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Sample records for sanicula graveolens apiaceae

  1. Free radical scavenging activity and secondary metabolites from in vitro cultures of Sanicula graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheel, José; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Jordan, Miguel; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Gerth, André; Wilken, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro propagation system was developed to obtain shoot and root cultures from the Andean spice Sanicula graveolens (Apiaceae). Propagation of shoots, roots and plantlets was achieved by the temporary immersion system. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanol/water (7:3 v/v) extracts was determined by the discoloration of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). Total phenolic, flavonoid, chlorogenic acid (CA) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside content in the samples was assessed by spectrophotometry and DAD-HPLC analysis, respectively. On a dry weight basis, the crude extracts showed total phenolic values ranging from 3.57 to 6.93%, with highest content for the root culture sample. Total flavonoid content ranged from 1.23 to 2.23% and was lower for the root culture. Chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid were identified by TLC in all samples. Highest free radical scavenging effect was observed for the root culture which also presented the highest CA content. Two of the shoot culture samples, with similar IC50 values in the DPPH discoloration assay, also presented close quercetin-3-O-glucoside content.

  2. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

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    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  3. HISTOANATOMY OF VEGETATIVE ORGANS WITH BIOACTIVE PRINCIPLES IN APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. VAR. RAPACEUM (MILL. GAUD. (APIACEAE

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    Rodica BERCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed anatomical description of the vegetative organs of a well known cultivated plant Apium graveolens var. rapaceum (Mill. Gaud. For the medicinal purpose, is used the root and leaves, as vegetative organs, of this plant and seeds as well. It was observed that the root has an anomalous secondary structure, due to the cambium activity. The petiole has a one-layered epidermis, covered by cuticle, a differentiated cortex into two zones and a number of collateral vascular bundles. The leaf is bifacial and amphistomatic with a heterogenous mesophyll. The root, petiole and blade possess secretory ducts. The mechanical tissue is represented by sclerenchymatous fibers in the root and collenchyma tissue in the leaf.

  4. Molecular evolution of flavonoid dioxygenases in the family Apiaceae.

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    Gebhardt, Yvonne; Witte, Simone; Forkmann, Gert; Lukacin, Richard; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2005-06-01

    Plant species of the family Apiaceae are known to accumulate flavonoids mainly in the form of flavones and flavonols. Three 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, flavone synthase or flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase are involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. The corresponding genes were cloned recently from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) leaves. Flavone synthase I appears to be confined to the Apiaceae, and the unique occurrence as well as its high sequence similarity to flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase laid the basis for evolutionary studies. In order to examine the relationship of these two enzymes throughout the Apiaceae, RT-PCR based cloning and functional identification of flavone synthases I or flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases were accomplished from Ammi majus, Anethum graveolens, Apium graveolens, Pimpinella anisum, Conium maculatum and Daucus carota, yielding three additional synthase and three additional hydroxylase cDNAs. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of these sequences were compatible with the phylogeny based on morphological characteristics and suggested that flavone synthase I most likely resulted from gene duplication of flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase, and functional diversification at some point during the development of the apiaceae subfamilies. Furthermore, the genomic sequences from Petroselinum crispum and Daucus carota revealed two introns in each of the synthases and a lack of introns in the hydroxylases. These results might be explained by intron losses from the hydroxylases occurring at a later stage of evolution.

  5. Guaianolides in apiaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, Damian Paul; Krichau, Nadja; Reichwald, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    The guaianolide group of sesquiterpene lactones contains a large number of compounds with biological activity. One of these guaianolides, thapsigargin from the genus Thapsia (Apiaceae), has been a subject of particular interest in recent years because of its ability to induce apoptosis...... for the biosynthesis of thapsigargin is presented. Eighty-seven guaianolides from Apiaceae are presented. These compounds provide clues to possible enzymatic mechanisms generating the guaianolides in Apiaceae. Some of these 87 compounds have proven or might prove interesting with regards to their biological activity....

  6. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  7. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

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    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of ... anti-stress and cognition-improving effects of A. graveolens extract in a rat model. ..... This work was supported by Konkuk.

  9. Constituents from Bupleurum montanum (Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae

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    M. Benahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Bupleurum montanum (Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae afforded five compounds, quercitin 1, tamarexetin 2, isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside 3, kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside 4, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Protocatechuic acid 5. The structural elucidation was performed mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectrum data.

