the p value for static and kinetic frictional resistance was 0.497 and 0.518 respectively. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference between the NiTi and stainless steel archwires. It is concluded that when compared with conventional brackets with stainless steel ligatures, self-ligating brackets can produce significantly less friction during sliding. Beta-Ti archwires expressed high amount of frictional resistance and the stainless steel archwires comprise low frictional resistance among all the archwire materials. In orthodontics, frictional resistance has always had a major role. Its ability to impair tooth movement leads to the need for higher forces to move the teeth and it extends the treatment time which results in loss of posterior anchorage. Friction in orthodontics is related with sliding mechanics when a wire is moving through one or a series of bracket slots.

  17. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  18. Tritium and OSPAR convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The missions and the organisation of the OSPAR convention on protection of the NE Atlantic marine environment are given. The OSPAR strategy for the radioactive substances is stated. The results of work programme of the radioactive Substances committee are described and the consensus reached by contracting parties on the appropriate arrangements for this radionuclide is presented. (authors)

  19. Revised C++ coding conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Callot, O

    2001-01-01

    This document replaces the note LHCb 98-049 by Pavel Binko. After a few years of practice, some simplification and clarification of the rules was needed. As many more people have now some experience in writing C++ code, their opinion was also taken into account to get a commonly agreed set of conventions

  20. Global climate convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-01-01

    The effort of negotiate a global convention on climate change is one of mankind's great endeavours - and a challenge to economists and development planners. The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One the major tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), between the industrial and the developing countries. The results and proposals could be among the most far-reaching ever for socio-economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they will be on fundamental global changes in energy policies, forestry, transport, technology, and on development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Some of these aspects of a climate convention, particularly the distributional options and consequences for the North-South relations, are addressed in this chapter. (orig.)

  1. An effective and comprehensive model for optimal rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, António Freire; Barros, Luís Tiago; Santos, Joana; Temido, Jorge Santos

    2018-01-15

    In the field of rehabilitation of separate sanitary sewer systems, a large number of technical, environmental, and economic aspects are often relevant in the decision-making process, which may be modelled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Examples are those related with the operation and assessment of networks, optimization of structural, hydraulic, sanitary, and environmental performance, rehabilitation programmes, and execution works. In particular, the cost of investment, operation and maintenance needed to reduce or eliminate Infiltration from the underground water table and Inflows of storm water surface runoff (I/I) using rehabilitation techniques or related methods can be significantly lower than the cost of transporting and treating these flows throughout the lifespan of the systems or period studied. This paper presents a comprehensive I/I cost-benefit approach for rehabilitation that explicitly considers all elements of the systems and shows how the approximation is incorporated as an objective function in a general evolutionary multi-objective optimization model. It takes into account network performance and wastewater treatment costs, average values of several input variables, and rates that can reflect the adoption of different predictable or limiting scenarios. The approach can be used as a practical and fast tool to support decision-making in sewer network rehabilitation in any phase of a project. The fundamental aspects, modelling, implementation details and preliminary results of a two-objective optimization rehabilitation model using a genetic algorithm, with a second objective function related to the structural condition of the network and the service failure risk, are presented. The basic approach is applied to three real world cases studies of sanitary sewerage systems in Coimbra and the results show the simplicity, suitability, effectiveness, and usefulness of the approximation implemented and of the objective function proposed

  2. Municipal solid wastes (RSU) treatment in land filled controlled: Of its sanitary problems to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urzola C, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Excessive world wastes production generates constant preoccupations with relation to its management. The methods of classic elimination as sanitary landfill controlled as compared to controvertible incineration and gasification plants as well as expectations created in connection with practices of recycling, its are intensive discussions motive between town halls, technical specialists, ecologists and general public. What is certain is that wastes in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today the wastes are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the recycling line because they see an excellent business. All methods of residues elimination produce at same time other wastes. Solid nature wastes generally end in the landfill and semi-liquid waste are dehydrated with same objective. In the present Thesis, without intending to say that the landfill processing will be the better option, is outlined the form of optimizing the utilization of same. It's demonstrated that landfill, furthermore to fulfil its sanitary function, are converted into an energetic alternative with utilization of flammable gas generated in them, something which represents an interesting value added if is converted into source of welfare for social and economically kernels, as happens in peripheries of the sanitary landfill at large Latin American cities. Of other side are considered principal aspects that intervene in methane gas generation and quality and utilization alternatives. Finally it is made emphasis in environmental situation at European and international level about the landfill gases, how is outlined greenhouse effect topic, what are environmental actions for year 2000 and are related some biogas utilization experiences at Europe

  3. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  4. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  5. [The primary medical sanitary care and characteristics of drinking water supply of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, V S; Saurina, O S

    2016-01-01

    The article considers characteristics of organization ofprimary medical sanitary care on territory with carcinogenic risks related to drinking water supply as exemplified by the Orlovskaia oblast. The importance of registration by local health authorities the sources of permanent chemical pollution of drinking water. The analysis of the State program of the Orlovskaia oblast “The development of health care in the Orlovskaia oblast in 2013-2020". The necessity of additional inclusion of issue related to healthy drinking water supply of population to prevent development of malignant neoplasms and prevalence of oncologic morbidity on oblast territory.

  6. Realization of sanitary requirements concerning standardization of rare radioactive gas effluents at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshenko, G.G.; Panchenko, S.V.; Chudajkin, O.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is aimed at determination of ways for practical realization of main sanitary requirements concerning environment and population protection under NPP operation. The idea of the requirements is reduced to not increasing permissible limits for radiation doses, minimum irradiation of population and decrease of unjustified irradiation of personnel. The given problem may be fully solved only in case of studying real chacteristics of operating reactors, taking into account statistic nature of effluents of inert radioactive gases (IRG). Methods of developing a system of working and reference standards of IRG effluents at NPPs are suggested. The considered approach may be realized in practice as the All-Union state on branch standards

  7. Project of law relative to the sanitary consequences of French nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    In order to make easy the indemnifications and to include the persons having participate to nuclear weapons tests (Sahara and French Polynesia) and populations leaving in the concerned areas, the project of law relative to the repair of sanitary consequences of nuclear weapons tests proposes to create a right to integral repair of prejudices for the persons suffering of a radioinduced disease coming from these tests. The American example and the British example are given for comparison. The modalities of financing are detailed as well as the social economic and administrative impacts. (N.C.)

  8. Environmental review report of an electrical generation facility to be located at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.; Ross, J.; Mountain, D.; Kahal, M.

    1998-05-01

    The Bentech Group, Inc. (Bentech) applied for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) to construct and operate an electric generating system at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill in Laytonsville, Maryland. The focus of the environmental review is to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed electric generation system to air quality, noise, terrestrial, ecological, ground water, surface water, socioeconomic, aesthetic, and cultural resources. This document presents the results of the environmental review analysis, and includes the State's recommended license conditions for operating the electric generating system, which the PSC incorporated into the CPCN

  9. Environmental and sanitary evaluation of electro-nuclear sites: methodological research and application to prospective scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the radioactive wastes disposal of the law of 1991, an exchange forum constituted by ANDRA, CEA, COGEMA, EdF, Framatome-ANP and IRSN implemented an environmental and sanitary evaluation of the different methods of radioactive wastes management. This report presents the six studies scenarios, the proposed methodology, the application to the six scenarios and the analysis of the results which showed the efficiency of the different recycling options towards the electronuclear cycle impacts limitation, and a technical conclusion illustrated by improvement possibilities of the methodology. (A.L.B.)

  10. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS)

  11. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  12. Aspects regarding the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of certain dental medicine cabinets in Iasi County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernei, E R; Maxim, Dana Cristiana; Indrei, L L

    2013-01-01

    This baseline study aims to find out the evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets through the verification of certain hygienic aspects. The study conducted consists in monitoring the hygienic/sanitary conditions at the level of 68 dental medicine cabinets (40 private cabinets and 28 school/university dental cabinets in Iasi county), using sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions adapted from the control sheets of existing dental medicine cabinets at the level of DSP (Public Health Department) Iasi. The sheets for the assessment of the hygienic/sanitary conditions were evaluated by a specialized team and the results were i llustrated in the specific charts. At the level of all the dental cabinets the study revealed nonconformities regarding the means to carry out cleaning, disinfection operations, including the management of perilous waste, the control of medical personnel. An optimization of the hygienic-sanitary conditions at the level of dental medicine cabinets is still necessary, through participation to the activity of personnel training, who is directly involved in dental medical assistance.

  13. Design of concrete waste basin in Integrated Temporarily Sanitary Landfill (ITSL) in Siosar, Karo Regency, Indonesia on supporting clean environment and sustainable fertilizers for farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.; Siahaan, J.; Tarigan, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    A new settlement in Siosar village of Karo Regency has been developed for people whose villages have been completely destroyed by the prolong eruptions of Sinabung. An integrated temporarily sanitary landfill (ITSL) was built there to support the new living environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the organic waste decomposing in order to improve the design of the conventional concrete waste basin installed in the ITSL. The study was last from May until August 2016. The used design was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in which organic waste was treated using decomposer with five replications in three composter bins. Decomposting process lasted for three weeks. Research parameters were pH, temperature, waste reduction in weight, C/N, and organic fertilizer production(%). The results of waste compost as follows : pH was 9.45, ultimate temperature was 31.6°C, C/N was in the range of 10.5-12.4, waste reduction was 53% and organic fertilizer production was 47%. Based on the decomposting process and the analysis, it is recommended that the conventional concrete waste basin should be divided into three colums and each column would be filled with waste when previous column is fulled. It is predicted that when the third column is fully occupied then the waste in the first column already become a sustainable fertilizer.

  14. Manado Convention Centre (Megastructures)

    OpenAIRE

    Anggianto, Rio M; Rate, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Proyek Manado Convention Center ini pada dasarnya merupakan wadah atau sarana komunikasi antara dua pihak dengan penerapkan berbagai metode komunikasi langsung tatap muka baik itu dari perorangan terhadap kelompok, kelompok terhadap kelompok atau kelompok terhadap masyarakat. Dan pada era kini hal ini menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang dianganggap penting. Kota Manado seringkali menjadi tuan rumah suatu konverensi dengan jumlah peserta yang tergolong besar karena cakupannya sampai manca negara....

  15. The conventional quark picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de

  16. Modification of radiosensitivity of mammalian cells by means of hyperthermia and chemical agent. Coordinated programme on improvement of cancer therapy by the combination of treatment by conventional radiation and physical or chemical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, O.

    1984-11-01

    The effect of the treatment of the cultured mammalian cells with a relatively new anti-cancer drug teniposide (VM26), radiation (4 Gy), hyperthermia (42 deg. C and 45 deg. C) and caffeine, in various combinations, has been studied. The following conclusions can be drawn from the data obtained: The cultured mammalian cells respond to the anti-cancer drug VM26 treatment in a dose and time dependent manner. Significant potentiation of cell killing was demonstrated when they are exposed simultaneously to VM26 and hyperthermia. Post-treatment incubation of the cells in non-toxic concentration of caffeine (2 mM) has produced a marked potentiation of the lethal effect, indicating that caffeine interferes with the repair processes in these cells. Combination of VM26, hyperthermia and caffeine produced a maximum killing effect compared to VM26 treatment only. When the cells are exposed to initial (90 min. at 42 deg. C or 40 min. at 45 deg. C) and subsequent hyperthermia (60 min. at 42 deg. C or 60 min. at 45 deg. C) the thermotolerance will develop depending on the degree of initial and subsequent temperature. The combination of hyperthermia with irradiation results in a potentiation of the effect of treatment compared to the treatment with only irradiation or hyperthermia. Maximum killing of the cells will be obtained when irradiation is applied immediately after hyperthermia. The results obtained should be regarded as useful in case of clinical application of the tested agents

  17. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  18. Durum Wheat in Conventional and Organic Farming: Yield Amount and Pasta Quality in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five durum wheat cultivars were grown in a Mediterranean area (Southern Italy under conventional and organic farming with the aim to evaluate agronomic, technological, sensory, and sanitary quality of grains and pasta. The cultivar Matt produced the best pasta quality under conventional cropping system, while the quality parameters evaluated were unsatisfactory under organic farming. The cultivar Saragolla showed the best yield amount and pasta quality in all the experimental conditions, thus proving to be the cultivar more adapt to organic farming. In all the tested experimental conditions, nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON occurrence was very low and the other mycotoxins evaluated were completely absent. These data confirm the low risk of mycotoxin contamination in the Mediterranean climate conditions. Finally, it has been possible to produce high-quality pasta in Southern Italy from durum wheat grown both in conventional and organic farming.

  19. Estudo da estabilidade de melões desidratados obtidos por desidratação osmótica seguida de secagem convencional Stability evaluation in dehydrated melons obtained by a combination of osmotic dehydration and conventional drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa da Silva Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade de melões desidratados obtidos por desidratação osmótica à pressão atmosférica (760 mmHg e a vácuo parcial (660 mmHg seguida de secagem convencional. A estabilidade dos produtos foi avaliada segundo suas características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, durante 180 dias de armazenamento, à temperatura ambiente. Ambos os processos resultaram em boa estabilidade físico-química e microbiológica dos produtos que mostraram boa aceitação durante todo o período de armazenamento.The objective of the present work was to evaluate storage stability of melons processed by a previous osmotic dehydration at atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg or partial vacuum (660 mmHg followed by conventional drying. The stability was assessed monthly by means of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial methods, during 180 days of storage at room temperature. Both the processes resulted in good physico-chemical and microbiological stability of the products, which presented good acceptability during all the storage time.

