WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary authority wastewater

  1. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources.

  2. Wastewater Management in Tropical Monsoon Climates:Sanitary and Ecological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi,Juni; Giri,Rabindra Raj

    2012-01-01

    Since Thai people have traditionally used Thai-style toilets, wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand, is characterized by its water quality referred to as greywater without feces contamination. The water tends to be easily decomposed by microorganisms in sewers under hot and stagnant conditions. The contamination with night soil affected microbial fauna and flora of activated sludge formed in sewage works, as being suggested by simulated laboratory experiments. Nitrification was also promoted by the...

  3. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  4. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  5. Wastewater Characterization Survey Victor Valley, Wastewater Reclamation Authority and Hazardous Waste Survey at George AFB, Californi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    the activated sludge units. Settings on ref’-igerevion units are to be ret at minimun values, and the wastewater is to be kept in the ’■efrige...8217^^^^^ BODS cf 5< wage COD of Se-age Reactc Tenperature, T Sludge Vclune Index, SVI Mixed Liquor Suspended Sclics, KLSS Solios Fe-er.tion Time

  6. LOW- CAPACITY SLAUGHTERHOUSES STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT FOR THE APPROVAL PROVIDED FOR BY 853/2004 REGULATION. EXPERIENCES OF THE LOCAL SANITARY AUTHORITY OF THE PROVINCE OF BERGAMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paladino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For effect of CE 853/04 Regulation slaughterhouses authorized as low-capacity establishments under 91/497/CEE directive and 286/94 Decree, had to obtain the approval by 31/12/2009 to continue operating. This work illustrates the experience of the Veterinay Department of Bergamo Local Sanitary Authority about adjustment of low-capacity slaughterhouses to the requirements for by 852/04 and 853/04 Regulation. Here it’s illustrated the activity of the Veterinary Department and the evolution of slaughterhouses reality form 2006 to 2009. From a starting number of 154 low-capacity slaughterhouses operating in 2006, among which none conforming to the European Regulation, at the end of the adjustment activities we’ve reached the number of 85 approved slaughterhouses. To the significant reduction of the number of the establishments we associate the clear improvement of the hygiene standards, thanks to the punctual respect of the structural and functional requirements provided for by Regulations

  7. WASTEWATER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid in the ozonized wastewater were degraded completely by ... wastewater from pulp and paper plants pose serious environmental problems when they are ... support aquatic life (Stern & Gasner 1974), Gupta and Battacharya 1985).

  8. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  9. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  10. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  11. Technical-economical, agronomical, pedological, hygienic and normative aspects of municipal wastewater sludges; Aspetti tecnico-economici, agronomici, pedologici, igienico-sanitari e normativi dei fanghi di depurazione civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottavi, C. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Ottaviani, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Figliolia, A. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    This review is intended to give an overview on the technical, economical, agronomical, pedological and hygienic aspects of sludges from treatment plants of civil wastewater, Both Italian and European regulations on the sludge disposal are considered.

  12. INFLORESCENCE DEFORMATION ON NARROWLEAF CATTAIL (Typha angustifolia L. SUBMITTED TO SANITARY WASTEWATER DEFORMAÇÃO EM INFLORESCÊNCIA DE TABOA (Typha angustifolia L. SUBMETIDA A ESGOTO SANITÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of plants on wastewater treatment represents a low cost energy technology, which seems to be a good alternative to conventional systems. Based on this trend, narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L. plants on a root zone wastewater treatment were used. Plants submitted to wastewater showed 48.5% of their inflorescenses with deformations like double, triple and quadruple types. No differences on leaf nutrient contents of both deformed and normal inflorescenses were observed. This deformation was attributed to wastewater application, since no deformed plants has been found on natural environments.

    KEY-WORDS: Plant tissue analysis; wastewater treatment; root zone.

    A utilização de plantas no tratamento de esgoto representa uma tecnologia de baixos custos energéticos, que está se revelando como uma boa alternativa aos sistemas convencionais. Em vista dessa tendência, empregaram-se plantas de taboa (Typha angustifolia L. num sistema de tratamento de esgotos do tipo zona de raízes. As plantas submetidas ao esgoto sanitário apresentaram 48,5% de inflorescências com deformações dos tipos dupla, tripla ou quádrupla. Não se verificaram diferenças nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas das plantas, com e sem deformação na inflorescência. Atribuiu-se a ocorrência de deformações ao efeito da aplicação do esgoto, uma vez que não se observaram plantas com inflorescências deformadas em ambiente natural.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Análise foliar; tratamento de esgotos; zona.

  13. Presence of helminth eggs in wastewater sludge; Presencia de huevos de helmintos en fangos de depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GeovanPerez Ortiz, O. G.; Gomez Vera, D. [Estacion Depuradora de Aguas Residuales. Alboraia. Valencia (Spain); Faubell Brell, M. [Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I. [Entididad Publica de Saneamiento. Valencia (Spain); Bernabeu Adrian, A. [S. A. Agricultures de la Vega. Valencia (Spain); Amores Blasco, S. [Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Land application is one of the best options for the elimination of wastewater sludge, because sludge is useful as conditioner and fertilizer in soils. However, land application represents a sanitary hazards due to the sludge's content in pathogenic agents. Helminth eggs are among these agents, and their hardness and resistance to adverse environmental conditions allows them to survive in soils for months. With this in mind, we have launched a study of the presence of helminth eggs in the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant in Alboraia (Valencia). The results show a concentration of helminth eggs in digestion sludge of 27.000 eggs/kg dry matter. We discuss the potential sanitary relevant of these results and the need to continue with this evaluation program. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  15. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  16. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, G.; Halalsheh, M.; Klapwijk, A.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction, consolidation and even standardization of expensive conventional aerobic systems for domestic wastewater treatment imposed significant financial constraints on the expansion of sanitary services including treatment in developing countries. A viable alternative is the sequential anaerob

  17. Produção de lodo e comportamento químico de sais de ferro empregados no pós-tratamento de esgoto sanitário por precipitação química Sludge production and chemical behavior of iron salts employed in the post-treatment of sanitary wastewater by chemical precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Seckler Ferreira Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A combinação de processos físico-químicos e biológicos no tratamento de esgotos sanitários tem se apresentado como uma alternativa na remoção de fósforo. No entanto, uma das limitações é a sua maior produção de lodo. Desse modo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produção de lodo resultante da aplicação de sais de ferro para diferentes tipos de efluentes, bem como estudar o impacto de sua aplicação nas características físico-químicas dos efluentes estudados. Concluiu-se que os valores médios de produção de lodo resultante da formação do hidróxido férrico situaram-se em torno de 1,80; 1,95 e 1,34 mg lodo/mg Fe+3 para esgoto bruto, efluente aeróbio e anaeróbio tratado, respectivamente, indicando que as características da fase líquida não influenciaram os mecanismos de precipitação dos íons férricos.The combination of physical-chemical and biological processes in sanitary wastewater treatment has been employed as an alternative for phosphorus removal; however, one of its limitations is its large sludge production. This work aimed at evaluating the sludge production which resulted from iron salt application to different types of effluents, as well as studying the impacts of iron salt application on the physical-chemical characteristics of the studied effluents. It was concluded that the average sludge production values which resulted from ferric hydroxide formation were around 1.80, 1.95 and 1.34 mg sludge per mg of Fe+3 ion, with regard to raw wastewater, aerobic treated effluent and anaerobic treated effluent, respectively, thus indicating that the liquid phase characteristics did not influence the ferric ion precipitation mechanisms.

  18. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

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    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  19. [Activity of sanitary surveillances/offices in Warsaw at the time of the second republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, Warsaw, the capital of the rebirth country, was a neglected town as regards sanitary conditions. The genesis of this situation dates back to the period of the national bondage by the Russian partitioner, and since 1915 by the German invader who did not care about the problems associated with public health. The sanitary and hygienic conditions worsened significantly in 1916, after incorporating into Warsaw large out-of-town regions whose housing was of the rural character with numerous wooden cottages, field roads, without any sanitary sewage system. Poor municipal sanitary-maintenance conditions and infectious diseases spreading in Warsaw made the Town Authorities implement preventive action and entrust sanitary surveillances with this difficult task. These surveillances were set up at the time of the First World War, and after 1920 were changed into sanitary offices. Their duties included control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of production and selling of food articles, plants, service outlets, shops of a different character, as well as surveillance of food purchased by the inhabitants. In each sanitary office a doctor was employed who supervised the work of one, two or three sanitary inspectors.

  20. Sanitary Sewage Treatment with Jet Inner-loop Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Qin-xue; Chen Zhi-qiang; Lu Bing-nan; Wen Yan

    2004-01-01

    A jet inncr-loop bioreactor (JIBR) was used to treat synthetic sanitary sewage with low, medium and high COD load. The experimental resuhs show that it could meet discharge standard at 20-30 min of HRT (hydraulic retention time) for low COD concentration and 60-120 min of HRT for medium and high COD concentration. The maximal COD volume loading and COD sludye loading of 27kg·m-3·d-1 and 5 kg/d per kg MLSS were achieved respectively, that were 10-20 times higher than those of traditional wastewater treatment processes. The BOD5 removal efficiency was more than 90 % and NH1-N more than 85 %. The study on the activity showed that the oxygen consumption rate of the activated times higher than that of the SBR(Sequencing Batch Reactor)and thc dominant bacteria in jet inner-loop bioreactor was Pseudomonas species.

  1. Use of germicidal lamps in the disinfection of sanitary wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bilotta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of germicidal lamps in the tertiary treatment of sewage to control pathogens. The performance of the photochemical reactor used in the tests was monitored by microbiological analyses to quantify E. coli (bacteria indicator, C. perfringens (protozoa indicator, coliphages (virus indicator. The experiments were performed with effluent from an UASB reactor installed at the WTP- USP São Carlos campus subjected to an aerated submerged biological filter and a photochemical reactor with radiation UV at 254 nm. The results showed that the indicators coliphages and E. coli showed the least resistance to UV radiation reaching removal from 1.70 to 3.90 log and 1.60 to 5.20 log, respectively. On the other hand, the indicator C. perfringens was more resistant to the effect of germicidal lamps reaching values between 0.0 (no inactivation and 1.30 log. For SST concentrations greater than 100.0 mg.L-1, the effect of the germicidal lamps became less pronounced. However, in practice it was possible to notice significant results in tests with TSS concentrations of 135.0 mg.L-1. The experimental approach proved the usefulness of the combined method for inactivating pathogens commonly found in domestic sewage. Besides meeting the standards established by the Brazilian regulation, the final effluent is in agreement with the guidelines defined by WHO. This allows the reuse of the final effluent for unrestricted irrigation, although complementary examination must be performed.

  2. Sanitary survey rapport 2: Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    .3and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on so-called ‘sanitary surveys’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary...... survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice for microbiological sampling frequency and classification made previously on the basis of this, as described in ‘muslingebekendtgørelsen’ is summarized in Appendix 13. The report covers production areas P1, P2, P3...... is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at different sampling points within each area. The report points to the most precautionary fixed sampling points for future monitoring In summary, the sanitary survey of Nissum Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  3. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  4. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  5. Design of self-cleansing sanitary sewer systems with the use of flushing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goormans, T; Engelen, D; Bouteligier, R; Willems, P; Berlamont, J

    2009-01-01

    Many European countries tend to shift from constructing combined sewer systems to separate ones, in order to optimise wastewater treatment efficiency and reduce CSO impact on surface waters. An economic design minimises maintenance requirements by aiming at self-cleansing pipes. However, providing the necessary slopes for self-cleansing sanitary sewer pipes often is unfeasible in flat regions, resulting in an increased risk of loss of hydraulic capacity or blocking. To reduce these risks, flushing tanks can be installed in the sewer system. Where most other researchers contribute to a better understanding of the hydraulics of flushing, this paper rather tries to formulate a methodology to design and test flushing devices in sanitary sewer systems using standards and hydrodynamic simulations. Therefore, several aspects that require consideration when incorporating flushing devices into a sanitary sewer system are discussed. For instance, when flushing sanitary sewers the increase in discharge has to be explicitly considered. A Belgian case study is used to investigate the suitability of the developed methodology. Although the pipe slopes in the methodology are derived assuming uniform flow, the simulation results comply with it. Furthermore, pressurisation of the conduits due to multiple flushing waves remains within acceptable limits.

  6. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  7. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  8. Factorial design of a solar photocatalytic process to treatment of wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: adriana.francisco@agr.unicamp.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CESET/UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Centro Superior de Educacao Tecnologica

    2008-07-01

    Advanced treatments are attributed to improving the quality of various types of waste such as the sanitary wastewater. The heterogeneous photocatalysis is an alternative that allows to improve the effluents conditions. This is possible because many chemical compounds of environmental concern can be degraded using UV radiation on a semiconductor. However, to enable the efficiency of the process photocatalytic is necessary to conduct a study of optimization to establish favorable conditions between selected variables. The aim of this work was a reactor solar photocatalytic optimization using factorial design 2{sup k}, depending on variables: mass (TiO{sub 2}), time (min) and flow of air (L min{sup -1}), using as analytical response the removal of color. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI) and it was used the sanitary wastewater of there. The results indicated that there were significant efficiency using combinations mass = 1000 mg L{sup -1}, time = 360 min and flow of air = 5 L min{sup -1}. In the calculations of factorial design, the time showed a marked positive effect of 7.76, while the flow of air, when in excess, had an inhibitor behavior, even getting positive effect. (author)

  9. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  10. Attitudes towards the Use of the Medical and Sanitary Services in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Manouchehr

    1977-01-01

    Describes research methodology and findings of a survey in Iran to determine relationships between educational level, age, residence, and other variables involved in attitudes regarding the use of medical and sanitary services. Public health education is seen to be needed. For journal availability, see SO 506 019. (Author/AV)

  11. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  12. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  13. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  14. Sanitary technology. Special issue; Sanitairtechniek. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, H. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); De Veer, T. [PWN Waterleidingbedrijf Noord-Holland, Velserbroek (Netherlands); Korstanje, H.; De Gids, Ph. K. [LegioFreeWaterSystems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands); Scheffer, W.J.H. [UNETO-VNI, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Van Wolferen, H. [TNO Milieu en Energie, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Donker, H. [Kemper Nederland, Groenlo (Netherlands); Engelenburg, M. [ATECA, Den Haag (Netherlands); Wolters, J. [Tour en Andersson, Alphen aan den Rijn (Netherlands); Doldersum, R.H. [De Melker Sanitairtechniek, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    In 11 articles attention is paid to several aspects of sanitary technology, in particular the prevention and control of legionella in heating systems and water supply installations. [Dutch] In 11 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. sanitaire techniek, in het bijzonder legionella preventie en beheer in verwarmingssystemen en leidingwaterinstallaties.

  15. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  17. Wastewater Outfalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Outfalls which discharge wastewater from wastewater treatment facilities with individual NPDES permits. It does not include NPDES general permits.

  18. Leachates control in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes in Gipuzkoa; Control de lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos urbanos de Gipuzkoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martin, M.A.; Antiguedad Auzmendi, I.

    1998-12-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the leachates from seven sanitary landfills in Gipuzkoa has been studied. Flow rate, temperature and electric conductivity were monitored on line in some cases too. HELP model and other classic methods were applicated to calculate exactly the water balance. The authors conclude suggesting that these studies are essentials to know if the landfills are really sanitary landfills. (Author) 14 refs.

  19. [The restructuring of national sanitary inspectorate with regard to environmental hazards and health needs of the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Marek L

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the history of Polish sanitary and epidemiological services from 1918 until contemporary times. Emphasizing many achievements of National Sanitary Inspectorate, which are responsible for the low sick-rate of infectious diseases in Poland, the article also points to the increasing number and growing severity of environmental hazards in recent years. The article discusses problems caused by the "old" infectious diseases, which, though until recently regarded as passed, are posing threats to the society nowadays (e.g. TB, pestis, cholera). Equally, the article highlights problems caused by the "new" highly infectious diseases (e.g. Ebola fever, AIDS). Moreover, the article focuses on the particularly relevant subject of tackling biological weapons, the use of which can be traced past the recent events after September 11 and back to the Middle Ages. Finally, the article stresses the role of sanitary and epidemiological services in fighting recent animal epidemics, such as foot-and-mouth disease and mad cow disease. Discussing particular cases of the environmental hazards mentioned above, recorded in Poland, the article emphasizes the importance of the proper staff selection for National Sanitary Inspectorate. In the past decade in Poland, Sanitary Inspectors were selected mostly with regard to their political orientation, rather than their professional background. The author of the article hopes that human life and health will be treated with more respect in Poland in the neart future and the positions of Sanitary Inspectors will be given to professionals with proper epidemiological preparation. Radical changes in the policy of staff selection, modernization of training programs, as well as creation of a more practical structure of National Sanitary Inspectorate are the necessary conditions for transforming sanitary and epidemiological services in Poland into reliable and prestigious institutions, capable of dealing with the environmental hazards

  20. [Coordination of governmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, I A; Zel'din, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article covers features of govenmental and public control in providing sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population and consumers' rights protection. Based on analysis of contemporary legislation, the authors evaluated terms "control" and "supervision", having different legal nature. The authors determined specific traits and define subjects and objects for public control in relationships aimed to provide sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population, evaluated legislative basis of citizens' claims to Rospotrebnadzor, pointed at difficulties in implementation of public control in connection with necessity to create new organizational and legal mechanisms widening control possibilities.

  1. Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Activated Sludge for Biodegradation of Propylene Glycol as an Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Fermilab. (2006). Wastewater Discharge to Sanitary Sewers. Batavia: Fermilab ES&H. Ginestet, P., Audic, J.-M., Urbain , V., & Block, J.-C. (1998...221-230. Mancl, Karen. (2012) Wastewater Treatment Principles and Regulations. Food, Agricultural and BIological Engineering Department. The Ohio

  2. Caffeine in an Urbanized Estuary: Past and Present Influence of Wastewater Effluents in Boston Harbor, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeine has been identified by previous research as a potential tracer of sanitary wastewater. To further assess the utility of caffeine as a tracer of wastewater sources, samples from 25 sites throughout Boston Harbor were collected and analyzed for caffeine by LC-MS/MS. Caff...

  3. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.

  4. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  5. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  6. Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, a preliminary compared approach of their sanitary consequences; Accidents de Fukushima et Tchernobyl, une premiere approche comparee de leurs consequences sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Academie des technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    It is too early to draw a definitive account of the sanitary impacts of the Fukushima accident but the author tries to assess them by comparing with Chernobyl accident. It appears that the sanitary consequences will be far less dramatic because of lower radiation doses and efficient counter-measures taken quickly after the accident such as evacuation of contaminated areas and restriction about the consumption of food produced locally. (A.C.)

  7. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  8. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  9. Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make water safe. Effects of wastewater pollutants If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. These impacts can include harm to fish and wildlife ... in wastewater and the potentially harmful effects these substances can ...

  10. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  11. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  12. [V.P. Kravkov as a sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army (to centenary of beginning of the First World War)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, D G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents for the first time the description of life story and service of V.P. Kravkov (1859-1920)--participant of Russian-Japanese war and the First World War, doctor of medicine, sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army and author of number of books and articles on preventive medicine. During these two wars, V.P. Kravkov organized sanitary epidemiological service in fronts. He kept diary regularly reflecting conditions of sanitary epidemiological service during this period, describing one's own observations and assessing survived events. The manuscripts of diaries are stored in the Russian state library. The diaries made great input into summarizing of experience of the Russian military sanitary service and became valuable monument of military memoirs' literature.

  13. Biofuel application of biomass obtained from a meat industry wastewater plant through the flotation process. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sena, Rennio F.; Claudino, Andreia; Moretti, Karine; Bonfanti, Iris C.P.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J. [Laboratory of Energy and the Environment LEMA, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering EQA, Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC, Center of Tecnology CTC, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Physicochemical treatment of meat industry wastewater is used to increase the organic matter removal efficiency, and it generates great amounts of sludge. Treatment using commercial ferric sulfate as coagulant for this specific wastewater gave high organic matter removals, decreasing considerably the amount of waste material to be treated in biological systems, and also allowing the obtention of 0.83-0.87 kg of biomass fuel for each m{sup 3} of treated wastewater. Due to sanitary, environmental problems and operational costs related to the discharge, land disposal and re-use of wastes, the utilization of this Biofuel (dried sludge) for steam generation has shown to be a viable alternative. This type of fuel has a high heating value, and it is a renewable energy source. The combustion test with a Biofuel to sawdust ratio of 4:1 met the technical requirements for the characterization of this promising fuel; nevertheless, operating conditions must be well designed to achieve NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2} emissions below local and/or international limits. (author)

  14. Wastewater Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose ... Keywords: Day Care Centres, sanitary practices, indoor air quality, children, urban communities ...

  16. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in NAFTA: The Canada Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Norman

    2005-01-01

    Canada's Experience in Implementing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA has been a major success story for Canada since its entry into force on January 1, 1994.

  17. Fertigation with domestic wastewater: Uses and implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jose Geraldo

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... scarcity of water, the large amount of sewage produced and the ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access .... wastewater reuse started in the first half of the twentieth ..... domestic residual water.

  18. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  19. Charles Dickens and the movement for sanitary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Socrates

    2003-01-01

    Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles published in his weekly journal Household Words

  20. Short-term assessment of the dynamics of elements in wastewater irrigated Mediterranean soil and tomato fruits through sequential dissolution and lead isotopic signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Lise; Surdyk, Nicolas; Psarras, Georgios; Kasapakis, Giannis; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Sandei, L.; Guerrot, Catherine; Pettenati, Marie; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    International audience; To fight against sanitary risks due to the use of raw or insufficiently treated wastewaters, an irrigation system combining a farm-scale decentralized wastewater treatment and an improved drip irrigation management was developed. The whole soil-water-plant system was monitored on an experimental tomato field in Crete to assess the potential element accumulation due to drip irrigation with secondary treated wastewaters during three years. Although a decrease of the majo...

  1. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  2. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  3. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  4. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  5. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. [Sanitary regulation in Mexico and the Free Trade Treaty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-López, M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper are discussed essential issues about the concept, characteristics and general functions of sanitary regulation, as well as the principles and main lines of action contained in the Program of Modernization of the Sanitary Regulation, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. In addition, some considerations are offered regarding the supporting role of such a program, in the context of the free trade era that Mexico is undergoing. After 40 years of an outdated sanitary regulation based in a non-functional licensing concept, the new and improved scheme relies on several ammendments to the General Health Law. Thus, the present approach, focuses on a set of flexible, simple and efficient rules, strengthened by proven scientific and technical procedures.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  8. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  9. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  11. Convinzioni religiose, riservatezza e prestazioni sanitarie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Serra

    2015-11-01

     Abstract. " Religious beliefs, privacy and healthcare" -The paper analyzes a decision of the Italian Data Protection Authority on the relationship between religious freedom and privacy in the healthcare context.

  12. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  13. Caffeine in Boston Harbor past and present, assessing its utility as a tracer of wastewater contamination in an urban estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites throughout Boston Harbor were analyzed for caffeine to assess its utility as a tracer in identifying sources of sanitary wastewater. Caffeine ranged from 15 ng/L in the outer harbor to a high of 185 ng/L in the inner harbor. Inner harbor concentrations were a result of comb...

  14. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  15. [Results and prospects of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The issues of further development of scientific and methodological basis of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation are highlighted in accordance with the implementation of the Concept of the activity of the Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare until 2015. Features of this work over the past 5 years have been characterized, they include: changes in the structure of the objects under surveillance; integration processes in the economy of the country rise of attention to social problems of society strengthening the influence of epidemiological and natural man-made disasters in the world and the country, improvement of the supervisory authorities of the Service, the formation of its new structure and development of legislative assembly, including sanitary legislation.

  16. [The information on a sanitary-and-epidemiologic condition of general educational establishments and catering services of schoolboys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2008-01-01

    The federal service on supervision in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers and well-being of the person develops normative and methodical documents, including sanitary rules and the norms defining hygienic parameters of food value of food raw material and foodstuff, children used in a feed and teenagers; requirements to catering services of pupils of various types of teaching and educational establishments. Decisions of the Main state health officer of the Russian Federation, the conditions directed on improvement and catering services in educational establishments are published. At participation of Rospotrebnadzor's experts on subjects of the Russian Federation the regional programs directed on improvement of catering services of pupils are developed. The information on a condition of general educational establishments with offers on improvement of a sanitary-engineering condition, goes to address of enforcement authorities.

  17. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties; Reglamento de Proteccion Sanitaria contra Radiaciones Ionizantes aspectos novedosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-07-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  18. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  19. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  20. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  1. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  2. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... water to required locations throughout the plant. (2) Properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste...

  3. [Medium-term strategy for the specific management of pneumology hospitals and wards after the decentralization of the sanitary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, Simona Nicoleta; Ioniţa, Diana; Paceonea, Mirela; Chiriac, Nona Delia; Stoicescu, Ileana Paula; Mihălţan, F D

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and promoting new management techniques for the descentralized pneumology hospitals or wards was one of the most ambitious objectives of the project "Quality in the pneumology medical services through continuous medical education and organizational flexibility", financed by the Human Resourses Development Sectorial Operational Programme 2007-2013 (ID 58451). The "Medium term Strategy on the specific management of the pneumology hospitals or wards after the descentralization of the sanitary system" presented in the article was written by the project's experts and discussed with pneumology managers and local authorities representatives. This Strategy application depends on the colaboration of the pneumology hospitals with professional associations, and local and central authorities.

  4. Relationships between health, education and environment in Quito: the role of sanitary and environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sarrade Cobos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the ecological unbalance that affects a city like Quito, marked by an anarchic urban growth and problems on its environmental quality, it is interesting to relate three “Good Living” factors: Health, Education and Environment. There are numerous ways to establish links. Under this thought, based on scientific studies and public policies, we have defined to concrete facts: the impact of the environment on the health of the public and the possibility of reducing sanitary risks thru education. The economical, political and cultural dynamics of the Ecuadorian Capital could encourage the elaboration of programs and actions toward a better environmental and sanitary education. Which are the strategies, from the Municipal authorities, to create a collective dynamism that will take the population to become aware of the natural and anthropological risks? Many efforts have been realized to determine the natural threats, but little has been done in order to analyze the impact of the decay of the environment over our health. There are many different initiatives to sensitize the population on these risks. Nevertheless, there is a still lot to do with respect to the dissemination and follow up of programs and projects that are being carried out on the Distrito Metropolitano de Quito.