  10. Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  11. Rutin from Ruta graveolens L

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    Dj. Afshar

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of rutin in Ruta Graveolens, L. which is easily cultivated in Iran, is necessary for its economic importance, diversity of specialities and their pharmacological activity in blood vessels disorders. For this purpose, the plant was cultivated in botanical garden of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and rutin was determinated at different stages of plant growth. The extraction was done from the crude plants by ethanol, boiling water and hydroalcoholic solvents. Rutin was subsequently purified by crystalization."nStructure elucidation was confirmed by the U.V spectrum in the presence of shift-producing reagents, and TLC by using different systems, HPLC and HPTLC in the presence of standard."nSugars and their sequence of bonding to genine were known by acidic hydrolysis, sequential hydrolysis and TLC in the presence of standards. For quantitative determinations of rutin two methods were selected i.e. HPLC and colorimetery. In the colorimetrey method, cyanidin reaction was used for color producing and the absorbances of other compounds of extract were eliminated in coincidence with rutin absorption.. In the HPLC method, separation was done on CN- column with mobile phase including dioxan/phosphate bnffer (pH=2.6; 2:8. In the end the results of two methods were compared.

  12. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

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    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  13. Systemic allergic dermatitis caused by Apiaceae root vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Petersen, Thomas H; Fretté, Xavier C

    2014-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported.......Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to root vegetables of the Umbelliferae plant family (Apiaceae) is well known. Delayed-type hypersensitivity is rarely reported....

  14. A forgotten vegetable (Smyrnium olusatrum L., Apiaceae) as a rich source of isofuranodiene.

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    Maggi, Filippo; Barboni, Luciano; Papa, Fabrizio; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Sagratini, Gianni; Vittori, Sauro

    2012-12-15

    Smyrnium olusatrum, well known as wild celery or Alexanders, is a biennial herb belonging to the Apiaceae and used for many centuries as an edible vegetable because of the aromatic flavour of its parts. Its use on the table has decreased since the Middle Ages when it was replaced by common celery (Apium graveolens). In the present work the composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of various plant parts was investigated by gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS), while quantitation of a heat-sensitive compound, isofuranodiene, known for its anticancer activity, and of its Cope rearrangement product curzerene, was achieved by HPLC-DAD. All essential oils were composed mainly of furanosesquiterpenoids (54.1-76.2%) with isofuranodiene (19.5-45.8%) as the main constituent. Results showed that GC analysis provides underestimation (up to five times) of isofuranodiene levels in essential oils and that curzerene could be considered an artifact since it is produced during heating of plant material, occurring during hydrodistillation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diseases of herbs from Apiaceae family

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    Ewa Dorota Zalewska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest participation in causing the disease of herbal plants have fungi. Studies on their occurrence on plants of the family Apiaceae are conducted in the Lublin region since 2001. The observations of plant healthiness are carried out directly on the plantations. Plants with symptoms of disease are studied in the laboratory. Identification of the fungi is performed based on etiological symptoms and on the base of fungal cultures isolated from plants. Among the many species of fungi obtained from diseased plants to the particularly harmful belong: Septoria carvi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesand C. dematium, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Passalora puncta(Cercosporidium punctum and Erysiphe umbelliferarum.

  16. Apium graveolens extract influences mood and cognition in healthy mice.

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    Boonruamkaew, Phetcharat; Sukketsiri, Wanida; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Kaewnam, Wijittra; Tanasawet, Supita; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2017-07-01

    Apium graveolens is a food flavoring which possesses various health promoting effects. This study investigates the effect of a sub-acute administration of A. graveolens on cognition and anti-depression behaviors via antioxidant and related neurotransmitter systems in mice brains. Cognition and depression was assessed by various models of behavior. The antioxidant system of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), % inhibition of superoxide anion (O 2 - ), and lipid peroxidation were studied. In addition, neurochemical parameters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase-type A (MAO-A) were also evaluated. Nine groups of male mice were fed for 30 days with different substances-a control, vehicle, A. graveolens extract (65-500 mg/kg), and reference drugs (donepezil and fluoxetine). The results indicated that the effect of the intake of A. graveolens extract (125-500 mg/kg) was similar to the reference drugs, as it improved both spatial and non-spatial memories. Moreover, there was a decrease in immobility time in both the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In addition, the A. graveolens extract reduced lipid peroxidation of the brain and increased GPx activity and the % inhibition of O 2 - , whereas the activities of AChE and MAO-A were decreased. Thus, our data have shown that the consumption of A. graveolens extract improved cognitive function and anti-depression activities as well as modulating the endogenous antioxidant and neurotransmitter systems in the brain, resulting in increased neuronal density. This result indicated an important role for A. graveolens extract in preventing age-associated decline in cognitive function associated with depression.