  20. About the tasks of the state sanitary-epidemiological service in public health protection and sanitary-epidemiological well-being of population and environment in case of radiation emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perminova, G.S.; Tuchkevich, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper has stated the role of the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Service in the controlled radiation-emergency process on large, medium and small scale. The study reviews the phase character of radiation-emergency process, some typical features of their contents and the actions of the State Sanitary-Epidemiological Service, including non-radiation hygienic aspects; the characteristic features of supervision in case of small accidents are pointed out. Several scientific and practical problems on the raised subject which regarded to be urgent in the opinion of the authors are offered for consideration. 13 refs

  1. [Pesticide exposure and its repercussion in the health of sanitary agents in the State of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estelita Pereira; Lopes, Suziy de Matos Bandeira; Amorim, Maria Iracema Mariano de; Araújo, Laura Helena Silva; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Maia, Evanira Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Sanitary agents are the most exposed ones to the effects of insecticides in eradication campaigns since its preparation until its application inside and outside houses. The lack of protection equipment and misinformation on how to use the material properly increase the risk of intoxication. The aim of this work was to analyze the occupational history of vector control sanitary agents in Ceará State, Brazil and its effects on their health. Individual recorded interviews were done with 10 agents who verbally described their life history. The content of these interviews were analyzed through the following categories: agent profile, endemic controls, work conditions, risks and health changes. Health risk situations were described from acute and chronic intoxication to problems with alcoholism. The research showed that sanitary agents have been disrespected as human beings as well as their labor rights, showing negligence by their employers.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  3. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  4. Analysis of glycerin waste in A-Area sanitary treatment facility material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    TNX has a large supply of 55 gallon drums containing pure glycerin and glycerin with additives. The glycerin drums were procured to simulate the glass stream in a pilot-scale melter process at TNX. Since the glycerin was not used for this process, TNX is looking at disposing the material in a sanitary waste treatment facility onsite. The effect of adding the contents of the drums to sewage bacteria was tested. A drum of pure glycerin and a drum of glycerin mixed with lithium chloride were tested. The test consisted of mixing sanitary sludge material with the glycerin material. The purpose of the test was to determine if the glycerin impacted the aerobic bacterial population. The bacterial densities were determined by taking samples from the sludge/glycerin mixtures and using aerobic plate count methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) levels were measured before and after testing. The results indicate that the cell density of the aerobic bacteria increased with the addition of glycerin and the glycerin mixture and the TOC removal rate was different for all tests. Disposal of glycerin in the wastewater treatment facilities should pose no problems. Additional testing and analysis of the mixed samples should be done before its disposal in a waste water treatment facility

  5. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999

  6. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Machado de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. The study variables were classified as compliant or noncompliant with the regulations passed by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: Noncompliances were found in all study food services, especially with respect to food service conditions, and the wiring and plumbing in the food preparation area. In this section, 62.7 to 95.9% of the food services did not comply with nine out of the thirteen study items. The main problems were: poorly cleaned external areas, deteriorated walls, floors, ceilings, roofs, drains, and roof gutters; and unscreened doors and windows, allowing the entrance of insects; among others. The main noncompliance regarding processes and procedures was the uncontrolled temperature of the ready-to-eat foods. CONCLUSION: The conditions of the study food services are unsatisfactory for the production of safe meals, possibly compromising meal quality, food safety, and the effectiveness of the School Food Program.

  7. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  8. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  9. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  10. Sanitary landfill leachate as a source of nutrients on the initial growth of sunflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. Nunes Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under different concentrations of sanitary landfill leachate, considering the feasibility of its use as source of nutrients for agricultural production. Biometric and vigor variables were analyzed through the measurements of collar diameter, shoot height, number of leaves and shoot and root fresh and dry matters, from January to February 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme: five leachate concentrations (0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg N ha-1 x four harvest periods (14, 21, 25 and 29 days after sowing, with five replicates each containing two plants. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression, and the results of the last harvest (29 DAS were compared by Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05. The use of sanitary landfill leachate increased all analyzed variables in sunflower plants when compared to the control plants (without leachate, especially in the treatment of 100 kg N ha-1. There was no inhibitory effect of the leachate on the initial growth of sunflower seedlings under adopted experimental conditions.

  11. Update summary of the 1991 discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS) report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1991 Y-12 Plant report, a flow study of the Y-12 Plant sanitary sewer collection system has been completed by the Y-12 Plant staff (Hanzelka and Maguire, 1993). Additional data has been obtained by the Y-12 Plant and the City of Oak Ridge (COR, 1994). COR developed limits on radionuclide concentrations in sludges used for land application (Stetar, 1993). Martin Marietta Energy Systems has provided recommendations to the Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the impacts of sludge land farming operations on the ORR (Frye, 1992). The DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (USDOE, 1993) completed an audit of activities related to radiological contamination of the COR sewer system due to DOE operations. In addition COR is currently developing limits on radionuclide releases for all industrial customers to be applied through the permitting process. In 1994, a new sanitary sewer monitoring station was installed and began operation at the Y-12 Plant to determine releases specifically from the Y-12 Plant. Previously, estimates were based on mass balance calculations using data from the City Monitoring Station which monitors Union Valley and Y-12 Plant releases. The purpose of this report is to update the 1991 Y-12 Plant study taking into account current data and information

  12. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  13. Combined early dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT and conventional whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT provide one-stop imaging for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Quan-Shi; Zhou, Wen-Lan; Tian, Ying; Li, Hong-Sheng; Ji, Yun-Hai; Lv, Liang

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that conventional (18)F-FDG PET/CT (whole-body static (18)F-FDG PET/CT, WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT) has a low detection rate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We prospectively assessed the role of early dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT (ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT) and WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT in detecting HCC, and we quantified the added value of ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT to WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Twenty-two patients with 37 HCC tumors (HCCs) who underwent both a liver ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT (performed simultaneously with a 5.5 MBq/kg (18)F-FDG bolus injection and continued for 240 s) and a WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled in the study. The WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT and ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were positive in 56.7% (21/37) and 78.4% (29/37) HCCs, respectively (PPET/CT in conjunction with WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT (one-stop (18)F-FDG PET/CT) improved the positive detection rates of WB and ED (18)F-FDG PET/CT alone from 56.7% and 78.4% to 91.9% (34/37) (P0.05, respectively). One-stop (18)F-FDG PET/CT appears to be useful to improve WB (18)F-FDG PET/CT for HCC detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The health of hospitals and lessons from history: public health and sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fealy, Gerard M; McNamara, Martin S; Geraghty, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to examine, critically, 19th century hospital sanitary reform with reference to theories about infection and contagion. In the nineteenth century, measures to control epidemic diseases focused on providing clean water, removing waste and isolating infected cases. These measures were informed by the ideas of sanitary reformers like Chadwick and Nightingale, and hospitals were an important element of sanitary reform. Informed by the paradigmatic tradition of social history, the study design was a historical analysis of public health policy. Using the methods of historical research, documentary primary sources, including official reports and selected hospital archives and related secondary sources, were consulted. Emerging theories about infection were informing official bodies like the Board of Superintendence of Dublin Hospitals in their efforts to improve hospital sanitation. The Board secured important reforms in hospital sanitation, including the provision of technically efficient sanitary infrastructure. Public health measures to control epidemic infections are only as effective as the state of knowledge of infection and contagion and the infrastructure to support sanitary measures. Today, public mistrust about the safety of hospitals is reminiscent of that of 150 years ago, although the reasons are different and relate to a fear of contracting antimicrobial-resistant infections. A powerful historical lesson from this study is that resistance to new ideas can delay progress and improved sanitary standards can allay public mistrust. In reforming hospital sanitation, policies and regulations were established--including an inspection body to monitor and enforce standards--the benefits of which provide lessons that resonate today. Such practices, especially effective independent inspection, could be adapted for present-day contexts and re-instigated where they do not exist. History has much to offer contemporary policy development and practice reform and

  15. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  16. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  17. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  18. Conventional magnets. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of conventional, steel-cored, direct-current magnets are discussed. Laplace's equation and the associated cylindrical harmonic solutions in two dimensions are established. The equations are used to define the ideal pole shapes and required excitation for dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets. Standard magnet geometries are then considered and criteria determining the coil design are presented. The use of codes for predicting flux density distributions and the iterative techniques used for pole face design are then discussed. This includes a description of the use of two-dimensional codes to generate suitable magnet end geometries. Finally, standard constructional techniques for cores and coils are described. (orig.)

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  1. Efficacy and safety comparison of add-on therapy with liraglutide, saxagliptin and vildagliptin, all in combination with current conventional oral hypoglycemic agents therapy in poorly controlled Chinese type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-J; Yu, Q; Yu, P; Zhang, Q-M; Ding, M; Liu, X-J; Yu, D-M

    2014-09-01

    control with conventional oral hypoglycemic agents. These findings support the add-on of liraglutide could offer notable advantages over DPP-4 inhibitors in both efficacy and safety. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Lower tidal volume strategy (≈3 ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal versus 'conventional' protective ventilation (6 ml/kg) in severe ARDS: the prospective randomized Xtravent-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, Thomas; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Goldmann, Anton; Müller, Thomas; Staudinger, Thomas; Brederlau, Jörg; Muellenbach, Ralf; Dembinski, Rolf; Graf, Bernhard M; Wewalka, Marlene; Philipp, Alois; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Lubnow, Matthias; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2013-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by damage to the lung caused by various insults, including ventilation itself, and tidal hyperinflation can lead to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). We investigated the effects of a low tidal volume (V(T)) strategy (V(T) ≈ 3 ml/kg/predicted body weight [PBW]) using pumpless extracorporeal lung assist in established ARDS. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled after a 'stabilization period' (24 h with optimized therapy and high PEEP). They were randomly assigned to receive a low V(T) ventilation (≈3 ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 elimination, or to a ARDSNet strategy (≈6 ml/kg) without the extracorporeal device. The primary outcome was the 28-days and 60-days ventilator-free days (VFD). Secondary outcome parameters were respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, analgesic/sedation use, complications and hospital mortality. Ventilation with very low V(T)'s was easy to implement with extracorporeal CO2-removal. VFD's within 60 days were not different between the study group (33.2 ± 20) and the control group (29.2 ± 21, p = 0.469), but in more hypoxemic patients (PaO2/FIO2 ≤150) a post hoc analysis demonstrated significant improved VFD-60 in study patients (40.9 ± 12.8) compared to control (28.2 ± 16.4, p = 0.033). The mortality rate was low (16.5%) and did not differ between groups. The use of very low V(T) combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal has the potential to further reduce VILI compared with a 'normal' lung protective management. Whether this strategy will improve survival in ARDS patients remains to be determined (Clinical trials NCT 00538928).

  3. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  4. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  5. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  6. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  7. Characteristic dosimetric as of the material thermoluminescent LIF:Mg, Cu, and P for their use in sanitary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X.; Duch, M.A.; Sanchez-Reyes, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the characteristics dosimetric of the LiF:Mg, Cu, P obtained for its use in the sanitary field, fundamentally in radiotherapy. The analyzed parameters are sensitivity, reproducibility of the measures, limit inferior of detection, answer energy, linearity of the answer in function of the received dose and the influence of the temperature in the material

  8. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicolella, A.

    2000-03-01

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  9. 33 CFR 165.T09-1080 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. 165.T09-1080 Section 165.T09-1080 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  10. 75 FR 36288 - Amended Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Coast Guard is revising its safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This revised temporary interim rule reduces the areas covered by the safety zone and RNA, and places additional restrictions on vessels that may transit the RNA.

  11. 77 FR 65760 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the Reports on Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Technical Barriers to Trade (2012 TBT Report) respectively. The TPSC invites written comments from the public on issues that USTR should examine in preparing the SPS and TBT Reports. DATES: Public comments..., Director of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Affairs, USTR (202-395-6127). Questions regarding the TBT Report or...

  12. Radioisotope devices and sanitary control over its application in the units and institutions of Army and Navy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, E.V.; Rymarchuk, A.A.; Shishkanov, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Sanitary control over the use of radioisotope devices (RID) is considered. To avoid losses of radioactive sources, an attention is paid to the order of RID account, their storage and issue, writing off unfit devices and sources and their burial. The role of military medical personnel grows. They must provide efficiency of safety of radioactive substance use in the units of Army and Navy

  13. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  14. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the north Western mediterranean sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the north west mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, 106 Ru and from atmospheric fall out, 137 Cs and sup(239+240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 -5 ) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26 [fr

  15. The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Smalley, R.C.; Flood, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

  16. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrations in soil were sampled in landfill adjacent area. The significant, crescent and directly proportional relationship (R2 > 0.80; p < 0.001 were observed between the elements concentration analyzed in soil with the leaves tissues. Therefore, the studied landfill presences increased nutrients and metals concentrations in soil and leaf tissue, fact that did not occur in the control area.

  17. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature.

  18. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  19. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  20. Use of Nuclear Techniques to Plan Sanitary Strategies in the Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Catasus, Judith; Borroto Portela, Jorge; Hernandez Garces, Anel; Santiago, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The Almendares river, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the management of wastewater contamination to predict the effectiveness of control options to improve water quality to desired levels. In the present work, the advective, steady- state, one-dimensional Streeter and Phelps model, calibrated and validated was used to elaborate environment strategies to improve the water quality of the Almendares river. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamina WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modelling purposes. (Author)

  1. Problems of optimization of activities of sanitary and epidemiological stations on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of activity optimization of the sanitary and epidemiologic stations (SES) concerning state inspection of for radiation source application are considered to improve the effort efficiency of the radiological subdivisions. The necessity to specify the inspection objects is shown. Inspection of all the stages of creation, introduction and application of radioactive substances and other sources, as well as, of radioactive waste utilization remains urgent problem. Determination of internal and external radiation doses to population in different regions as well as, radiation protection of personnel and patients in nuclear medicine are vital problems as well. Justification of the necessity to enlist specialists in different fields, to determine rationally their functional duties presents sufficient component of the SES activity optimization. Usage optimization of dosimetric and radiometric devices, laboratory equipment and instruments is a vital problem

  2. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  3. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, A.; Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B.