  5. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  6. [Application of administrative enforcement while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobov, A E; Berskiĭ, O V; Nebredovskiĭ, V N; Zharkov, D A

    2013-05-01

    The article deals with the legal framework of an application of administrative enforcement. The authors analyzed the information about a quantity and structure of administrative violation in the sanitary and epidemiological welfare, revealed during 2009-2011 while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance by the Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense (TsGSEN MF RF) in military units and organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and applied administrative sanctions. The acquired data was compared with the same data acquired by The Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being (Rospotrebnadzor). The results of research give a reason to consider TsGSEN MF activity according to index of application of administrative enforcement as ineffective. It shows the significant underestimate of administrative sanctions for the failure to comply with requirements of the health legislation. The authors formulated practical recommendations for activation of legal mechanics application by the specialists of TsGSEN MF RF while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  7. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der BAI; Chia-Jung HSIAO [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  8. Feasibility study on recovering hydrogen energy from industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Der Bai; Chia-Jung Hsiao [Energy and Resource Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, sec. 4 Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 301 R.O.C. (China)

    2006-07-01

    Three wastewater obtained from different industries were evaluated for the feasibility of hydrogen fermentation. Because of the various components of the wastewater, the characteristics of the hydrogen accumulation were different. Several stages with different hydrogen producing rate were observed during the batch hydrogen fermentation of each wastewater. The obvious hydrogen consumption was observed in the last phase of hydrogen fermentation of the wastewater from the winery. It is similar to the reported hydrogen fermentation characteristic of starch. The wastewater coming from the fructose manufactory has the greatest hydrogen potential nearly 150 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. The wastewater from food industry has the lower hydrogen potential of 65 L-H{sub 2}/kg-COD. Some of its compounds were not suitable for hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen potential was observed in the fermentation of the wastewater from the winery, because hydrogen consumption affects the hydrogen recovery from the wastewater from winery. (authors)

  9. Greening sanitary systems: and end-user perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of the thesis is to contribute to a transition towards sustainable sanitation and wastewater systems and practices in Western society by developing a social science perspective on sanitation and wastewater management. The empirical core of this study comprises a comparative case stud

  10. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  11. Use and treatment of wastewater in vegetation filters of Salix. Final report; Utnyttjande och rening av avloppsvatten i vegetationsfilter av Salix. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, Kurth; Aronsson, Paer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    2000-11-01

    The general aim of the project was to combine municipal wastewater treatment using willow vegetation filters (WVF) with the production of biomass for energy purposes. The investigation contains two subprojects: (1) Determination of nitrogen and water uptake by WVF as a function of distance from the distribution points and the number of interjacent stools, and (2) Investigation of inconveniences and sanitary risks when irrigating WVF with municipal wastewaters.

  12. Marketing Specialization in the Sanitary-Veterinary Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Prejmerean

    2006-01-01

    Public health and food safety are main consumer rights in the European Union. Sanitary standards related to animal health, animal welfare, food production are developed and standardizEditura The objective is to detect, diagnose and control animal diseases and to have a safe food chain. Although the input of the animal health industry is low in the agricultural production, it allows European farmers to produce high quality meat and dairy products, minimise environmental impact. Romania as a fu...

  13. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  14. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  15. Characterisation of wastewater for modelling of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater treatment plants receiving industrial effluent. FT Mhlanga* and ... The modelling of biological wastewater treatment systems has developed ..... of KwaZulu-Natal. ORHON D and CORGNOR EU (1996) COD fractionation in waste-.

  16. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  17. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  18. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  19. Geotechnological characteristics of a sanitary land-fill:three years monitoring the sanitary landfills at Meruelo. Caracteristicas geotecnologicas de un vertedero controlado: tres aos de observacion de movimientos en el vertedero controlado de Meruelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alciturri, J.M.; Palma, J.H.; Sagaseta, M.; Caizal, J. (Universidad de Cantabria. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    As a part of research program on geotechnical problems involved in waste disposal, a sanitary landfill has been instrumented in Meruelo, in the region of Cantabria, Spain. It is located in a valley, with an initial retaining dyke whose height is increased by the ''upstream'' method up to a final value of 50 m. At present, the records of three years of monitoring are available, and they are analyzed in this paper. They include surface settlements in points with different thickness of waste (up to 16 m.) and horizontal and vertical movements of the front slope for stability assessment. (Author)

  20. Agricultural use of treated municipal wastewaters preserving environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Rubino

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the utility of the treated municipal wastewaters in agriculture, analyzing the chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics and their pollution indicators evaluation are being illustrated. Some methods employed for treating wastewaters are examined, as well as instructions and rules actually in force in different countries of the world, for evaluating the legislative hygienic and sanitary and agronomic problems connected with the treated wastewaters use, are being collected and compared. Successively, in order to provide useful indications for the use of treated municipal wastewaters, results of long-term field researches, carried out in Puglia, regarding two types of waters (treated municipal wastewater and conventional water and two irrigation methods (drip and capillary sub-irrigation on vegetable crops grown in succession, are being reported. For each crop cycle, chemical physical and microbiological analyses have been performed on irrigation water, soil and crop samples. The results evidenced that although irrigating with waters having high colimetric values, higher than those indicated by law and with two different irrigation methods, never soil and marketable yield pollutions have been observed. Moreover, the probability to take infection and/or disease for ingestion of fruits coming from crops irrigated with treated wastewaters, calculated by Beta-Poisson method, resulted negligible and equal to 1 person for 100 millions of exposed people. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and crops were lesser than those admissible by law. The free chlorine, coming from disinfection, found in the wastewaters used for watering, in some cases caused toxicity effects, which determined significant yield decreases. Therefore, municipal wastewaters, if well treated, can be used for irrigation representing a valid alternative to the conventional ones.

  1. Wastewater treatment pilot

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  2. New legal regime for phyto sanitary products; Un nuevo regimen juridico para los envases de productos fitosanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda Gomez, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the Cabinet celebrated on he 14 degree centigree of December of 2001, the Government approved an important Royal Decree by means of which a new legal regime for phyto sanitary products of agricultural use was settled down. Its high-priority objective is to assure that the packaging waste generated after their use would be gathered without harming the environment and the public health, also guaranteeing that its final management will be carried out by means of the more correct methods environmentally. (Author)

  3. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage.

  4. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable

  5. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  6. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  7. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  8. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases.

  9. The creation of management systems for funding priorities in wastewater project in rural communities in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, M; Hajrasoliha, M; Meemari, G; Fahiminia, M; Talebi, M; Kohansal, M

    2008-01-01

    For sustainable development an integrated cost-effective approach focused on the goal of health and environmental protection is necessary. In Iran more than 22 million people live in rural communities. A little more than 92% of the rural population in Iran have access to safe drinking water supply, but only less than 0.2% have sanitary wastewater disposal system. Groundwater is the main resource of water supply in rural communities in Iran and contaminated or untreated groundwater can be the major reason for waterborne diseases outbreak and wastewater discharge is the main cause of groundwater contamination. In new strategy in Iran's wastewater company, the importance of wastewater treatment is equal to water treatment in rural communities and the main goal in this section is providing sanitary wastewater disposal system for 8% of rural areas until 2010 and 30% until 2020. One of the most important limitations for establishment of wastewater disposal system is the limitation of governmental funds. For this reason, a national program was performed for ranking of rural communities with the goal of improving the funding effectiveness in wastewater management in rural communities. Many important criteria were considered for determination of priorities, these criteria include: population, population density, water consumption and wastewater generation, wastes disposal systems at present, environmental and health risks, agricultural and industrial wastewater, social conditions specially public participation, investment simplicity and type of living (seasonal or permanent). For collection of information about rural community, according to the criteria, a questionnaire was designed with 40 quantified questions. Questionnaires completed for all rural areas with more than 400 people population (more than 77% of rural population of the country). Completed questionnaires were analyzed with specific software for ranking of villages according to above mentioned criteria. Right

  10. Water radiological sanitary control of Veracruz State; Control sanitario radiologico de agua del Estado de Veracruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon G, E.; Vazquez C, J. A.; Aguilar P, M. del C.; Parissi C, A., E-mail: eulaliacarreon@gmail.com [Laboratorio Estatal de Salud Publica, Eucalipto Mza. 12, Lote 7, Corredor Industrial Bruno Pagliai, 91697 Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work is carried out in Veracruz State covering over 11 jurisdictions of the State (Panuco, Tuxpan, Poza Rica, Martinez de la Torre, Xalapa, Cordoba, Orizaba, Veracruz, Cosamaloapan, San Andres Tuxtla and Coatzacoalcos). The sampling was realized in a period from 2009 to 2013 analyzing home drinking water, supply sources and wells, the sampling was done by the sanitary checkers of different jurisdictions with approved methods and the methodology was validated at the State Laboratory of Public Health. 1637 samples were analyzed by counting equipment Tennelec Canberra series 5 and a gas supply system P-10 with calibration curves for alpha and gross beta. The results of measurements ranging from 0.07 to 0.25 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross alpha annual average, an gross beta were from 0.12 to 0.17 Bq/L in the activity concentration gross beta annual average, and with a concentration range of alpha activity up to 0.62 and a minimum 0.02, and the concentration of beta activity of a maximum value 1.54 and a minimum 0.02, taking also as resulted in five years of analysis only 1.16% of the analyzed samples (19 samples) showed a value of alpha activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration and 62.43% (1022 samples) of the analyzed samples showed a value of beta activity concentration above the minimum detectable concentration, is also clear that the results of the sanitary jurisdictions of Panuco and Tuxpan not have corresponding activity values for the years 2009, 2011-2013 except 2010. We can conclude that the regular measurements of alpha and gross beta activity in water are invaluable for timely detection of radioactive contamination. (Author)

  11. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  13. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sozzi

    Full Text Available The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A and low pH (Protocol B environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such

  15. Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Emanuele; Fabre, Kerline; Fesselet, Jean-François; Ebdon, James E; Taylor, Huw

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease. The research presented here evaluated the design and operation of a novel treatment system, successfully used by Médecins Sans Frontières in Haiti to disinfect CTC wastewaters in situ, eliminating the need for road haulage and disposal of the waste to a poorly-managed hazardous waste facility, thereby providing an effective barrier to disease transmission through a novel but simple sanitary intervention. The physico-chemical protocols eventually successfully treated over 600 m3 of wastewater, achieving coagulation/flocculation and disinfection by exposure to high pH (Protocol A) and low pH (Protocol B) environments, using thermotolerant coliforms as a disinfection efficacy index. In Protocol A, the addition of hydrated lime resulted in wastewater disinfection and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids. In Protocol B, disinfection was achieved by the addition of hydrochloric acid, followed by pH neutralization and coagulation/flocculation of suspended solids using aluminum sulfate. Removal rates achieved were: COD >99%; suspended solids >90%; turbidity >90% and thermotolerant coliforms >99.9%. The proposed approach is the first known successful attempt to disinfect wastewater in a disease outbreak setting without resorting to the alternative, untested, approach of 'super chlorination' which, it has been suggested, may not consistently achieve adequate disinfection. A basic analysis of costs demonstrated a significant saving in reagent costs compared with the less reliable approach of super-chlorination. The proposed approach to in situ sanitation in cholera treatment centers and other disease outbreak settings represents a timely response to a UN call for onsite disinfection of wastewaters generated in such emergencies, and the

  16. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sanitary facilities. Applications for waivers of the location requirements of § 75.1712-6 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  18. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  19. Paper 1: Wastewater characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    the suitability of the prefermented wastewater for downstream biological nutrient removal processes. The raw ... in the secondary treatment processes (BNRAS reactor), without ..... Wastewater and Activated Sludge from European Municipal.

  20. Erika: evaluation of residual sanitary risks linked to the beaches-going after cleaning-up; Erika: evaluation des risques sanitaires residuels lies a la frequentation des plages apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the sanitary risks for the populations frequenting the coast beaches affected by the fuel oils of the tanker Erika, after their cleaning up. This quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks is led according to a protocol developed jointly between the two institutes ( the national institute of industrial environment and risks, I.N.E.R.I.S., and the national institute of sanitary watch I.n.V.S.). It does not give the risks in function the residual pollution level of concerned beaches but supplies to the authorities elements of scientific information in order to allow them to choose criteria appropriate for the management of eventual residual risks. (N.C.)

  1. ENSURING SANITARY RELIABILITY OF TERRITORIES WHEN USING REMOVABLE SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found out that in most cases the system of removable water disposal is arranged with violations, i.e. cesspools that collect runoffs are either not designed at all — waste water merge into an open trench (ditch, and then water is filtered into the ground, or are designed against the rules (instead of a cesspool the user presupposes a simple hole dug in the ground. The authors witnessed the cases of ingress of wastewater into open waters, near which holiday villages are situated. This fact raises the question on the necessity of solving these problems which will prevent pollution of soil and surface waters, as well as the surrounding areas by sewages to prevent the development of infections and to prevent environmental disaster on a local scale. If you have a small rate of water flow in a summer cottage, it is feasible to design a sump for removal of faecal discharge (human physiological discharge, which are the most dangerous. It is advisable to install in the ground sealed (cumulative capacity, and build headroom on the top in the form of a toilet cabin (detached structure. This will allow completely getting rid of contamination with sewage effluents. The volume of the tank must be calculated individually depending on the water consumption on the site. Periodically it is needed to call out a cesspoolage truck after filling the reservoir, which would be then emptied of faecal material. In the last 20 years in our country a promising trend in removable sanitation began to develop — bio toilets. They became popular in country houses, as well as for persons with disabilities A composting toilet is a portable container, which is very compact and can be installed in any location of a country house. A more costly option, but an environmentally sound and convenient one to use is the construction of local water disposal systems with the use of not only mechanical, but also biological treatment. The choice of a particular scheme of

  2. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  3. Microbial indicators of fecal contamination in soils under different wastewater irrigation patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras-Godinez, C. A.; Palacios-Lopez, O. A.; Munoz-Castellanos, L. N.; Saucedo-Teran, R.; Rubio-Arias, H.; Nevarez-Moorillon, G. V.

    2009-07-01

    The use of wastewater to irrigate produce was a common practice in some suburban areas in Mexico. The continuous use of wastewater can increase the chance of fecal soil contamination, which can percolate in soil and finally cause groundwater contamination. A suburban area in Chihuahua, mexico, has been traditionally irradiated with wastewater for production of agriculture goods, including produce and animal foodstuffs. (Author)

  4. 40 CFR 420.08 - Non-process wastewater and storm water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-process wastewater and storm water...-process wastewater and storm water. Permit and pretreatment control authorities may provide for increased loadings for non-process wastewaters defined at § 420.02 and for storm water from the immediate...

  5. Using natural zeolites to improve anaerobic abattoir wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Jimenez, L.; Herrera-Ramirez, E.; Carlos Hernandez, S

    2009-07-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater have high concentrations of soluble and insoluble organics which represents environmental troubles, E. G. de oxygenation of rivers, underground water contamination. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient process for wastewater treatment. Performance are increased using microorganisms supported on porous solids. (Author)

  6. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Beber de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater, and coliphages (such as virus indicators. Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses of 2, 3, and 4 mg/L of PAA and contact time of 10 minutes and 60 and 90 s exposure to UV radiation, the results indicated that the combined method PAA/UV provided superior efficacy when compared to individual methods of disinfection.

  7. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  8. A participatory modelling approach to define farm-scale effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in the Lockyer Valley, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstal, van J.D.; Huibers, F.P.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The Lockyer Valley is an important agricultural area experiencing water insecurity, which causes a decrease in agricultural production. Regional authorities are initiating a wastewater reclamation project conveying treated municipal wastewater to water users, including potentially the Lockyer Valley

  9. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  10. [Sanitary and nutritional control of the Catania school catering service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Elena; Allegra, Antonio Dino; Cannizzaro, Virginia; Fardella, Maristella; La Carrubba, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    Sanitary and nutritional control of meals distributed by school catering services is one of the institutional duties of the Food Hygiene and Nutrition Services (Servizi Igiene Alimenti e Nutrizione - SIAN) of the Local Health Units. In order to carry out this activity properly it is necessary to ask oneself beforehand what the main outcome of control activities should be. The answer to this question can only be that "proper nutrition is essential for healthy growth". Starting from this assumption, control activities performed along the entire chain of the scholastic catering service, starting from the final dish served at school up to the primary producer, were reviewed. The review was carried out by a team of multiprofessionals which included a physician, a prevention technician, a dietician, a biologist, an agronomist and a veterinarian. Preliminary results are extremely positive and show that the multidisciplinary integration of roles entrusted to the coordinators of SIAN is crucial to obtaining the best results.

  11. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  12. Development of Site-Specific Water Quality Criteria for the Arpa Harbor Wastewater Treatment Plant in Tipalao Bay, Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    late April 2013 from various near-shore locations (water depth < 3 m) on the west coast of Guam, Marianas Islands, and held in outdoor tanks supplied... tanks associated with ships sanitary, the three bilge oily wastewater treatment units, the Fleet Industrial Service Center (FISC) fuel reclamation...Crustaceans, Holothurians and Sharks . FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, Italy. Carpenter, K. E. and V. H. Niem, Eds. 1999

  13. A study on the treatment of non-biodegradable wastewater by using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myun Ju; Jin, Joon Ha; Yoon, Byung Mok; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Lim, Moon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    This study was carried out for decomposition of dye wastewater which has been called non-biodegradable wastewater by using gamma radiation combined with ozone. When dye wastewater was oxidized by ozone combined with irradiation, a large amount of dye wastewater could be easily oxidized to final products. The irradiation acts an important roll of production of O{sub 2}{sup -}radical which is essential in decomposition of tert-butanol. 2 tabs., 22 figs. (Author).

  14. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  15. The effect of varying LED light sources and influent carbon/nitrogen ratios on treatment of synthetic sanitary sewage using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Cheng, Pu; Yan, Cheng; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2013-07-01

    Sanitary sewage can create serious environmental problems if discharged directly into natural waters without appropriate treatment. This study showed that red light is the optimum light wavelength for growing microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in microalgae biological wastewater treatment systems, given a harvest time of 144 h. Only moderate light intensities (1,000, 1,500, 2,000, and 2,500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were able to remove nutrients from synthetic sanitary sewage, but higher light intensity led to better nutrient removal effects. Because of economic considerations, the optimum light intensity range for efficient nutrient removal was determined to be between 1,500 and 2,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Furthermore, nutrient removal efficiency was significantly affected by light wavelength, light intensity, the interaction of these two factors, and the interaction among light wavelength, light intensity, and influent carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal efficiency was also significantly affected by influent C/N ratios. Appropriate control of carbon and nitrogen source concentrations enabled optimal nutrient removal. The optimal influent C/N ratio was determined to be 6:1.

  16. The status of wastewater management in Shokuhieh industrial park (A case study of Qom province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water resource management is a strategic issue in Qom city. Water scarcity is one of the most critical concerns of industrial estates. This study aimed to evaluate wastewater management in the Shokuhieh industrial park of Qom province in 2013. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study done by visiting the industrial units in person, completing questionnaires and analyzing the results. The questionnaire had 25 questions, including general information, the status of water supply, treatment and consumption, wastewater production, reuse or discharge of produced wastewater and the status of wastewater treatment and discharge of effluent. The industrial units evaluated were active with over 50 personnel and numbered 44 in total. Results: The water suppliers in the industries included network (70.5%, network and reverse osmosis (RO (22.5%, network and tanker (2.4% and tanker (4.6%. 63.63% of the industries had water treatment systems. 19.5% reused wastewater and 31.8% performed pretreatment before discharge of wastewater. The discharge sites of water treatment units’ effluent included the absorption well (17%, greenbelt (18% and sewer (65%. Discharge sites of sanitary wastewater in 50% of the industries was sewer and in 50%, it was absorption well. The discharge sites of processed wastewater was reuse (2%, sewer (52% and absorption well (46%. Discharge sites of exiting effluent from pretreatment units in the industrial park, included sewer (85.5%, transport by tanker (7.1% and absorption well (7.1%. The type of pretreatment process in 35.7% of the industries was chemical and in 64.3%, it was septic tank. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pre-treatment is not done in most industries and wastewater reuse is performed in few industries. The main method of wastewater disposal in industries was by discharge into the sewer and absorbent well.

  17. Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeawon, T; Beerachee, B

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the application of a multi-criteria analysis methodology - the analytical hierarchy process - for the locating of a sanitary landfill on the small island of Mauritius. Four candidate sites were assessed using three main criteria (environmental, technical and socio-economic) and twenty-one sub-criteria. Scores were assigned to each criterion and sub-criterion by stakeholders in the solid waste sector, based on the impact assessment of each site so as to obtain their relative importance. The analytical hierarchy process was then applied, which involved the combination of the weights obtained at the different stages of pair-wise comparisons. The candidate sites were finally ranked to obtain the optimum site. Because of political factors, the second best ranked site was chosen by the authorities for the location of a new landfill on the island. This technique provides a realistic approach for use by small island developing states such as Mauritius for choosing and justifying to all stakeholders the best location for a sanitary landfill site or any other waste management site.

  18. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  19. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Intra‑Operative Airway Management in Patients with Maxillofacial Trauma having Reduction and ... Clinical Parameters and Challenges of Managing Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis in a ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... Difficult airway management in a patient with giant malignant goitre scheduled for thyroidectomy - case report ... Airway Management Dilemma in a Patient with Maxillofacial Injury

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ... Sampling Plans for Monitoring Quality Control Process at a Plastic Manufacturing Firm in Nigeria: A Case Study

  3. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved unde

  4. Nitrification in Saline Industrial Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moussa, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal is widely and successfully applied for municipal wastewater. However, these experiences are not directly applicable to industrial wastewater, due to its specific composition. High salt levels in many industrial wastewaters affect nitrification negatively and improved

  5. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e differenziazioni giuridiche: il caso dei trattamenti sanitari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Anello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e trattamenti sanitari - 3. Alcune problematiche del cd. testamento biologico in una prospettiva interculturale - 4. Conclusioni.

  6. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  7. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  8. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  9. Benjarong Sanitary Ware: Design and development for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchai Sama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has three primary aims: 1 to study the traditional knowledge of Benjarong in Samut Sakhon Province; 2 to study designs and the production process of Benjarong sanitary ware in Samut Sakhon Province; 3 to develop Benjarong sanitary ware for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected as Samut Sakhon Province. Data was gathered by document study, survey, participant and non-participant observation, structured and non-structured interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that Benjarong sanitary products have been inherited from generation to generation in Samut Sakhon Province and continue to provide local jobs. Benjarong sanitary ware production uses a high budget because of the high price of colour inks, gold and electricity, so there are problems securing adequate funding. There are also problems with the management process and a lack of expert craftsmen to write and design modern patterns in harmony with contemporary art and Thai social identity. Moreover, many Thai people do not realize the value of cultural heritage and Benjarong inheritance is at risk. Benjarong sanitary ware can reflect local knowledge and traditional handicrafts. The researchers propose patterns for three types of Benjarong sanitary ware: washbasins, wall tiles and soap ledges. Development of these products will increase functionality and aesthetics, whilst maintaining Thai heritage.

  10. Unpleasantness and physiological responses in using sanitary napkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Kyong; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of sanitary napkins (SN) on women in hemorrhage treatment during the menstrual phase. Mesh and non-woven napkins were employed, and the effects were studied during the follicular and menstrual phases; mesh SN presented a higher textural surface-roughness. In both phases, the increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly dependent on the application intervals. The low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability significantly increased, while the salivary secretion rate decreased with the use of mesh SN during the follicular phase compared with non-woven SN. In addition, the heart rate during the menstrual phase significantly increased in subjects after the replacement of mesh SN compared with non-woven SN. In cases of wearing the unpleasant mesh SN, electroencephalography (EEG) manifested bilateral enhancements in beta and alpha2 waves in the frontal areas increased arousal level during both phases. From the above findings, napkin use increased physiological loading and wearing napkins with higher textural surface-roughness tended to increase activities of the autonomic nervous system and brain arousal level.

  11. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Duncan

    2004-09-15

    Details methods of domestic wastewater treatment that are especially suitable in developing countries. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. (Author)

  12. Author Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-01-01

    AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH) accepts only online submission of manuscript(s) by using Open Journal software (OJS) at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH)? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly ...

  13. Vigilância Sanitária: uma proposta de análise dos contextos locais Sanitary Surveillance: a proposal for analyzing local environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Franke Piovesan

    2005-03-01

    , whose proposal involves the identification of local and regional sanitary and epidemiological priorities for ANVISA to pass on financial resources. The research involved visits to municipalities to collect data and information. Results were analyzed in the light of both restricting and facilitating forces related to the delivery of Sanitary Surveillance Services, in terms of structure, work processes, management, political context and financial resources. The study explicitly revealed the deficient interaction between the work of the Sanitary Surveillance authorities researched and the environment where they operate, and identified important restrictive factors for local sanitary control. This article presents the driving ideas of the research, the results from the analysis, as well as the proposed approach for the recognition and systematization of indispensable information for Sanitary Surveillance planning.

  14. Economic considerations for wastewater upgrading alternatives: an Israeli test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Pinchas; Halperin, Ramy; Hadas, Efrat

    2006-01-01

    Sewage effluent for land application is becoming an increasingly important source of irrigation water in many semi-arid regions of the world. Two main approaches to the use of sanitation to upgrade effluent for reuse in agriculture were analyzed: (i) sanitizing to the level required for each crop; or (ii) upgrading all effluent to the sanitary level mandated for unrestricted irrigation (<10 fecal coli/100mL). The first approach was authorized by the Israeli health authorities, who consider irrigation with secondary effluent to be complementary to the treatment process. The other approach was conceived mainly by the agricultural and environmental establishments, which debited the additional financial burden to the urban sector and/or the 'general public'. We show that upgrading all effluents in Israel to 'unrestricted irrigation quality' would cost $69 million each year for upgrading alone, in addition to the costs of treatment to the sanitary level required for each individual crop and of observing all the necessary additional precautions and boundaries. This difference in cost stems from the fact that most effluent is used for the irrigation of non-edible crops, for which partial pathogen removal is sufficient. Thus, upgrading to the sanitary level required by the most sensitive crops would be rather wasteful.

  15. Effect of pipe sags on wastewater collection system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, V Firat; Foust, Henry

    2011-04-01

    Sagging of pipelines is a common problem in centralized wastewater collection systems. Wastewater flowing through sags experiences several changes of slope, and the flow through flat and negative slope sections is prone to a significant reduction in mean velocity. The objective of this study is to determine when pipe sags would result in significant velocities below design conditions, which also would increase the risk of a sewer backup. A sagged pipe configuration that could be encountered in sanitary sewer systems was depicted; thereby, analyses on uniform and gradually varied flows were conducted to determine velocity profiles through different segments of the sagged pipeline setup used for the study. The results indicate that there are significant occurrences when either the velocity in the pipe sags goes below minimum, as recommended in the Ten States Standards (Health Research, Inc., 2004) (0.61 m/s [2.0 ft/ sec]), or flow depth rises to pipe diameter (full section flow). Additionally, velocities along a sagged pipe were calculated for temporal flow rates to account for daily and seasonal flow rate changes in a typical wastewater collection system. Results of the temporal flow rate analysis suggest that, for a 200-mm (8-in.) diameter sagged pipe segment with full-section (wet weather) flow, 75% of the mean velocities would be below the minimum velocity recommended as a Ten States Standard.

  16. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  17. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    enough, too expensive, or simply inefficient.  This book investigates the complex political, economic, and cultural reasons that so many developing nations lack the ability to provide proper and effective wastewater treatment for their citizens.      The authors draw upon their experiences in Malaysia......Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...