  17. SPASMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL CELERY LEAVES (APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. EXTRACTS ON THE CONTRACTION OF ISOLATED RAT ILEUM

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    Suzana Branković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, which has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. This study investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts from celery leaves on intestinal contractility. Air-dried and powdered leaves were extracted with distilled water and 96% ethanol, respectively. The activities of the extracts on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated rat ileum model. The isolated rat ileum was mounted in a 10ml tissue bath. The results suggest that the cumulative concentrations of the extracts of celery statistically significantly inhibited spontaneous rat ileum contractions (p<0.01. The extracts dose-dependently reduced the contractile effects of acetylcholine on the isolated ileum (p<0.05. Ethanol extract exhibited significantly greater relaxant activity than the aqueous extract (p<0.05. These results suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery leaves can produce the inhibition of the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine. These data indicate that celery extracts act as intestinal smooth muscle relaxants, which justifies their use in gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. Ozone injury to celery. [Apium graveolens

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    Rich, S.

    1966-10-01

    Ozone is the principal air pollutant damaging crops in Connecticut. Ozone injury in Connecticut has been found on a number of crops including tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, spinach, alfalfa, and cereals. This is the first report of ozone damage to celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) in Connecticut, and perhaps in the United States. On July 7, 1966, celery plants with badly damaged older leaves were found in a commercial garden near Shelton, Connecticut. The injured leaves showed chlorotic and necrotic interveinal areas on their upper surfaces. These areas were slightly depressed. Cross sections of the lesions revealed that the palisade cells were most severely injured. Spinach and carrots growing near the celery showed typical symptoms of ozone damage. To substantiate the diagnosis, young celery plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm of ozone in a well-lighted plastic chamber for 1 to 3 hours. Five days later, these plants developed symptoms indentical to those found on celery in the field. Ozone damage appeared on many crops in southern Connecticut early in July. This injury probably occurred on June 27, when a high concentration of ozone (0.1 ppm) was present in the New Haven area.

  19. Accurate Mass GC/LC-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols of Spicy Fruits from the Apiaceae Family

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    Thao Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The triacylglycerol (TAG structure and the regio-stereospecific distribution of fatty acids (FA of seed oils from most of the Apiaceae family are not well documented. The TAG structure ultimately determines the final physical properties of the oils and the position of FAs in the TAG molecule affects the digestion; absorption and metabolism; and physical and technological properties of TAGs. Fixed oils from the fruits of dill (Anethum graveolens, caraway (Carum carvi, cumin (Cuminum cyminum, coriander (Coriandrum sativum, anise (Pimpinella anisum, carrot (Daucus carota, celery (Apium graveolens, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, and Khella (Ammi visnaga, all from the Apiaceae family, were extracted at room temperature in chloroform/methanol (2:1 v/v using percolators. Crude lipids were fractionated by solid phase extraction to separate neutral triacylglycerols (TAGs from other lipids components. Neutral TAGs were subjected to transesterification process to convert them to their corresponding fatty acids methyl esters (FAMES using 1% boron trifluoride (BF3 in methanol. FAMES were analyzed by gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (GC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Triglycerides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Petroselinic acid was the major fatty acid in all samples ranging from 57% of the total fatty acids in caraway up to 82% in fennel. All samples contained palmitic (16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1n-9, stearic (C18:0, petroselinic (C18:1n-12, linoleic (C18:2n-6, linolinic (18:3n-3, and arachidic (C20:0 acids. TAG were analyzed using LC-QTOF for accurate mass identification and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS techniques for regiospesific elucidation of the identified TAGs. Five major TAGs were detected in all samples but with different relative concentrations in all of the tested samples. Several other TAGs were detected as minor components and were present in some

  20. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Apiaceae family in Iran: A review

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    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae family is one of the biggest plant families on the earth. Iran has  a huge diversity of Apiaceae members . This family possesses a range of compounds that have many biological activities. The members of this family are well known as vegetables, culinary and medicinal plants. Here, we present a review of ethnobotanical uses of Apiaceae plants by the Iranian people in order to provide a comprehensive documentation for future investigations. Materials and Methods: We checked scientific studies published in books and journals in various electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar websites from 1937 to 2015 and reviewed a total of 52 publications that provided information about different applications of these plant species in human and livestock. Results: As a result of this review, several ethnobotanical usages of 70 taxa, 17 of which were endemic, have been determined. These plants were used for medicinal and non-medicinal purposes. The most commonly used parts were fruits, leaves, aerial parts and gums. The most common methods of preparation were decoction, infusion and poultice. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this paper represents a comprehensive literature search of ethnobotanical uses of Apiaceae reported from Iran. This study highlights the rich traditional knowledge of this family that has remained in Iran. However, most of this knowledge survive only as memories from the past in the minds of the elderly, and will probably vanish in a few decades. Thus, we compiled these scattered data together in a single document for the next scientific works with ethnobotanical interests.