    2010-01-01

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  4. Sanitary survey of the drinking water supply of Kombinati suburb-Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angjeli, V; Reme, B; Leno, L; Bukli, R; Bushati, G

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological pollution of drinking water is a major health problem in the suburbs of the Albanian capital. Intermittent supply and contamination, resulting in several gastrointestinal manifestations, are the main concerns for the population and health workers. The risk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases is high. Pollution originates from contamination of drinking water with domestic sewage. This research investigated the drinking water cycle from its natural source to the consumer, analysing samples and verifying pollution levels in the microbiological and chemical setting. The most important pollution sources were found in the distribution network, due to cross-contamination with sewers and illegal connections. The second pollution source was found around the extraction wells. This is related to abusive constructions within the sanitary zone around the wells and maybe the highly sewage-contaminated river water which feeds the aquifer.

  5. [Legal and sanitary aspects conditioning access to medicines in Brazilian courts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Mércia; Delduque, Maria Célia; Amaral, Rita Goreti

    2012-01-01

    The search for having access to health care and medicines right granted through Judicial Courts has increased in Brazil. What has been nominated "health judicialization" is a multidimensional phenomenon, a need for dealing with it in a multidisciplinary way involving legal-judicial, political-institutional and sanitary approaches has raised. The Health is recognized as a fundamental human right in the Brazilian Constitution giving it a different legal protection under the legal-constitutional order and the country guarantees the right to health are not only the Constitution and the law strictly, but mainly in an normative infralegal arc that define the goals and outcomes to be achieved by public policy. The lawsuits by drugs may be a reflection of the difficulty of access to health services, to empty and downgrading of health care. Therefore, this turns out to affect the judicialization of pharmaceutical care in Brazil.

  6. Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kênia de Fátima Carrijo; Elmiro Rosendo do Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida Pereira; Nelson Morés; Catia Silene Klein; Leonardo Muliterno Domingues; Rogerio Tortelly

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Carrijo K.F., Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Morés N., Klein, C.S., Domingues L.M. & Tortelly R. [Diagnosis of porcine enzootic pneumonia by post mortem sanitary inspection: comparison with other diagnostic methods.] Diagnóstico da pneumonia enzoótica suína pela inspeção sanitária post mortem: comparação com outros métodos de diagnóstico. Revista Brasileira de Veterinária Brasileira 36(2):188-194, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. Par...

  7. Randomised controlled trial of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors against combination intensive therapy with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in established rheumatoid arthritis: the TACIT trial and associated systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David L; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Farewell, Vern; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Ma, Margaret; Walker, David; Heslin, Margaret; Patel, Anita; Kingsley, Gabrielle

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is initially treated with methotrexate and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Active RA patients who fail such treatments can receive tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis), which are effective but expensive. We assessed whether or not combination DMARDs (cDMARDs) give equivalent clinical benefits at lower costs in RA patients eligible for TNFis. An open-label, 12-month, pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, two-arm trial [Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors Against Combination Intensive Therapy (TACIT)] compared these treatment strategies. We then systematically reviewed all comparable published trials. The TACIT trial involved 24 English rheumatology clinics. Active RA patients eligible for TNFis. The TACIT trial compared cDMARDs with TNFis plus methotrexate or another DMARD; 6-month non-responders received (a) TNFis if in the cDMARD group; and (b) a second TNFi if in the TNFi group. The Heath Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) was the primary outcome measure. The European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), joint damage, Disease Activity Score for 28 Joints (DAS28), withdrawals and adverse effects were secondary outcome measures. Economic evaluation linked costs, HAQ changes and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). In total, 432 patients were screened; 104 started on cDMARDs and 101 started on TNFis. The initial demographic and disease assessments were similar between the groups. In total, 16 patients were lost to follow-up (nine in the cDMARD group, seven in the TNFi group) and 42 discontinued their intervention but were followed up (23 in the cDMARD group and 19 in the TNFi group). Intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation methods used for missing data showed greater 12-month HAQ score reductions with initial cDMARDs than with initial TNFis [adjusted linear regression coefficient 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.003 to 0.31; p = 0.046]. Increases in 12-month EQ-5D scores were greater with initial c

  8. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  9. Reconcentration of radioactive material released to sanitary sewers in accordance with 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Hill, R.L.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Norton, M.V.; Aaberg, R.L.; Stetar, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in accordance with 10 CFR 20, and agreement states, in accordance with state regulations, regulates the discharge of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. A one-year study was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the NRC to assess whether radioactive materials that are dischared to sanitary sewer systems undergo significant reconcentration within the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and to determine the physical and/or chemical processes that may result in radionuclide reconcentration within the WWTPs. The study objectives were addressed by collecting information and data on wastewater treatment, relevant geochemical processes, and individual radionuclide behavior in WWTPs from the open literature, NRC reports, EPA surveys, and interviews with NRC licensees and staff of WWTPs that may be impacted by these discharges. Radionuclide mass balance and removal efficiencies were calculated for WWTPs at Oak Ridge, TN; and Erwin, TN, but were not shown to be reliable since the licensee release data generally underestimated the mass of radionuclide that was ultimately found in the sludge. This disparity may be due, in part, to the fact that data available for use in this study were collected to address regulatory concerns and not to perform mass balance calculations. A limited modeling study showed some promise for predicting radionuclide behavior in WWTPS, however, the general applicability of using these empirical models remains uncertain. With the data and models currently available, it is not possible to quantitatively determine the physical and chemical processes that cause reconcentration or to calculate, a priori, reconcentration factors for specific WWTP unit processes or WWTPs in general

  10. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  12. SANITARY-HYGIENIC ASPECTS IN COMMERCIALIZATION IN FISH MARKET IGARAPÉ DAS MULHERES, MACAPÁ-AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Souza Silva Junior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being highly perishable, the fish requires special care from capture to arrival at the consumer's home. However, after the capture, the microbiota is altered at all stages. This study aimed to assess the sanitary conditions of marketing of fish in the Fish Friday, Macapá-AP, in order to identify critical points of the process. We used the direct observational method with the application of a checklist, based on the RDC nº216, items for building, equipment / instruments, utensils and hygiene, clothing, hygienic habits, personal protective equipment and quality raw material. The fair in question was rated in Group 2, failing to meet the requirements of industry topics Organization (marketing space extremely limited, national manager indefinite absence of good practice manual, along with the standard operating procedures; hygiene observation site (fish is exposed without ice, ice used only for storage, water use without treatment, and cleaned the handler (clothing unsatisfactory, tobacco consumption during marketing, simultaneous manipulation of money and food, no clean hands when handling food thus does not meet the provisions of the legislation. Such unconformities compromise the quality of products and endangers the health of the consumer, demonstrating that only the drafting of laws is not sufficient to ensure food safety without intense scrutiny in conjunction with the drafting resolutions appropriate to the reality of each region and training programs aimed at promoting recycling and the production of safe food hygiene and sanitary conditions in the question that reality cannot be changed. Keywords: marketing of fish; conditions of merchantability; market.

  13. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  14. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and food safety: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siméon, M

    2006-08-01

    Because of fast-growing demand, export markets can absorb high value added products and offer high returns; for many developing countries export market development is thus a key requirement for rural income generation and rural growth. Although developing countries face increasingly strict sanitary and phytosanitary standards in their export markets, they can maintain and improve market access--and improve domestic food safety and agricultural productivity--by adopting a strategic approach to food safety, agricultural health and trade. High-income countries should increase development flows to help developing countries build the capacity to plan and execute the necessary strategies. The first proposal in this paper is to make two existing sets of guidelines widely available to interested parties, in particular through the World Bank and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The first covers the broad process of problem assessment, strategy development and action plan formulation; the second set deals with institutional analysis and training of staff of the official sanitary control services. The second proposal is that interested countries and donors should speed up the ongoing development of guidelines, computer software tools and training material to help countries quantify the importance and impact of food safety issues. The focus here is on a 'multipurpose agricultural data analysis and modelization system'. The third proposal is to carry out a case study to help demonstrate that a number of animal health issues related to food safety should be treated as relating to 'global public goods' and thus require intervention on a global scale. Possible candidates are foot and mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

  15. ESD and the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabhai, Kartikeya V.; Ravindranath, Shailaja; Schwarz, Rixa; Vyas, Purvi

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 36 of Agenda 21, a key document of the 1992 Earth Summit, emphasised reorienting education towards sustainable development. While two of the Rio conventions, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), developed communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)…

  16. IERS Conventions (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2MASS near-IR catalog (ɛ>) provides accurate positions of over 470 million stars at individual mean epochs (around 2000), however, without proper motions...An overview of other current and future, ground- and space-based densification projects is given at ɜ>. 3http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/ 2mass /releases...and proper motions on the ICRS. Combining USNO-B1.0 and the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ),” Astron. J., 139(6), pp. 2440–2447, doi: 10.1088/0004

  17. [Sanitary and epidemiological conditions in the Lodz region during the period of the second Polish Republic in the XIX and XX centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history of European agglomerations in the nineteenth and twentieth century the relation between expanding industry and worsening sanitary and epidemiological conditions was seen. These changes, having great impact on public health, were investigated in the present study. Problems related to sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz first emerged during the Russian occupation of Poland in the XIX century. The Russian Governing Council was not overseeing sanitary conditions of the city, and transferred this responsibility to the industrial bourgeoisie of Lodz. In this situation, uncontrolled development of the industry led to serious deterioration in natural environment and increase of risk for acute and chronic infectious diseases. Improvement of the sanitary situation in Lodz commenced in the period of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939). Sanitary Divisions were created at the Lodz Department of Public Health. Activities in this Department involved, among others, detailed epidemiological examination of potable water, the investigation of manufacturing processes, retail and wholesale groceries, hygienic conditions of public housing. The activity and interventions of Sanitary Divisions contributed substantially to a decrease of incidence of various diseases and improvement of living conditions of the Lodz populations. The improvement of sanitary and epidemiological conditions in Lodz after 1918 was mainly related to the construction of water supply and sewage systems. This led to an approximation of the urban standards of this 500,000 population agglomeration to European standards.

  18. Dose in conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna D, E.; Padilla R, Z. P.; Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    It has been pointed out that medical exposures are the most significant sources of exposure to ionizing radiation for the general population. Inside the medical exposures the most important is the X-ray use for diagnosis, which is by far the largest contribution to the average dose received by the population. From all studies performed in radiology the chest radiography is the most abundant. In an X-ray machine, voltage and current are combined to obtain a good image and a reduce dose, however due to the workload in a radiology service individual dose is not monitored. In order to evaluate the dose due to chest radiography in this work a plate phantom was built according to the ISO recommendations using methylmethacrylate walls and water. The phantom was used in the Imaging department of the Zacatecas General Hospital as a radiology patient asking for a chest study; using thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD 100 the kerma at the surface entrance was determined. (Author)

  19. Conventions and workflows for using Situs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wriggers, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments of the Situs software suite for multi-scale modeling are reviewed. Typical workflows and conventions encountered during processing of biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering are described. Situs is a modular program package for the multi-scale modeling of atomic resolution structures and low-resolution biophysical data from electron microscopy, tomography or small-angle X-ray scattering. This article provides an overview of recent developments in the Situs package, with an emphasis on workflows and conventions that are important for practical applications. The modular design of the programs facilitates scripting in the bash shell that allows specific programs to be combined in creative ways that go beyond the original intent of the developers. Several scripting-enabled functionalities, such as flexible transformations of data type, the use of symmetry constraints or the creation of two-dimensional projection images, are described. The processing of low-resolution biophysical maps in such workflows follows not only first principles but often relies on implicit conventions. Situs conventions related to map formats, resolution, correlation functions and feature detection are reviewed and summarized. The compatibility of the Situs workflow with CCP4 conventions and programs is discussed

  20. Application of the Aarhus Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention has been adopted in 1998 and entered into force three years later. It envisages three elements for strengthening democratic procedures in decision-making: access to information, public participation and access to justice. At the first meeting of the Member States the Aarhus Convention Compliance Committee was founded. The European Union is a party of the Convention and it has implemented the provisions in its legal order. After entering into force of the Convention, several Directives that regulate these issues in the EU have been enacted. Republic of Serbia has ratified the Convention in 2009 and it is currently in the process of its implementation by involving private subjects in decision-making on environmental issues.

  1. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  2. Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Conventional and Semi-Conventional Management Systems on the Performance and Carcass Yield of Broiler Chickens. ... TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or ...

  3. Practical, general parser combinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Izmaylova (Anastasia); A. Afroozeh (Ali); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractParser combinators are a popular approach to parsing where contextfree grammars are represented as executable code. However, conventional parser combinators do not support left recursion, and can have worst-case exponential runtime. These limitations hinder the expressivity and

  4. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  5. Present and prospective developments in health science and sanitary supervision relative to use of atomic energy in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyarskij, P.P.; Mojsejtsev, P.I.; Vasil'ev, G.

    1977-01-01

    The discoveries and inventions made over the last two decades have substantially enlarged the scope of contacts between man and sources of ionizing radiation. Scientific developments raising energy yield from nuclear processes have been reflected in a growing nuclear power industry as well as expanding use of radioactive substances or radiation sources in various areas of human endeavor, and have become a potent factor in technological progress, mechanization and automation. No such tempestuous expansion of applications of nuclear physics achievements would have been possible without the concurrent development and further synchronous advances in relevant fields of health science, with research achievements promptly introduced into sanitary supervision practice. The paper summarizes major results of research in radiation hygiene; outlines the impact of their application to sanitary supervision practice in principal operational sectors; identifies and motivates further lines of injury as well as prospects for developing up-to-date supervision schemes and for reasonable unification of measurement and monitoring techniques. (author)

  6. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  7. [V.P. Kravkov as a sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army (to centenary of beginning of the First World War)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, D G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents for the first time the description of life story and service of V.P. Kravkov (1859-1920)--participant of Russian-Japanese war and the First World War, doctor of medicine, sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army and author of number of books and articles on preventive medicine. During these two wars, V.P. Kravkov organized sanitary epidemiological service in fronts. He kept diary regularly reflecting conditions of sanitary epidemiological service during this period, describing one's own observations and assessing survived events. The manuscripts of diaries are stored in the Russian state library. The diaries made great input into summarizing of experience of the Russian military sanitary service and became valuable monument of military memoirs' literature.