  18. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Laura E; Lepine, Christine; Sharrer, Kata L; Summerfelt, Steven T

    2016-11-15

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewater treatment option in waters with relatively higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) such as aquaculture wastewater. This work: (1) evaluated hydraulic retention time (HRT) impacts on COD/TSS removal, and (2) assessed the potential for woodchip clogging under this wastewater chemistry. Four pilot-scale woodchip denitrification bioreactors operated for 267 d showed excellent TSS removal (>90%) which occurred primarily near the inlet, and that COD removal was maximized at lower HRTs (e.g., 56% removal efficiency and 25 g of COD removed per m(3) of bioreactor per d at a 24 h HRT). However, influent wastewater took progressively longer to move into the woodchips likely due to a combination of (1) woodchip settling, (2) clogging due to removed wastewater solids and/or accumulated bacterial growth, and (3) the pulsed flow system pushing the chips away from the inlet. The bioreactor that received the highest loading rate experienced the most altered hydraulics. Statistically significant increases in woodchip P content over time in woodchip bags placed near the bioreactor outlets (0.03 vs 0.10%P2O5) and along the bioreactor floor (0.04 vs. 0.12%P2O5) confirmed wastewater solids were being removed and may pose a concern for subsequent nutrient mineralization and release. Nevertheless, the excellent nitrate-nitrogen and TSS removal along with notable COD removal indicated woodchip bioreactors are a viable water treatment technology for these types of wastewaters given they are used downstream of a filtration device. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  20. [The activity of the State Sanitary Inspectorate after implementation of the act of January, 23 2009 "Amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaś, Dariusz; Skórczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The restructuring of the State Sanitary Inspectorate was determined by the need to adjust the existing system to the new structure- and task-oriented standards introduced by the administrative reforms at the provincial level. This brought about a lot of changes in the way State County Sanitary Inspectors operate. For first few months after the enforcement of the Act of January 23.2009 amending certain acts regarding reorganization and redistribution of competences of the public administration at the provincial level (Journal of Laws, No. 92, item. 753, 2009) brought about a lot of ambiguities and expectations. Such unresolved issues are typical for the initial or transition period after implementation of a new law. The approach to the operation of the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level depicted in the article lays the emphasis on the challenges in the legal and task-oriented domain that arose after coming into force of the aforementioned amendment. By way of conclusion, the authors of the article briefly summaries the practical outcomes of the transformations undergone by the State Sanitary Inspectorate at the county level.

  1. Environmental impacts of wastewater from urban slums: case study - Old Fadama, Accra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monney, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The burgeoning of slums in the developing world poses an urgent environmental threat due to insanitary conditions and rampant disposal of wastewater. To assess the potential environmental impacts, domestic wastewater from Ghana's biggest urban slum - Old Fadama was characterised throughout the dry and wet seasons. The study drew on a comprehensive assessment of the general sanitary conditions in the community to determine the sources of pollution and water quality monitoring. BOD5 levels of wastewater from the study area were 545.63±99.88mg/L and 645.94±331.43mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas COD levels were 1100.45±167.16mg/L and 1415.12±722.83mg/L in the dry and wet seasons respectively. E-coli levels were 4±1x106CFU/100mL and 4200±2400 x106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively whereas total coliform levels also showed the same trend with 9±2106CFU/100mL and 16800±5100106CFU/100mL in the dry and wet seasons respectively. The study identifies that wastewater from this community has potential deleterious environmental implications due to high levels of nutrients, oxygen-demanding substances and faecal coliforms. Pollutants were identified to be emanating predominantly from open defecation and indiscriminate waste disposal. Efforts should thus be directed towards improving sanitary conditions viz. access to toilet facilities, waste disposal mechanisms and best management practices for wastewater.

  2. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  3. Riduzione del tabagismo nei futuri operatori sanitari: alcune proposte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aporti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione della prevalenza di fumatori negli studenti di medicina e di infermieristica al fine di migliorarne le competenze e i comportamenti in tema di tabagismo, in vista anche del loro futuro ruolo nelle Aziende Sanitarie1.

    Materiali e metodi: nell’ambito della Facoltà di Medicina dell’Università di Bologna è stato condotto uno studio sugli aspetti motivazionali e comportamentali delle abitudini al fumo nei giovani iscritti al primo anno di Medicina e di Infermieristica negli AA 1999-2000 e 2002-2003. L’indagine è stata svolta somministrando questionari anonimi agli studenti in aula. Si è ottenuta così una percentuale di rispondenti pari all’ 87 e al 90% della popolazione studentesca iscritta. Risultati: la prevalenza di fumatori cronici o occasionali è andata incrementandosi negli ultimi due anni del 7% tra gli studenti di infermieristica e dell’8,8% tra quelli di medicina, sino a raggiungere rispettivamente il 42,4% e il 25,7%. Nel 2002 il 13,5% dei fumatori ha dichiarato di contemplare la possibilità di smettere entro la fine del corso di studi. Nonostante la giovane età, il 10% di loro erano recidivi da tentativi di disassuefazione falliti.

    Conclusioni: evidente il trend di aumento dell’abitudine al fumo nelle categorie considerate e la difficoltà, a volte notevole, di evitare ricadute nel tabagismo in assenza di adeguato sostegno. Da questi dati è emersa la necessità di impegnarsi per garantire agli studenti sia una più specifica preparazione (si è previsto nel curriculum studi un modulo elective sul tabagismo che una possibilità di disassuefazione precoce, grazie a un canale preferenziale presso il centro per la Disassuefazione dal Fumo di Tabacco dell’ Azienda S. Orsola Malpighi (ove operano docenti del modulo.

  4. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Hydrogen production as a novel process of wastewater treatment - studies on tofu wastewater with entrapped R. sphaeroides and mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heguang Zhu [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Environmental Science; Ueda, Shunsaku [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biological Productive Science; Asada, Yasio [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). College of Science and Technology; Miyake, Jun [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Attention is focusing on hydrogen production from wastewater, not only because hydrogen is a clean energy but also because it can be a process for wastewater treatment. In this paper, the characteristics of biological hydrogen production as a process of wastewater treatment is discussed by a comparison with methane production. The hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and its potential for wastewater treatment are reported. The possibility of co-cultivation with heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria was also investigated. As a solution to overcome the repressive effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +} on hydrogen production by anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, a study was done using glutamine auxotroph which was obtained by chemical mutagenesis. To confirm that the mutation had occurred in DNA molecular level, the glutamine synthetase gene was cloned and sequenced. (Author)

  6. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  7. Constructed wetland: an alternative for wastewater treatment; Humedales construidos: una alternativa a considerar para el tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza de los Reyes del Rio, C.; Vidal Saez, G.

    2007-07-01

    Research and trends dealing with sewage and industrial wastewaters treated by constructed wetlands are shown in this paper. Plant and constructed wetlands configurations are also described. Sewage domestic wastewaters from individual houses or villages have used constructed wetlands as wastewater treatment. On the other hand, constructed wetlands as finally treatment working together with conventional technologies could be a good alternative for improving the treated quality wastewater. (Author) 56 refs.

  8. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  9. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  10. A review of wastewater handling in the Arctic with special reference to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) and microbial pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jenssen, Petter Deinboll; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of wastewater is often inadequate or completely lacking in Arctic regions. Wastewater contains different kinds of substances that can be harmful for the environment and human health, including residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications...... of chemicals in the food web are of concern. This can affect fishery that is a significant industry in many Arctic coastal regions. Wastewater from human settlements may also contain antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens that can cause negative impacts on human health and the environment. In the Arctic...... but are also used in towns. In settlements having inadequate sanitary facilities the risk of contracting diseases, such as hepatitis A, is unacceptably high. Conventional centralized wastewater collection systems and treatment plants are a challenge to build in the Arctic and expensive to operate. Thus...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE INDUSTRIES WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS WITH THE AIM OF HEAVY METALS REMOVAL AND WATER REUSE IN PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirbagheri, M. Salehi M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste of motor vehicle industries is mainly the result of washing, coloring and various stages of chassis manufacturing, which include oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate and other pollutants. In the present research, extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment plant is being considered and evaluated, for the removal of heavy metals and pollution load from industrial wastes and sanitary wastewaters, and on the pilot scale for optimization of waste treatment method for motor vehicle industries. To accomplish the pilot experiments, the natural waste of Bahman motor vehicle factory is used. Effective factors on efficient removal of heavy metals and pollution load such as concentration of biological mass (MLVSS, COD, BOD, pH in the extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment system, in different ratios of the mixing of industrial waste to sanitary wastewater have been experimented and evaluated. The performance of the above system, in the best of conditions, removes about 90% of pollution load and 65% of heavy metals existing in the industrial wastes. After analyzing the experiments, it is concluded that the removal of heavy metals through biological methods is possible and moreover it is feasible to biologically treat the mixing of motor vehicle industries effluent and sanitary wastewater up to the ratio of one to one, if guided exactly and scientifically.

  12. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office.

  13. Historical aspects about of environmental and sanitary engineering development in local, regional and world area; Aspectos historicos del desarrollo de la ingenieria sanitaria y ambiental en el ambito local, regional y mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2010-07-01

    The development of sanitary and environmental engineering has been significant progress over time reflected in the use of technology to solve problems of different communities not only have engineering aspects but always goes hand in hand with social and cultural. In a short, set out in this paper some significant historical facts before Christ until these days where development has been evident in the field of engineering. (Author) 27 refs.

  14. Spatial Models of Sewer Pipe Leakage Predict the Occurrence of Wastewater Indicators in Shallow Urban Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Lee, Do Gyun; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2017-02-07

    Twentieth century municipal wastewater infrastructure greatly improved U.S. urban public health and water quality. However, sewer pipes deteriorate, and their accumulated structural defects may release untreated wastewater to the environment via acute breaks or insidious exfiltration. Exfiltrated wastewater constitutes a loss of potentially reusable water and delivers a complex and variable mix of contaminants to urban shallow groundwater. Yet, predicting where deteriorated sewers impinge on shallow groundwater has been challenging. Here we develop and test a spatially explicit model of exfiltration probability based on pipe attributes and groundwater elevation without prior knowledge of exfiltrating defect locations. We find that models of exfiltration probability can predict the probable occurrence in underlying shallow groundwater of established wastewater indicators including the artificial sweetener acesulfame, tryptophan-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and a stable isotope of water (δ(18)O). The strength of the association between exfiltration probability and indicators of wastewater increased when multiple pipe attributes, distance weighting, and groundwater flow direction were considered in the model. The results prove that available sanitary sewer databases and groundwater digital elevation data can be analyzed to predict where pipes are likely leaking and contaminating groundwater. Such understanding could direct sewer infrastructure reinvestment toward water resource protection.

  15. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  16. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  17. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  18. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  19. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  20. DESIGN MANUAL: ODOR AND CORROSION CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater is known to the public for its potential to create odor nuisance. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the odor source is a wastewater treatment facility. Yet there are wastewater treatment facilities that are fr...

  1. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  2. Sanitary survey af produktionsområder i Løgstør Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    According to the Regulation for food products of animal origin (Europa Parlamentets og Rådets Forordning (EF) Nr. 854), microbiological classification of production areas for live bivalve mollusks etc.3 and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on a so-called ‘sanitary surveys......’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice...... the past 10 years (2007-2016). Within this data set, 99.2 % of a total of 908 samples contain E. coli A level (survey of Løgstør Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  3. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introduction and development of risk-oriented models for control and surveillance is the actual objective at realization of sanitary-epidemiological control (surveillance . It is necessary to work out and harmonize concept, procedural apparatus, and scientific and methodological support of risk-oriented control and surveillance on the base of the best world patterns and standards.

  4. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  5. Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Individual permits for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  6. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    The Arctic nature is vulnerable to environmental contaminants because of low biological diversity, lack of nutrients and extreme seasonal variations in light. In Greenland neither industrial nor domestic wastewater is treated before it is discharged to the recipients, which in most cases is the sea...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...... collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...

  7. [Actual sanitary, epidemiological and hygienic aspects of a dietitian's activities in stationary medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimoval, M G; Elizarova, E V; Petrenko, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the relevance of the main areas of dietitians' training to sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic issues of organization of clinical nutrition in stationary medical institutions (MIs) at training and refresher courses on dietetics. The attention is focused on the new legislative, policy and regulatory instruments, sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements, providing high quality, safety and efficacy of nutritional therapy in MIs. The role of dietitian in the organization of clinical nutrition is highlighted. There were set out rights and responsibilities of a dietitian as a representative of MI under inspections by Rospotrebnadzor bodies; the demands, put forward by these bodies to the tested object, and actions, taken by them.

  8. Heat recovery from wastewater systems; Waermerueckgewinnung aus Abwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, O.

    2004-07-01

    Wastewater contains large amounts of heat energy which can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer system. Practical problems, which may arise and have been investigated in this research project, are the reduction of the heat transfer efficiency due to heat exchanger fouling and the reduction of the nitrification capacity of downstream wastewater treatment plants due to lower wastewater temperatures. A mathematical model was developed by which the decrease of the wastewater temperature in the treatment plant influent can be determined as a function of the amount of heat energy gathered from the wastewater in the sewer system. By this model the variation in time and space of the wastewater temperature in a sewer pipe is calculated for given hydraulics, geometry and environmental conditions. By analysis of data from a large wastewater treatment plant and simulations with a calibrated model, the effect of lowered influent temperatures on nitrification safety, total nitrogen removal efficiency and ammonium effluent concentrations could be quantified. A procedure is suggested by which the reserve nitrification capacity of an existing treatment plant and the increase of the ammonium effluent concentration resulting from a permanent decrease of the wastewater influent temperature can be estimated. By experiments with a pilot scale heat exchanger in a small wastewater channel, the significance of parameters known to have an effect on fouling was investigated and measures to reduce fouling were tested. The measures tested included controlled variation of the wastewater flow velocity (flushing), coatings and finish of the heat exchanger surface and obstacles mounted on the surface. The best results were obtained by regular short term increases of the flow velocity. By this measure, the efficiency of the fouled heat exchanger, which on the average was 60% of the efficiency of the clean heat exchanger, could repeatedly be raised to an

  9. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  10. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or

  11. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  12. Sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence seen from battered women perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sánchez Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative study whose objective is to know battered women perception regarding sanitary professional’s attention on gender violence in Madrid Community. The results were validated by a triangulation process. Women identified sanitary assistance with those given when there exist physical injuries. However, if we keep questioning about it, they do express to look for something else from the professionals who attended them, although they are not able to say it before them.Somatizations that ill-treatment produces are treated by sanitary professionals without attending to the cause that caused them, and, when it is identified ill-treatment as the cause, rarely sanitary professionals send them to psychologies or psychiatrics. However, this is not identified as a bad practice, because women establish a very defined and rigid function for each professional, where, as they understand, Primary Care doctor will not be required to worry about psychic health and wellbeing of people who attend to their offices.We think, therefore, that it would be recommended that Madrid Community should create a specific health program to attend these women in order to guarantee, this way, a proper attention to people who may be in this situation as well as a minimum quality on the attention they received.

  13. 75 FR 22713 - Implementation of Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... sickened dogs, involved corn gluten used in dog food. The corn gluten was determined to have been... ranging up to 28,000 parts per million. A Class I recall was issued for the dog food and other food for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 RIN 0910-AG52 Implementation of Sanitary Food...

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  15. Can Sanitary Surveys Replace Water Quality Testing? Evidence from Kisii, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misati, Aaron Gichaba; Ogendi, George; Peletz, Rachel; Khush, Ranjiv; Kumpel, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Information about the quality of rural drinking water sources can be used to manage their safety and mitigate risks to health. Sanitary surveys, which are observational checklists to assess hazards present at water sources, are simpler to conduct than microbial tests. We assessed whether sanitary survey results were associated with measured indicator bacteria levels in rural drinking water sources in Kisii Central, Kenya. Overall, thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels were high: all of the samples from the 20 tested dug wells, almost all (95%) of the samples from the 25 tested springs, and 61% of the samples from the 16 tested rainwater harvesting systems were contaminated with TTC. There were no significant associations between TTC levels and overall sanitary survey scores or their individual components. Contamination by TTC was associated with source type (dug wells and springs were more contaminated than rainwater systems). While sanitary surveys cannot be substituted for microbial water quality results in this context, they could be used to identify potential hazards and contribute to a comprehensive risk management approach. PMID:28178226

  16. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Ground Water Rule § 141.401..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its sources and operations and the distribution of safe drinking water. (c) The sanitary survey must include...

  17. Sanitary Survey Training. The Need-to-Know Material. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne, Ed.

    A sanitary survey is an onsite inspection of a public water system by competent personnel who use a standard form, procedure, and method to survey the effectiveness and maintenance of the system and to determine its ability to provide continuously safe water to the consuming public. This text, developed as an aid to providing instruction on how to…

  18. Food Safety and Plant Health in Ghana - Analysis of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Tay, J.G.; Koomen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana is a signatory of the WTO agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures. This international agreement sets out a framework for food safety as well as plant health. While food safety is important for both national as well as international trade, phytosanitary compliance can especially

  19. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health. PMID:25477940

  20. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  3. [The sanitary microbiological and biochemical characteristics of the soils under the conditions of urbanization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprasnikova, E V; Makarova, A P

    1999-01-01

    The study of soils under technogenesis and urbanization has shown that their biogenic properties are preserved. Sanitary assessment of urban soils has demonstrated their moderate and severe pollution, bean plants being found to have self-purifying capacities in the soils.

  4. Performance of pigs kept under different sanitary conditions affected by protein intake and amino acid supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Lammers, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that requirements for particular AA increase when pigs are kept under low sanitary conditions. The extent towhich reduction in growth performance is related to these increased requirements is unclear. To evaluate this relationship, an experiment (2 × 2 × 2 factorial arra

  5. Performance of pigs kept under different sanitary conditions affected by protein intake and amino acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Y; Lammers, A; Jansman, A J M; Rijnen, M M J A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-11-01

    There is growing evidence that requirements for particular AA increase when pigs are kept under low sanitary conditions. The extent to which reduction in growth performance is related to these increased requirements is unclear. To evaluate this relationship, an experiment (2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) was performed with 612 male pigs (9 per pen) kept under low sanitary conditions (LSC) or high sanitary conditions (HSC) and offered ad libitum access to either a normal CP concentration diet (NP; 17, 15, and 15% CP for the starter, grower, and finisher phase, respectively) or a low CP concentration diet (LP; 20% CP reduced relative to NP for each phase), each of which containing a basal AA profile (AA-B) or a supplemented AA profile (AA-S). The supplemented diet type contained 20% more Met, Thr, and Trp relative to Lys on an apparent ileal digestible basis compared with the basal diet type. Pigs were followed for a complete fattening period and slaughtered at a targeted pen weight of 110 kg. Haptoglobin concentrations in serum (0.92 g/L for LSC and 0.78 g/L for HSC) and IgG antibody titers against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (3.53 for LSC and 3.08 for HSC) collected in the starter, grower, and finisher phases and pleuritis scores at slaughter (0.51 for LSC and 0.20 for HSC) were greater for LSC pigs compared with HSC pigs ( ≤ 0.01), illustrating that sanitary conditions affected health conditions. The ADG and G:F were greater for HSC pigs compared with LSC pigs ( ≤ 0.01). The number of white blood cells (WBC) was higher in (AA-S)-fed pigs compared with (AA-B)-fed pigs when kept at LSC but not at HSC [SS (sanitary conditions) × AA interaction, = 0.04]. Pigs fed NP had a lower number of WBC compared with pigs fed LP ( = 0.02). The number of platelets in pigs fed AA-S diets was higher compared with pigs fed AA-B diets ( ≤ 0.01). A 20% reduction in dietary supplementation of Met, Thr, and Trp relative to Lys decreased G:F more in LSC pigs than in HSC pigs

  6. Removal of pollutants from wastewater by coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Yang, Dong-Hao

    2002-09-01

    Coal bottom ash produced from a thermal power plant was used in a batch experiment to investigate the adsorption characteristic of this bottom ash. The adsorbate solutions were synthetic wastewaters contained copper (Cu2+) or COD and a sanitary landfill leachate. The influences of various factors, such as contact time, pH, initial adsorbate concentration and temperature on the sorption have been studied. Experimental results show that coal bottom ash had a good adsorption capacity for copper and COD and could reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. The adsorption capacities of each gram of coal bottom ash were 0.48 mg Cu (at pH 4 and temperature 25 degrees C) and 7.5 mg COD (at pH 5 and temperature 25 degrees C); their adsorption behaviors conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model. In treating leachate, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3--N, total Kjeldah nitrogen, phosphorus, Fe3+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ were 47, 39.4, 31.1, 92.9, 96.5, 94.3 and 82.2%, respectively. Based on these results we can conclude that it is possible to use coal bottom ash for removing pollutants from wastewaters. The adsorption capacities of coal bottom ash for pollutants were also determined.

  7. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrover, M.; Moya, G.; Vadell, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. (Author)

  8. Inter-municipal cooperation for wastewater treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer-Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce cou

  9. Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR); Bioreactores de membrana (MBR) para la depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardino Ferre, R.

    2001-07-01

    Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR), are a good alternative of treatment to the conventional processes when wish to obtain very high quality of the treated water or to try high load contaminants in low flow. Simultaneously, the article explains the significant reduction of the wastewater treatment plant space, eliminating the secondary septic tank. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  11. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a scen

  12. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  13. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    -known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...... function. The grey box models are estimated on data sets from the Lundtofte pilot scale plant and the Aalborg West wastewater treatment plant. Estimation of Monod- kinetic expressions is made possible through the application of large data sets. Parameter extimates from the two plants show a reasonable......The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...

  14. Treatment of electroplating wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To study the feasibility of treated water being used as rinsing water with CP/ED (chemical precipitation/electrodialysis) system, the relation between concentration of Cr (VI) and conductivity of water is investigated, the effect of electrodialysis (ED) for different wastewater is also studied. And several parameters of importance that are relevant to the process are identified. Analysis of ICP (Inductively coupled plasma) and IC (Ion chromatography) shows that the main reason of conductivity increase in CP treated water is the increase of Na+ and Cl- ions. The 93.8%-100% of ions from wastewater both in ED and CP/ED systems was removed successfully. The results of experiments indicate that the CP/ED system is a feasible method for electroplating wastewater treatment, the CP/ED system used as a way of wastwater is not only in favour of environment, but also economic beneficial to achieve.

  15. Costi e bisogni sanitari degli anziani non autosufficienti presso le strutture residenziali: strategie e interventi per una popolazione che invecchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Moro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The number of elderly is constantly increasing in the western world and many of this people spend the last years of their life in a nursing home with physical and/or mental disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Health Service resource and direct costs for Community Residential Care (CRC disabled elderly people. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2002 and December 2002 among all CRC (23 CRC and 1665 disabled residential elderly population REP of the Local Health Authority n° 9 of Treviso. For each CRC data regarding patients, hospitalisation, clinical analysis, general practitioner and hospital medical doctor assistance, drug utilisation were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Males were 27% and female 73% with an average age 78 and 86 years old respectively. Frequency of hospitalisation, clinical analysis and drug utilisation vary widely between the CRC and an inverse correlation is observed between cost of hospitalisation and drug plus clinical analysis. The first causes of hospitalisation are pneumonia 7.2% and cardiovascular disease 4.9% both considered preventable cause of hospitalisation. Regarding the drug consumption analysis enalapril, furosemide, omeprazole are the most used molecules with a consumption of 308, 185, 166 DDD/1000 REP/die; systemic antibiotics are the more expensive drugs with a cost of 0.3 euro/REP/die. Unexpected laxatives consumption is lower than data from literature with a 17% of the total REP exposed. Finally average annually cost for a REP in CRC is 16,445 euros and beside the direct sponsor of local health authority to the CRC hospitalisations cost are the most important (899 euros while drugs, medical assistance and sanitary material cost are similar with an annual cost of 530 euros, 492 euros, 450 euros respectively. Hypnotic and anxiolytic consumption appear to be correct with literature data with about 30% population exposed. CONCLUSION: Females are disabled

  16. Wastewater treatment by adsorption onto micro-particles of dried Withania frutescens Plant as new adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiban, M.; Soudani, A.; Sinan, F.; Persin, M.

    2009-07-01

    Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), etc. including the waste liquids generated by metal finishing or the mineral processing industries. The toxic metals must be effectively treated/removed from the wastewaters. If the wastewaters were discharged directly into natural waters, it will constitute a great risk for the aquatic ecosystem, whilst the direct discharge into the sewerage system may affect negatively the subsequent biological wastewater treatment. (Author)

  17. Experimental valuation of specific hospital waste production in sanitary departments and surgeries; Valutazione sperimenatle della produzione specifica di rifiuti sanitari a rischio infettivo da reparti e gruppi operatori di una struttura ospedaliera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, R.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental measures of hospital waste production in sanitary departments and surgeries at highly specialised hospital have been carried out. The salient differences in waste specific production in several departments explain relevantly the variability of hospital waste production reported in technical literature. [Italian] Sono state effettuate rilevazioni sperimentali della produzione di rifiuti speciali sanitari a rischio infettivo dai reparti digenza, di terapia intensiva e dalle sale operatorie di una struttura opsedaliera ad alta specializzazione. Le differenze significative riscontrate tra reparti o sale operatorie afferenti a unita' funzionali diverse, rendono conto della variabilita' dei valori di produzione di rifiuti speciali sanitari a rischio infettivo da strutture ospedaliere riscontrate nella letteratura.

  18. Association of Sanitary Conditions and Bacteriological Quality of Tube Ice in Ice Plants in Metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraichat Tantrakarnapa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aimed at studying the correlation between ice plant sanitary conditions and bacteriological quality of ice. The sanitary conditions in accordance with GMP regulations, the bacteriological quality of tube ice, and the processing water in 20 plants in Bangkok were studied. A modified inspection form from the Office of Food and Drug Administration was used for sanitary condition surveys. Ice and processing water samples were collected 2 times per plant with 3 samples each time. All 120 samples were analyzed for bacteriological quality by means of Standard Plate Count technique (Pour plate method and Most Probable Number technique (MPN method. The results indicated that forty percent (8 Tube plants failed and the remaining passed sanitary condition criteria. 23% of Tube Ice samples were acceptable in the standard permission level in terms of Total coliform bacteria and Fecal coliform bacteria. All Tube Ice plant processing water samples were acceptable in comparison with the standard permission level. Ice plant sanitary conditions were significantly correlated to bacteriological quality of the ice (p<0.05. Ice plant manufacturers should develop and implement Sanitary Standard and Operational Procedures (S.S.O.P. in accordance with all GMP requirements to improve Ice plant sanitary conditions.

  19. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  20. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  1. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise...

  2. Influence of wastewater reuse on the microbiological quality of sunflowers for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseanne Santos de Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of treated wastewater for agricultural purposes can be an alternative to maintaining the quality of water bodies and the biota of natural systems. It can also reduce the demand for water and preserve water supplies for more important uses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of wastewater reuse in the microbiological quality of above ground parts of sunflower crops. The experiment was conducted from July to September 2012 in the greenhouse of the Department of Agricultural Engineering (DEA at the Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão Campus. Treated wastewater was collected at the Sewage Treatment Plant (WWTP Rosa Elze, located in the municipality of São Cristóvão, SE. Irrigation was performed using different ratios of water and treated wastewater. The irrigation followed the FAO 56 method. We used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates per plot. The data were analyzed according to the parameters recommended by Resolution no. 12, 02/01/2001 of the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance. Coliforms, E. coli, yeast and mold, and Salmonella were counted. Results have shown that the microbiological quality of the superficial area of sunflower crops analyzed met the standards of Brazilian law. However, further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of soil.