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  2. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  3. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

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    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  4. Anxiolytic and free radical scavenging potential of Chinese celery (Apium graveolens extract in mice

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    Supita Tanasawet

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Taken together, we showed that A. graveolens improve the behavioral changes which might be related to the inhibition of free radicals and modulation of MAO-A activity resulting in an increased number of survival neurons. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of A. graveolens in the treatment of anxiety.

  5. [Child poisoning after ingestion of a wild apiaceae: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M-F; Pommier, P; Chazalette, A; de Haro, L

    2008-02-01

    Apiaceae family (formerly Umbelliferae) contains several highly toxic species, including Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum), Water Hemlock (Cicuta virosa) and Hemlock Water Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) which are the three main poisonous Apiaceae species growing in France. Thinking he was identifying wild carrots, an 11-year-old boy without previous history ingested the root from a wild Apiaceae. One hour later, he was confused, had drowsiness, headache as well as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Upon hospital admission, myosis, ophtalmoplegia and a moderate rhabdomyolysis were noted. The patient recovered after 24 h of symptomatic treatments. In this case, the description of the ingested plant allowed to identify the Apiaceae family but not the species involved. The geographical location (Southern France in a humid area), the clinical features and the aspect of the ingested root, with an orange secretion led to implicate Oenanthe crocata as the origin of this unusual poisoning.

  6. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

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    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  7. Apiaceae endémicas del Perú

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    Blanca León

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia Apiaceae es reconocida en el Perú por presentar 29 géneros y 88 especies (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993, básicamente hierbas y subarbustos. En este trabajo reconocemos como endémicos 22 taxones en siete géneros. Un género, Paraselinum, es endémico del Perú. La mayoría de los taxones endémicos ocupan las regiones Desierto Semicálido Costero, Mesoandina y Bosques Muy Húmedos Montanos, entre los 10 y 4400 m de altitud. Ninguna de estas especies está representada en las áreas protegidas.

  8. Some Properties of Astronium graveolens Wood Along the Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Longui,Eduardo Luiz; Gondo,Cássia Christine Schmidt; Luiz de Lima,Israel; Freitas,Miguel Luiz Menezes; Florsheim,Sandra Monteiro Borges; Zanatto,Antonio Carlos Scatena; Garcia,José Nivaldo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the axial variation of specific gravity, shear parallel to the grain and anatomical features of Astronium graveolens wood and related these properties to the anatomy along the stem. We felled five 20-year-old trees and cut discs from four different stem heights, including stem base, 1 meter, 2 meters and 3 meters, for a total of 20 discs, and studied wood samples near the bark and at the base of trunk. Axial variations found appear to provide a balance between mechani...

  9. Is herbal therapy safe in obesity? A case of Apium graveolens (Celery) induced hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Hosseini, Masih; Gharipour, Mojgan; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Apium graveolens is one of the well-known herbs used for the treatment of different; however, allergic reactions have been reported after its use. This report aimed to demonstrate the A. graveolens induced hyperthyroidism after its oral consumption for weight loss. CASE REPORT Mr. A, 48-year-old, with no history of any thyroid diseases, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to daily consumption of 4 g of dried celery leaves for 45 days. After cessation of consumption and treatment...

  10. Relaxant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens on isolated rat tracheal rings

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    Luis Águila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ruta graveolens L. (R. graveolens is a medicinal plant employed in non-traditional medicines that has various therapeutic properties, including anthelmintic, and vasodilatory actions, among others. We evaluated the trachea-relaxant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens against potassium chloride (KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction of rat tracheal rings in an isolated organ bath. RESULTS: The results showed that the airway smooth muscle contraction induced by the depolarizing agent (KCl and cholinergic agonist (carbachol was markedly reduced by R. graveolens in a concentration-dependent manner, with maximum values of 109 ± 7.9 % and 118 ± 2.6 %, respectively (changes in tension expressed as positive percentages of change in proportion to maximum contraction, at the concentration of 45 μg/mL (half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50: 35.5 μg/mL and 27.8 μg/mL for KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction, respectively. Additionally, the presence of R. graveolens produced rightward parallel displacement of carbachol dose-response curves and reduced over 35 % of the maximum smooth muscle contraction. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens exhibited relaxant activity on rat tracheal rings. The results suggest that the trachea-relaxant effect is mediated by a non-competitive antagonistic mechanism. More detailed studies are needed to identify the target of the inhibition, and to determine more precisely the pharmacological mechanisms involved in the observed biological effects.