  8. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in bahir dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-03-01

    Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees' knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.

  9. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helf, M.; Cassadou, S.

    2005-01-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  10. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    OpenAIRE

    S. Umamaheswari; Jayasree Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retentio...

  11. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  12. Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration in sanitary sewer systems based on conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingkai; Liu, Yanchen; Cheng, Xun; Zhu, David Z.; Shi, Hanchang; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Quantifying rainfall-derived inflow and infiltration (RDII) in a sanitary sewer is difficult when RDII and overflow occur simultaneously. This study proposes a novel conductivity-based method for estimating RDII. The method separately decomposes rainfall-derived inflow (RDI) and rainfall-induced infiltration (RII) on the basis of conductivity data. Fast Fourier transform was adopted to analyze variations in the flow and water quality during dry weather. Nonlinear curve fitting based on the least squares algorithm was used to optimize parameters in the proposed RDII model. The method was successfully applied to real-life case studies, in which inflow and infiltration were successfully estimated for three typical rainfall events with total rainfall volumes of 6.25 mm (light), 28.15 mm (medium), and 178 mm (heavy). Uncertainties of model parameters were estimated using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method and were found to be acceptable. Compared with traditional flow-based methods, the proposed approach exhibits distinct advantages in estimating RDII and overflow, particularly when the two processes happen simultaneously.

  13. Health at the Extremes. Epidemiological and Sanitary Scene in Tierra del Fuego, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Casali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the epidemiological and sanitary conditions of the city of Ushuaia (National Territory of Tierra del Fuego at a key time in its history- a time in which interethnic contact and the consolidation of the Argentine nation-state were intensified as two parallel and related processes. Materials and methods: All death certificates available for the period 1890-1930 were analyzed, as well as relevant government documents and secondary sources in order to ob¬tain the health profile of the city and its relationship with the country in the following aspects: type of epidemiological phase, mortality rates, population structure, and the structure in health¬care. Conclusions: There was a great relevance of infectious diseases, and specially tuberculosis, among the population of the city in general, and among the indigenous and criminal population in particular. This epidemiological profile showed the shortcomings of a national health system that was trying to establish at the time, especially in a region difficult to reach.

  14. Seasonal trends in vegetation and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and PBDEs near a sanitary landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Annick D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Blais, Jules M.

    Spruce needle and atmospheric (gaseous and particulate-bound) concentrations were surveyed near a sanitary landfill from February 2004 to June 2005. The influence of several parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, as well as increased domestic heating during the winter was assessed. In general, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in spruce needles increased over time and decreased following snowmelt with a minimum coinciding with bud burst of deciduous trees. Atmospheric concentrations of PBDE and PAH, both particulate-bound and gaseous phase, were linked to daily weather events and thus showed more variability than those in spruce needles. Highest PAH concentrations were encountered during the winter, likely reflecting increased emission from heating homes. Pseudo Clausius-Clapeyron plots revealed higher PBDE gaseous concentrations with increasing temperature, but showed no correlation between PAH gaseous concentrations and temperature as this effect was obscured by seasonal emission patterns. Finally, air mass back trajectories and local wind directions revealed that particulate-bound PBDEs, along with both gaseous and particulate-bound PAHs were from local sources, whereas gaseous PBDEs were likely from distant sources.

  15. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  16. Electro-Fenton oxidation of reverse osmosis concentrate from sanitary landfill leachate: Evaluation of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Annabel; Labiadh, Lazhar; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2017-10-01

    The electro-Fenton oxidation of a concentrate from reverse osmosis of a sanitary landfill leachate, with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 42 g L -1 , was carried out using a carbon-felt cathode and a boron doped diamond anode. The influence of the applied current intensity, initial pH and dissolved iron initial concentration on the electro-Fenton process was assessed. For the experimental conditions used, results showed that the initial pH is the parameter that more strongly influences the current efficiency of the electro-Fenton process, being this influence more pronounced on the oxidation rate than on the mineralization rate of the organic matter. The increase in iron initial concentration was found to be detrimental, since the natural amount of iron present in the effluent, 73 mg L -1 of total iron and 61 mg L -1 of dissolved iron, was sufficient to ensure the electro-Fenton process at the applied intensities - 0.2-1.4 A. For the more favourable conditions studied, initial pH of 3 and natural iron concentration, it was found an increase in the organic load and nitrogen removals with the applied current intensity. For the highest current intensity applied, a COD removal of 16.7 g L -1 was achieved after 8-h experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  18. [Sanitary service of girl guides during the 2nd World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Zdzisław

    2005-01-01

    From the very beginning of the scout organization one of its main trends was the Samaritan service consisting in giving medical help to victims of disasters and acts of God. It became a domain of girls guide mainly. The articles describes a great commitment of the Polish girls guide in the medical assistance offered to their compatriots during the September campaign of 1939 and during the years of occupation from 1939 to 1945. It shows the education and training methods that prepared the girls to work with great dedication. From the first days of the war the girl guides started to work as nurses and orderlies in civil and military hospitals. They organized also their own hospitals and numerous first aid stations in bombed localities and roads frequented by fugitives escaping from the west parts of the country to the eastern territories. Under occupation, the girl guides organized their own underground medical service that collaborated strictly with military organization fighting for independence. Assisted by doctors they organized medical trainings for the members, collected medicines and sanitary materials, preparing themselves for the fights of the last part of the war. The girl guides organized groups of medical assistance of the National Army, which constituted a core of the organization medical service. During the "Storm" action several thousands of girls worked as orderlies that belonged to the combat troops of the National Army. The Warsaw insurrection was the greatest battle of soldiers of the National Army. The girls offered their help to thousands of soldiers and civilian victims.

  19. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  20. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Patients' perception on attention received from Health Centres non-sanitary staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moral, R; Alba Dios, A; Jiménez García, C; González Neubauer, V; García Torres, M; Pérula de Torres, L A; Barrios Blasco, L

    2011-01-01

    To know patients' perceptions about relational aspects and technical procedures when they are attended by the administrative staff in Health Centres. To assess the utility of two ways for measuring satisfaction. Cross-sectional study carried out in people attending the administrative sections of Health Centres for diverse reasons. Just after the interaction with the administrative they were interviewed using two different questions for assessing their opinions and satisfaction with communicational and technical aspects related with their demands. Descriptive analysis. Significant differences among mean was explored by χ(2) test. Open-ended questions were grouped in categories in a process involving three researchers independently. Over than 90% (360) of the attendees declared to be satisfied or very satisfied with the service received from the staff personal. Nevertheless, among 18-36% gave suggestions for improving the service after their consultation. Independently the domain explored, people suggested the communicational, personal capability, quality and quantity of explanations and waiting time as the main aspects to be improved. Surveys with open-ended questions are more useful to assess the quality of the attention the citizens receive from no-sanitary staff in Health Centres. These type of questions are also more useful for detecting problems and planning new interventions. Relational and informative issues seem to be the most prioritary areas to improve in this section of Health Centres. Copyright © 2010 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  3. [The different point of view about the sanitary control of importation of psychotropic substances in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Patrícia Cristina Antunes; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of importation, that is a part of the sanitary control of psychotropic substances, made by Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency's ports, airports and borders. For this work, psychotropic substances are defined as active pharmaceutical raw materials present in the list B1 of Portaria nº 344/98; which need Anvisa's permission to be imported. For this purpose we used semistructured interviews with key informers and participant observation. The information were collected and systematized through the content analysis, thematic modality. The results show a very complex control which involves an intense bureaucratic process. The main identified critical points of the process were: the information system precariousness; the absence of human resources; deficiency of laboratorial support and infra-structure at customs. Anvisa's web page and the specific law are strong points of the process, but still needing improvements. We understood that despite of the progress made, there are many things to do for giving the country an efficient health control system to the importation of these substances.

  4. How to model a negligible probability under the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Since the 1997 EC--Hormones decision, World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Panels have wrestled with the question of what constitutes a negligible risk under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. More recently, the 2010 WTO Australia--Apples Panel focused considerable attention on the appropriate quantitative model for a negligible probability in a risk assessment. The 2006 Australian Import Risk Analysis for Apples from New Zealand translated narrative probability statements into quantitative ranges. The uncertainty about a "negligible" probability was characterized as a uniform distribution with a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 10(-6) . The Australia - Apples Panel found that the use of this distribution would tend to overestimate the likelihood of "negligible" events and indicated that a triangular distribution with a most probable value of zero and a maximum value of 10⁻⁶ would correct the bias. The Panel observed that the midpoint of the uniform distribution is 5 × 10⁻⁷ but did not consider that the triangular distribution has an expected value of 3.3 × 10⁻⁷. Therefore, if this triangular distribution is the appropriate correction, the magnitude of the bias found by the Panel appears modest. The Panel's detailed critique of the Australian risk assessment, and the conclusions of the WTO Appellate Body about the materiality of flaws found by the Panel, may have important implications for the standard of review for risk assessments under the WTO SPS Agreement. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  6. Towards a Theory of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2006-01-01

    Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A philosophical Study (Lewis 1969). Besides exciting the logical community by providing the seminal analysis work on common knowledge, it also laid the foundations for the formal approach to the study of social conventions by means of game the...

  7. The occurrence and prevention of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) in rainbow trout fish farms: the importance of improved sanitary practices

    OpenAIRE

    AGIM REXHEPI; KURTESH SHERIFI; PETER SCHEINERT; LINDA GRAPCI-KOTORRI

    2014-01-01

    The viral diseases of rainbow trout are of worldwide concern including infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN). On this study good sanitary practices are applied to prevent outbreaks and minimize losses caused from IPN disease. To highlight importance of improvements on sanitary practices in IPN prevention were compared results from two studies, first conducted in year 2006-2009 with results from one year later study conducted in 2010. In year 2010, samples of organs are collected from 260 fish ...

  8. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L.

    2000-12-01

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  9. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  10. An Analysis of the Sanitary and Welfare Conditions of Tourism Centers in Lorestan Province: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Saki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the rapid growth of tourism industry, appropriate management and supervision of tourism centers by improving the sanitary, welfare and security situation of these centers is essential. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sanitary and welfare status of tourism centers in Lorestan province. Material and Methods: This research is a qualitative study conducted through semi-structured Interview with tourists. Data analysis was done using content analysis. After collecting and analyzing data, findings were classified into themes and sub-themes. Results: The findings were categorized into 6 main themes and 24 sub-themes. The main themes were general sanitary conditions, welfare facilities, transportation, healthcare services, security, and management and supervision. Conclusion: According to the findings and participants’ points of view, tourists are not satisfied with health care status of tourist centers. Therefore, in order to minimize the health problems of tourism centers and maximize attracting tourists, short-term and long-term plans should be put on the agenda of tourism managers and stakeholders of the Lorestan province.

  11. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  12. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  13. The evolution of development conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Stefano Erber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual view on development and its translation into development policies. It argues that society's perception of development is structured by conventions, which provide a view of the past, present and future and, at the same time, allows a certain hierarchy of problems and solutions to such problems. The prevalence of a specific convention depends on the international conditions faced by this society and on the distribution of economic and political power within that society. Therefore, in complex societies there is always a struggle for hegemony between competing development conventions.

  14. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  15. Effect of preparation variables of plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Ochoa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of various preparation conditions for making plaster molds for slip casting of sanitary ware. We investigated the relationships between the processing conditions, microstructure, and final properties of the plaster molds. The results showed that the rheological behavior, and hence, the time during which the plaster suspension is pourable for making the plaster molds (before an important increase in viscosity due to the precipitation of gypsum crystals were dependent on the preparation conditions. Variations in the chemical composition, pore size distribution, and microstructure explained the statistically significant effect of preparation variables (including the mixing time, water temperature, and water quality. Preparation conditions that promoted high initial viscosity of the plaster suspension (accelerative effect of the setting time developed less porous structure in the mold that principally increased the compressive strength (16%, deionized water instead of tap water and the casting rate (9%, water at 25 °C instead of 38 °C. According to the results are proposed optimum conditions to make the molds while avoiding unnecessary energy use. Resumen: Mediante un diseño factorial completo se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de preparación de moldes de yeso para colado tradicional de muebles sanitarios. Se investigó la relación entre procesamiento, microestructura y propiedades del molde. Los resultados mostraron que el comportamiento reológico y por lo tanto el tiempo durante el cual la suspensión de yeso se puede verter para conformar los moldes (antes de un incremento importante de viscosidad debido a la formación de cristales de yeso fueron dependientes de las condiciones de preparación. Variaciones en composición química, distribución de tamaño de poro y microestructura explicaron el efecto estadísticamente significativo de las variables de preparación (que incluyeron

  16. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    -defined metaphors of individual learning and social imitation processes, from which a revised theory of convention may be erected (see Sugden 2004, Binmore 1993 and Young 1998). This paper makes a general argument in support of the evolutionary turn in the theory of convention by a progressive exposition of its...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around......Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...

  17. Characterization of Concrete made with Recycled Aggregate from Ceramic Sanitary Ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility of reusing the ceramic wastes of sanitary ware as coarse aggregate, in partial substitution (15, 20 y 25 % of natural coarse aggregates. Firstly, the characterization of recycled coarse ceramic aggregate was carried out subsequently proceeded to establish the parameters of dosage and manufacture of different concretes. Lastly, tests were conducted using these mixes to characterize physical and mechanical, and a study was carried out to identify the crystalline phases. Results showed that as the substitution proportion increased, the mechanical properties of the concrete improved, whilst physical properties remained practically constant. In view of these results, we conclude that it is possible to use this type of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate when mixing concrete destined for structural purposes.