  3. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  4. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  5. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  6. Comparative effects of level of dietary fiber and sanitary conditions on the growth and health of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, L; Le Floc'h, N; Arturo-Schaan, M; Foret, R; Urdaci, M C; Le Gall, M

    2012-08-01

    There are conflicting results on the growth and health of weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) fed high-fiber diets, and responses may differ according to sanitary conditions. This study was conducted to explore the growth, health, and fecal microbiota of weanling pigs fed either low- or high-fiber diets in 2 different sanitary conditions. Forty-eight pigs weaned at 28 d of age were individually housed in "good" (clean) or "poor" (unclean) sanitary conditions. During 2 consecutive phases, pigs were fed 2 diets containing a low (control) or high level of fiber: 121 or 169 g/kg total dietary fiber (TDF) for Phase I and 146 or 217 g/kg for Phase II, which lasted 15 and 20 d, respectively. This led to 4 experimental treatments in Phase I in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sanitary conditions × 2 diets) and 8 experimental treatments in Phase II in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 sanitary conditions × 2 diets in Phase I × 2 diets in Phase II). The poor sanitary conditions led to a reduced G:F (0.617 vs. 0.680 for poor and good sanitary conditions, respectively; P = 0.01) over the entire experimental period. The number of pigs with diarrhea in Phase I tended to be greater in the poor sanitary conditions with the high-fiber diet than the control diet (7 vs. 3 pigs, P = 0.07). Enterococcus was prominent in feces of these diarrheic pigs. At 5 wk after weaning, compared with good sanitary conditions, the fecal microbiota of pigs housed in poor sanitary conditions was characterized by more Lactobacillus (9.24 vs. 8.34 log cfu/g, P pigs in poor sanitary conditions contained more total VFA and proportionally more butyrate (9.7 vs. 5.7% for poor and good conditions, respectively, independently of dietary treatment, P pigs fed the high-fiber diet during Phase II contained less Enterococcus bacteria than pigs fed the control diet (4.06 vs. 4.56 log cfu/g; P = 0.05), and more total VFA with a decreased proportion of branched-chain fatty acids (5.0 vs. 6.1%; P = 0.006). To conclude

  7. Improvements to the wastewater treatment from the beginning of the operation of Nuclear Asco; Mejoras en la depuracion de aguas residuales desde el inicio de la explotacion de la Central Nuclear de Asco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza Martin, J. L.; Boronat Medico, M.

    2014-07-01

    Sanitary sewage in the Central Nuclear de Asco (CNA), are subject to a series of physico-chemical and biological processes in the wastewater waste (WWTP) before being discharged to the River Ebro. Since the beginning of the exploitation of CNA, the number of workers and administrative restrictions have evolved so that they have forced the execution of modifications of lowest and highest wingspan to comply with applicable legal requirements in the field of discharges. The overall objective of this work is to present the different stages of evolution of the WWTP of CNA from the start of operation of the plant up to the present day. The specific objective is to show the latest enhancements implanted in the sewage treatment plant and the benefits obtained. With technical improvements carried out in the WWTP of CNA, fixed the problem of disposal coming from the central nitrogen, one of the key problems and reason of failure to comply with the parameters imposed by the administration. (Author)

  8. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  9. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  10. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  11. Modelling of wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik

    In this thesis, models of pollution fluxes in the inlet to 2 Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as of suspended solids (SS) concentrations in the aeration tanks of an alternating WWTP and in the effluent from the aeration tanks are developed. The latter model is furthermore used...

  12. Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) Marine Safety Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    identified the cargo and load for each barge and a “trips” data set that identified the nature of the trip in relation to the boundaries of Mile Marker...must not be a personal watercraft of any kind (e.g. jet-skis, wave runners, kayaks , etc.).” Authors omitted these two classes of vessels in the rule...boats, kayaks , and other small metal boats) include insertion of hand in the water, hand on conductive shaft of paddle in the water, Over seven

  13. Biological wastewater treatment. II Nutrient elimination; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales. II Eliminacion de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Most biological wastewater processes are designed for carbonaceous compounds removal. In some cases, nutrient removal is required. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal are described. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  15. Sanitary status and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile within Canadian hotel rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changyun; Weese, Scott J; Namvar, Azadeh; Warriner, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The study described in this article aimed at establishing a baseline assessment of the sanitary status of ice and guest rooms within Canadian hotels. Collectively, 54 hotel rooms belonging to six different national chains were sampled. High-contact surfaces (comforter, alarm clock, bedside lamp, TV remote, bathroom countertop, faucet, and toilet seat) were sampled using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swabs and replicate organism detection and counting plates. ATP swab readings ranged from 2.12 to 4.42 log relative light units. Coliforms were recovered from 36% of surfaces with high prevalence being recovered from the comforter, TV remote, bathroom countertop, faucet, and toilet seat. Oxacillin-resistant bacteria were recovered from 19% of surfaces with 46% of isolates confirmed as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two toxigenic Clostridium difficile isolates were recovered in the course of the study. Collectively, 24% of the ice samples harbored coliforms with a single sample testing positive for E. coli. The authors' study demonstrates that hotel rooms represent a potential source of community-acquired infections and the need for enhanced sanitation practices.

  16. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in China:Efficiency and Challenge:A Case Study of Swine Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinguo DONG; Yehong LU

    2015-01-01

    The Sanitary and Phytosanitary( SPS) measures are technical regulations,standards,and requirements closely related to food safety,plant and animal health,and environmental safety,aiming to prevent disease,pests,pathogens and other alien risk from entering China.Pork is favorite meat for Chinese consumers; its safety directly concerns the safety of whole food supply chain with rapid increasing of pork import. This paper analyzed SPS management system of swine and pork import,and evaluated SPS efficiency of swine industry in China from SPS notification number,swine health situation,and pork import standard. The study found that as for SPS notification number and chemical residue control standard,China’s SPS protection level is relatively high,while the control level of swine diseases is still low. In China,SPS management system has the problem of involving multiple authorities and poor coordination among them,leading to some standards lacking scientific basis and low enforcement.

  17. [Control of potential risk in blood establishments in Brazil: a strategy for regulating authorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, João Batista Silva; Rattner, Daphne; Martins, Rita de Cássia Azevedo

    2016-08-01

    Objective To describe the sanitary status of Brazilian blood establishments (BE) assessed by the national health surveillance system in 2013. Method In the present descriptive study, the sanitary profile of BE was assessed using the Blood Establishment Potential Risk Assessment Method (Método de Avaliação de Risco Potencial de Serviços de Hemoterapia, MARPSH), developed by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (Anvisa). The MARPSH involves the evaluation of 471 structure and process items to produce an assessment of potential risk associated with critical control points in the blood cycle (vein-to-vein). Based on this assessment, BE are classified into five risk categories: low, medium-low, medium, medium-high, and high. The results were analyzed regarding the type of service (considering all levels, from coordinating centers to collection units), type of financing (public/private) and geographic region. Results Of the existing BE, 1 212 (60%) were assessed in 2013. Of these, 81% met ≥ 70% of the sanitary requirements (satisfactory status, corresponding to medium, medium-low, and low risk categories). Transfusion agencies (hospital units with the role of storing, running compatibility tests between donors and recipients, and transfusing blood components) and public establishments had the highest number of non-conformity structure and process items. Conclusion The use of the MARPSH facilitated the assessment of BE in Brazil and revealed objective opportunities for improvement. These gaps should be addressed by regulating authorities, especially in public services.

  18. Removal of suspended solids from municipal wastewater using geotextile columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, M.H. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, Texas (United States); Kotha, K.K. [Hillis-Carnes Inc., Manassas, VA (United States)

    2002-06-15

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to investigate the filtration behavior of geotextiles to remove suspended solids from municipal wastewater. Four nonwoven geotextiles were used in this preliminary investigation. The study also involved evaluating the suspended solids removal efficiency and regeneration potential of geotextiles for using as filter media. Wastewater samples were collected from the local wastewater treatment plant. Influent and effluent suspended solids concentration, chemical oxygen demand, and effluent flow rates were monitored during the tests. During filtration tests, suspended solids were retained on the upstream face and within the geotextile as wastewater passed through it. Due to the formation of a thin layer of suspended solids or filter cake on the upstream face of the geotextile, the effluent flow rate and suspended solids concentration decreased exponentially with time. When the effluent flow rate reduced below 90%, the filter media was backwashed to restore its filtering efficiency, for reuse. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that using geotextile columns, it was possible to remove 50 to 70% of suspended solids and decrease in chemical oxygen demand from 70 to 90% from the influent. This technique may be suitable for treating wastewater streams with low inflow and suspended solids concentrations, preferably in the range of 100 to 200 mg/L. The technique may be further evaluated for determining its suitability for treatment of wastewater generated from less populated areas and as a polishing step after secondary treatment. (author)

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SANITARY-HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTILAYER POLYMER FILMS USED FOR VACUUM PACKAGING MODIFIED BY NATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research works related to investigation of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of multilayer polymer film materials where the inner layer contacting directly with food product is modified by native antimicrobial components.

  20. Sanitary Sewer Systems and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources before reaching the treatment facility potentially contaminating them with gastrointestinal pathogens. Causes of SSOs include heavy rainfall and rupture/blockage of sewer lines. Few studi...

  1. Sanitary quality of surface water during base-flow conditions in the Municipality of Caguas, Puerto Rico, 2014–15: A comparison with results from a similar 1997–99 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Guzmán-Ríos, Senén

    2017-06-26

    A study was conducted in 2014–15 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Municipality of Caguas, to determine if changes in the stream sanitary quality during base-flow conditions have occurred since 1997–99, when a similar study was completed by the USGS. Water samples were collected for the current study during two synoptic surveys in 2014 and 2015. Water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliform bacteria, nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate, and human health and pharmaceutical products. Water sampling occurred at 39 stream locations used during the 1997–99 study by the USGS and at 11 additional sites. A total of 151 stream miles were classified on the basis of fecal and total coliform bacteria results.The overall spatial pattern of the sanitary quality of surface water during 2014–15 is similar to the pattern observed in 1997–99 in relation to the standards adopted by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board in 1990. Surface water at most of the water-sampling sites exceeded the current standard for fecal coliform of 200 colonies per 100 milliliters adopted by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board in 2010. The poorest sanitary quality was within the urban area of the Municipality of Caguas, particularly in urban stream reaches of Río Caguitas and in rural and suburban reaches bordered by houses in high density that either have inadequate septic tanks or discharge domestic wastewater directly into the stream channels. The best sanitary quality occurred in areas having little or no human development, such as in the wards of San Salvador and Beatriz to the south and southwest of Caguas, respectively. The concentration of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen ranged from 0.02 to 9.0 milligrams per liter, and did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as nitrogen of 10 milligrams per liter. The composition of nitrogen and oxygen

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  3. The process of biosorption of heavy metals in bioreactors loaded with sanitary sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Morais Barros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work on the process of biosorption of nickel and chromium in an ascendant continuous-flow, fixed packed-bed bioreactor of sanitary sewage sludge was conducted in a search for solutions to the environmental problem caused by heavy metals. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the absorbent had an extraordinary capacity for biosorption of the heavy metals studied at about 9.0 pH of the effluent, with a removal percentage of over 90.0% for the two metals. Chemometric study results demonstrated that 20 days of the experimental system function were sufficient for achieving the maximum efficiency of sorption of the heavy metals studied by the sanitary sewage sludge employed.

  4. Hygienic assessment of habitat adverse social and sanitary factors in the Altai Krai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ushakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The materials on health status, socio-economic, sanitary living conditions of the population of the Altai Krai have been analyzed. The comparative analysis of the conditions of life and health outcomes in urban and rural settlements’ population has been performed. The estimation of health indicators’ correlation has been carried out in children of age group 0-1 years, children of age group 0-14 years, teens of age group 15-17 years and adults of age group over 18 years, depending on the type (urban or rural of settlement with indicators of social and sanitary environmental factors. Regression equations for the health outcomes of different age groups on the level of hygiene and social environmental factors are set, regional critical (reference values are justified. The hygienic assessment of unfavorable social, health and sanitation of the environment on the health of the population in the Altai Krai is provided.

  5. Design and Materials Selection: analysis of similar sanitary pads for daily use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pohlmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygiene practices have effects on vulvovaginal microbiota. Specific products for intimate female hygiene are available in the market, such as the sanitary pads. Since these pads were introduced in the market , they became the focus of research that seek to improve their shape, manufacturing processes and the properties of materials used in order to provide more benefits to users. Thus, the present study aimed to characterize the fabrics used in daily sanitary pads, focusing on the development of future products. The spectra generated by FTIR/ATR suggest that the samples were composed of polypropylene. The photomicrographs showed that the polymeric outer layer was made of nonwoven fabric manufactured by spunbond and point bonding processes.

  6. Proposal for the reinforcement of the environmental sanitary safety; Proposition pour un renforcement de la securite sanitaire environnementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzegrzulka, O.; Aschieri, A. [Assemblee Nationale, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-11-01

    Facing the context of the public reliance crisis, the sanitary risks bound to the environment became more and more important. This report asked by the first Minister of France, takes stock on the government policy in this domain and the today institutions. The first part defines the problematic of the sanitary risks bound to the environment, the second one shows the non adapted answer offered by the actual government and the last one proposes new procedures and actions.

  7. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF VILLAGERS REGARDING PRACTICE OF UTILISATION OF SANITARY LATRINES PROVIDED BY TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is main cause of deaths in under fire age group, this can be prevent by just using sanitary latrines which were provided to villagers under T.S.C. By which provision of Rs. 8500 to every household to build a sanitary latrine in their respective house.(1 AIMS: The aim of this cross sectional study is to find out the knowledge attitude and practice of utility of sanitary latrines and its effect on the life of villager on their health and behaviour. MATERIAL & METHOD: This cross sectional study was carried out on 400 households of Khurdi village of Indore district Data was collected by using a semi structured questionnaire which ask information regarding the knowledge of villagers about diseases transmitted by or faecal route, prevention of Diarrhoea, source of infection of diarrhoea, causative organism of Diarrhoea, water borne diseases, food borne diseases, vector borne diseases and how fly transmit the diseases. RESULT: Out of 400 household interviewed 86% were literate, 100% were from low socioeconomic group 344 household knew the methods of transmission of disease and that can be prevent by using sanitary latrines and by hand washing practice after defecation and before taking any meals. It was also observed that 56 households have no knowledge of disease transmission by food, fingers, fluid, fomites or by fly. The health services providers like Asha, Usha, ANMs, LHVs. are the main source of information to the villagers. A.D.O.'s, Panchayat Sachiv are the main source of information for construction of sanitary latrines. Under Samagra Swachhata Abhiyaan(2. Additional information's they received by Radio and T.V. advertisement campaign of Govt. of India. CONCLUSION: The knowledge about utilisation of sanitary latrines to prevent faecal borne disease was found to be inadequate in this study. More efforts needed to create awareness better utilisation of sanitary latrines and make villagers aware regarding health aspect of

  8. Eco-efficient concretes: the effects of using recycled ceramic material from sanitary installations on the mechanical properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, I; Vivar, I; Llamas, B; Juan, A; Moran, J

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete mixed under laboratory conditions, where different proportions of coarse aggregate materials were substituted by porcelain from sanitary installations. The results of the tests show that the concrete produced has the same mechanical characteristics as conventional concrete, thus opening a door to selective recycling of sanitary porcelain and its use in the production of concrete.

  9. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This temporary final rule is intended to restrict all vessels from transiting the navigable waters of the CSSC. This safety zone is necessary to protect the waters, waterway users, and vessels from the hazards associated with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) temporary......

  10. The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Park, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

  11. Biohydrogen gas production from food processing and domestic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginkel, Steven W.; Oh, Sang-Eun; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The food processing industry produces highly concentrated, carbohydrate-rich wastewaters, but their potential for biological hydrogen production has not been extensively studied. Wastewaters were obtained from four different food-processing industries that had chemical oxygen demands of 9g/L (apple processing), 21g/L (potato processing), and 0.6 and 20g/L (confectioners A and B). Biogas produced from all four food processing wastewaters consistently contained 60% hydrogen, with the balance as carbon dioxide. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as a result of hydrogen gas production were generally in the range of 5-11%. Overall hydrogen gas conversions were 0.7-0.9L-H{sub 2}/L-wastewater for the apple wastewater, 0.1L/L for Confectioner-A, 0.4-2.0L/L for Confectioner B, and 2.1-2.8L/L for the potato wastewater. When nutrients were added to samples, there was a good correlation between hydrogen production and COD removal, with an average of 0.10+/-0.01L-H{sub 2}/g-COD. However, hydrogen production could not be correlated to COD removal in the absence of nutrients or in more extensive in-plant tests at the potato processing facility. Gas produced by a domestic wastewater sample (concentrated 25x) contained only 23+/-8% hydrogen, resulting in an estimated maximum production of only 0.01L/L for the original, non-diluted wastewater. Based on an observed hydrogen production yield from the effluent of the potato processing plant of 1.0L-H{sub 2}/L, and annual flows at the potato processing plant, it was estimated that if hydrogen gas was produced at this site it could be worth as much as $65,000/year. (author)

  12. Removal of polyvinylpyrrolidone from wastewater using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julinová, Markéta; Kupec, Jan; Houser, Josef; Slavík, Roman; Marusincová, Hana; Cervenáková, Lenka; Klívar, Stanislav

    2012-12-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a frequently used polymer in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. Because it is not subject to metabolic changes and is virtually nondegradable, trace concentrations of PVP are often found in community wastewaters. The literature finds that the partial removal of PVP in wastewater treatment plants probably occurs through sorption. The primary objective of this study was to find an effective method to remove PVP from wastewaters. In this regard, the literature indicates the theoretical potential to use specific enzymes (e.g., gamma-lactamases, amidases) to gradually degrade PVP molecules. Polyvinylpyrrolidone biodegradability tests were conducted using suitable heterogeneous cultures (activated sludge) collected from a conventional wastewater treatment plant, treatment plants connected to a pharmaceutical factory, and using select enzymes. Aerobic biodegradation of PVP in a conventional wastewater environment was ineffective, even after adaptation of activated sludge using the nearly identical monomer 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Another potential method for PVP removal involves pretreating the polymer prior to biological degradation. Based on the results (approximately 10 to 15% biodegradation), pretreatment was partially effective, realistically, it could only be applied with difficulty at wastewater treatment plants. Sorption of PVP to an active carbon sorbent (Chezacarb S), which corresponded to the Langmuir isotherm, and sorption to activated sludge, which corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm, were also evaluated. From these sorption tests, it can be concluded that the considerable adsorption of PVP to activated sludge occurred primarily at low PVP concentrations. Based on the test results, the authors recommend the following methods for PVP removal from wastewater: (1) sorption; (2) application of specific microorganisms; and (3) alkaline hydrolysis, which is the least suitable of the three for use in wastewater treatment

  13. Is Biomedical Waste Management Knowledge Adequate in Paramedics AND Sanitary Workers in Hospitals of Ujjain City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Rajput

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Hospitals produce a byproduct which is wasteful and causes contamination of the environment, with its antecedent complications. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling may have serious health consequences. Objectives: Present study was conducted to find out the current level of knowledge among paramedics (Lab Technicians, nursing staff and sanitary workers in hospitals of Ujjain city regarding biomedical waste management. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 study participants in the Government and private hospital of Ujjain city from 1st January 2013 to 30 November 2013.Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 16.0 and chi-square test. Results: Mean age of the total 400 study participants was 31.36 (SD=11.62 years, among them 68.5% were female, majority (64.5% were the nurses and majority (64.7% were working in the concerned hospital since more than 2 years. Nursing staff has adequate knowledge (36.8% as compared to lab technician and sanitary staff (30.3%. Staff who had received medical waste management training had significantly (p<0.05 higher knowledge. Conclusion: On the basis of findings we conclude that the knowledge regarding biomedical waste management is not adequate among nursing staff, lab teqnicians and sanitary workers. " [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(3.000: 151-154

  14. EU Sanitary Regulation on Livestock Disposal: Implications for the Diet of Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Laura; Bárcena, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary and environmental regulations may have indirect effects on the wildlife and ecosystem services beyond their regulatory scope. To illustrate such effects, this paper examines how EU sanitary measures, in conjunction with additional regulations and socio-economic changes, have caused wolf diet to shift in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Prior to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in Europe in 2000, livestock carcasses used to be left on the field and were eaten by scavengers and carnivores. As a result of the BSE crisis, sanitary regulations regarding the disposal of livestock carcasses were introduced. These regulations affected the populations of avian scavengers. We hypothesize that wolf ecology has also been affected by the aforementioned regulations. We analysed wolf diet for the period 2003-2006 and compared the results with those of a previously published study (1974-1978). We found a shift in wolf feeding habits following the implementation of these EU regulations. A decrease in carrion consumption was registered, and wolves increased their feeding on the rising population of wild ungulates, especially on roe deer, and on wild pony. Future regulations should assess their potential indirect effects in the early stages of drafting to allow for the design of proper mitigation measures.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  16. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  17. Phase and Micro-Structural Characterization of Sanitary-Ware Fired at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATHER HASSAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The three main ingredients of sanitary-ware are clay, feldspar and quartz. This ware is being widely used and has therefore, attracted the attention of researchers from time to time. Consequently, it has been extensively investigated. The present study describes the phase and micro-structural analysis of sanitary-ware samples collected from local (Durr Ceramics Peshawar industry. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of samples fired at 1100oC reveals the presence of ? ? ? ? ?-quartz and primary mullite only. In addition to a-quartz and primary mullite, elongated needles of secondary mullite were also present in samples fired at 1200 and 1300oC. Unlike typical vitreous ceramics bodies, regions containing elongated secondary mullite originating from the clay relict and growing into the feldspar relict were few in number which is consistent with the high clay content in the starting body ingredients of the investigated samples. Another sample investigated for comparison purposes, contained all the phases mentioned above along with some corundum grains which indicated that the composition of sanitary ware varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detected high concentration of Fe in some regions in the bulk but the glaze did not contain any Fe.

  18. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  19. Wastewater treatment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  20. Wastewater Treatment Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The state-of-the-art level reached in modeling wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is reported. For suspended growth systems, WWTP models have evolved from simple description of biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in aeration tanks (ASM1 in 1987) to more advanced levels including...... the practice of WWTP modeling by linking the wastewater treatment line with the sludge handling line in one modeling platform. Application of WWTP models is currently rather time consuming and thus expensive due to the high model complexity, and requires a great deal of process knowledge and modeling expertise....... Efficient and good modeling practice therefore requires the use of a proper set of guidelines, thus grounding the modeling studies on a general and systematic framework. Last but not least, general limitations of WWTP models – more specifically, activated sludge models – are introduced since these define...

  1. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-01-01

    The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified accordi...

  2. Sanitary risks related to the installation of hydroelectric turbines on drinking water networks; Hydroelectricite: les risques sanitaires pour l'adduction d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, A. [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments - AFSSA, DERNS - Unite d' Evaluation des Risques Lies a l' Eau - UERE, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Montiel, A.; Cabillic, P.J.; Fourrier, P.; Levi, Y.; Potelon, J.L.; Welte, B. [Comite d' Experts Specialise Eaux de l' AFSSA, 94 - Maisons Alfort (France); Fourrier, P. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire 75 - Paris (France); Levi, Y. [Paris-11 Univ., Faculte de Pharmacie, Lab. Sante Publique Environnement, 91 - Orsay (France); Potelon, J.L. [Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Sante Publique - EHESP, 35 - Rennes (France); Welte, B. [Eau de Paris, 75 (France)

    2010-11-15

    With the notion of sustainable development gaining ground, practices aimed at saving water and energy are more and more frequent, particularly the installation of hydroelectric turbine on drinking water networks. It is essential in this case that the water quality should not be deteriorated, and the water supply for consumption and fire protection has to be prioritized over energy production. Thus, a sanitary risk assessment must be done and actions to control the described critical points have to be taken. The installation of a turbine is an additional risk whereas it is not necessary for drinking water production and distribution. As a consequence, a quality management system including the turbine and additional quality water monitoring should be carried out. (authors)

  3. Study of biogas production parameters in the sanitary landfill; Estudio de los parametros que afectan la produccion de biogas en un vertedero controlado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Domenech, G.; Gordillo Bolasell, M. A.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2001-07-01

    The following article contents a study about some of the parameters affecting the evolution of the gas production in a sanitary landfill placed in the province of Barcelona. The work is focused on the quality of biogas produced, measured as the percentage of methane and thus its energy profitability. The parameters included in this paper are: -Situation of the gas extraction station -Age of the wastes. -Reinfiltration of concentrated liquid leachate in the considered cell. Among the previous factors, the situation of the gas station and the age of wastes showed a critical influence on the methane content, whereas the use of leachate reinfiltration did not produce significant differences in the quality of biogas in the short-term applications. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Technical journey about the new regulation of sanitary protection against ionizing radiations; Jornada tecnica sobre el nuevo reglamento de proteccion sanitaria contra radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchena, P.

    2002-07-01

    Organized at the same time by the Spanish Radiation Protection Society (SEPR), Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) and the Spanish Medical Physics Society (SEFM) and with the collaboration of the CSN, the Ministry of Health, ENRESA, ENUSA, UNESA, and the ESTII of the UP of Madrid. It was celebrated the past day november 15th in the auditorium of the named ETSII a technical journey of discussion about the new Regulation of Sanitary Protection against Ionizing Radiations, Royal Decree 783/2001 on July 6th of 2001 (BOE 178 on july 26th of 2001). In this article its describe with detail the development of the journey outstanding the most relevant aspects of the new regulation, in the same way a summary of the reports Showed during the journey. (Author)

  5. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  6. Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Synthetic Municipal Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Poulios, I.; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A.

    2002-07-01

    The photocatalytic organic content reduction of a selected synthetic municipal wastewater (SYMAWE), using heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic methods under solar irradiation, has been studied at pilot plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In the case of heterogenous photocatalysis the effect of catalysts concentration, pH values and oxidants on the decomposition degree of the wastewater was examined. By an accumulation energy of 50 KJ I''-1 the synergetic effect of TiO{sub 2} P-25 with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 55% and 73% reduction of the initial organic carbon content respectively. The Photo-Fenton process shows to be more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation energy of 20 KJ I''-1 leads to 80% reduction of the organic content. The presence of oxalate in the Fe''+3/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system leads to an additional improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. Solar photocatalytic treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Poulios, I. [University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Department of Chemistry, Lab. Physical Chemistry; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (Spain)

    2004-03-01

    The photocatalytic organic content reduction of a selected synthetic municipal wastewater by the use of heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic methods under solar irradiation has been studied at a pilot-plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. In the case of heterogeneous photocatalysis the effect of catalysts and oxidants concentration on the decomposition degree of the wastewater was examined. By an accumulation energy of 50 kJ L{sup -1} the synergetic effect of 0.2 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} P-25 with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 55% and 73% reduction of the initial organic carbon content, respectively. The photo-fenton process appears to be more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation energy of 20 kJ L{sup -1} leads to 80% reduction of the organic content. The presence of oxalate in the Fe{sup 3+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system leads to an additional improvement of the photocatalytic efficiency. (author)

  8. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Zatoń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton. The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, and the remaining area is a place intended for sunbathing and playing games. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of different ways of using the beach on changes of microbiological properties of the sand. The tests were taken from the beach sand in May 2013 (first term examinations, and in September, after several months of use (the second term of examinations. The sand was collected near catering and sanitary sector (the first object and from the area of the volleyball court (the second object, as well as the playground for children (the third object. The facilities were distanced from the shoreline of the lake by approx. 8 metres. The comparison included the number of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and the detected presence of coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the genus Salmonella and eggs of intestinal parasites. In any of the objects, or the periods of time, eggs of intestinal parasites and bacteria of the genus Salmonella were detected. The presence of coliform bacteria including E. coli was found in the sand collected from a catering-sanitary zone, there was also the biggest number of bacteria and fungi. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was similar in samples of sand taken from the volleyball court and from the playground, in this sand there was no bacteria belonging to the E. coli species, although in several samples from the playground other bacteria belonging to the coliform genus were detected. To

  9. Bioindicators of wastewater ecotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirova, Gabriela; Wittlingerova, Zdenka; Zimova, Magdalena; Vlkova, Alena; Wittlerova, Martina; Dvorakova, Marketa; Jirova, Dagmar

    2016-12-18

    Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents. Provisions of binding EU legislation regarding protection of animals used for scientific purposes and legislation dealing with test methods for identification and classification of health hazard of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, medical devices and consumer products such as cosmetics for environmental ecosystems and for man require to employ alternative toxicological methods respecting the 3Rs concept with priority given to methods in vitro. The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is identified as a relevant, reliable and efficient alternative test method in vitro for determination of acute toxicity for fish. Using the FET, additional toxicological endpoints may be investigated to assess organ specific bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, teratogenicity, various forms of neurotoxicity or endocrine disruptivity. The addition of multiparametric sensitive endpoints makes the FET a true alternative in vitro assay and a powerful tool in toxicology.