    En este estudio se plantea la posibilidad de reutilizar los residuos cerámicos de sanitarios como árido grueso sustituyendo de forma parcial (15, 20 y 25 % al árido grueso natural. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la caracterización del árido cerámico reciclado y posteriormente se procedió a establecer los parámetros de dosificación y fabricación de los distintos hormigones. Finalmente, se realizó sobre los mismos unos ensayos de caracterización de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, y un estudio de las fases cristalinas. Los resultados indican que a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de sustitución se ven mejoradas las propiedades mecánicas de estos, mientras que las propiedades físicas se mantienen prácticamente constantes. A la vista de estos resultados se puede concluir que es posible la utilización de este tipo de residuo cerámico como árido grueso en la elaboración de hormigones con fines estructurales.

  18. Long Term assessment of the dose registered by the Sanitary workers of a mutual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anies Escartin, J.; Perramon Llado, A.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a long time period of time (about 17 years) of the professional exposure to ionising radiation of the workers of an accidents Mutual, that has its own personal Dosimetry Service, allows to establish a relation between the showed global reduction of the registered doses of the people exposed and the circumstances and actions that did it possible. The fact to carry out a dosimetric control is an essential factor directed to accomplish the objective of holding the doses as low as achievable, joined with the fact of passing more strict law. Those factors that fixed a reduction of the doses inherited by the sanitary exposed workers whose relation are demonstrated in this study. The collective dose inherited by the bunch of people exposed is the parameter suitable to measure and assess the time history at medium and long term of the exposure conditions of the workers, and identify the more relevant characteristics of the risk by ionising radiation at workplace. The conclusion of the time history analysis of the quantity shows that the total collective dose for more than a thousand people group, are strongly affected by the doses corresponding to less than a 1,5 % of the users. The number of people that have a value dose higher that the average, and the high value of the dose in some periods because of their activity lead to changes of the value of the collective doses that can be higher than 100%. This great uncertainty in the measured value needs more than ten months of control to guarantee the lowering of doses received. The decreasing doses observed are strongly related with the reduction of this relative short number of cases with incidences in the doses registered. An important part of the work is related to identifying the incidences registered, noticing the evolution and checking the most suitable actions to lower it. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Sanitary-epidemiological assessment of quality of atmospheric air in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the comparative assessment of the sanitary and epidemiological quality of the ambient air in Moscow and the Russian Federation, that demonstrate a decrease of the air pollution level in 2014 in comparison with 2012, both in Moscow and in the Russian Federation, are presented in this study. It has been noted that most of the excess of hygienic air quality standards in the areas of Russian cities are recorded on stationary observation stations situated close to the motorway, located in residential areas, and in Moscow – in the zones of industrial enterprises’ impact. It has been revealed that the tendency to the reduction of the negative impact from industrial enterprises on air pollution is registered in the whole of the Russian Federation and in Moscow. It is demonstrated that the high-priority contaminating agents, the content of which for the year 2014 in the Russian Federation exceeded the hygienic daily average standards in 5 and more times, are mainly: benzo (a pyrene, suspended substances, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. To assess the quality of the ambient air in Moscow, the method of "inverse distance" and inter- and extrapolation of the data obtained from the observation stations on the whole territory of Moscow has been used. The study shows that the air quality of the individual administrative districts of Moscow varies considerably, and is determined by the traffic load level as well as by the volume of emissions of the industrial enterprises and the wind rose. As high-priority contaminating agents affecting the air quality, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, benzene, suspended substances, ozone and formaldehyde are distinguished. It is noted that close to the highway near Moscow there is an excessive concentration of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, phenol, and carbon monoxide, and in areas close to industrial zones – nitrogen dioxide, phenol formaldehyde and benzo (a

  20. The Treatment Of The RSU In Controlled Drains: Their Sanitary Problem To The Production Of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    The limitless world production of residuals generates constant concerns with relationship to its administration. The classic elimination methods as the drains controlled in front of the controversial incineration plants and gasification as well as the expectations created around the recycle practices, are reason of intense debates among city councils, specialist, environmentalist technicians and the public in general. The certain thing is that the residuals in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today in day the residuals are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the line of the recycle because they come them an excellent business. All the methods of elimination of residuals produce in turn others. Those of solid nature in general go to the drain, the semi-liquids becomes dehydrated for the same end. Presently work, without seeking to say that the employment of the drains is the best option, thinks about how it has more than enough they are possible to optimize its use. Showing beside their eminently sanitary vocation an energy alternative that allows the use of the combustible gas that is generated in them. An added value that is interesting if this it becomes source of well-being for social excluded nuclei and economically like it happens for example in the peripheries of the drains of the big Latin American cities. They are considered which are the main aspects that intervene in the generation, production and quality of the gas methane of the drains. Their reception methods and their use alternatives. Lastly emphasis is made in the environmental situation to European and international level about the gases of the drain, how it thinks about the topic of the greenhouse effect and which are the actions for the horizon of the year 2000. They are related some experiences in Europe on the use of the biogas

  1. Utilisation of forage grasses for decontamination of spray-irrigated leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Winant, W.M.; Bennett, O.L.; Lundberg, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Spray irrigation was used to test the survival and efficiency of forage grasses as a concentrating mechanism for the inorganic waste elements in leachate from a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Lime (0.67 metric tonnes ha), rock phosphate, and superphosphate (each at 11.2 metric tonnes ha) were applied in a randomised complete block design to reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L., tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb., cv. Ky31, orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus inermis Leyss., and bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cvs. Midland and Tufcote. Leachate was applied by overhead rotary sprinklers in weekly 8-h applications from 22 October 1974 to 28 April 1975. The total application averages about 155 cm. Sprayed leachate contained about 500 ppM of Ca, 150 to 200 ppM of Na, Fe, and Cl, 50 to 100 ppM of Mn, K, Mg, and N, 2 to 5 ppM of Al, Sr, Zn, and P, and less than 0.5 ppM of Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from approximately 7500 mg liter in water emerging from landfill drains to 5000 mg litre in sprayed leachate. Electroconductivity ranged from 3000 to 4000 ..mu..mhos cm and pH from 5.3 to about 5.5. Leachate irrigation appreciably increased Na, Fe, Mn, Cl, and S levels in all forages except orchardgrass. Lime significantly prevented Mn accumulation and benefited forage grass persistence. Reed canarygrass generally contained the highest levels of most elements and along with Tufcote bermudagrass was more leachate-tolerant than other grasses. Seasonal factors affected the uptake of several elements, e.g. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, K and Co were significantly lower in regrowth cuttings as compared with first cuttings of Midland bermudagrass and reed canarygrass.

  2. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  3. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A.

    1984-01-01

    In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author)

  4. Characterization and anaerobic treatment of the sanitary landfill leachate in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, B; Calli, B; Saatci, A

    2000-01-01

    In this study, characterization and anaerobic treatability of leachate from Komurcuoda Sanitary Landfill located on the Asian part of Istanbul were investigated. Time based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored for an 8 month period. Samples were taken from a 200 m3 holding tank located at the lowest elevation of the landfill. COD concentrations have ranged between 18,800 and 47,800 mg/l while BOD5 between 6820 and 38,500 mg/L. COD and BOD5 values were higher in summer and lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. On the other hand, it was quite interesting that such a dilution effect was not observed for ammonia. The highest ammonia concentration, 2690 mg/L was in November 1998. BOD5/COD ratio was larger than 0.7 for most samples indicating high biodegradability, and acidic phase of decomposition in the landfill. For anaerobic treatability, three different reactors, namely an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor, an anaerobic upflow filter and a hybrid bed reactor, were used. The anaerobic reactors were operated for more than 230 days and were continuing operation when this paper was prepared. Organic loading was increased gradually from 1.3 kg COD/m3.day to 8.2 kg COD/m3.day while hydraulic retention time was reduced from 2.4 days to 2.0 days. All the reactors showed similar performances against organic loadings with efficiencies between 80% and 90%. However the reactors have experienced high ammonia concentrations several times throughout the experimental period, and showed different inhibition levels. Anaerobic filter was the least affected reactor while UASB was the most. Hybrid bed reactor has exhibited a similar performance to anaerobic filter although not to the same degree.

  5. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  6. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  7. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heroux, M.; Turcotte, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m 3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  8. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  9. Cytogenetic effects of weak and combined actions in plants in connection with a problem of ecological rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Udalova, A.A.; Dikareva, N.S.; Vasil'ev, D.V.; Evseeva, T.I.

    2002-01-01

    It is compared sanitary-hygienic and ecological approaches to rating of ionizing radiation action. The features of formation of cytogenetic effects in plants in conditions of separate and combined with factors of other nature action of ionizing radiation low doses are considered. (author)

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines). Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  13. A qualitative understanding of the effects of reusable sanitary pads and puberty education: implications for future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Steinfield, Laurel; Montgomery, Paul

    2017-06-27

    The management of menstruation has come to the fore as a barrier to girls' education attainment in low income contexts. Interventions have been proposed and piloted, but the emerging nature of the field means limited evidence is available to understand their pathways of effect. This study describes and compares schoolgirls' experiences of menstruation in rural Uganda at the conclusion of a controlled trial of puberty education and sanitary pad provision to elucidate pathways of effect in the interventions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with schoolgirls who participated in the Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty trial concurrent with the final set of quantitative surveys. A framework approach and cross-case analysis were employed to describe and compare the experiences of 27 menstruating girls across the four intervention conditions; education (n = 8), reusable sanitary pads (n = 8), education with reusable sanitary pads (n = 6), and control (n = 5). Themes included: menstrual hygiene, soiling, irritation and infection, physical experience, knowledge of menstruation, psychological, social and cultural factors, and support from others. Those receiving reusable pads experienced improvements in comfort and reliability. This translated into reduced fears around garment soiling and related school absenteeism. Other menstrual hygiene challenges of washing, drying and privacy remained prominent. Puberty education improved girls' confidence to discuss menstruation and prompted additional support from teachers and peers. Findings have important implications for the development and evaluation of future interventions. Results suggest the provision of menstrual absorbents addresses one core barrier to menstrual health, but that interventions addressing broader needs such as privacy may improve effectiveness. Puberty education sessions should increase attention to body awareness and include strategies to address a wider range of practical menstrual challenges

  14. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  15. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  16. Novel versus conventional antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R C

    1996-01-01

    Novel antipsychotic agents differ from conventional ones in several key characteristics, including effectiveness, adverse reactions, and receptor-binding profile. Most of the newer agents have an affinity for the serotonin 5HT2 receptor that is at least 10 times greater than that for the dopamine D2 receptor. This increased affinity for the serotonin receptor may be responsible for another distinguishing characteristic of novel antipsychotic agents--decreased frequency of extrapyramidal side effects. These side effects, which include pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonias, and akathisia, frequently are the reason for noncompliance with conventional drug therapy. The newer drugs are often effective in patients resistant to treatment with conventional agents. They also appear to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in many patients.

  17. The prospect of conventional disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, O.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of conventional disarmament in Europe holds out great consequences not only for the continent but also for the entire world. The arms race both in its nuclear and conventional aspects has been the single most important element of the destabilizing factors in international relations since 1945. Though initially borne out of the ideological division of Europe and the consequent quest for strategic military superiority, it soon developed a technological momentum of its own, becoming more the cause than the effect of the distrust in the relationship of the two alliances. The issue of conventional weapons was raised for negotiations side by side with that of nuclear weapons when the United Nations took up the question of disarmament in 1946. Due, however, to the unforeseen and most dangerous advance in nuclear weaponry, the fear engendered shifted all attention at the multilateral level to nuclear weapons. Except in Europe where the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction Talks in Central Europe were initiated, conventional weapons disarmament did not attract multilateral attention again until the First Special Session of the United nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament in 1978. The Final Document of the Special Session did accord highest priority to negotiations on nuclear weapons. However, it also affirmed that side by side with negotiations on nuclear weapons, the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be resolutely pursued within the framework of general and complete disarmament. States with the largest military arsenals, it was stated, had a special responsibility in pursuing conventional armaments reduction. Underscoring the central role of Europe further, the Final Document postulated that the achievement of a more stable situation at a lower level of military potential would contribute toward strengthening of security in Europe and constitute a significant step toward international peace and security

  18. Environmental Assessment for the centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for the proposed centralization and upgrading of the sanitary wastewater system on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact and Floodplain Statement of Findings

  19. EXPERIENCE SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION PROJECT OF PLACING A SOURCE OF IONIZING RADIATION (GENERATING) IN HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Rakitin; A. L. Zel’din; V. B. Karpov

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the results of long-term sanitary-epidemiological examination of projects of placing of ionizing radiation (generating) sources in health care institutions of Saint-Petersburg. The majority among the placed sources presented for examination was X-ray diagnostic units and sets – 35.7%, dentist X-rays – 39.4% and fluorography units – 10.8%. Mammography units and computer tomographs made 6.7% each, accelerants – 0.7%.The most frequent reasons of primary refusals to accept des...

  20. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...

  1. Retention of Employees in Ceramic Sanitary Ware Factories in India: Role of Work Life Balance, Career Development and Supervisor Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Umamaheswari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the role of work life balance, career development and supervisor support on organization commitment over employees of unattended, ceramic sanitary ware factories in India. It also verifies the influence of organization commitment on retention and its mediating role. Findings reveal that organization commitment influences retention and all the above factors enhance it. Moreover, organization commitment partially mediates the relationship between proposed factors and retention. It also found that organization’s career development provision alone is not enough and need to be modified according to the employer’s expectation. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research were discussed.

  2. Dai bisogni di salute al consumo di risorse sanitarie in provincia di Bergamo: profilo degli indicatori di bisogno, domanda, offerta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zucchi

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: la complessità interpretativa dei dati relativi ad alcuni fenomeni sanitari a livello territoriale impone la necessità di uno strumento semplice di lettura “epidemiologica”; tale lettura si fonda sull’utilizzo di una serie di “indicatori”, fondamenta di un processo dinamico di monitoraggio temporale e spaziale in grado di descrivere sinteticamente fenomeni di per sé complessi, al fine di fornire al decisore un supporto sintetico ma scientificamente solido.

    Obiettivi: istituzione di un sistema di monitoraggio sanitario community-based; definizione di indicatori sanitari comparabili tramite un esame critico dei dati esistenti; sviluppo di metodologie per la raccolta e la validazione dei dati; supporto alla creazione di un sistema efficace e affidabile di trasferimento e scambio dei dati e degli indicatori stessi con uso spinto della tecnologia telematica; elaborazione di metodi e di strumenti necessari alla produzione di analisi e relazioni.

    Materiali e metodi: gli indicatori analizzati fanno riferimento
    all’elenco definito dal decreto ministeriale n. 27 del 12 dicembre 2001 “sistema di garanzie per il monitoraggio dell’assistenza sanitaria”. A questo elenco ne sono stati aggiunti altri, per un totale di 127, divisi in grandi capitoli tematici: assistenza sanitaria, assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera, indicatori stato di salute, consumo di risorse sanitarie (cui è stato dato particolare enfasi, indicatori di domanda/accessibilità. Per definire infine un
    profilo di sintesi di questi grandi capitoli e delle relative
    eterogeneità territoriali si è successivamente applicata la tecnica statistica dello “z-score”.
    Risultati: le differenze emerse a livello distrettuale hanno permesso di disegnare una ‘mappa’ degli indicatori sanitari in provincia di Bergamo.

    Conclusioni:i risultati di

  3. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  4. Role of Community in Swachh Bharat Mission. Their Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Sanitary Latrine Usage in Rural Areas, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, R; Dutta, Ruma; Raja, J Dinesh; Lawrence, D; Timsi, J; Sivaprakasam, P

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the "Swachh Bharat Mission" to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.

  5. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, M.; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options

  6. Conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M. E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at; Lindbichler, F.; Sinzig, M

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To briefly describe basic conventional imaging in paediatric uroradiology. Method: The state of the art performance of standard imaging techniques (intravenous urography (IVU), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and ultrasound (US)) is described, with emphasis on technical aspects, indications, and patient preparation such as adequate hydration. Only basic applications as used in routine clinical work are included. Result and conclusion: Conventional imaging methods are irreplaceable. They cover the majority of daily clinical routine queries, with consecutive indication of more sophisticated modalities in those patients who need additional imaging for establishing the final diagnosis or outlining therapeutic options.

  7. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  8. Conventional and unconventional political participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    A non-recursive model is proposed and empirically tested with data of opponents of nuclear power. In explaining conventional and unconventional participation the theory of collective action is applied and modified in two respects: the perceived influence on the elimination of collective evils are taken into account; the selective incentives considered are non-material ones. These modifications proved to be valid: the collective good variables and non-material incentives were important determinants for the two forms of participation. Another result was that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between conventional and unconventional participation. (orig./PW) [de

  9. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  10. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the

  11. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces - an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=-2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ (2)=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ (2)=42.92, p=0.0005×10(-7)) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to empower women, avert further health risks, and

  12. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  13. Panorama 2017 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, spending on exploration is expected to decline by approximately 35% for the second consecutive year (total exploration-production is down 24%). However, volumes discovered through conventional exploration should only fall by 25% due to several significant discoveries, particularly in Alaska and West Africa. The largest discovery in 2016 was an unconventional Permian shale basin in the United States, which could alone contain as many hydrocarbons as all of the year's conventional discoveries combined

  14. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  15. Methodology for the design of Santa Rosa de Cabal sanitary landfill, Risaralda; Metodologia para el diseno del relleno sanitario de Santa Rosa de Cabal, Risaralda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, J; Orozco, J

    1992-07-01

    In 1987 the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Risaralda, CARDER and the Risaralda Government, they signed a cooperation agreement, in order to endowing from sanitary landfill to the municipalities of the department. In the mark of this agreement it was carried out the design of Santa Rosa's sanitary landfill, that with near 50.000 inhabitants it is constituted in the third city of the department. This city generates some 25 tons/day of garbage that at the present time are heady directly to the waters of San Eugenio River. The present work contains the most important methodological aspects in the design of the sanitary landfill and some comments about the approaches ideal Vs real approaches of selection of places.

  16. Conventional and Non-Conventional Yeasts in Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Capece

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of beer relies on the activity of fermenting yeasts, not only for their good fermentation yield-efficiency, but also for their influence on beer aroma, since most of the aromatic compounds are intermediate metabolites and by-products of yeast metabolism. Beer production is a traditional process, in which Saccharomyces is the sole microbial component, and any deviation is considered a flaw. However, nowadays the brewing sector is faced with an increasing demand for innovative products, and it is diffusing the use of uncharacterized autochthonous starter cultures, spontaneous fermentation, or non-Saccharomyces starters, which leads to the production of distinctive and unusual products. Attempts to obtain products with more complex sensory characteristics have led one to prospect for non-conventional yeasts, i.e., non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These generally are characterized by low fermentation yields and are more sensitive to ethanol stress, but they provide a distinctive aroma and flavor. Furthermore, non-conventional yeasts can be used for the production of low-alcohol/non-alcoholic and light beers. This review aims to present the main findings about the role of traditional and non-conventional yeasts in brewing, demonstrating the wide choice of available yeasts, which represents a new biotechnological approach with which to target the characteristics of beer and to produce different or even totally new beer styles.

  17. Public health assessment for Freeway Sanitary Landfill, Burnsville, Dakota County, Minnesota, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MND038384004. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Freeway Sanitary Landfill National Priorities List (NPL) site in Burnsville, Minnesota is situated in the Lower Minnesota River Valley. Shallow groundwater beneath the site is contaminated with low levels of volatile organic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Under current conditions, no human exposures to site-related contaminants are known to occur at levels of health concern. Based on currently available information, the Minnesota Department of Health concludes that the site poses an indeterminate public health hazard under current conditions because exposure to volatile gases released to the air is possible, but cannot be evaluated from the very limited information available. There are also a few physical hazards on the site which pose a risk of accident or injury if trespassing occurs. Otherwise, there are no indications that people have been, or are being, exposed to site-related contaminants at levels that would be of health concern. The Agency For Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Health Activities Recommendation Panel has evaluated the Freeway Sanitary Landfill Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up activities. The Panel has recommended that health education be considered to assist site workers in better understanding their potential for exposure to landfill gases

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  19. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  20. [Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida; Capalonga, Roberta; Silveira, Joice Trindade; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar; Cardoso, Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state schools, 60% had never been visited by a nutritionist and in these schools several procedures failed to comply with legal requirements. In most of the schools studied, the food served to students was within adequate standards, though the problems detected revealed the need for the implementation of Best Practices in the school environment.

  1. [Sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in Brazil: a study of the law bills from 1988 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Isa Cristina Lopes; Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2010-11-01

    This study analyses law bills towards the sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in the mass media presented to the Brazilian Congress from 1988 to 2004. The sanitary control of this advertising is a controversial issue bringing about an ethical-political debate in which the health-protecting interests conflict with commercial ones even after scientific evidence has established increasing alcohol intake as a health and social issue worldwide. The content analysis of 67 of such law bills was carried out, and these proposals were shown to consist mostly of strategies to both cope with alcohol advertising by dissociating from the product those values that might interfere with the children and teenagers' building of their social identity and limit advertisement contents in the mass media given the higher vulnerability of the subjects in that age range. This study reveals complexes challenges for the control of alcohol advertisement that in turn lead to rethinking the action of the State apparatus in dealing with this major public health issue.

  2. PROJECTS ON AIRPORTS, AIRFIELDS, HELICOPTER AERODROMES AND LANDING GROUNDS SANITARY PROTECTION AREAS AS THE BASIS OF THEIR ACTIVITY COMPLIANCE ASSESSMENT TO ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Kartyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years experience of the development of domestic airports sanitary protection zones projects in civil aviation based on Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.2.1/2.1.1.1200-03 requirements is analyzed, the reasons of loss of quality of project works and delaying of coordination terms at the last stage of the development are established. It is shown that among the main reasons for current negative situation with projects development and coordination are: absence of a check algorithm of settlement borders of areas and contours of aviation noise with the use of natural researches methods in Sanitary Regulations and Norms 2.2.1/2.1.1.1200-03; absence of methods of amendment in projects and regulations of establishment of the airport sanitary protection zones final dimensions. Examples of oversized and undersized noise areas and ones of the polluting substances dispersion as well as the reasons of local authorities’ interests in it are given.Conceptional strategies which should be used in the edition of a new Russian conservancy normative document regulating the development of projects on sanitary protection areas. New document will allow to consider various factors of negative environmental impact of the airports, airfields, helicopter aerodromes and landing grounds activities.It is offered to introduce the concept of "aviation noise set index operational card", which will solve the legitimation problem of the aviation noise account in the State Immovable Property Cadaster. Suggestions on equivalent and maximum level magnitude of the sound made at the residential territory of cities and urban-type settlements by flights and aircraft ground operation are given.Standards are supposed to be harmonized with similar international rules and have to provide zone gradation by 5 dBA.Suggestions on the considerations of the revealed deficiencies are made, requirements to project sections structure of sanitary protection zones are formulated, proposals on the

  3. The main trends of interaction of sanitary-epidemiological teams in the system of the Russian service of disaster medicine in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichenko, A.I.; Zhuravleva, V.E.; Varenikov, I.I.; Komarova, V.V.; Borisov, B.K.; Pozhidaev, A.E.; Pozhidaeva, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    For improvement of the system of prevention of emergency situations (ES) and for rendering emergency therapeutic-prophylactic and sanitary-epidemiological aid to population in case of ES the paper has determined and proved the first and foremost tasks which are to be settled by joint efforts of the Russian Centre on Disaster Medicine Zashchita and Scientific-practical Center of hygienic expert survey for practical perfection of the efficient forms of interaction of medical-sanitary forces engaged in work in ES. 4 refs

  4. Quasisymmetry equations for conventional stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    1994-11-01

    General quasisymmetry condition, which demands the independence of B 2 on one of the angular Boozer coordinates, is reduced to two equations containing only geometrical characteristics and helical field of a stellarator. The analysis is performed for conventional stellarators with a planar circular axis using standard stellarator expansion. As a basis, the invariant quasisymmetry condition is used. The quasisymmetry equations for stellarators are obtained from this condition also in an invariant form. Simplified analogs of these equations are given for the case when averaged magnetic surfaces are circular shifted torii. It is shown that quasisymmetry condition can be satisfied, in principle, in a conventional stellarator by a proper choice of two satellite harmonics of the helical field in addition to the main harmonic. Besides, there appears a restriction on the shift of magnetic surfaces. Thus, in general, the problem is closely related with that of self-consistent description of a configuration. (author)

  5. [Malaria in the southern sanitary district of Dakar (Senegal). 2. Entomologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Konate, L; Faye, O; Ndir, O; Faye, M; Gueye, A; Diouf, M

    1998-01-01

    To complete a parasitological survey, entomological prospections were carried out in the southern sanitary District of Dakar, the most urbanized of the city and which includes the city centre and the oldest administrative districts. The prospections took place between June 1994 and May 1995 in sites 1.5 km apart, and distributed in such a manner that they covered the entire area. On a monthly basis, female Culicidae were collected in each site at night on human volunteers, followed the next day by the collection of early morning residual fauna in 10 bedrooms located in district concessions. For a total of 308 collections at night on human volunteers and from 1,510 rooms for the residual fauna, 22,901 female Culicidae were caught of which 167 anopheles, corresponding to 0.7%, the remaining 98.5% being Culex quinquefasciatus. This was the species that thus explained the mosquito-nuisance of which the inhabitants of the southern District complained during the period of survey. The female anopheles collected belonged to 2 species, An. arabiensis for 97.6% of those caught and An. pharoensis for 2.4%. An. arabiensis were very slightly represented in the southern District with a density of aggressive females of 0.26 bite/man/night (B/M/N) and a density per room of 0.05 female. The aggressive populations appeared to be relatively important only at the end of the rainy season (September-October) with an average of 0.65 B/M/N in sites located at the periphery of the district with a maximum of 1.33 B/M/N. The highest density of endophilic females registered at the end of the rainy season was 0.1 and its highest value in a given site was 0.36 female/room. The parturity rate of aggressive females was 43.5% and those collected in houses of 84% with an anthropophilic index of 0.98. None of the dissected An. arabiensis females (77.3% of those collected) was a carrier of Plasmodium sporozoites and the circum-sporozoite antigen was not found. A very weak density of An. arabiensis

  6. 药物联合认知行为治疗对精神分裂症患者自我效能感的影响%Effect of Conventional Medicine Combined with Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Self Efficacy of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小豆; 张宏强; 巍琼

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of routine drug therapy combined with cognitive behavior therapy on self efficacy of patients with schizophrenia.Methods:Schizophrenia patient treated in our hospital from February 2014 to August 2015 were selected as the observation object,and randomly divided into control group and observation group;each group had 40 patients.The control group was given routine drug treatment;The observation group was given cognitive behavior therapy based on conventional treatment.The control group was given routine drug treat-ment;the observation group was given cognitive behavior therapy based on conventional treatment.Before and after treatment,the treatment effects were investigated by using negative symptoms and positive symptom scale(PAN-SS),intelligence measuring instruments,adult recognized cognitive assessment(MCCB)and self efficacy scale.Re-sults:Before treatment,there was no significant difference in self-efficacy between the two groups,and the self-ef-ficacy scores of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group after treatment for 3 and 6 months(t =-3.115,-2.736;P 0.05),治疗3个月和6个月时,观察组自我效能得分明显高于对照组(t=-3.115,-2.736;P<0.01);治疗前两组患者的PANSS总分和各因子得分无明显差别,治疗后3个月和6个月时,观察组的PANSS总分和各因子得分低于对照组(t=8.286,4.745,5.030,10.018;P<0.001);治疗前两组患者的瑞文智力测验结果无明显差别,治疗后3个月和6个月时,观察组瑞文智力测验结果高于对照组(t=-3.148,-4.812;P<0.001);两组患者治疗前MCCB测验各项得分无明显差别,治疗后3个月和6个月时,观察组MCCB得分明显高于对照组.结论:常规药物联合认知行为治疗对精神分裂症患者有较好的治疗效果,可明显提高患者的自我效能,改善其临床症状.