  10. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  11. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...... development and this paper discusses crucial points in the development of the method....

  12. Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical and industrial wastewater by anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menapace, H. M.; Fellerer, M.; Treschnitzer, M.

    2009-07-01

    In modern medicine pharmaceuticals play a decisive role: because of an increased life expectancy and intensive care medicine an increasing amount of pharmaceuticals is produced. thus these substances are consumed in a mass of tons per year in industrialized countries. Wastewater effluents from sewage treatment plants (STP) are important point sources for residues of pharmaceuticals and complexing agents in the aquatic environment. For this reason a research project, which started in December 2006, was established to eliminate pharmaceutical substances and complexing agents found in wastewater as micropollutants. (Author)

  13. Isolation and characterization of NDM-positive Escherichia coli from municipal wastewater in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Mantilla-Calderon, David

    2016-06-20

    The emergence of resistance to last resort antibiotics is a public health concern of global scale. Besides direct person-to-person propagation, environmental pathways might contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Here, we describe the incidence of blaNDM-1, a gene conferring resistance to carbapenems, in the wastewater of Jeddah city over a one-year period. blaNDM-1 was detected at concentrations ranging from 104 to 105 copies per m3 of untreated wastewater during the entire monitoring period. These results indicate the ubiquity and high incidence of blaNDM-1 in the local wastewater. To track the bacteria carrying blaNDM-1, we isolated Escherichia coli PI7, a strain of the sequence type ST101, from wastewater around the Hajj event in October 2013. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed an extensive repertoire of ARGs as well as virulence and invasive traits. These traits were further confirmed by antibiotic resistance profiling and in-vitro cell internalization in HeLa cell cultures. Given that this strain remains viable even after a certain duration in the sewerage, and that Jeddah lacks a robust sanitary infrastructure to fully capture all generated sewage, the presence of this bacterium in the untreated wastewater would represent a potential hazard to the local public health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a blaNDM-1-positive E. coli isolated from a non-nosocomial environment in Saudi Arabia, and may set a preceding concern for the need to establish an improved surveillance for carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the country and nearby regions.

  14. Methodological issues of optimization the sanitary-educational assistance for children with asthma during the health care reform of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Nedelskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entry. Asthma remains the medical, social, economic issue of the day of modern society and industry of health protection. Research works on questions asthma are sanctified to mainly the improvement of diagnostics and treatment of asthma and a sanitary-educational help is underestimated. In the modern terms of structural alteration of network of establishments of health care in Ukraine a sanitary-educational help must be an effective complex in strategy of therapy of patients with asthma. Research aim. To ground importance, modern forms and methods of sanitary -educational help in providing of control above asthma on the stage of structural reorganization of establishments of health care in Ukraine. Materials and research methods. Scientifically-methodical literature was analyzed on general questions of organization and realization of sanitary-educational work in asthma. Long-term of own experience of realization of this work is generalized in the conditions of stationary treatment of patients with asthma. Research results. Sanitary-educational work in a form of education in the program "Asthma school". General practitioner, as a key figure of establishments of primary medical and sanitary help, must own the psychological methods including medical-psychology programs of before- and after graduation medical education. Conclusions. In providing of effective control above bronchial asthma in children a sanitary-educational help must be logical continuation and addition of curative help. Application of the educational programs and volume of work of doctors at their implementation must be legislatively lighted up in "Protocols of diagnostics and treatment of bronchial asthma for children".

  15. Wastewater reuse. What can be learned from the Israel experience; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales. Que se puede aprender de la experiencia israeli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, M.

    2007-07-01

    In Israel, wastewater is defined as an integral part of the water resources of the country and massive water reuse has been performed for almost four decades. Today, reuse achieves 75% of the produced wastewater. The present paper analyzes the historical development of wastewater reuse in Israel, addressing main events, regulations, coexistence of projects of different sizes and characteristics, institutional organization, the contractual relationship between the urban and rural sectors, nutrients recycling, quality of the treated wastewater and the problem of salination of soils and aquifers. The paper gives an holistic and impartial description of the controversial issues that are presently discussed in the country regarding wastewater reuse. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater; El reto de la reutilizacion de aguas usadas: tratamiento intensivo de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-07-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs.

  17. Comparison of Enterococcus species diversity in marine water and wastewater using Enterolert and EPA Method 1600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Donna M; Griffith, John F; McGee, Charles D; Weisberg, Stephen B; Hagedorn, Charles

    2013-01-01

    EPA Method 1600 and Enterolert are used interchangeably to measure Enterococcus for fecal contamination of public beaches, but the methods occasionally produce different results. Here we assess whether these differences are attributable to the selectivity for certain species within the Enterococcus group. Both methods were used to obtain 1279 isolates from 17 environmental samples, including influent and effluent of four wastewater treatment plants, ambient marine water from seven different beaches, and freshwater urban runoff from two stream systems. The isolates were identified to species level. Detection of non-Enterococcus species was slightly higher using Enterolert (8.4%) than for EPA Method 1600 (5.1%). E. faecalis and E. faecium, commonly associated with human fecal waste, were predominant in wastewater; however, Enterolert had greater selectivity for E. faecalis, which was also shown using a laboratory-created sample. The same species selectivity was not observed for most beach water and urban runoff samples. These samples had relatively higher proportions of plant associated species, E. casseliflavus (18.5%) and E. mundtii (5.7%), compared to wastewater, suggesting environmental inputs to beaches and runoff. The potential for species selectivity among water testing methods should be considered when assessing the sanitary quality of beaches so that public health warnings are based on indicators representative of fecal sources.

  18. Comparison of Enterococcus Species Diversity in Marine Water and Wastewater Using Enterolert and EPA Method 1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Ferguson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EPA Method 1600 and Enterolert are used interchangeably to measure Enterococcus for fecal contamination of public beaches, but the methods occasionally produce different results. Here we assess whether these differences are attributable to the selectivity for certain species within the Enterococcus group. Both methods were used to obtain 1279 isolates from 17 environmental samples, including influent and effluent of four wastewater treatment plants, ambient marine water from seven different beaches, and freshwater urban runoff from two stream systems. The isolates were identified to species level. Detection of non-Enterococcus species was slightly higher using Enterolert (8.4% than for EPA Method 1600 (5.1%. E. faecalis and E. faecium, commonly associated with human fecal waste, were predominant in wastewater; however, Enterolert had greater selectivity for E. faecalis, which was also shown using a laboratory-created sample. The same species selectivity was not observed for most beach water and urban runoff samples. These samples had relatively higher proportions of plant associated species, E. casseliflavus (18.5% and E. mundtii (5.7%, compared to wastewater, suggesting environmental inputs to beaches and runoff. The potential for species selectivity among water testing methods should be considered when assessing the sanitary quality of beaches so that public health warnings are based on indicators representative of fecal sources.

  19. Trends in advanced wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper examines the present trends within wastewater handling and treatment. The trend is towards the extremes, either local low-tech treatment or centralized advanced treatment plants. The composition of the wastewater will change and it will be regarded as a resource. There will be more...

  20. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  1. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  2. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit o

  3. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Teerikangas, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit

  4. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  5. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., manages, or treats a Group 1 wastewater stream or a residual removed from a Group 1 wastewater stream, the... fixed roof except that if the wastewater tank is used for heating wastewater, or treating by means of an... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater...

  6. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  7. Concentrations and composition profiles of parabens in currency bills and paper products including sanitary wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-03-15

    Parabens (alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. Although parabens have been reported to be used as antimicrobials in certain types of papers (e.g., wet sanitary or hygiene wipes), little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in paper products. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six paraben analogs, methyl (MeP), ethyl (EtP), propyl (PrP), butyl (BuP), benzyl (BzP), and heptyl parabens (HepP), in 253 paper products divided into 18 categories, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At least one of the six parabens was detected in almost all (detection rate: 98%) paper samples, and the total concentrations (∑PBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.85 to 3,220,000 ng/g (geometric mean (GM): 103; median: 55.1 ng/g). Sanitary wipes contained very high concentrations of ∑PBs (GM: 8300 ng/g). Paper currencies, tickets, business cards, food cartons, flyers, and newspapers contained notable concentrations of ∑PBs, and the GM concentrations in these paper categories were on the order of a few tens to thousands of nanograms per gram. One source of parabens in paper products is the use of these chemicals as antifungal agents. MeP and PrP were the predominant analogs, accounting for approximately 62% and 16% of the total concentrations of parabens, respectively. On the basis of measured concentrations and frequency of handling of paper products, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of parabens through dermal absorption. The GM and 95th percentile EDI values were 6.31 and 2050 ng/day, respectively, for the general population. Among the paper categories analyzed, sanitary wipes contributed to the majority (>90%) of the exposures.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  9. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  10. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  11. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  12. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  13. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  14. Meta-analysis of feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, H; van Milgen, J; Lovatto, P; Montagne, L

    2012-06-01

    Sanitary challenges negatively affect feed intake and growth, leading to a negative impact on animal well-being and economic losses. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis to quantify the dynamic feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge. A database was constructed using 122 published experiments reporting the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs subjected to one of six sanitary challenges: digestive bacterial infections, poor housing conditions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges, mycotoxicoses, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. The responses to experimental challenges were calculated relative to that of a control group. Statistical analyses were carried out for each challenge to quantify the mean and the dynamic responses in feed intake and growth and to identify the basis of the reduction in growth (i.e. reduction in feed intake or reduction in feed efficiency related to changes in maintenance requirements). All challenges resulted in a reduction in ADFI and ADG, with the strongest responses for mycotoxicoses, respiratory diseases and digestive bacterial infections (8% to 23% reduction in ADFI and 16% to 29% reduction in ADG). The reduction in ADG was linearly related to the reduction in ADFI for digestive bacterial infections, LPS challenge, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. For poor housing conditions and mycotoxicoses, the relationship was curvilinear. A 10% reduction in ADFI resulted in a reduction in ADG varying from 10% for mycotoxicoses to 43% for digestive bacterial infections. More than 70% of the reduction in ADG could be explained by the reduction in ADFI for mycotoxicoses, LPS challenge and respiratory diseases. For challenges associated with the gastrointestinal tract, a large part of the reduction in ADG was due to an increase in maintenance requirements, suggesting digestive and metabolic changes. A dynamic pattern in the reduction in

  15. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority.

  17. A review of wastewater handling in the Arctic with special reference to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) and microbial pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jenssen, Petter Deinboll; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    , especially, the direct release of untreated sewage may have severe consequences for the receiving environment due to low biological diversity, low ambient temperatures and consequently high vulnerability of the Arctic ecosystem to environmental contaminants. Bucket toilets are common in remote settlements...... but are also used in towns. In settlements having inadequate sanitary facilities the risk of contracting diseases, such as hepatitis A, is unacceptably high. Conventional centralized wastewater collection systems and treatment plants are a challenge to build in the Arctic and expensive to operate. Thus...

  18. Evaluation of sanitary impact of environmental pollution and quantitative evaluation of sanitary risks; Estimation de l'impact sanitaire d'une pollution environnementale et evaluation quantitative des risques sanitaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The calculation of a sanitary impact present a great interest at the decision level for the decision-makers and the whole of concerned actors. It constitutes a first step to organize a social debate around the risk acceptance, to analyze the feasibility of an inquiry or an epidemiological surveillance or to proportion an activity leading to pollutants emission in natural medium. Several conclusions are brought out: it is justified to estimate a sanitary impact from a sanitary risk excess, especially coming from animal tissue. It is conceivable to go beyond an estimation of the only individual risk and to calculate a number of cases in excess in the concerned population. The working group underlines that the characteristics of the situation are the determining factor to give the type of response to bring. The effective of the population is an important element and a situation has not to be underestimated because of the size at the pretext that the excess calculation leads to a number of cases inferior to one leading to believe that the impact is minor or negligible while the individual probability is high. The sanitary impact, expressed by the number of cancer cases in excess in an exposed population is quantified from the average value of excess of sanitary risk multiplied by the population effective, and expressed with a confidence interval. The sanitary impact can be expressed under the form of a percentage of the population present in the exposure area and goes past the comparison marks usually pointed up. This practice must be cheered. An analysis of uncertainties must be made as often as possible. (N.C.)

  19. [The necessity of new approaches to the elaboration of the projects for the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts around the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, health resorts and their natural medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, A N; Adilov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The international experience gained during the past two centuries indicates that the most efficient and rational way to ensure the protection of the territories occupied by the therapeutic and health-promotion facilities, spa centres, and health resorts together with their natural medical resources is to set up sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones along the perimeter of these territories. Beginning from 2000, numerous changes and amendments have been annually introduced in the Russian legislation intended to ensure efficacious control over the rational exploitation of the territories of therapeutic and health-promotion value and their natural medical resources. These initiatives have negative effect on the activities of these organizations and the quality of the services they are expected to provide. Taken together these effects lead to the degradation of the spa and health resort business. Bearing in mind the current conditions for economic activities, it is proposed, in contrast to the former global approach, to envisage in the aforementioned projects the establishment of the sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts or zones and determine their borders based on the results of the assessment of their potential for the protection of therapeutic factors and other valuable resources. Equally important is the maximum reduction of the areas of the second and third zones taking into account their relevant objective characteristics. In certain cases, the protective district may coincide with the second zone. As far as the federal health resorts and large territories of special health-promotion value are concerned, some of them may have two or more sanitary (mountainous sanitary) protection districts. Both the owners and the users of these territories should be provided the necessary and sufficient possibilities for the rational nature use at the grounds and in the adjacent water areas suitable for the development of health resort

  20. [Problems in the further development of postgraduate training in industrial sanitary chemistry for the laboratory physicians of epidemiological health stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, E P; Soldatenkova, N A

    1991-01-01

    The article narrates on the domain of the sanitary inspection medical laboratory workers' supervision in the field of industrial chemistry and their experience in handling different physical and chemical analysis techniques. It is indicated that sanitary inspection medical laboratory personnel requires constant postgraduate training. Proposed is the respective training programme adopted at the Institute for Postgraduate Training of Physicians, Moscow, which includes samples' selection, physical and chemical analysis testing and application in specific conditions, statistical assessment of the results obtained. The programme also includes the hygienic aspects, e. i. current sanitary control, labour hygiene in different gas discharge-related conditions. Practical training is performed in small groups of 2 or 3 persons, thus facilitating adoption of skills in using various analysis techniques. Initial, current and intermediate control, tests and situational analysis are used in the training process.

  1. Purification of coke oven wastewater; Depuracion de aguas residuales de coqueria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancano, A.; Gutierrez, A.; Diaz, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven wastewater are one of the most problematic that are produced by the iron and steel industry. They must be purified to minimise their impact on the environment. In this work a general vision about the different treatments that the wastewater must subject before being poured is showed. The options and efficiencies of every step were studied, taking special attention to the organic removal, studying the different ways to carry out this removal, centring on the biological treatment, the most used in this kind of wastewaters. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. Desorption of organophosphorous pesticides from soil with wastewater and surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Soriano, M. C.; Mingorance, M. D.; Pena, A.

    2009-07-01

    Surfactants can be introduced in the environment by wastewater discharge, point-charge pollution or deliberate action, e. g. to remediate contaminated soil or groundwater. The irrigation of soil with wastewater containing surfactants may modify pesticide desorption from soil, thus affecting their affecting their environmental fate. Desorption from soil of the plain of Granada (South-eastern Spain) of two organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon and dimethoate, differing in solubility and hydrophobicity, has been evaluated in the presence of different surfactant aqueous solutions and municipal wastewater. (Author)

  3. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  4. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several...... hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  5. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vymazal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating; hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow; and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal. In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.

  6. Pathogen cross-transmission via building sanitary plumbing systems in a full scale pilot test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspray, Thomas J.; Kelly, David A.; Rodriguez-Gil, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The WHO Consensus Document on the epidemiology of the SARS epidemic in 2003, included a report on a concentrated outbreak in one Hong Kong housing block which was considered a ‘super-spreading event’. The WHO report conjectured that the sanitary plumbing system was one transmission route for the virus. Empty U-traps allowed the aerosolised virus to enter households from the sewerage system. No biological evidence was presented. This research reports evidence that pathogens can be aerosolised and transported on airstreams within sanitary plumbing systems and enter buildings via empty U-traps. A sanitary plumbing system was built, representing two floors of a building, with simulated toilet flushes on the lower floor and a sterile chamber with extractor fan on the floor above. Cultures of a model organism, Pseudomonas putida at 106–109 cfu ml-1 in 0·85% NaCl were flushed into the system in volumes of 6 to 20 litres to represent single or multiple toilet flushes. Air and surface samples were cultured on agar plates and assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Flushing from a toilet into a sanitary plumbing system generated enough turbulence to aerosolise pathogens. Typical sanitary plumbing system airflows (between 20–30 ls-1) were sufficient to carry aerosolised pathogens between different floors of a building. Empty U-traps allowed aerosolised pathogens to enter the chamber, encouraging cross-transmission. All parts of the system were found to be contaminated post-flush. Empty U-traps have been observed in many buildings and a risk assessment indicates the potential for high risk cross-transmission under defect conditions in buildings with high pathogen loading such as hospitals. Under defective conditions (which are not uncommon) aerosolised pathogens can be carried on the airflows within sanitary plumbing systems. Our findings show that greater consideration should be given to this mode of pathogen transmission. PMID:28187135

  7. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Barriers to trade?: the Peruvian Case in Asia-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alonso Valverde Arevalo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, tariffs do not represent the main barrier to foreign trade, due to the continued reduction of these measures in the multilateral or bilateral level. In contrast, non-tariff measures have increased to be considered as the main concern for exports. In this context, one kind of such measures becomes more important, the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS measures. SPS measures serve to protect the health of people, animals and plants against risks associated with diseases, pests between others; however, by the design of those measures, they can distort trade or even been used for protectionist purposes in favor of national industries of importing countries. This article questions whether Peru has achieved real market access for its agricultural and fishery products, because of the wide range of international trade agreements in force. In this sense, historical and pending cases are presented in terms of market access due to SPS measures, like the access for Peruvian avocadoes In the Japanese market. Furthermore, the provisions of trade agreements in terms of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are analyzed in order to present potential opportunities that are established in these agreements and how they encourage trade. It is also presented that those kind of measures have not been used to facilitate Peruvian foreign trade.

  8. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  9. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITY OF DESICCATED AND STORED AZUKI BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÁSSIO JARDIM TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of using different herbicides as desiccants in pre - harvest and the effects of storage on the physiological and sanitary quality of azuki bean seeds ( Vigna angularis Willd. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in a split plot scheme, with four replications. Four herbicides were tested: paraquat (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glufosinate ammonium (400 g a.i. ha - 1 , glyphosate (720 g a.i. ha - 1 , flumioxazin (30 g a.i. ha - 1 and a control without herbicide application. In the subplots seed quality was tested in two evaluation periods: at harvest and six months after harvest. Desiccant was applied when the azuki beans were physiologically mature. We assessed the physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds using a vigour and seed health test. The use of glyphosate resulted in a higher incidence of abnormal seedlings and reduced size and weight of the seedlings. With paraquat and flumioxazin the physiological quality was maintained and there was reduced pathogen infestation in the seeds six months after harvest. Storage affected the physiological quality of the azuki bean seeds.

  10. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  12. [Hygiene-sanitary risks associated with dentistry in the city of Milan. Questionnaire-based survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, M G; Tesauro, M; Consonni, M

    2000-06-01

    Aim of this investigation is to identify possible sanitary risks connected with the practice of dentistry and to draw up guidelines which may help all those who work in this field. Between April and July 1998, we distributed 231 questionnaires to public and private dental offices in Milan, to evaluate dentists' knowledge of sanitary risks in their practices. One hundred and sixteen of the 231 distributed questionnaires were returned. All the dentists contacted, used protective measures such as gloves, masks, glasses, and high-speed aspirators. Survey responses indicated that the most readily transmittable infectious diseases in dentist's practices are, in order of importance, hepatitis, AIDS, airborne diseases, and herpes. Surgery, endodontics, and the use of sharp instruments most likely lead to transmission of pathogens in both patients and dentists. Dentist's knowledge of out-patient treatment is good whereas their knowledge of the use of disinfectants for dental equipment is poor. The latter suggests the utility of continuing education in this critical aspect of the practice of dentistry.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from methyldibromo glutaronitrile in a sanitary pad and review of Australian clinic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason D; Frowen, Kathryn E; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-03-01

    Methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has rarely been reported as an allergen in adhesives but is recognized as a common allergen in skin care products in Europe. It has been banned for use in leave-on products by the European Union. In this study, we present a case with an unusual source of this common allergen and review all cases of allergy to MDBGN from our clinics over a 12-year period. A 49-year-old nurse presented with dermatitis affecting the vulva caused by MDBGN present in her sanitary pad. All other cases of allergy to MDBGN in patients attending the occupational dermatology or contact dermatitis clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Victoria, between January 1993 and December 2004, were reviewed. Patch testing was positive to her sanitary pad, the adhesive and MDBGN, which were used as a biocide in the pad adhesive. Only 20 cases of allergy to MDBGN have been diagnosed in 2837 patients tested during this period (0.7%). To conclude, this study highlights the importance of considering allergic contact dermatitis in the differential diagnosis of vulval rashes and the emergence of MDBGN as an important sensitizer. However, our review suggests that MDBGN remains an infrequent cause of allergy in Australia.

  14. Safety assessment of sanitary pads with a polymeric foam absorbent core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, Kara E; Hochwalt, Anne E

    2015-10-01

    Sanitary pads for menstrual hygiene have a layered design consisting of a fluid permeable surface (topsheet), an absorbent core, and an impermeable backing with adhesive. Most sanitary pads employ cellulose-based cores. This describes the safety evaluation of a menstrual pad with an emollient-treated topsheet and a novel polymeric foam core. A quantitative risk assessment was performed, which included: (1) toxicological evaluation of the raw material components; (2) quantitative exposure assessments of pad constituents, accounting for the fluid handling properties of the product and pertinent conditions of use; and (3) risk characterization for exposure to raw materials (e.g., potential for skin irritation, contact sensitization, or systemic effects, if relevant) and to the physical article itself (potential effects on skin friction, etc.). No significant risk of adverse effects was found. Five years of post-market surveillance substantiates that the product is well-tolerated (1 health complaint reported per 2 million products shipped to market) and surpasses women's expectations for menstrual protection and overall comfort and dryness. This report illustrates how the classical risk assessment paradigm, informed by the impact of product design, functionality and pertinent use conditions, allowed the systematic safety evaluation of a personal hygiene product with a novel, non-cellulosic absorbent foam core technology.

  15. Ampelographic Description and Sanitary Analysis of Four Istrian Grapevine Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordano Persuric

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian Peninsula, one of the five districts within viticultural region of Coastal Croatia, provides great geological-reliefal and climatic diversity and various production conditions. This research studied the autochthonous varieties and their sanitary status in old vineyards. Considering the age of vineyard, ten locations were chosen where four autochthonous varieties ‘Malvasia istarska’, ‘Teran’, ‘Borgonja’, and ‘Pergola velika’ were identified using ampelographic description according to OIV descriptors. Morphological characteristics of chosen varieties were described using OIV parameters and must was chemically analysed (pH value, sugar content, titratable acidity. High intra cultivar variability was found for weight of a single bunch especially for ‘Teran’. There were also differences in sugar content of must particularly for ‘Pergola velika’. Must pH was low for all varieties with predominantly low acidity value. Sanitary status of vines was determined by testing the plant samples for the presence of three grapevine viruses (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3 and GFLV using DAS-ELISA. The percentage of infection for GFLV was 55.6% while for GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 it was 61.1%. Results showed that some morphological characteristics differ from characteristics described in literature. With purpose of preserving the biodiversity of autochthonous varieties and for future researches, healthy propagation material will be collected and planted in collection field of autochthonous varieties at the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Poreč.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  17. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  18. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  19. Identification of helminth eggs in wastewater; Identificaciond e huevos por hemintos en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu Adrian, A.; Geovanny Perez Ortiz, O.; Gomez Vera, D.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Amores Blasco, S.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Esteban Sanchis, J. G.

    2002-07-01

    The identification of helminth eggs in wastewater is essential for complying with microbiological water quality guidelines. Identification is based on morphological and morphometric criteria; in this sense, experience in parasitology is required, since identification is sometimes so complex that only a tentative diagnosis can be made. The present study details the criteria used for the taxonomic ascription of the helminth eggs detected in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Alboraia (Valencia, Spain). (Author)

  20. Cutaneous and sensory effects of two types of sanitary pads with different surfaces in the Shanghai, Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuemin, Wang; Sato, Noriko; Chao, Yuan; Na, Liu; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Takagi, Yutaka; Nojiri, Hirosh; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2011-09-01

    Regional differences in practices, ethnicity, and climate may influence the skin compatibility of sanitary pads. Although several clinical trials have been performed in North America, Mexico, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Africa, there is no clinical study reported for Asia. The purpose of this study was to examine the skin compatibility of two types of modern sanitary pads in Chinese women along with a dermatological assessment and their satisfaction and preference. The self-feeling and safety of a new sanitary pad with a non-woven top specially-shaped surface sheet was tested and compared with a conventional sanitary pad with a perforated film top sheet. The subjects studied were 22 Chinese women (age: 20-50 years) with a history of mild and occasional sanitary pad dermatitis residing in Shanghai. One subject wished to discontinue the trial for personal reasons, thus 21 subjects completed the trial. These subjects were randomly assigned to two types of sanitary pads, and used one type during their next menstrual period, and another type during their following menstrual period. After each menstrual period, a dermatologist examined the objective and subjective skin symptoms and determined a score. The subjects were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with respect to overall usability, softness, stickiness, dryness, and absorbency, and to choose which pad they had preferred. No adverse effect was observed for either type of pad. Edema, erythema, burning, and stinging were not obvious symptoms for either type of pad. For itching, 30-65% of the subjects scored slight or mild for both types of pads. A comprehensive evaluation showed that several symptoms were observed on both type of pads at slight and mild levels, but minimal and insignificant differences were found between them. The majority of subjects were highly satisfied with both types, but preferred the new sanitary pad with a non-woven specially-shaped surface top sheet for its softness and

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Selective Photocatalytic Oxidation of Steroid Estrogens in the Presence of Copollutants in the Sanitary Fraction of Domestic Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Karpova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO of the steroid estrogens (SEs, β-estradiol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol, competitive with some constituent compounds of the sanitary fraction of domestic sewage, was studied. The copollutants, urea, and saccharose, present in concentrations exceeding those of the SEs by a factor of a hundred to thousands, appeared to exert a weaker influence to the photocatalytic degradation of the SEs than was expected. The removal of the SEs from diluted urine proceeded, selectively, demonstrating the potential of PCO in the treatment of the separate sanitary fraction of domestic sewage.