  7. EXPERIENCE SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION PROJECT OF PLACING A SOURCE OF IONIZING RADIATION (GENERATING IN HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rakitin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the results of long-term sanitary-epidemiological examination of projects of placing of ionizing radiation (generating sources in health care institutions of Saint-Petersburg. The majority among the placed sources presented for examination was X-ray diagnostic units and sets – 35.7%, dentist X-rays – 39.4% and fluorography units – 10.8%. Mammography units and computer tomographs made 6.7% each, accelerants – 0.7%.The most frequent reasons of primary refusals to accept design documentation were: absence of calculations of protection against all placed diagnostic X-ray devices (23.6% – at placing of diagnostic X-ray sets, 16.2% – at placing of dentist devices, absence of the upper floors layouts (26.5% – at placing of dentist X-rays and absence of permitting documentation for X-ray devices (at placing of dentist X-ray devices – 22.2%.At carrying out of design activity of special importance is creation of medical and technical projects which were absent in 22.9% of presented projects and in 34.6% were replaced with technical projects. Significant drawbacks of the projects were ignoring the necessity to consider the distance from the personnel workplaces and the width of technical passes (34.0%. That was caused by the absence of corresponding documentation from suppliers of equipment for X-ray rooms.At calculation of protection against X-ray radiation in 11.3% of projects of placing X-ray diagnostic devices (sets and in 7.7% of projects of placing dentist X-ray devices, radiation directivity factors (N were determined incorrectly.Of importance is the issue of adequate choice of building and finishing materials. In 50.0% of projects of placing of diagnostic X-ray devices (sets and 37.6% of projects of placing dentist X-ray devices there were no sanitary-epidemiological conclusions regarding the building and finishing materials to confirming their feasibility for healthcare institutions.Analysis of the main stages

  8. Reversing the conventional leather processing sequence for cleaner leather production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanabhavan, Subramani; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2006-02-01

    Conventional leather processing generally involves a combination of single and multistep processes that employs as well as expels various biological, inorganic, and organic materials. It involves nearly 14-15 steps and discharges a huge amount of pollutants. This is primarily due to the fact that conventional leather processing employs a "do-undo" process logic. In this study, the conventional leather processing steps have been reversed to overcome the problems associated with the conventional method. The charges of the skin matrix and of the chemicals and pH profiles of the process have been judiciously used for reversing the process steps. This reversed process eventually avoids several acidification and basification/neutralization steps used in conventional leather processing. The developed process has been validated through various analyses such as chromium content, shrinkage temperature, softness measurements, scanning electron microscopy, and physical testing of the leathers. Further, the performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through bulk property evaluation. The process enjoys a significant reduction in COD and TS by 53 and 79%, respectively. Water consumption and discharge is reduced by 65 and 64%, respectively. Also, the process benefits from significant reduction in chemicals, time, power, and cost compared to the conventional process.

  9. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  10. Apocryphal Angels in Nun Convents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ávila Vivar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The preponderance of studies about viceregal angelic series, and the widespread belief that the representation of apocryphal angels is a specific peculiarity of viceregal angelology, have created such a close relation between it and the apocryphal angels, that they are even considered as synonymous. However, both the texts and the presence of this angels in the spanish convents of the XVII century, evidence that the apocryphal angels appeared and they were represented in Spain long before that in its american viceregal. Therefore, it is here where their origins and their meaning should be sought.

  11. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  12. All-solution-processed organic solar cells with conventional architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, J.J. van; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Gorter, H.; Hendriks, K.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hadipour, A.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Galagan, Y.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All-solution processed organic solar cells with a conventional device structure were demonstrated. The evaporated low work function LiF/Al electrode was replaced by a printed high work function silver electrode combined with an additional electron transport layer (ETL). Two electron

  13. All-solution-processed organic solar cells with conventional architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.J.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Gorter, H.; Hendriks, K.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Hadipour, A.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    All-solution processed organic solar cells with a conventional device structure were demonstrated. The evaporated low work function LiF/Al electrode was replaced by a printed high work function silver electrode combined with an additional electron transport layer (ETL). Two electron transport layers

  14. 33 CFR 165.923 - Regulated Navigation Area between mile markers 296.1 and 296.7 of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area between mile markers 296.1 and 296.7 of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal located near Romeoville, IL. 165.923 Section 165.923 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED...

  15. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Methodological guide.; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glorennec, Ph.; Nourry, L [Cellule Inter-Regionale d' Epidemiologie (France); Quenel, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The institute of sanitary watch has setting up an epidemiological surveillance plan in nine french towns in order to quantify and to keep a close eye to the relations existing between the urban air pollution and the populations health.The method is detailed with its advantages and its limits. (N.C.)

  16. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Offsite Portion of the Potential Release Site-7 Abandoned Sanitary Line, Miamisburg Closure Project, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The ORISE objective was to confirm that the remedial action process implemented by the contractor was in accordance with the PRS-7 Work Package. Following removal of the sanitary line, the soil beneath the line would be sampled to determine if remediation was required (ARC 2007a).

  17. Diverticular Disease: Reconsidering Conventional Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Anne F.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Colonic diverticula are common in developed countries and complications of colonic diverticulosis are responsible for a significant burden of disease. Several recent publications have called into question long held beliefs about diverticular disease. Contrary to conventional wisdom, studies have not shown that a high fiber diet protects against asymptomatic diverticulosis. The risk of developing diverticulitis among individuals with diverticulosis is lower than the 10–25% commonly quoted, and may be as low as 1% over 11 years. Nuts and seeds do not increase the risk of diverticulitis or diverticular bleeding. It is unclear whether diverticulosis, absent diverticulitis or overt colitis, is responsible for chronic gastrointestinal symptoms or worse quality of life. The role of antibiotics in acute diverticulitis has been challenged by a large randomized trial that showed no benefit in selected patients. The decision to perform elective surgery should be made on a case-by-case basis and not routinely after a second episode of diverticulitis, when there has been a complication, or in young people. A colonoscopy should be performed to exclude colon cancer after an attack of acute diverticulitis but may not alter outcomes among individuals who have had a colonoscopy prior to the attack. Given these surprising findings, it is time to reconsider conventional wisdom about diverticular disease. PMID:23669306

  18. Forecasting Economic, Social and Environmental Growth in the Sanitary and Service Sector Based on Thailand's Sustainable Development Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to forecast the long run implementation of Thailand’s sustainable development policy in three main aspects, including economic, social and environmental aspect for the the sanitary and service sectors from 2016 until 2045. According to the national data for the years 2000–2015, based on the ARIMAX model, it has been found that Thai economy system is potentially changed and growing rapidly by 25.76%, the population has grown by 7.15%, and the Greenhouse gas emissions will gradually increase by 49.65%, in the year 2045. However, based on the analysis above, if Thailand fails to run the afore-mentioned policy properly, it will be difficulto successfully implement sustainable development, because the increased emission is moving in the same direction with economy and social aspect of Thailand.

  19. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  20. Role of sanitary and epidemiologic service of Gomel region aimed to minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchenovich, V. I.; Zinovich, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident leads to the organization and realization large-scale actions for liquidation of its consequences. In the structure of state public health service was created complete system of radiation protection. In the first days after Chernobyl accident sanitary and epidemiologic service of the Gomel region developed recommendations on working conditions in agriculture, mode of operation of all kinds of food enterprises, rest of children and adults, behavior of the population, the organization of the radiometric control of food stuffs and water. The division of a radiation control ware organized at the regional centers of hygiene and epidemiologic under the control external irradiation dozes as the basic part of the population lived in territories with high density of the radioactive contamination

  1. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-12-07

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  2. Implementing the chemical weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty

  3. Socio-sanitary profile and information for living kidney donors and recipients in three Andalusian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-Ángel Calvo-Calvo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information provided by health professionals to potential donors and recipients is essential for an autonomous and objective decision to make a living kidney donation. Objectives: To determine the characteristics of the information received by living kidney donors and recipients, to find out their socio-sanitary profile, their socio-demographics, financial and labor characteristics, health and the caregiving activity of these donors and recipients. Methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of the population of living kidney donors and recipients from the University Hospitals Puerta del Mar (Cádiz, Virgen del Rocío (Seville, and the University Hospital Complex of Granada, between 08/04/2014 and 08/06/2015. Results and conclusions: According to the 40 living kidney donors and their 40 recipients surveyed, it is mainly nephrologists who make people aware and provide information about living kidney donation. Almost half of recipients require more information so the evaluation processes and pre-donation information should be updated. In general, the living kidney donor is female, aged 50, with primary/secondary education, lives with a partner and is related to the kidney recipient. Also, the living kidney donor is in paid employment, is overweight, perceives her health as very good or good, and does not smoke or drink alcohol. However, the typical living kidney recipient is male, aged 44 and has completed secondary school studies and vocational training. Furthermore, he does not work, perceives his health as good or regular, and he is an independent person for activities of daily living. Resumen: Antecedentes: La información suministrada por profesionales sanitarios a posibles donantes y receptores es fundamental para una decisión autónoma y objetiva de donar un riñón en vida. Objetivos: Conocer las características de la información que reciben los donantes y receptores renales de vivo, averiguando su perfil

  4. Optimal sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio for post weaning piglets reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Kahindi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two 14-day experiments, each with 90 (Duroc × [Yorkshire × Landrace]; 7.3 ± 0.6 kg piglets, were conducted to determine the optimum sulfur amino acid (SAA to lysine (Lys ratio (SAA:Lys for piglets when reared under clean or unclean sanitary conditions using performance and non-performance response criteria. Piglets were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments. The basal diet contained 1.18% standardized ileal digestible (SID Lys, and the SAA:Lys was 52%. In diets 2 to 5, the basal diet was supplemented with 4 graded levels of dl-Met to make SAA:Lys of 56%, 60%, 64% and 68%. In Exp. 1, piglets were housed in disinfected clean room. In Exp. 2, piglets were housed in a room previously occupied by other pigs and was not disinfected. On the last day, blood was collected to measure plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and one pig per pen was euthanized to collect jejunal tissue to measure villus height (VH, crypt depth (CD, and VH:CD. In Exp. 1, increasing SAA:Lys linearly and quadratically increased VH and VH:CD (P < 0.05. In Exp. 2, increasing SAA:Lys linearly increased (P < 0.05 VH and VH:CD and linearly and quadratically decreased PUN (P < 0.05. Estimated PUN and VH-based optimum SAA:Lys requirements for clean and unclean sanitary condition were 60%, 63% and 66%, respectively.

  5. Schoolgirls' experience and appraisal of menstrual absorbents in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional evaluation of reusable sanitary pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Scott, Linda; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-12-07

    Governments, multinational organisations, and charities have commenced the distribution of sanitary products to address current deficits in girls' menstrual management. The few effectiveness studies conducted have focused on health and education outcomes but have failed to provide quantitative assessment of girls' preferences, experiences of absorbents, and comfort. Objectives of the study were, first, to quantitatively describe girls' experiences with, and ratings of reliability and acceptability of different menstrual absorbents. Second, to compare ratings of freely-provided reusable pads (AFRIpads) to other existing methods of menstrual management. Finally, to assess differences in self-reported freedom of activity during menses according to menstrual absorbent. Cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data from the final survey of a controlled trial of reusable sanitary padand puberty education provision was undertaken. Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls from eight schools in rural Uganda. 72 girls who reported using the intervention-provided reusable pads were compared to those using existing improvised methods (predominately new or old cloth). Schoolgirls using reusable pads provided significantly higher ratings of perceived absorbent reliability across activities, less difficulties changing absorbents, and less disgust with cleaning absorbents. There were no significant differences in reports of outside garment soiling (OR 1.00 95%CI 0.51-1.99), or odour (0.84 95%CI 0.40-1.74) during the last menstrual period. When girls were asked if menstruation caused them to miss daily activities there were no differences between those using reusable pads and those using other existing methods. However, when asked about activities avoided during menstruation, those using reusable pads participated less in physical sports, working in the field, fetching water, and cooking. Reusable pads were rated favourably. This translated into some benefits for self

  6. [THE CONDITION AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL AND SANITARY MICROBIOLOGY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Shepelin, A P; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-08-01

    The import substitution becomes one of the strategic tasks of national economy as a result of prolongation of economic sanctions concerning the Russian Federation of part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other countries. It is not proper to be limited in import substitution only by goods because in conditions ofsanctions when access toforeign technologies is complicated Russia is needed to substitute foreign technologies by national designs in faster manner One of directions of effective import substitution is localization of production of laboratory equipment and consumables for clinical and sanitary microbiology on the territory ofthe Russian Federation and countries of Customs union. In Russia, in the field ofdiagnostic of dangerous and socially significant infections, all components for import substitution to implement gene diagnostic, immune diagnostic. bio-sensory and biochip approaches, isolation and storage of live microbial cultures, implementation of high-tech methods of diagnostic are available. At the same time, national diagnostic instrument-making industry for microbiology is factually absent. The few devices of national production more than on 50% consist of import components. The microbiological laboratories are to be equipped only with import devices of open type for applying national components. The most perspective national designs to be implemented are multiplex polimerase chain reaction test-systems and biochips on the basis of national plotters and readers. The modern development of diagnostic equipment and diagnostic instruments requires supplement of national collections of bacterial and viral pathogens and working-through of organizational schemes of supplying collections with strains. The presented data concerning justification of nomenclature of laboratory equipment and consumables permits to satisfy in fill scope the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in devices, growth mediums, consumables of national production