  3. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  4. [Development of sanitary microbiology researches at the A. N. Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology, Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine (Kiev)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiuk, A M; Surmasheva, E V; Korchak, G I

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the main stages of development of sanitary bacteriological studies at the leading hygiene research institute of Ukraine--the A. N Marzeyev Institute for Hygiene and Medical Ecology. These researches have made a substantial contribution to the formation and development of hygiene science in the former Soviet Union. The current and promising areas in sanitary microbiology in Ukraine are considered.

  5. Wastewater treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Puget

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the performance analysis of a separation set-up characterized by the ejector-hydrocyclone association, applied in the treatment of a synthetic dairy wastewater effluent. The results obtained were compared with the results from a flotation column (cylindrical body of a hydrocyclone operated both batch and continuously. As far as the experimental set-up studied in this work and the operating conditions imposed to the process, it is possible to reach a 25% decrease in the total effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD. This corresponds approximately to 60% of the COD of the material in suspension. The best results are obtained for ratios air flow rate-feed flow rate (Qair/Q L greater then 0.15 and for ratios underflow rate-overflow rate (Qu/Qo lower than 1.0.

  6. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  7. Economic Analysis on Wastewater Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan WAN; Na LI

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The shortage of water resources social development. Wastewater reuse is an has become a major limiting factor for effective solution to solve water short- ages, which not only has economic benefits, but also has significant social and en- vironmental benefits. The economic evaluation is an important component in the study of wastewater reuse feasibility and the basis for the program optimization and economic feasibility determination.

  8. A review on wastewater disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Amir Mohammadi Bovini; Yung Tse Hung

    2013-01-01

    Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent d...

  9. New data on electron-beam purification of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikaev, A.K. E-mail: pikaev@ipc.rssi.ru

    2002-11-01

    Recent environmental applications of radiation technology, developed in the author's laboratory, are presented in this paper. They are electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery-produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of plant materials, electron-beam purification of wastewater from carboxylic acids (for example, formic acid) and removal of petroleum products (diesel fuel, motor oil and residual fuel oil) from water by {gamma}-irradiation.

  10. New data on electron-beam purification of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaev, A. K.

    2002-11-01

    Recent environmental applications of radiation technology, developed in the author's laboratory, are presented in this paper. They are electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery-produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of plant materials, electron-beam purification of wastewater from carboxylic acids (for example, formic acid) and removal of petroleum products (diesel fuel, motor oil and residual fuel oil) from water by γ-irradiation.

  11. Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) - a species of sanitary and forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaire...

  12. Technological and hygiene-sanitary aspects of using biologically pure process waste watern in the systems of technical water supply

    OpenAIRE

    Ushakov, Vasily Yakovlevich; Solodov, G. А.

    2007-01-01

    According to sanitary-toxicological factors biologically purified waste water of chemical enterprise are referred to low-toxic substances, are not allergens, do not posses irritant action on mucous tunics and skin and are suitable for recycling water system makeup. Crucial factors of reusing these waters are their corrosive activity, susceptibility to mineral salt accumulation and bioaccretion.

  13. Membrane Fouling in Microfiltration of Sanitary Landfill Leachate for Removals of Colour and Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad S.M.Ameen; Abdullrahim Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Razman Salim; Azmi Aris; Aznah Nor Anuar

    2013-01-01

    In this research,the treatability of solids from sanitary landfill leachate by microfiltration membrane was investigated and the fouling of the membrane was carefully studied.Continuous microfiltration process was carried out for 21 h in experimental system involved coagulation with Moringa oleifera followed by filtration using submerged hollow fibre microfiltration membrane (MFM).Coagulation with M.Oleifera,air diffusers and back flush technique were used for preventing or alleviating fouling of the membrane.The hollow fibre MFM showed high removals of 98%,91% and 99% for turbidity,colour and total suspended solids respectively.It was obtained at the beginning of the filtration.However,quality of the filtrate rapidly declined during the filtration process.Fouling was found to proceed according to the classical cake filtration model.Coagulation with M.Oleifera as well asthe back-flush technique could not fully restore the deterioration occurred to the membrane.

  14. [Toxicological and sanitary evaluation of air pollution by substances discharged during managing of urban dumping soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostakishin, G P; Osin, O M; Ivashina, L I; Markin, A A; Ivanova, I N; Gazie v, G A; Sotnikov, E E; Volkov, N N

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the results of sanitary and hygienic investigations whose reason was the situation established with the removal of dumping earth in the dwelling area of Mitino Microdistrict 8 gamma. The removed dumping earth found to have formaldehyde, benzenes, acetaldehyde, phenols, aromatic hydro carbons, polyaromatic compounds was a source of bad smelling substances that had entered the ambient air. A special study of the earth showed that it might yield volatile and bad smelling compounds, such as organic sulfides, aldehydes, mercaptans, ketones, etc. Their harmful health effects (during operations and in the late period) seem to be unlikely. When such work is under way, it is necessary to inform the population about possible consequences.

  15. [Risk assessment of work related stress: examination and operative difficulties in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofano, G; Piscina, G; Fantasia, D; Bologna, I; Murri, G; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2012-01-01

    Work related stress can highly negatively affect not only company's productivity but also other aspects causing increased costs for absenteeism, increased number of work accident and near miss, higher turnover, reduced quality of products and services, reduced capability of renewal, and so on. In agreement with the Italian legislative decree 81/08 we evaluated stress level of workers of three different sanitary structures located in the middle of Italy. 305 workers (physicians, nurses, technicians, auxiliary nurse, white collars) were submitted to a questionnaire designed by our team of work. The sector reporting higher stress level was represented by nurses, the sector with lower stress level was made of technicians. We proposed a set of measures aiming to reduce the load of stress based on the assumption that in this sector is fundamental to develop strategies of intervention both at organizational and individual level.

  16. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  17. Effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of plants of the family Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the years 2006-2008 in Bałcyny (N=53°35'49"; E=19°51'20". The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sulfur fertilization on the sanitary state of spring oilseed rape, winter oilseed rape, white mustard and Chinese mustard as well as on the species composition of fungi colonizing their seeds. Sulfur fertilization had a beneficial effect on the health of Brassicaceae plants infested by Alternaria blight, grey mould, Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker and Verticillium wilt, but it had a varying effect on the occurrence of powdery mildew. Alternaria alternata and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently from Brassicaceae seeds. In general, more fungi (including pathogenic to Brassicaceae were isolated from the seeds of plants grown in non-sulfur fertilized plots. Pathogens occurred primarily on the seed surface, and their number decreased after surface disinfection of seeds.

  18. Valoracion sanitaria de los criaderos de aves ornamentales - Sanitary control in ornamental birds facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Carlos J. Soto Piñeiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenTener una vision de prevencion sanitaria en criaderos de aves ornamentales se ha ido conformando en la medida en que se ha comenzado a mutiplicar este tipo de cria especializada, apoyadas por las investigaciones clinicassobre estas especies y aunque existen principios de control sanitarios generales que podemos transpolar de la cria de animales de granja, tambièn es necesario aplicar otros de acuerdo a las particularidades de este tipo de instalaciones, especies aviares y enfermedades que estàn propensas a padecer.AbstractIn the last decades the breeding of ornamental birds and parrots has worldwide expanded and consequently increased the need to develop management methods and meseaures to prevent the spread of diseases.Generally the principles of sanitary surveillance of poultry farming were applied, adding the changes required by the type of structure and species bred.

  19. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  20. Ampelographic Characterization and Sanitary Status of Grapevine Cultivar ‘Prč bijeli’ (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Zdunić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Prč bijeli’ is an old Croatian autochthonous grapevine cultivar (Vitis vinifera L., which has not been ampelographically characterized in detail until now. Ampelographic description was performed following 52 morphological, 22 phyllometric and seven bunches dimension characteristics. ‘Prč bijeli’ showed acceptable yield and a must composition suitable for oenological purposes, with low acidity value and medium sugar content. The following synonyms were established: ‘Ćimavica’, ‘Parč’ and ‘Muškat’. The results of sanitary analysis (ELISA test on four viruses on twenty-seven vines revealed that 92.6 % samples were GLRaV-3 positive, while ArMV was not detected. Only one vine was free of the tested viruses.

  1. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  2. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1. Items of the paper Title, author’s name and working unit,abstract, key words, text andreference.2. Author and working unitEntitled authors should be those involved in the research and wouldbe able to answer

  3. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1. Items of the paper Title, author’s name and working unit,abstract, key words, text and reference.2. Author and working unit Entitled authors should be those involved in the research and would

  4. SANITARY-HYGIENIC QUALITY OF FRESH AND FROZEN TILAPIA (Oreochromis spp. IN PUBLIC MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Xavier Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the sanitary quality of tilapia (Oreochromis spp. sold in public markets in the city of Mossoro-RN. For such we made use of a checklist and an observational study to evaluate good handling practices in 10 establishments that commercialize fish. We obtained 30 samples of tilapia and evaluated them as to their sensory and microbiological aspects (Salmonella spp., coliforms at 45 ºC, Staphylococcus ssp. count, psychrotrophic bacteria and enterobacteria, as well as to their pH and internal and external temperature. We observed that none of the studied establishments were in accordance with the standards recommended by the legislation. Regarding the sensory evaluation, 83.3% of the samples showed compliance with the requirements of the legislation. As for the coliforms at 45 °C essay, the results ranged from 0.477 to 1.509 log10 CFU/g; in the Staphylococcus spp. essay we found results from 4.854 to 5.397 log10 CFU/g; and further, we found values from 3.884 to 4.937 and from 4.707 to 5.463 log10 CFU/g for enterobacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. All the samples were within the requirements for contamination by Salmonella spp. (absence. The pH ranged from 5.99 to 6.18 and temperatures indicated non-compliance with the recommendations. Thus, we can infer that the sanitary quality of tilapia sold in public markets in Mossoro-RN was impaired, presenting a risk to consumer health due to unsatisfactory handling conditions. Keywords: best practices; microbiology; physio-chemistry.

  5. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and food safety: challenges and opportunities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siméon, M

    2006-08-01

    Because of fast-growing demand, export markets can absorb high value added products and offer high returns; for many developing countries export market development is thus a key requirement for rural income generation and rural growth. Although developing countries face increasingly strict sanitary and phytosanitary standards in their export markets, they can maintain and improve market access--and improve domestic food safety and agricultural productivity--by adopting a strategic approach to food safety, agricultural health and trade. High-income countries should increase development flows to help developing countries build the capacity to plan and execute the necessary strategies. The first proposal in this paper is to make two existing sets of guidelines widely available to interested parties, in particular through the World Bank and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The first covers the broad process of problem assessment, strategy development and action plan formulation; the second set deals with institutional analysis and training of staff of the official sanitary control services. The second proposal is that interested countries and donors should speed up the ongoing development of guidelines, computer software tools and training material to help countries quantify the importance and impact of food safety issues. The focus here is on a 'multipurpose agricultural data analysis and modelization system'. The third proposal is to carry out a case study to help demonstrate that a number of animal health issues related to food safety should be treated as relating to 'global public goods' and thus require intervention on a global scale. Possible candidates are foot and mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of concentrate from reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Fernandes, Annabel; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Conventional sanitary landfill leachate treatment has recently been complemented and, in some cases, completely replaced by reverse osmosis technology. Despite the good quality of treated water, the efficiency of the process is low and a large volume of reverse osmosis concentrate has to be either discharged or further treated. In this study, the use of anodic oxidation combined with electro-Fenton processes to treat the concentrate obtained in the reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated. The anodic oxidation pretreatment was performed in a pilot plant using an electrochemical cell with boron-doped diamond electrodes. In the electro-Fenton experiments, a boron-doped diamond anode and carbon-felt cathode were used, and the influence of the initial pH and iron concentration were studied. For the experimental conditions, the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3 had higher organic load removal levels, whereas the best nitrogen removal was attained when the electrochemical process was performed at the natural pH of 8.8. The increase in the iron concentration had an adverse impact on treatment under natural pH conditions, but it enhanced the nitrogen removal in the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3. The combined anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton process is useful for treating the reverse osmosis concentrate because it is effective at removing the organic load and nitrogen-containing species. Additionally, this process potentiates the increase in the biodegradability index of the treated effluent.

  7. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia

    2006-01-01

    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  8. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  9. Control-structure ratings on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lockport, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Timothy D.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Hortness, Jon E.; Duncker, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago regulate flows through control structures along the Lake Michigan lakefront and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) for Lake Michigan diversion accounting, flood control, sanitary, and navigation purposes. This report documents the measurement and computation of flow through the Lockport Controlling Works (LCW) and the Lockport Powerhouse. This analysis aided in evaluation of the ratings at both structures, and the development of new ratings at the controlling works. The LCW structure consists of seven 30-feet (ft) wide sluice gates and is used to divert water from the CSSC and into the Des Plaines River. The flow regimes for the sluice gate included both free and submerged weir. Forty and 491 flow values from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations were used to develop equations describing free- and submerged-weir flow, respectively, through the sluice gates. The equations were developed for canal headwater elevations ranging from -7.0 to -10.5 ft Chicago City Datum (CCD), and tailwater (Des Plaines River at Lockport) to headwater (CSSC-LCW-Base) ratios ranging from 0.31 to 0.66. The Lockport Powerhouse structure consists of nine 9-ft wide by 14-ft high sluice gates and two 10-ft diameter turbines. Both tailwater and no-tailwater effect flow regimes occurred during nine measurements. Also, the canal headwater elevations ranged from -2.74 to -8.45 ft CCD, and the gates were configured six different ways during the measurements.

  10. Investigations of perspective technologies, equipment and sanitary - hygienic means for Life-Support System of new generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary - hygienic conditions allows to keep health and capacity of the crewmembers work at increase of space flight duration. There is a wide application experience of means, methods and equipment for sanitary - hygienic supply, which were developed and experimentally tested for space flights. However, about 800 kg personal hygiene means (napkins and towels are made with water and delivered with the Earth) are necessary for 3 crewmembers per one year. For long orbital and interplanetary flights (without an opportunity of stocks updating) it is necessary to increase a degree of Life-Support System isolation and optimization of goods turnover. Washing combined with water regeneration system is most perspective for sanitary - hygienic procedures. Therefore, creation of space equipment for washing with sanitary - hygienic water (SHW) regeneration system is especially important. The researches have shown, that to processes, which can be applied for SHW regeneration in space conditions and require insignificant quantity of additional materials (as against sorption), concern membrane methods (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.). Two-step membrane unit for SHW regeneration recovered no less than 85 % of permeate with the organic and inorganic selectivity of 82-95 %. The tests of two-step membrane unit for SHW regeneration carried out on mock up solutions and real SHW, containing detergents really used in space flight conditions. The researches on a substantiation of an opportunity of clothing washing, clothing drying and the estimation of an opportunity of application of various detergents for clothing washing are urgent. The tests of water extraction technology from textile materials are carried out. Is established, that at conditional time of contact 1s, humidity of a leaving air flow from clothing drying unit comes nearer to 100 %. It is necessary to solve the problem for creation of Life-Support System of new generation for long-term space

  11. [Score method evaluation of the sanitary condition of the University Hospital in Bydgoszcz and personnel education in 2007 - 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Korzycka-Wilińska, Wanda; Popow, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The Quality Management System ISO 9001:2008 introduced by the Management Board of the hospital in the year 2007 resulted in change of the methods used by the Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic condition. The inspection protocol used by HICT was modified as part of the Quality Management System. It was supplemented by the score sheet which made the inspection results more objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the results of the supervision over the sanitary and epidemiologic condition of the hospital as well as personnel training carried out in the years 2007-2010 by the Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) of Szpital Uniwersytecki nr 2 im. dr. J.Biziela (J.Biziel University Hospital no. 2). 407 inspection protocols issued in the years 2007-2010 were analysed. The sanitary/hygienic condition indicators and personnel education indicators were calculated based on the analysed data. The sanitary/hygienic condition indicator for the entire hospital in the years 2008-2010 amounted to over 91.50% and only in the year 2007 it was 89.33%. While the personnel education indicator for the entire hospital increased from 90.35% in 2007 to 93.75% in 2010. the assessment of hospital units performed on the basis of the new protocol of the sanitary/hygienic condition has been proven in practice, i.e. insufficient personnel education as regards hospital hygiene is efficiently detected by HICT at individual workstations and the Management Board of the hospital is notified on the ongoing basis on the results of supervision provided by HICT.

  12. Communication of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2009-01-01

    The Book of Jeremiah emphasises that the prophet has his authority from God, who communicated this authority to the prophet by calling him. Being invested with divine authority, the prophet was disjuncted from the people, but conjuncted with God, in a process where the divine word is closely......, in which form....

  13. Authority in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  14. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  15. Communication of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2009-01-01

    The Book of Jeremiah emphasises that the prophet has his authority from God, who communicated this authority to the prophet by calling him. Being invested with divine authority, the prophet was disjuncted from the people, but conjuncted with God, in a process where the divine word is closely...... assimilated with the prophet. Thus, the literary persona, the prophet, and his book, is able to talk with normative authority in a context, post-exilic Judah/Yehud, which calls for normativity to sustain the rebuilding of society. The question remains if this normative authority can be upheld today, and if so...

  16. Industrial wastewater municipal normative as tools to obtain a better control of industrial pollution to public sewage network systems; Ordenanzas de vertidos como herramienta para lograr un mas eficaz control de vertidos a las redes de saneamiento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Mantecon Pascual, R.; Diaz de Durana Uriarte, B.

    2006-07-01

    This paper claims and assesses about the renewal and actualisation of the Spanish industrial wastewater municipal normative, by applying the experience that about these activities has been accumulated by the administration, by the organisms occupied of the management of the control, inspection and treatment of industrial wastewater and, so, by the industries. The main conclusion has been to evidence that the better form to give solution to the problem of industrial wastewater in our cities, can be to go up to an integrated management system which joints the following; control of network systems, control of industrial wastewaters and control of wastewater treatment plants. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Hydrogen production from tofu wastewater by Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuh, H. [Utsunomiya Univ., Tochigi (Japan). Agricultural Faculty; National Inst. of Bioscience and Human Technology, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Tomoo; Tsygankov, A.A.; Asada, Yasuo; Miyake, Jun [National Inst. of Bioscience and Human Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Hydrogen production from the wastewater of tofu factory was examined by using anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides immobilized in agar gels. The maximum rate of hydrogen production observed from the wastewater was 2.l l h(-1) m(2) gel which was even slightly higher than that from a glucose medium (as control). The hydrogen production lasted up to 50 h. The yield of hydrogen was 1.9 ml/ml wastewater or 0.24 ml/mg carbohydrates contained in the wastewater. This yield corresponds to 53% or 65% of that from the glucose medium, according to the different expressions of the yield The TOC (total organic carbon) removal ratio in 85 h reached 41% which was comparable to that from the glucose medium. The immobilization protected the bacterium from the inhibitory effect of ammonium ion. (Author)

  18. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards: Wastewater. 63.1256 Section... for Pharmaceuticals Production § 63.1256 Standards: Wastewater. (a) General. Each owner or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  1. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  2. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  3. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  4. Wastewater and sewage sludge application to willows and poplars grown in lysimeters-Plant response and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I.; Aronsson, P. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Ecology building, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Adding nutrient-rich residues such as municipal wastewater and sludge to willow and poplar short-rotation coppice gives more cost-effective and sustainable cultivation, but leaching to groundwater and disturbance to plant growth must be avoided. The effects of adding municipal wastewater irrigation to willows and poplars and sewage sludge to willows were compared in a two-year experiment. Wastewater irrigation enhanced plant growth. Near-zero nitrate-N concentrations occurred in drainage water when the root system of both species was well-established. The ability to retain N and P was satisfactory when poplars and willows were irrigated with wastewater. Thus relatively high additions of N and P with wastewater will probably not contaminate groundwater, but potential P leaching should not be underestimated. The same applies for sewage sludge applications to willow. (author)

  5. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  6. The Lure of Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    The lecture was delivered on 16 June 2010. The lecture rests on the paper by Ernst Fehr, Holger Herz and Tom Wilkening on The Lure of Authority: Motivation and Incentive Effects of Power. Ernst Fehr, University of Zurich Power and authority permeate political, social and economic life but still little is known empirically about the origins and consequences of authority. In this paper we tackle this question experimentally by implementing a simple version of Aghion-Tirole (1997) in the labo...

  7. Authoring tool evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  8. Respect My Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gorman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Some simple modifications to VuFind, an open source library resource portal, improve the retrieval of both lists of works and information about authors from Wikipedia. These modifications begin to address ways that current "next-generation" catalogs fail to fully harness all of the bibliographic tools available for indexing and presenting author information. Simple methods such as those described in this article, which make use of full headings for authors, can offer marked improvements to these systems.

  9. Determination of Wastewater Compounds in Whole Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary-Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Steven D.; Smith, Steven G.; Schroeder, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the determination of 69 compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater is described. The method was developed in response to increasing concern over the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on aquatic organisms in wastewater. This method also is useful for evaluating the effects of combined sanitary and storm-sewer overflow on the water quality of urban streams. The method focuses on the determination of compounds that are indicators of wastewater or have endocrine-disrupting potential. These compounds include the alkylphenol ethoxylate nonionic surfactants, food additives, fragrances, antioxidants, flame retardants, plasticizers, industrial solvents, disinfectants, fecal sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high-use domestic pesticides. Wastewater compounds in whole-water samples were extracted using continuous liquid-liquid extractors and methylene chloride solvent, and then determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Recoveries in reagent-water samples fortified at 0.5 microgram per liter averaged 72 percent ? 8 percent relative standard deviation. The concentration of 21 compounds is always reported as estimated because method recovery was less than 60 percent, variability was greater than 25 percent relative standard deviation, or standard reference compounds were prepared from technical mixtures. Initial method detection limits averaged 0.18 microgram per liter. Samples were preserved by adding 60 grams of sodium chloride and stored at 4 degrees Celsius. The laboratory established a sample holding-time limit prior to sample extraction of 14 days from the date of collection.

  10. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
    Author Guidelines
    Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro (please! or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.
    The template for the paper is at this address:
    http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.docRAIN vol. 3, issue 3, Instructions for authors

  11. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  12. Biological flocculation treatment on distillery wastewater and recirculation of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Xiong, Rongchun; Wei, Gang

    2009-12-30

    In the present study, a wastewater treatment system for the ethanol fermentation industry was developed by recycling distillery wastewater. The waste was able to be recycled for the next fermentation after being treated with bio-flocculation process. The bio-flocculation process contains three steps: screening, treatment with polyaspartic acid and filtration. When the filtrate from this process was recycled, the average ethanol production yield was very close to that in the conventional process using tap water. In contrast, the recycle of wastewater without flocculation and with chemical flocculation showed negative effects on ethanol yield as recycling was repeated. This new process was confirmed to have stable operation over ten recycles. Hazardous materials influencing distillery wastewater recycles on fermentation were also considered. It was found that the content of suspended solids (SS), volatile acid and Fe ions inhibited fermentation and resulted in a decreased ethanol yield. Bio-flocculation was shown to be an effective way to diminish the content of inhibitory compounds drastically when the waste was recirculated.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  15. Variable dynamics of sewage supply to wastewater treatment plant depending on the amount of precipitation water inflowing to sewerage network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugajski Piotr M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the effect of precipitation water that inflowing to sanitary sewage system as accidental water on the changes in the total amount of treated sewage. The effects of accidental water supply on the total amount of sewage inflowing to treatment plant were analyzed based on mean daily amounts from the investigated periods and mean daily amounts from incidental supplies. The study was conducted in the years 2010–2015. Six characteristic research periods were identified (one per each calendar year, when the amount of sewage in the sanitary sewage system was greater than during dry weather. The analysis of changes in the amount of sewage supplied to the sewerage system in the six investigated periods revealed that the accidental water constituted from 26.8% to 48.4% of total sewage inflowing to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. In exceptional situations, during intense rains, the share of precipitation water in the sewerage system would increase up to 75%. Then, the rainwater inflowing the sewerage system caused hydraulic overloading of the WWTP by exceeding its maximum design supply.

  16. Modelling total suspended solids, E. coli and carbamazepine, a tracer of wastewater contamination from combined sewer overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongmala, Khemngeun; Autixier, Laurène; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Fuamba, Musandji; Galarneau, Martine; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Urban source water protection requires knowledge of sources of fecal contamination upstream of drinking water intakes. Combined and sanitary sewer overflows (CSOs and SSOs) are primary sources of microbiological contamination and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) in urban water supplies. To quantify the impact of sewer overflows, predictive simulation models are required and have not been widely applied for microbial contaminants such as fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in urban drainage networks. The objective of this study was to apply a simulation model to estimate the dynamics of three contaminants in sewer overflows - total suspended solids, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and carbamazepine, a WWMP. A mixed combined and pseudo-sanitary drainage network in Québec, Canada was studied and modelled for a total of 7 events for which water quality data were available. Model results were significantly correlated with field water quality data. The model confirmed that the contributions of E. coli from runoff and sewer deposits were minor and their dominant source was from sewage. In contrast, the main sources of total suspended solids were stormwater runoff and sewer resuspension. Given that it is not present in stormwater, carbamazepine was found to be a useful stable tracer of sewage contributions to total contaminant loads and also provided an indication of the fraction of total suspended solids originating from sewer deposits because of its similar response to increasing flowrates.

  17. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  18. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  19. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  20. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  1. The Authors Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  2. The Voice of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  3. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  4. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Items of the paper Title,author’s name and working unit,abstract,key words,text and reference. 2.Author and working unit Entitled authors should be those involved in the research and would be able to answer relevant questions.The working units,cities and

  5. On Responsibility and Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahaus, Kees; van de Water, Henricus

    1994-01-01

    Defining authorities is a topic of current interest in quality management. One of the conditions in the ISO 9000-series deals with this topic. In this paper we will first examine the concepts of authority and responsibility, which are not at all univocally defined in organization literature. We will

  6. Multimedia Authoring and Annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, D.C.A.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Munson, E.; Pimentel, M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    With the massive amount of captured multimedia, authoring is more relevant than ever. Multimedia content is available in many settings including the web, mobile devices, desktop applications, as well as games and interactive TV. The authoring and production of multimedia documents demands attention

  7. Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyrek Adnan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Method Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7–14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5% were boys and 700 (38.4% were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. Results The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and

  8. Demographic and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukanligil, Mustafa; Seyrek, Adnan

    2003-09-03

    The design and development of school health programmes will require information at demographic characteristics of schoolchildren and the major health burdens of the school-age group, the opportunities for intervention and the appropriateness of the available infrastructure. This study aims to analyse demographic and parasitic infections status of schoolchildren and sanitary conditions of schools in Sanliurfa province of south-eastern Turkey. Three primary schools were randomly selected in the shantytown, apartment and rural districts. A total of 1820 schoolchildren between 7-14 years age were took part to the survey of whom 1120 (61.5%) were boys and 700 (38.4%) were girls. A child form (including child's name, sex, age, school grade and parasitic infections) and school survey form (including condition of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soaps on the basins and presence of garbage piles around to the schools) were used for demographic, parasitic and sanitary surveys. Stool samples were examined by cellophane thick smear technique for the eggs of intestinal helminths. The demographic survey showed that number of schoolchildren was gradually decreased as their age's increase in shantytown school. The sex ratio was proportional until the second grade, after which the number of females gradually decreased in children in shantytown and rural schools while, in apartment area, schoolchildren was proportionally distributed between age groups and gender even the high-grade students. The prevalence of helminthic infections was %77.1 of the schoolchildren in shantytown, 53.2% in apartment district and 53.1% of rural area. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species and followed by Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species in three schools. Sanitation survey indicated that the tap water was limited in shantytown school, toilet's sanitation was poor, available no soaps on lavatories and garbage piles were accumulated around the schools in

  9. Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Ryus, Caitlin R; Dolan, Catherine S; Dopson, Sue; Scott, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Increased education of girls in developing contexts is associated with a number of important positive health, social, and economic outcomes for a community. The event of menarche tends to coincide with girls' transitions from primary to secondary education and may constitute a barrier for continued school attendance and performance. Following the MRC Framework for Complex Interventions, a pilot controlled study was conducted in Ghana to assess the role of sanitary pads in girls' education. A sample of 120 schoolgirls between the ages of 12 and 18 from four villages in Ghana participated in a non-randomized trial of sanitary pad provision with education. The trial had three levels of treatment: provision of pads with puberty education; puberty education alone; or control (no pads or education). The primary outcome was school attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants, (lambda 0.824, F = 3.760, peducation alone improved attendance to a similar level (M = 91.26, SD = 7.82) as sites where pads were provided with puberty education (Rural M = 89.74, SD = 9.34; Periurban M = 90.54, SD = 17.37), all of which were higher than control (M = 84.48, SD = 12.39). The total improvement through pads with education intervention after 5 months was a 9% increase in attendance. After 3 months, providing pads with education significantly improved attendance among participants. The changes in attendance at the end of the trial, after 5 months, were found to be significant by site over time. With puberty education alone resulting in a similar attendance level. This pilot study demonstrated promising results of a low-cost, rapid-return intervention for girls' education in a developing context. Given the considerable development needs of poorer countries and the potential of young women there, these results suggest that a large-scale cluster randomized trial is warranted. Pan African

  10. Effects of centralized and onsite wastewater treatment on the occurrence of traditional and emerging contaminants in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, G M; Grimes, B H

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of small streams to evaluate the effects of centralized and onsite wastewater treatment on the occurrence of selected traditional and emerging contaminants in small streams in the upper Neuse River basin, North Carolina. An undeveloped site was included to assess effects of residential land use activities on stream quality. Concentrations of nutrients and ions were higher in samples from streams in residential sites than from the stream in an undeveloped area. Overall, streams draining residential areas showed relatively small differences with respect to type of wastewater treatment. Two sites, however--one in an area of centralized wastewater treatment apparently near a suspected sewer line leak, and the second in an area of onsite wastewater treatment--showed effects of wastewater. Organic wastewater compounds were detected more frequently in samples from these two sites than from the other sites. Optical brighteners levels were correlated (r2 = .88) with the number of organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds detected at the residential sites and could potentially serve as a screening method to assess wastewater effects on small streams.

  11. A review on wastewater disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

  12. Sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, P.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Eggels, P.G.; Rulkens, W.H.; Starkenburg, van W.

    1997-01-01

    n this study the insustainability of the treatment of municipal wastewater is evaluated with the LCA-methodology. Life-Cycle Assessments (LCA) analyze and assess the environmental profile over the entire life cycle of a product or process. The LCA-methodology proved to be a proper instrument to

  13. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN PROVISIONS OF SANITARY NORMS AND RULES EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SAFETY FOUNTAINS OF UKRAINE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov MB

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main points of sanitary norms and rules of operation of fountains operating in recirculation mode (water recycling and their water supply from water bodies or water supply systems (flow mode, developed on the basis of standards of operation of swimming pools. Based on a proposal formulated standards specifications applicable to the disinfection system and water purification fountains operating in recirculation mode, implemented in the form of technology based on the bactericidal properties of silver ions and copper. The presented approach to biosecurity fountains found support from the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and has been the basis of input sanitary norms and regulations will come into effect in 2013.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  17. Waste-water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J M; Sikdar, P K; Hoque, M A; Ghosal, U

    2012-10-15

    Across West Bengal and Bangladesh, concentrations of Cl in much groundwater exceed the natural, upper limit of 10 mg/L. The Cl/Br mass ratios in groundwaters range up to 2500 and scatter along mixing lines between waste-water and dilute groundwater, with many falling near the mean end-member value for waste-water of 1561 at 126 mg/L Cl. Values of Cl/Br exceed the seawater ratio of 288 in uncommon NO(3)-bearing groundwaters, and in those containing measurable amounts of salt-corrected SO(4) (SO(4) corrected for marine salt). The data show that shallow groundwater tapped by tube-wells in the Bengal Basin has been widely contaminated by waste-water derived from pit latrines, septic tanks, and other methods of sanitary disposal, although reducing conditions in the aquifers have removed most evidence of NO(3) additions from these sources, and much evidence of their additions of SO(4). In groundwaters from wells in palaeo-channel settings, end-member modelling shows that >25% of wells yield water that comprises ≥10% of waste-water. In palaeo-interfluvial settings, only wells at the margins of the palaeo-interfluvial sequence contain detectable waste water. Settings are identifiable by well-colour survey, owner information, water composition, and drilling. Values of Cl/Br and faecal coliform counts are both inversely related to concentrations of pollutant As in groundwater, suggesting that waste-water contributions to groundwater in the near-field of septic-tanks and pit-latrines (within 30 m) suppress the mechanism of As-pollution and lessen the prevalence and severity of As pollution. In the far-field of such sources, organic matter in waste-water may increase groundwater pollution by As. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment application to wastewater processes; Analisis del ciclo de vida aplicado al tratamiento de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monistrol, A.; Vidal, N.; Poch, M. [Universidad de Girona (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    Recognition that local specific approaches are not capable to solve long term environmental problems, has led the interest for new approaches that tries to find more global solutions. Wastewater treatment could be considered as a good example of this kind of problems. Wastewater treatment plants are efficient to remove pollutants from wastewater, but, at the same time they are energy and material consuming. In this context it seems interesting to apply to this domain experiences and methodologies developed with the aim to give an integral evaluation of environmental problems, for example Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In this paper the authors present an example of LCA application to perform an ecological comparison between two different wastewater processes, with and without nitrogen removal. Although results must be considered only as a preliminary (taking into account the constraints of the approach) it seems clear that while nitrogen removal reduces the eutrophication potential, it increases other impacts like global warming. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  20. The challenge of rendering sanitary surveillance actions operational in health promotion and in the Family Health locus

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele O'Dwyer; Maria de Fátima Lobato Tavares; Marismary Horst De Seta; Ana Silvia Gesteira

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes an articulation between the Family Health and the Sanitary Surveillance fields of action. It reflects on how essential concepts and guidelines of the Brazilian public health system (SUS), such as integrality, social control and health promotion, can be integrated into the practice of health professionals. Family Health is both a strategy for taking on a new practice and a field leading to comprehensiveness and health promotion, in addition to being conducive to community...

  1. Dietary shifts in two vultures after the demise of supplementary feeding stations: consequences of the EU sanitary legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Donázar, José A; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Carrete, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Among vertebrates, specialization in scavenging has appeared only in ?true? Gyps vultures, which usually base their diet almost exclusively on carcasses of medium and large-sized mammals, whereas all other scavengers rely on broader ranges of prey. The availability of food for scavengers in Western Europe has not been limited during recent decades permitting the existence and growth of huge vulture populations. From 2000 onwards, however, EU sanitary legislation has progre...

  2. The production of hot sanitary water by condensing boilers: Analysis of the seasonal experimental results of a central heating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliari, R.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Piccininni, F.

    1988-12-01

    The use of condensing boilers in the production of hot sanitary water clearly evidences their advantages, since the highest operating temperatures are only around 60/degree/C. This paper examines performance test results relevant to a central heating plant (serving a residential area in Rovereto, Italy) with 112 kW of thermal power. The analysis reveals the excellent performance characteristics of the condensing boilers and points out the importance of proper management of the recirculation system.

  3. Haccp system guarantee of quality and first in sanitary service privation from RBH agents through terrorism and sabotage in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Radosav; Kljajić Ranko R.; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2004-01-01

    Presented instructive-informative rough copy with answers and explanations that is going to be useful in wide interested parties. Those interested parties will get involved in introduction of HACCP system in sanitary service against RBH ageneses. All conceptions in this work will give answers to the basic questions: a) definition of HACCP system; b) HACCP definition i c) principle of HACCP system; d) analysis of hazard; e) determination of critical point; f) critical and operative limits; g) ...

  4. Study on the Natural Soil Properties Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as Compacted Soil Liner for Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reviews and extends an understanding of a study on potential suitability of the natural soil in Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as a compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill. Since the demand for landfill system becomes obvious so that concerning construction and operation of landfills are increasing. A number of studies have been conducted for the liner system of landfill. Hence, study is required to choose the suitable type of material as liner barrier for the landfill system in term to achieve optimum long term performance. The sanitary landfill plays an important role in the framework of solid waste disposal. The compacted soil liner is a part of a liner structure for landfill to restrict leachate migration from facility into the environment. So that, if the landfill system is not well manage it will contaminate the soil and ground water, thus presenting a risk to human and environmental health. This study, natural soil will be taken from Endau Rompin National Park (PETA, Johor as soil sample for testing. Natural soil is an economy material as a liner system, and it does not decay easily from time to time. So it is an ideal material as a sanitary landfill liner system. In short, the purpose of this study is to compile and organize available information on the use of laboratory testing, as well as providing some guidance on the use of natural soil as barrier layer of landfill and also it suitability of physical and chemical properties natural soil as barrier layer of landfill. Based on the laboratory testing were conducted, found that soil sample taken form Endau Rompin National Park (PETA is suitable as compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill.

  5. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  6. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Simón E. Morales-Soto; Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2016-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela) church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The ...

  7. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL ASPECTS OF STORAGE OF MEDICAL PRODUCTS APPOINTED FOR MEDICAL AND SANITARY CONSEQUENCES OF EMERGENCIES MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Ibragimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes principal legal aspects of medical products storage, appointed for medical and sanitary consequences of emergencies mitigation. We have revealed that nowadays there is a whole range of legal gaps and uncertainties in the regulation of medical products storage. We have also offered the ways for their solution

  8. Removal of Arsenic from Wastewaters by Airlift Electrocoagulation: Part 3: Copper Smelter Wastewater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    -arsenate precipitates. This work evaluates the feasibility of EC as a treatment process at various stages during conventional copper smelter wastewater treatment - with a focus on arsenic. The reactor used is a batch airlift electrocoagulator. The results showed that raw copper smelter wastewater was difficult to treat......The arsenic content in wastewater is of major concern for copper smelters. A typical complex wastewater treatment is needed with a combination of chemical and physical processes. Electrocoagulation (EC) has shown its potential for arsenic removal due to the formation of ferric hydroxide...... threshold value for wastewater discharge could rapidly be reached when the conventional method did not clean the wastewater sufficiently....

  9. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  10. Do sanitary ceramic workers have a worse presentation of chest radiographs or pulmonary function tests than other ceramic workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-03-01

    Silicosis remains the most prevalent occupational disease worldwide. There have been no specific studies focusing on the association between exposure settings at work and the clinical severity in silicosis patients. In this study, we describe and compare the clinical characteristics and silicosis-associated exposure history at work among workers from several types of ceramic production facilities in Taiwan. We reviewed the medical records of 221 patients who were first diagnosed with silicosis at the Occupational Medicine Clinic of Northern Taiwan in 2012. For each patient, we collected data on demographic characteristics, smoking habits, working history, duration of exposure, and years on the first relevant job. We also retrieved clinical reports of the pulmonary function test and the baseline chest radiography used for silicosis staging. As compared to other ceramic workers, sanitary ceramic workers had a worse X-ray type (p=0.044), more advanced age (pceramic workers showed a comparable risk for worse X-ray findings to other ceramic workers (adjusted odds ratio=1.18, p=0.704). Results of multivariable regression models on individual lung function parameter also suggested comparably impaired lung function tests between sanitary and other ceramic workers (p>0.05). In this study, we found that sanitary ceramic workers were at a similar risk to other ceramic workers for moderate to severe silicosis when older age and longer working duration were accounted for. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy forms the cornerstone of almost every economic, social and cultural sector in modern societies. Energy is regarded as an irreplaceable ingredient in such societies’ industrial development. The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada’s sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed of. Biogas estimates were conducted in two stages: a waste characterisation study followed by implementing the regulations proposed by SCS Engineers (SCS Engineers, 2009 regarding the Mexican biogas model (version 2.0. The results showed that a large quantity of organic matter (around 70% is a key element in anaerobic degradation of waste. As to energy generation, it is believed that a full 1.90 MW capacity will be reached in 2019. Such energy could increase Ensenada’s current electricity generation capacity by 3.46% and provide 60% of the energy needed for street lighting, thereby leading to USD $1.423 million in savings.

  12. Sanitary maintenance of indoor environment. Sports shisetsu no kuki chowa ni atatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H. (Japan Federation of Health and Sports, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-05

    This paper describes the trends in the recent fitness club facilities, their institutions as health improving facilities, and their facility management. The recent trend in opening new fitness clubs is characterized by noticeable decrease in new openings of small-scale clubs, and a single club is getting larger in size and fuller in menu line-up. The nationwide distribution of fitness clubs shows concentration in big cities like Tokyo and Osaka. Gymnastic devices, swimming pool, and athletic studios account for overwhelmingly highly in the kinds of facilities. Particularly, warm-water swimming pools have become indispensable, receiving high evaluation as an exercise safe and effective for middle to high aged people in terms of exercise physiology. Important considerations on joining a club are easiness in access, pleasant atmosphere, and high selectivity and cleanliness in facilities. Discontents include poor ventilation, and disagreeable temperature and humidity control. A medical expense deduction system for fitness club utilization based on physicians' prescriptions was inaugurated in 1992. Problems are in improving the quality of sanitary aspects, including air conditioning and air and water filtration in the facilities. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Sanitary state of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. in different agricultural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1999-2001 the effect of sowing method and plant density on the sanitary state of three cultivars of yellow lupine protected with fungicides against diseases was investigated. In spring of 2000 the seedlings on the experimental fields generally withered, which was most likely caused by the applied herbicide, however in 1999 and 2001 seedling black leg (complex of fungi was reported. The plants germinating from the seeds sown in points were clearly less attacked by pathogens evoking seedling black leg than those sown in rows. The most serious disease of yellow lupine was antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It occurred in all experimental years and its intensity increased during vegetation period. Cultivars of lupine used to the experiment were attacked by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in a different degree, however, the injury index was mainly determined by weather conditions and the lupine development phase. The applied fungicides significantly limited the development of lupine antracnose. The effect of sowing method and varied plant density on disease intensity was varied.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY QUALITIES OF MAIZE LANDRACE SEEDS STORED UNDER TWO CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Stefanello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of seed quality during the storage period depends not only on the conditions during production and harvesting but also on the storage and maintenance of appropriate storage product conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary qualities of maize landrace seeds stored under two conditions. The maize seed batch varieties Oito carreiras, Cabo roxo and Lombo baio were used. Tests included germination, first count, cold test, accelerated aging and sanity. Based on the results it was concluded that the physiological quality of these seed varieties decreased with the storage period. The major fungi identified in the maize seeds during storage were from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, which caused deterioration and reduction of the physiological quality. Storage using a paper bag at a temperature of 10 °C did not prevent the deterioration of maize seeds but was more effective at preserving the quality of the seed compared with a plastic bag at room temperature.

  15. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented.

  16. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  17. Water Hardness as Basic Indicator the Presence Fouling in Domestic Sanitary Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián–Soto F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the water quality was done in the central valleys of Oaxaca state, finding very high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and carbonate in the waters from of deep wells that are located in the periphery of the river Atoyac, unlike the water that comes from the high parts of Etla valley, where there are maximum hardnesses of 140ppm, so for the distribution of both effluent to the city of Oaxaca and neighboring municipalities, suggesting a further dilution of the water treatment plant in "Fortin" in the city of Oaxaca, that after determining the Langelier index and other, with software found in the universal bibliography. The results indicate that water from the river Atoyac, have corrosive properties. In laboratory doing tests, the best dilution was 60 to 40% by volume, of water from Etla Valley and the periphery of the river respectively. Langelier index was converted to a negative, indicating saturation with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and will tend to dissolve, avoiding the deterioration of the sanitary units.

  18. Nitrogen removal optimization in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Lavagnolo, M Cristina; Scarpa, Carlotta; Vendrame, Paola; Rizzo, Andrea; Luccarini, Luca

    2007-05-01

    Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite may represent a promising process for the optimization of nitrogen removal, in particular in the presence of a low biodegradable COD/TKN ratio. In the present study a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was monitored for approximately 2 years to evaluate the use of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as monitoring parameters in order to optimize nitrogen removal via nitrite from leachate generated in old sanitary landfills. The SBR manifested a nitrification efficiency exceeding 99% whereas, due to the low biodegradability of the organic matter presents in the leachates, COD removal reached approximately 40% and the addition of external COD was required to accomplish denitrification process. Moreover, the results demonstrate that DO, pH and ORP are reliable parameters for use in the monitoring of nitritation and denitritation processes in SBRs treating landfill leachates. Through manual modification of the length of the SBR phases to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite, the nitritation and denitritation processes were rendered unstable leading to the saving of 20% in addition of external COD, almost half the theoretically achievable value. Furthermore, the low dissolved oxygen concentration applied during the oxic phases in an attempt to increase the nitritation process would appear to cause the settling characteristics of the activated sludge to deteriorate.

  19. Palytoxin-Containing Aquarium Soft Corals as an Emerging Sanitary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pelin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PLTX, one the most potent marine toxins, and/or its analogs, have been identified in different marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Although the main concern for human health is PLTXs entrance in the human food chain, there is growing evidence of adverse effects associated with inhalational, cutaneous, and/or ocular exposure to aquarium soft corals contaminated by PLTXs or aquaria waters. Indeed, the number of case reports describing human poisonings after handling these cnidarians is continuously increasing. In general, the signs and symptoms involve mainly the respiratory (rhinorrhea and coughing, skeletomuscular (myalgia, weakness, spasms, cardiovascular (electrocardiogram alterations, gastrointestinal (nausea, and nervous (paresthesia, ataxia, tremors systems or apparates. The widespread phenomenon, the entity of the signs and symptoms of poisoning and the lack of control in the trade of corals as aquaria decorative elements led to consider these poisonings an emerging sanitary problem. This review summarizes literature data on human poisonings due to, or ascribed to, PLTX-containing soft corals, focusing on the different PLTX congeners identified in these organisms and their toxic potential.

  20. A health-sanitary evaluation of lacteal desserts for consumption in Santa Cruz de Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Alvarez, R; Hardisson, A; Arias, A; Sierra, A

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of lacteal desserts in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is notably high. However, there are no legal standards in Spain regarding microbiological quality. For this reason, we have decided that it would be of interest to carry out a health-sanitary study of these products, with the aim of discovering their microbial content. 330 samples of lacteal desserts on sale in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife have undergone analysis. They have been divided into three groups: cream caramel (egg and vanilla) (80), mousse (60) and the third group, known as "other desserts", which includes custard and the rest of lacteal desserts not included in the previous groupings (190). Neither E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., nor Staphylococcus aureus have been detected in any of the samples analysed. In spite of the fact that the results obtained do not reflect high microbiological contamination, we consider it necessary to lay down legal standards, with reference values, for these lacteal products, which will guarantee good microbiological quality.

  1. Physiological and sanitary quality of soybean seeds under different chemical treatments during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa M. Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the chemical treatment with fungicide, insecticide, micronutrient and polymer on physiological and sanitary quality of soybean seeds during storage. The treatments were arranged in a 3 x 5 x 5 factorial scheme (cultivars x seeds treatment x storage period, in completely randomized design with four replicates. Three cultivars were used: NA 4823RG, BMX TurboRR and Fundacep 62RR. The treatments were: T1: no chemical treatment, T2: fungicide, insecticide and micronutrient; T3: fungicide, insecticide, micronutrient and polymer, T4: fungicide; T5: insecticide. After the chemical treatment, the seeds were stored under environmental conditions from May to December 2012, and seed quality was evaluated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage. Seeds water content and physiological quality were determined through tests of germination, accelerated aging, seedling length, seedling dry weight and sanity. The treatment with fungicides, insecticides, micronutrients and polymer did not affect seed quality over eight months of storage and promoted the control fungi associated with the seeds.

  2. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  3. Electroencephalographic responses and subjective evaluation on unpleasantness induced by sanitary napkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Kyong; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    Correlation of unpleasantness and electroencephalography (EEG)-based responses induced by persistent mechanical/dry stimulation and acute wet stimulation via wearing sanitary napkins (SN) was investigated in the present study. Mesh and nonwoven SN were employed, and the effects were studied during the follicular and menstrual phases. The mesh SN characteristically displayed a higher textural surface-roughness. The results in the follicular phase revealed no change in EEG responses to nonwoven SN-induced persistent mechanical stimulation, while the same dry stimulus induced significant increases in alpha2 and beta activities in the bilateral frontal areas accompanied by markedly exacerbated unpleasantness with mesh compared with nonwoven SN. The present result with SN application confirms the previous finding that unpleasantness is well correlated with EEG responses of bilateral frontal areas. Interestingly, although the alpha2 activities were enhanced more with mesh than nonwoven SN during the menstrual phase, unpleasantness between the two textural materials was not different. Moreover, it is suggested that acute unpleasantness induced by wet stimulation is related with elevated EEG responses in the left hemisphere. These data suggest that subjective evaluation of effects of physical stimulation on the human body may not be adequately reliable, and objective assessment of physiological activities with EEG is warranted.

  4. Determining biomass in biological processes. Methods for wastewater biological treatment; Determinacion de la biomasa en procesos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isaac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Biomass concentration and activity are two important parameters for the successful design and control of biological processes in wastewater treatment. Widely used parameter for biomass characterization is dry weight concentration. This parameter is, however, not sufficient to describe biomass activity. Improved analytical methods are needed in order to understand the physiological behaviour of the biomass. In this work, conventional and advanced analytical methods for biomass determination in wastewater treatment are reviewed. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. Wastewater-based epidemiology as a new tool for estimating population exposure to phthalate plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Marino, Iria; Rodil, Rosario; Barrio, Ivan; Cela, Rafael; Quintana, Jose Benito

    2017-02-27

    This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a non-intrusive and economic alternative to urine analysis for estimating human exposure to phthalates. To this end, a solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, allowing for the determination of eight phthalate metabolites in wastewater (limits of quantification between 0.5 and 32 ng L-1). The analysis of samples from the NW region of Spain showed that these substances occur in raw wastewater up to ca.1.6 µg L-1 and in treated wastewater up to ca. 1 µg L-1. Concentrations in raw wastewater were converted into levels of exposure to six phthalate diesters. For three of them, these levels were always below the daily exposure thresholds recommended by the US-Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. For the other three, however, estimates of exposure surpassed such threshold (especially the toddler threshold) in some cases, highlighting the significance of the exposure to phthalates in children. Finally, concentrations in wastewater were also used to estimate metabolite concentrations in urine, providing a reasonable concordance between our results and the data obtained in two previous biomonitoring studies.

  6. Hydrogen production from rice winery wastewater in an upflow anaerobic reactor by using mixed anaerobic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanqing Yu; Zhenhu Zhu [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China). School of Chemistry and Materials; Wenrong Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Resources and Environmental Engineering; Haisheng Zhang [Jingzi Wine Distillery Company, Shandong (China)

    2002-12-01

    Continuous production of hydrogen from the anaerobic acidogenesis of a high-strength rice winery wastewater by a mixed bacterial flora was demonstrated. The experiment was conducted in a 3.0-l upflow reactor to investigate individual effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2-24 h), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in wastewater (14-36 g COD/l), pH (4.5-6.0) and temperature (20-55{sup o}C) on bio-hydrogen production from the wastewater. The biogas produced under all test conditions was composed of mostly hydrogen (53-61%) and carbon dioxide (37-45%), but contained no detectable methane. Specific hydrogen production rate increased with wastewater concentration and temperature, but with a decrease in HRT. An optimum hydrogen production rate of 9.33 lH{sub 2}/gVSSd was achieved at an HRT of 2 h, COD of 34 g/l, pH 5.5 and 55{sup o}C. The hydrogen yield was in the range of 1.37-2.14 mol/mol-hexose. In addition to acetate, propionate and butyrate, ethanol was also present in the effluent as an aqueous product. The distribution of these compounds in the effluent was more sensitive to wastewater concentration, pH and temperature, but was less sensitive to HRT. This upflow reactor was shown to be a promising biosystem for hydrogen production from high-strength wastewaters by mixed anaerobic cultures. (Author)

  7. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  9. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  10. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ GENERAL SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS These guidelines have been prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.1 Authors should familiarize themselves with these requirements before submission.

  11. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page chargesManuscript Submission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their

  12. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  13. Author Identification in Dialnet

    OpenAIRE

    Bergasa, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    26 slides.-- Presentation delivered at the Topic Session "Identifiers". The presentation introduces the Dialnet Foundation, a public non-profit organisation founded 2009 as a Spin-off from the University of La Rioja in Spain, and the Dialnet portal whose database holds nearly 4M documents, mostly in Spanish. Authority control is one of the strategic Dialnet worklines and permanent cleaning work is done on the over 2.5M author records in cooperation with universities and other institutions....

  14. Authority Control for INVENIO

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Christopher Michael; Omar, Abou Khaled; Felber, Pascal

    This is the final report for a Bachelor project at the École d'Ingénieurs et d'Architectes (EIA-FR), in collaboration with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva. The official starting date for this project was June 30th 2011. All of the work described in this document was done at CERN during an internship in the IT-UDS-CDS team. The goal of the project was to add authority contro1 to INVENIO. Authority control provides a library management software with two main functions. 1. It allows the disambiguation between similar or identical terms, such as author names referring to different people. 2. It allows for the collocation of seemingly distinct information that logically belongs together, e.g. alternate names for an author or institution. In recent years, INVENIO users have seen the need to control standardized ways of managing the names of authors and institutions, journals and subjects. “Authority records” keep track of the standard way (e.g. “Curie, Marie”) as well as...