  7. A study of the presence of methane and other gases at the Pulau Burung sanitary landfill site, Penang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslanzairi Mostapa; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Lakam Mejus; Mohd Rifaie Mohd Murtadza

    2006-01-01

    This paperwork explains the investigation and measurement of the presence of the landfill gases that is methane (CH 4 ) and other gases that include oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), chlorine (Cl 2 ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) that were carried out at the Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill disposal site, Penang on the month of March and June 2005. The objectives of this study are to investigate the presence of methane which could contribute to the safety aspect on explosion hazard and discuss briefly the viability of methane for power generation. For this purpose, direct gas measurements were taken from 31 gas wells from the first phase of the landfill. Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill which is located in the state of Penang, Malaysia with the amount of design volume capacity of 0.85 million m3 and received approximately 350 ton of solid waste per day. From the study, it was found that the concentration of CH 4 averagely ranges from 3.66 % vol to 65.96 % vol. Other gases concentrations are; CO 2 (1.46 %vol - 39.66 % vol), O 2 (0.4 %vol - 14.2 %vol), SO 2 (1.8 ppm - 8.6 ppm), NO x (0.14 ppm - 0.46 ppm), Cl 2 (0.1 ppm - 0.58 ppm), HCN (1 ppm - 138.4 ppm) and H 2 S (0.4 ppm - 140 ppm). Methane dilution down to Explosion Limit (EL) levels that is between 5% (Lower Explosion Limit, LEL) and 15% (Upper Explosion Limit, UEL) is always possible and could poses explosion risk at the site. The viability of power generation from methane gas depends on many factors which will be discussed further in this paper. Most of these factors will rely on the nature of the operation by the landfill operator. (Author)

  8. Role of community in swachh bharat mission. their knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrine usage in rural areas, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the “Swachh Bharat Mission” to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. Objective: To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. Results: The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. Conclusions: To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.

  9. Menstruation and the Cycle of Poverty: A Cluster Quasi-Randomised Control Trial of Sanitary Pad and Puberty Education Provision in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Steinfield, Laurel; Scott, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Poor menstrual knowledge and access to sanitary products have been proposed as barriers to menstrual health and school attendance. In response, interventions targeting these needs have seen increasing implementation in public and private sectors. However, there has been limited assessment of their effectiveness. Assess the impact of providing reusable sanitary pads and puberty education on girls' school attendance and psychosocial wellbeing outcomes. A cluster quasi-randomised controlled trial was conducted across 8 schools, including 1124 girls, in rural Uganda. Schools were allocated to one of four conditions: the provision of puberty education alone; reusable sanitary pads alone; puberty education and reusable sanitary pads; and a control (no intervention). The primary outcome was school attendance. Secondary outcomes reflected psychosocial wellbeing. At follow-up, school attendance had worsened for girls across all conditions. Per-protocol analysis revealed that this decline was significantly greater for those in the control condition d = 0.52 (95%CI 0.26-0.77), with those in control schools having a 17.1% (95%CI: 8.7-25.5) greater drop in attendance than those in any intervention school. There were no differences between the intervention conditions. High rates of school drop-out and transfer meant the trial suffered from substantial participant drop-out. Intention-to-treat analyses using two different imputation strategies were consistent with the main results, with mean differences of 5.2% attendance in best-case and 24.5% in worst-case imputations. Results were robust to adjustments for clustering. There was no impact of the interventions on girls' self-reported shame or insecurity during menstruation. Results of the trial support the hypothesised positive impact of providing sanitary pads or puberty education for girls' school attendance in a developing country context. Findings must be interpreted with caution in light of poor participant retention

  10. Conventional power sources for colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1987-07-01

    At SLAC we are developing high peak-power klystrons to explore the limits of use of conventional power sources in future linear colliders. In an experimental tube we have achieved 150 MW at 1 μsec pulse width at 2856 MHz. In production tubes for SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) we routinely achieve 67 MW at 3.5 μsec pulse width and 180 pps. Over 200 of the klystrons are in routine operation in SLC. An experimental klystron at 8.568 GHz is presently under construction with a design objective of 30 MW at 1 μsec. A program is starting on the relativistic klystron whose performance will be analyzed in the exploration of the limits of klystrons at very short pulse widths

  11. Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvi A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS is an accepted procedure for elective splenectomy. Advancement in technology has extended the possibility of LS in massive splenomegaly [Choy et al., J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 14(4, 197-200 (2004], trauma [Ren et al., Surg Endosc 15(3, 324 (2001; Mostafa et al., Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 12(4, 283-286 (2002], and cirrhosis with portal hypertension [Hashizume et al., Hepatogastroenterology 49(45, 847-852 (2002]. In a developing country, these advanced gadgets may not be always available. We performed LS using conventional and reusable instruments in a public teaching the hospital without the use of the advanced technology. The technique of LS and the outcome in these patients is reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Patients undergoing LS for various hematological disorders from 1998 to 2004 were included. Electrocoagulation, clips, and intracorporeal knotting were the techniques used for tackling short-gastric vessels and splenic pedicle. Specimen was delivered through a Pfannensteil incision. RESULTS : A total of 26 patients underwent LS. Twenty-two (85% of patients had spleen size more than 500 g (average weight being 942.55 g. Mean operative time was 214 min (45-390 min. The conversion rate was 11.5% ( n = 3. Average duration of stay was 5.65 days (3-30 days. Accessory spleen was detected and successfully removed in two patients. One patient developed subphrenic abscess. There was no mortality. There was no recurrence of hematological disease. CONCLUSION : Laparoscopic splenectomy using conventional equipment and instruments is safe and effective. Advanced technology has a definite advantage but is not a deterrent to the practice of LS.

  12. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  13. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  14. Digital Versus Conventional Impressions in Fixed Prosthodontics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlholm, Pekka; Sipilä, Kirsi; Vallittu, Pekka; Jakonen, Minna; Kotiranta, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of possible benefits and accuracy of digital impression techniques vs. conventional impression techniques. Reports of digital impression techniques versus conventional impression techniques were systematically searched for in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science. A combination of controlled vocabulary, free-text words, and well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria guided the search. Digital impression accuracy is at the same level as conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression accuracy is clinically acceptable. In full-arch impressions, conventional impression methods resulted in better accuracy compared to digital impressions. Digital impression techniques are a clinically acceptable alternative to conventional impression methods in fabrication of crowns and short FDPs. For fabrication of implant-supported crowns and FDPs, digital impression systems also result in clinically acceptable fit. Digital impression techniques are faster and can shorten the operation time. Based on this study, the conventional impression technique is still recommended for full-arch impressions. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Conventional and advanced liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Mladenović Nataša L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and independence, increase and fluctuation of the oil price, fossil fuel resources depletion and global climate change are some of the greatest challanges facing societies today and in incoming decades. Sustainable economic and industrial growth of every country and the world in general requires safe and renewable resources of energy. It has been expected that re-arrangement of economies towards biofuels would mitigate at least partially problems arised from fossil fuel consumption and create more sustainable development. Of the renewable energy sources, bioenergy draws major and particular development endeavors, primarily due to the extensive availability of biomass, already-existence of biomass production technologies and infrastructure, and biomass being the sole feedstock for liquid fuels. The evolution of biofuels is classified into four generations (from 1st to 4th in accordance to the feedstock origin; if the technologies of feedstock processing are taken into account, than there are two classes of biofuels - conventional and advanced. The conventional biofuels, also known as the 1st generation biofuels, are those produced currently in large quantities using well known, commercially-practiced technologies. The major feedstocks for these biofuels are cereals or oleaginous plants, used also in the food or feed production. Thus, viability of the 1st generation biofuels is questionable due to the conflict with food supply and high feedstocks’ cost. This limitation favoured the search for non-edible biomass for the production of the advanced biofuels. In a general and comparative way, this paper discusses about various definitions of biomass, classification of biofuels, and brief overview of the biomass conversion routes to liquid biofuels depending on the main constituents of the biomass. Liquid biofuels covered by this paper are those compatible with existing infrastructure for gasoline and diesel and ready to be used in

  16. [Environmental effects of combined sewage detention tank in central Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiang; Lü, Yong-peng; Huang, Xiao-fang; Guo, Sheng

    2009-08-15

    Through measuring the processes of precipitation, discharge and pollutant concentration over 20 times from 2006 to 2008 in Chendulu combined sewerage system (CSS) along Suzhou Creek in central Shanghai, the environmental effects of Chendulu combined sewage detention tank (CSDT), the first running CSDT in China, were studied. The results show that CSDT could improve CSS discharge capacity effectively with promoted interception ratio from 3.87 to 6.90-9.92. The mean annual combined sewer overflow (CSO) reduction and reduction rate are 9.10 x 10(4) m3 and 9.00%, respectively, and those of sanitary waste discharged directly to Suzhou Creek in non-rain-weather are 8.37 x 10(4) m(3) and 100% , respectively. The mean annual pollutants decrease rate of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N and TP of CSO are 13.76%, 19.69%, 15.29%, 18.24% and 15.10%, respectively, and those CSO pollutants decrease 41.21 t, 12.37 t, 50.10 t, 2.12 t and 0.29 t annually, respectively. The CSDT also could decrease sanitary waste discharged to Suzhou Creek totally, and those decreased pollutants are 20.75 t, 4.87 t, 14.90 t, 4.49 t and 0.30 t annually, respectively. The analysis shows that the CSDT design standard, running models and rainfall characteristics are the important influencing factors to realize the environmental effects of CSDT.

  17. Evaluation of the sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Update version of the methodological guide; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Version actualisee du guide methodologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    In order to bring a help to the evaluation of effects of air quality on health, the Institute of Sanitary surveillance published in 1999 a method guide for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations of the urban air pollution. This work to prepare to an update version of the guide presents the first recommendations that can be made today for the realisation of sanitary impact evaluations at short and long term at a local level, taking into account the knowledge evolution. (N.C.)

  18. Beyond the Conventional Argonauts Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    professional and cultural experiences and their network in their home and host country to start up new firms in their home country. Following Schumpeter (1942) these firms are pr definition the outcome of innovative activities as the bifocality (Honig et al. 2010) of the transnational entrepreneurs allows...... for novel types of resource combinations and thus new products (i.e. new to the firm and market) and possible new organizational forms (e.g. double location sourcing). The centrality of transnational entrepreneurs within the ICT industry has been thoroughly documented in the US, Taiwan, China and India...

  19. Substantiation of optimum fill rate of the groups according to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of preschool educational institutions and risks of violations of children's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Rakitskiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of children in groups of preschool educational institutions (PEI of more than 22 people is accompanied by a deterioration of sanitary and hygienic state of the premises of group cells by chemical, biological and physical indicators. In the densely populated groups the content of phenol and formaldehyde in the air of playing and sleeping rooms reaches 2.2–4.6 MAC daily average, for 30 % increases the air contamination by the conditionally pathogenic flora (St. aureus, the level of noise impact during gaming sessions is up to 80 dBA. Direct dependence between the increase of morbidity of children by the allergic diseases of the respiratory organs and the skin, functional gastrointestinal disorders, acute viral and bacterial diseases and urinary tract infections with the index of fill rate of PEI groups (R 2 = 0,32–0,89; r≤0,035–0,0001 has been correlated. The risk of violations of physical development and development delay of biological maturation of children is increased by more than 1.5–2.0 times (OR = 1,51–2,17; DI = 1,1–3,01; p = 0.01–0.03 and reduce of the adaptive reserve of the cardiovascular, respiratory and autonomic nervous system and the development of functional disorders, including cognitive, increases in 1,2–10,0 times (OR = 1,2–10,11; DI = 1,11–18,81; p = 0.01–0.04. Longtime combined effects of chemical, biological and physical factors determine the formation of chronic physiological distress syndrome in children, manifesting by a change in metabolism, haematopoiesis, decreased cellular activity and humoral immune response, a violation of the intracellular mechanisms of antioxidant protection (p = 0,0001–0,017. The results of sanitaryhygienic, clinical laboratory and mathematical methods of research have established that the optimum fill rate of groups of standard PEIs of general developmental orientation should not exceed 14–16 children and the standard of playing or sleeping

  20. Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita C. Bragança de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Oliveira T.C.B., Curci V.C.L.M, Alves A.J.S., Morelli F.C.G., Buso D.S. & Queiroz L.H. [Hygienic and sanitary characteristics in milk-producing farms of settlement in northwestern São Paulo State.] Características higiênicas e sanitárias em propriedades produtoras de leite de assentamento da Região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:321- 326, 2015. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana, 793, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brasil. E-mail: lhqueiroz@fmva.unesp.br In order to check the hygienic and sanitary conditions of milk-producing farms from a settlement located at the northwestern region of São Paulo State, 62 of the resident families (246 people were interviewed by using a questionnaire which addressed since issues concerning to general infrastructure until animal health management. The results showed that: in all the farms water comes from wells and the sewage is disposed in septic tanks; the burning of domestic waste is a common practice in 90.3% of the farms; the average dairy herd cattle is 30.6 and the purchase of new animals is done from other farms within the same settlement; in all properties veterinary care is provided by ITESP’s (Land Institute of São Paulo State technicians and mastitis was the main disease of the herds occurring in 59,7% of the farms. Milk is collected in buckets or drums that are daily cleaned and stored in communal tanks distributed by the settlement. Alizarol is the only test performed every day. 100% of the farmers vaccinate their animals against foot and mouse disease and brucellosis, according to Official vaccination program. 62.9% of the interviewed owners do not eliminate correctly the carcasses. This study shows that properties needs infrastructure improvements, training of settlers to implementing measures of general and health