  15. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  16. Cost Effectiveness Study of Wastewater Management Systems for Selected U.S. Coast Guard Vessels. Volume V. Characteristics and Cost Estimates of Selected Marine Sanitary Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    distinct levels) will be necessary. b. Vacuum Pumps and Seal Water Tank Dual vacuum pumps, direct coupled to electric motors, are in- stalled in parallel...equipment, special transformers, ozone detector, bilge; alarmi. (4) ELg, compresor Instal~ed to support MSD operation. (5) Catalyst bod not special...detector, bilge alarm. (4) E.g.. compresor irutalted to support IASD opera.lon. (5) Fllters! charcoal, clay, bag: possibly pro-filter, (0) Incinerator

  17. Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.. For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration. Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production, reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a

  18. Electrochemical generation of Fenton's reagent to treat spent caustic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H. K.; Nunez, P.; Rodriguez, N.; Guzman, J.

    2009-07-01

    An important wastewater stream from oil refineries is the spent caustic. Caustic solutions are used as scrubbing agent during the desulphurization process to eliminate sulphur an mercaptans from oil and gasses. Spent caustic is classified as DOO3 (reactive sulphide) hazardous waste under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). (Author)

  19. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  20. Analyzing the biomass filter behavior in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos-Hernandez, S.

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, waste emissions in air, water and soil must be reduced in order to reach the more and more strict environmental rules. In the case of wastewater, there exists a big interest to improve treatment plants performances. The paper deals with the analysis, via the phase portraits method, of a biomass filter behavior in a completely stirred tank reactor deals with the analysis. (Author)

  1. Sequential micro and ultrafiltration of distillery wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and recycling, wastewater treatment, drinking water production and environmental protection are the key challenges for the future of our planet. Membrane separation technologies for the removal of all suspended solids and a fraction of dissolved solids from wastewaters, are becoming more and more promising. Also, these processes are playing a major role in wastewater purification systems because of their high potential for recovery of water from many industrial wastewaters. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of micro and ultrafiltration for distillery wastewater purification in order to produce water suitable for reuse in the bioethanol industry. The results of the analyses of the permeate obtained after micro and ultrafiltration showed that the content of pollutants in distillery wastewater was significantly reduced. The removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand, dry matter and total nitrogen was 90%, 99.2% and 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solids were completely removed from the stillage.

  2. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

  3. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (15), pp. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ... separate), industrial waste entering the sewer, type of.

  4. The developments of anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... 0.34. Bodkhe (2009). Complex wastewater ..... hydrolysis of complex wastewater into soluble substrates; .... Kinetic analysis of palm oil mill wastewater ... Abdullah LG, Idris A, Ahmadun FR, Baharin BS, Emby F, Megat MNMJ,.

  5. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Palanivelu, K. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: kpvelu@hotmail.com

    2004-09-10

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of phenolic compounds containing wastewater generated from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing, oil refinery and bulk drug manufacturing industries by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at a fixed current density of 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} electrode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD and TOC concentrations were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were detected at high concentrations during the electrolytic treatment of the effluents. However, it was observed that increasing the electrolysis time bring down the AOX concentration to lower levels. Energy consumption and current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated and presented. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment for highly concentrated bio-refractory organic pollutants present in the industrial wastewater.

  7. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  8. Applied math for wastewater plant operators

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Joanne K

    1998-01-01

    With many worked examples, this book provides step-by-step instruction for all calculations required for wastewater treatment. Pertinent calculations are conveniently summarized in each chapter. The text covers all the fundamental math concepts and skills needed for daily wastewater treatment plant operations. The workbook for this book can be purchased separately or together in the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891).

  9. Microbiological analysis of municipal wastewater treating photobioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Krustok, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae reactors, commonly known as photobioreactors, have become increasingly popular as an alternative for wastewater treatment. These systems reduce pollutants and remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous compounds from wastewater utilizing microalgae and bacteria. The biomass produced in the reactors can potentially be used to produce biofuels and decrease some of the energy demands of the process. Wastewater treating photobioreactors are a relatively new technology and many a...

  10. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.; Deverić Meštrović, B.; Ležajić, Z.; Bevetek, A.; Čurlin; M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already b...

  11. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  12. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General Asian Journal of Andrology ( AJA ), the official journal of the Asian Society of Andrology. invites reports of original research on all areas of andrology, both experimental and clinical, including modem, traditional, and epidemiological, from any part of the world. Short communications (including clinical practice or case report) and letters to the editor are also welcome. Review articles based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are accepted. Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. By submitting a manuscript the authors warrant that all necessary permissions have been obtained.

  13. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General Asian Journal of Andrology ( AJA ), the official journal of the Asian Society of Andrology, invites reports of original research on all areas of andrology, both experimental and clinical, including modem, traditional, and epidemiological, from any part of the world. Short communications (including clinical practice or case report) and letters to the editor are also welcome. Review articles based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are accepted. Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. By submitting a manuscript the authors warrant that all necessary permissions have been obtained.

  14. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  15. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  16. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  17. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientif ic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing & Media Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier and Science Press. General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals. The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications. All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses. Scopes ? Crop Germplasm Resources ? Crop Genetics, Genomics and Molecular Biology

  18. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing & Media Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier and Science Press. General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals. The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications. All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical

  19. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications.All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses.

  20. Instructions to authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This section is to be used by authors of the special issue "Social media and language learning: (revolution?" who write their text in English. Please use the model article file attached when writing your text. 1. Submission and publication principles Authors whose texts have been accepted agree to transfer the associated rights permanently to the Alsic journal. They are free to re-publish these works (in printed or electronic form subject to the following conditions: they clearly indicate t...

  1. Innovation in radioactive wastewater-stream management. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karameldin, A. [Reactor Dept., Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2002-07-01

    Recently an invention of a system for volume reduction of the wastewater streams present in SDTs has been achieved. This system substantially utilized the air conditioning and ventilation techniques in water transfer from the wastewater to air. This process is promoted by a mutual heating and humidification of a compressed dry air introduced through SDTs (or in another tank). From the probable release of radioactive nuclides point of view, the analysis of the evaporation of waste streams present in SDTs have been indicated that the proposed optimal evaporating temperature is round 75 C. The design curve of the daily volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams versus the necessary volumetric airflow rates at different operating temperature has been achieved. The evaporating temperature varied from 40 C to 95 C with a step of 5 C. The obtained curve illustrates that the required volumetric airflow rate utilized to evaporate one m{sup 3}/day (when maintaining SDTs at the temperature 75 C) is less than 90 m{sup 3}/h. The assessments of the obtained curve have been indicated that this system is feasible and viable, economic and has no secondary waste residuals. Recently, an experimental facility proposed to be constructed to obtain the optimal operating parameters of the system, regarding to the probable emissions of the radioactive nuclides within the permissible release limits. (authors)

  2. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  3. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  4. LAW CAPACITY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Luminiţa Jurj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of small water users having no centralized wastewater collecting, cleaning and discharging system is of maximal actuality in Romania. Therefor economically efficient solutions are looked for. For disperse mountain villages, farms, or detached households traditional systems, with high maintenance expences because of long networks for small flows, can be economicaly not advantageos. Very small capacity treatement plants are a solution for such cases. The aim of the experimental part of the present work is to simulate situations, damages which can occur during running of a low capacity wastewater treatement plant. Low capacity hosehold wastewater treatement plants are economic alternatives which remove the disadvantages of emptyable basins namely the high costs, the frequvent empying operations, with unpleasant smelling, continous danger of groundwater infection, need for massive and expensive concrete buildings. The proposed plants are based on a classical treatement technology and need emptying of the exess mud only once or twice a year. In opposition with the case of classical plants, the mixture extracted from the proposed low cost systems does not smell and has a relatively low content of solid matter.

  5. Characterization of Concrete made with Recycled Aggregate from Ceramic Sanitary Ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the possibility of reusing the ceramic wastes of sanitary ware as coarse aggregate, in partial substitution (15, 20 y 25 % of natural coarse aggregates. Firstly, the characterization of recycled coarse ceramic aggregate was carried out subsequently proceeded to establish the parameters of dosage and manufacture of different concretes. Lastly, tests were conducted using these mixes to characterize physical and mechanical, and a study was carried out to identify the crystalline phases. Results showed that as the substitution proportion increased, the mechanical properties of the concrete improved, whilst physical properties remained practically constant. In view of these results, we conclude that it is possible to use this type of ceramic waste as coarse aggregate when mixing concrete destined for structural purposes.

    En este estudio se plantea la posibilidad de reutilizar los residuos cerámicos de sanitarios como árido grueso sustituyendo de forma parcial (15, 20 y 25 % al árido grueso natural. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la caracterización del árido cerámico reciclado y posteriormente se procedió a establecer los parámetros de dosificación y fabricación de los distintos hormigones. Finalmente, se realizó sobre los mismos unos ensayos de caracterización de las propiedades físicas y mecánicas, y un estudio de las fases cristalinas. Los resultados indican que a medida que se aumenta el porcentaje de sustitución se ven mejoradas las propiedades mecánicas de estos, mientras que las propiedades físicas se mantienen prácticamente constantes. A la vista de estos resultados se puede concluir que es posible la utilización de este tipo de residuo cerámico como árido grueso en la elaboración de hormigones con fines estructurales.

  6. Sanitary-epidemiological assessment of quality of atmospheric air in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the comparative assessment of the sanitary and epidemiological quality of the ambient air in Moscow and the Russian Federation, that demonstrate a decrease of the air pollution level in 2014 in comparison with 2012, both in Moscow and in the Russian Federation, are presented in this study. It has been noted that most of the excess of hygienic air quality standards in the areas of Russian cities are recorded on stationary observation stations situated close to the motorway, located in residential areas, and in Moscow – in the zones of industrial enterprises’ impact. It has been revealed that the tendency to the reduction of the negative impact from industrial enterprises on air pollution is registered in the whole of the Russian Federation and in Moscow. It is demonstrated that the high-priority contaminating agents, the content of which for the year 2014 in the Russian Federation exceeded the hygienic daily average standards in 5 and more times, are mainly: benzo (a pyrene, suspended substances, sulfur dioxide, benzene, formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, etc. To assess the quality of the ambient air in Moscow, the method of "inverse distance" and inter- and extrapolation of the data obtained from the observation stations on the whole territory of Moscow has been used. The study shows that the air quality of the individual administrative districts of Moscow varies considerably, and is determined by the traffic load level as well as by the volume of emissions of the industrial enterprises and the wind rose. As high-priority contaminating agents affecting the air quality, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, benzene, suspended substances, ozone and formaldehyde are distinguished. It is noted that close to the highway near Moscow there is an excessive concentration of nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, phenol, and carbon monoxide, and in areas close to industrial zones – nitrogen dioxide, phenol formaldehyde and benzo (a

  7. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  8. [Diagnostic, symptomatic and sanitary assessment of schizophrenic patients in Liege psychiatric institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto, D; Desseilles, M; Martin, M; Albert, A

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a diagnostic, symptomatologic and sanitary assessment of schizophrenic patients in the network of institutions of the Plate-Forme Psychiatrique Liégeoise (Liège, Belgium). The diagnosis of schizophrenia was based on the DSM IV. Demographic, social and global functioning (GAF scale) data were collected from the Résumé Psychiatrique Minimum (RPM) , a clinical summary which has been imposed for each psychiatric hospital stay by the Belgian Ministry of Public Health. Symptoms components were derived from the Psychosis Evaluation tool for Commom Use by Caregivers (PECC). In the 44 participating institutions, 793 cases of schizophrenia were reported (533 men and 260 women) with a mean age of 46.1 14.4 years. The study confirmed the predominance of men in schizophrenia (67%) but revealed that women were about 6 years higher than men. PECC symptoms were studied in a random sample of 184 patients extracted from the 793 initial patients and analysed with respect to age, sex and type of care (full-time or part-time hospitalization, ambulatory care). Negative, cognitive and total PECC scores did not vary with sex but were positively correlated with age. Hospitalized patients were significantly older than the others. The cognitive deficit was significantly higher in hospitalized patients than in other patients, while the perception of the disease tended to be more apparent in ambulatory than in hospitalized patients. Data were also related to social information and global functioning. The GAF scores increased with age but were comparable in men and women. Moreover, GAF scores were significantly lower in catatonic type schizophrenia patients than in others.

  9. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  10. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE SALES OPERATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS OF A SANITARY WARE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization consists of extending an organization's operations abroad. It involves decisions based on objective criteria and on an evaluation of strategies for entering the foreign market. The problem addressed in this study concerns a Brazilian firm’s difficulties developing its operations abroad. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the internationalization process of an industry in the sanitary ware segment in the development of its operations in another country. The research method employed was the single case study and data was collected by means of a semi-structured research script applied to company executives. The results showed that the internationalization process is characterized by the dynamic learning model (Uppsala Model, according to which an organization develops its activities abroad gradually, as it acquires experience and expertise in the market. The company is attempting to overcome cultural barriers and psychic distance in a slow internationalization process, aligned with the differentiation strategy and focus that it uses in the Brazilian market. This strategy comprises a sequence of planned and deliberate steps, with low investment exposure and risk. It was found that the firm adopts a strategy of exporting through distributors, this being a critical success factor, but that the distributor approval and development process lacks robust and formalized structuring. There are opportunities for improvement in the process of competitive intelligence in order to systematize the search and interpretation of information about the markets in which the company wants to operate.  Key-words: Internationalization of companies. Uppsala Model. Strategy. Competitive intelligence. 

  11. Hygienic-sanitary evaluation of sushi and sashimi sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Muscolino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, psycrophilic bacteria (PB, Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs, Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ranged from 3.53 to 5.03 log CFU/g and coagulase positive staphylococci were found in 16 samples (2.00 to 3.60 log CFU/g. Bacillus cereus was found in 3 samples (1.70 to 4.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. was found in 15 of the sushi samples (1.70 to 3.70 log CFU/g. In sashimi, the AMB, PB and SSOs values were higher than 7.00 log CFU/g, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were from 6.00 to 8.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. were found in six samples with means of 2.00 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in all sushi and sashimi samples.

  12. Hygienic-Sanitary Evaluation of Sushi and Sashimi Sold in Messina and Catania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, Daniele; Giarratana, Filippo; Beninati, Chiara; Tornambene, Agata; Panebianco, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Sushi and sashimi are traditional Japanese food, mostly consisting of raw seafood alone or in combination with rice. Eating sushi and sashimi has become popular in many countries even outside Japan. This food is not free from health risks such as ingestion of pathogenic bacteria or parasite. The aim of this study was to investigate on hygienic-sanitary quality of sushi and sashimi sold in the cities of Messina and Catania, Southern Italy. Fifty samples (38 sushi and 12 sashimi) were analysed to determinate the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), psycrophilic bacteria (PB), Enterobacteriaceae, specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), Pseudomonas spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, micrococci, Vibrio spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In sushi, AMB ranged from 5.00 to 8.18 log CFU/g, PB from 4.70 to 7.13 log CFU/g, Enterobacteriaceae from 1.41 to 6.67 log CFU/g, while SSOs and Pseudomonas spp. from 3.49 to 7.72 and from 3.36 to 8.00 log CFU/g, respectively. Micrococci ranged from 3.53 to 5.03 log CFU/g and coagulase positive staphylococci were found in 16 samples (2.00 to 3.60 log CFU/g). Bacillus cereus was found in 3 samples (1.70 to 4.00 log CFU/g), while Vibrio spp. was found in 15 of the sushi samples (1.70 to 3.70 log CFU/g). In sashimi, the AMB, PB and SSOs values were higher than 7.00 log CFU/g, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were from 6.00 to 8.00 log CFU/g, while Vibrio spp. were found in six samples with means of 2.00 log CFU/g. No Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in all sushi and sashimi samples. PMID:27800343

  13. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  14. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently.

  15. Author: JC Knobel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    Cramp and Simmons Handbook of the Birds of Europe 225-233. .... Eritja et al Environmental Law in Spain 38; on the relationship between state law and .... enforcement authorities, and the raising of public awareness to boost surveillance ..... and mapping of breeding areas, dispersal areas and recolonisation areas; (8).

  16. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media; Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that

  17. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface.

  18. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Scbmission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface.to submit a manuscript,

  19. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript,

  20. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript, please visit http://www.SCAR.ac.cn/, log on, get an account, and follow

  1. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page chargesManuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript, please visit http://www.SCAR.ac.cn/, log on, get an account, and follow the

  2. Biomass stabilization in the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Escuela Universitaria Politecnica. Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental; Gutierrez, J.C. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain). Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Escuela Universitaria Politecnica

    2006-07-15

    Sludge stabilization processes include both volatile solid destruction and biomass stabilization. Traditionally, both processes have been considered together, in such a way that, when volatile solid destruction is achieved, the biomass is considered stabilized. In this study, volatile solids reduction and biomass stabilization in the anaerobic digestion of primary, secondary and mixed sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants were researched in batch cultures by measurements of suspended solids and suspended lipid-phosphate. The estimated kinetic constants were higher in all sludge types tested for the biomass stabilization process, indicating that volatile solids destruction and biomass stabilization are not parallel processes, since the latter one is reached before the former. (author)

  3. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  4. Biomass stabilization in the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Sevilla (Spain); Gutierrez, J.C. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Dept. de Ciencias Ambientales, Sevilla (Spain); Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla, Grupo Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Sludge stabilization processes include both volatile solid destruction and biomass stabilization. Traditionally, both processes have been considered together, in such a way that, when volatile solid destruction is achieved, the biomass is considered stabilized. In this study, volatile solids reduction and biomass stabilization in the anaerobic digestion of primary, secondary and mixed sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants were researched in batch cultures by measurements of suspended solids and suspended lipid-phosphate. The estimated kinetic constants were higher in all sludge types tested for the biomass stabilization process, indicating that volatile solids destruction and biomass stabilization are not parallel processes, since the latter one is reached before the former. (Author)

  5. Development and evaluation of an alternative method for municipal wastewater treatment using homogeneous photocatalysis and constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, A.; Poulios, I. [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Takavakoglou, V.; Zalidis, G. [School of Agriculture, Laboratory of Applied Soil Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-06-30

    Wastewater collection and treatment is an important parameter of sustainable development. In Mediterranean region especially, the design and operation of competitive wastewater treatment systems for small communities and touristic facilities is a challenge to wastewater engineers. Within this context an alternative method of wastewater treatment has been developed that is based on solar photocatalytic oxidation and natural processes. The system combines the synergetic action of the homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation with the surface flow constructed wetlands in order to utilize the high solar irradiation and the ability of the constructed wetlands to improve water quality through natural processes. Aim of this work is to present the design, development, and experimental evaluation of the combined system. Experiments were conducted at laboratory scale using artificial as well as solar irradiation, for the treatment of both synthetic and cesspool wastewater. The data evaluation revealed that the combined system may effectively reduce the organic load and nutrients of wastewater, even in cases of great inflow variability, in terms of hydraulic and organic load, and thus may be proven a promising, competitive and environmental friendly solution for wastewater treatment in the near future. (author)

  6. A monetary comparison of energy recovered from microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells fed winery or domestic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusick, Roland D.; Kiely, Patrick D.; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, H2E Center, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Microbial fuel (MFCs) and electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to recover energy directly as electricity or hydrogen from organic matter. Organic removal efficiencies and values of the different energy products were compared for MFCs and MECs fed winery or domestic wastewater. TCOD removal (%) and energy recoveries (kWh/kg-COD) were higher for MFCs than MECs with both wastewaters. At a cost of 4.51/kg-H{sub 2} for winery wastewater and 3.01/kg-H{sub 2} for domestic wastewater, the hydrogen produced using MECs cost less than the estimated merchant value of hydrogen (6/kg-H{sub 2}). 16S rRNA clone libraries indicated the predominance of Geobacter species in anodic microbial communities in MECs for both wastewaters, suggesting low current densities were the result of substrate limitations. The results of this study show that energy recovery and organic removal from wastewater are more effective with MFCs than MECs, but that hydrogen production from wastewater fed MECs can be cost effective. (author)

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Discussion about Law Truss and Sanitary Technic Content in Activity of Establishing International Sanitary Airport%对创建国际卫生机场法规构成和技术条件的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建男

    2002-01-01

    @@ Activity of establishing international sanitary airport is a systematic project developing in international airports according to Article 14th and 18th of "International Health Regulation". Its law truss is made up of relative Articles of"International Health Regulation", "guide to Aircraft sanitation", "the Frontier Health and Quarantine Law", "Specific Rules for Enforcing the Frontier Health and Quarantine Law of P.R.China,etc. Purpose of developing this activity is to improve the quality and technology of health quarantine, and the effect of health control in port,so as to control in and out of infectious disease more effectively.

  9. Irregularidades sanitárias como marcador de risco à saúde: um desafio para a vigilância sanitária / Sanitary Disparities as risks markers health: a challenge to sanitary surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pini Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de caráter exploratório, do tipo levantamento retrospectivo, objetivou identifi car as irregularidades sanitárias nos estabelecimentos e equipamentos de assistência de alta complexidade e de interesse à saúde do município de Franca-SP, registradas no Sistema de Informação em Vigilância Sanitária, no período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2009, como marcador de risco à saúde. Do total de 186 serviços, 59 (31,72% apresentaram irregularidades sanitárias, categorizadas em nove eixos: documentação, estrutura física, recursos humanos, qualidade de produtos, manutenção preventiva de equipamentos, processo de esterilização, resíduos de saúde, higienização do ambiente e equipamento de proteção individual; e 164 (88,17% apresentaram condições de baixo risco, 21 (11,29% de médio e um serviço apresentou risco alto. Os resultados demonstram que as irregularidades sanitárias podem comprometer a qualidade do serviço ou do produto oferecido e gerar riscos à saúde dos usuários, consumidores e trabalhadores. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This study, as an exploratory one, retrospective survey-type, aimed to identify the sanitary disparities in the high complexity facilities and assistance tools and concerned to Franca – SP heath, registered in the Sanitary Surveillance Information System, in August 2008 to July 2009 as risks markers to health. From the amount of 186 services, 58 (31,72% presented sanitary disparities, categorized into nine axes: documentation, physical frames, human resources, products qualities, tool’s preventive maintenance, sterilization process. Health waste, environment hygiene and individual protection equipments, 164 (88, 17% presented a law risk condition, 21 (11,29% are average, and only one presented a high risk level. Results shows that such sanitary disparities may comprise the service or the offered product quality and

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Simultaneous biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment in biofilm configured anaerobic periodic discontinuous batch reactor using distillery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Mohan, S.; Mohanakrishna, G.; Ramanaiah, S.V.; Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500007 (India)

    2008-01-15

    Biohydrogen (H{sub 2}) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment was studied in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) using distillery wastewater as substrate at two operating pH values. Selectively enriched anaerobic mixed consortia sequentially pretreated with repeated heat-shock (100{sup o}C; 2 h) and acid (pH -3.0; 24 h) methods, was used as parent inoculum to startup the bioreactor. The reactor was operated at ambient temperature (28{+-}2 {sup circle} C) with detention time of 24 h in periodic discontinuous batch mode. Experimental data showed the feasibility of hydrogen production along with substrate degradation with distillery wastewater as substrate. The performance of the reactor was found to be dependent on the operating pH. Adopted acidophilic microenvironment (pH 6.0) favored H{sub 2} production (H{sub 2} production rate - 26 mmol H{sub 2}/day; specific H{sub 2} production - 6.98 mol H{sub 2}/kg COD{sub R}-day) over neutral microenvironment (H{sub 2} production rate - 7 mmol H{sub 2}/day; specific H{sub 2} production - 1.63 mol H{sub 2}/kg COD{sub R}-day). However, COD removal efficiency was found to be effective in operated neutral microenvironment (pH 7 - 69.68%; pH 6.0 - 56.25%). The described process documented the dual benefit of renewable energy generation in the form of H{sub 2} with simultaneous wastewater treatment utilizing it as substrate. (author)

  13. Markets and authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Cecco, Marcello de

    of integrating large developing countries into a liberal world order and the consequences of the multilateral system for the world's poor. In further discussions they investigate the sustainability of global capitalism in light of financial crisis, widespread inequality and the uncertain future for traditional......This text addresses the relationship between market authority and political authority - a favourite theme of Susan Strange, to whom the book is dedicated. From a survey of the bias against capital liberalization in economic thought to an analysis of the US role in global monetary affairs...... welfare states. They also advance various mechanisms through which they believe greater stability and equity could be introduced into the global financial system and the world economy....

  14. INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>AIMS AND SCOPE High Power Laser Science and Engineering(HPLaser)is an international,peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on all aspects of high power laser science and engineering.HPLaser publishes research that seeks to uncover the underlying science and engineering in the fields of high energy density physics,high power lasers,advanced laser technology and applications,and laser components.ORIGINALITY,OPEN ACCESS LICENCE TO PUBLISH FORM AND COPYRIGHT To be considered for publication in HPLaser a manuscript cannot have been published previously,nor can it be under review for publication elsewhere.Papers with multiple authors are considered for publication in HPLaser with the assumption that all authors have approved the submitted manuscript and concur in its submission to HPLaser.For accepted articles,a Licence to Publish form must be

  15. Evaluation of bateriologial and sanitary quality of drinking water stations and water tankers in Makkah Al-Mokarama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihdhdir, Alaa A

    2009-02-15

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriological and sanitary quality of drinking water produced in Makkah Al-Mokarama during the high season in the month of Ramadan. Water samples were collected both from the drinking water stations and the water tankers (in Arabic language called whitats) used to transport and distribute water in different places in the Holy city. Water samples were analyzed to determine the densities of HPC at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus. The bacteriological analysis of drinking water samples at 37 degrees C proved that 6.7-33.3, 20-46.7, 0-20 and 0-6.7% of total water samples contained HPC, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively which were higher than the safe limits for drinking water. The bacterial analysis of drinking water varied from one water station to another. On the other hand, drinking water transported by tankers appeared to be in the lowest category of water quality. Because out of total water samples 40-59%, 60-68.8%, 31.2-37.5%, 10-25% contained HPC, total coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, which were higher than the established safe limits of drinking water. One possible reason for poor quality of drinking water could be attributed to the application of inadequate water disinfection treatments and also the absence of sanitary aspects as supported by the bacteriological analysis which holds true especially for water supplied by tankers. In conclusion, it is important to apply proper water disinfection measures and provide sanitary monitoring programs during the production of drinking water as a whole and for the water tanker in particular.

  16. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  17. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.The template for the paper is at this address:http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.docThe text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. The title will be bold 14-point, and the author will be 12-point italic. Figures have caption in bottom-center side, and tables have captions in left-top side. Use a tab for identing each paragraph and the subtitles, too. The subtitleswill be bold 12-point. Please use Microsoft Word 97-2003.We encourage the authors to use the camera ready format even for the first submission. All paper submissions will be carefully reviewed by an editor, and by the members of the scientific board or independent experts, who will provide a written feedback with comments and ratings.Authors will be notified of acceptance in maximum 3 weeks. Accepted manuscripts should be revised according to the comments of the reviewers and of the editors.For questions concerning manuscript submission, contact Mr. Bogdan Patrut by mail atbogdan@edusoft.ro.

  18. Instructions for Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures. The template for the paper is at this address: http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.doc

  19. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co‐sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously

  20. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.