  11. Fototoxicidad tras exposición a ruta graveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zayas-Pinedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La fototoxicidad es un tipo de reacción cutánea inflamatoria que se produce como consecuencia de la exposición a una sustancia química en combinación con la exposición a radiaciones lumínicas. Ruta graveolens, comúnmente llamada ruda, ha sido descrita en numerosas publicaciones como sustancia causante de reacciones de fototoxicidad. Presentamos el caso de una pareja que sufrió una reacción de fototoxicidad que requirió ingreso en la Unidad de Quemados como consecuencia del contacto con una infusión de ruda y posterior exposición solar. Consideramos que todo profesional que se ocupa del tratamiento de quemaduras debe incluir las fitofotodermatitis dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de las pérdidas cutáneas de espesor parcial.

  12. Some Properties of Astronium graveolens Wood Along the Stem

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    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We investigated the axial variation of specific gravity, shear parallel to the grain and anatomical features of Astronium graveolens wood and related these properties to the anatomy along the stem. We felled five 20-year-old trees and cut discs from four different stem heights, including stem base, 1 meter, 2 meters and 3 meters, for a total of 20 discs, and studied wood samples near the bark and at the base of trunk. Axial variations found appear to provide a balance between mechanical strength of the wood at stem base by the higher density and higher shear by the increase in ray frequency that contributes to locking the vertical cells and growth rings, thus preventing the stem from easily breaking when bent. For hydraulic conductivity, vessels with smaller diameter and frequency at the stem base help prevent the occurrence of embolisms that would reduce water flow along the main stem.

  13. Phytochemical constituents of selected plants from Apiaceae family and their biological effects in poultry

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    Aćimović Milica G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried ripe fruits of the plants from Apiaceae family are used in folk medicine for treating digestive disorders. They can be used in veterinary and animal production, especially poultry, as immunostimulants and as natural antibiotics. Plants from Apiaceae family improve performance parameters of poultry and can be used for prevention of diseases. This article is a review of present literature data on the usage of caraway, anise, coriander and fennel in broiler chickens and Japanese quail nutrition and their mode of action and effects on production performance, blood parameters, cholesterol and fatty acids profile.

  14. Field experiments on seed dispersal by wind in ten umbelliferous species (Apiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.; Telenius, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents data from experiments on seed dispersal by wind for ten species of the family Apiaceae. Seed shadows were obtained in the field under natural conditions, using wind speeds between four and ten m/s. The flight of individual seeds was followed by eye, and seed shadows were

  15. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices

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    Farrukh Aqil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M or diet supplemented with 7.5% (w/w of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα. The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92

  16. Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Apiaceae Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Munagala, Radha; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Schultz, David J; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2017-02-16

    Scientific evidence suggests that many herbs and spices have medicinal properties that alleviate symptoms or prevent disease. In this study, we examined the chemopreventive effects of the Apiaceae spices, anise, caraway, and celery seeds against 17β-estrogen (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis in an ACI (August-Copenhagen Irish) rat model. Female ACI rats were given either control diet (AIN 93M) or diet supplemented with 7.5% ( w / w ) of anise, caraway, or celery seed powder. Two weeks later, one half of the animals in each group received subcutaneous silastic implants of E2. Diet intake and body weight were recorded weekly, and animals were euthanized after 3 and 12 weeks. E2-treatment showed significantly (2.1- and 3.4-fold) enhanced growth of pituitary gland at 3 and 12 weeks, respectively. All test spices significantly offset the pituitary growth by 12 weeks, except celery which was effective as early as three weeks. Immunohistochemical analysis for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in mammary tissues showed significant reduction in E2-mediated mammary cell proliferation. Test spices reduced the circulating levels of both E2 and prolactin at three weeks. This protection was more pronounced at 12 weeks, with celery eliciting the highest effect. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the potential molecular targets of the spices. Anise and caraway diets significantly offset estrogen-mediated overexpression of both cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The effect of anise was modest. Likewise, expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 was inhibited by all test spices. Based on short-term molecular markers, caraway was selected over other spices based on its enhanced effect on estrogen-associated pathway. Therefore, a tumor-end point study in ACI rats was conducted with dietary caraway. Tumor palpation from 12 weeks onwards revealed tumor latency of 29 days in caraway-treated animals compared with first tumor appearance at 92 days in

  17. Plant Essential Oils from Apiaceae Family as Alternatives to Conventional Insecticides

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main method to control insect pest is using synthetic insecticides, but the development of insect resistance to this products, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control insect pest. Furthermore, the demand for organic crops, especially vegetables for the fresh market, has greatly increased worldwide. The ideal insecticide should control target pests adequately and should be target-specific, rapidly degradable, and low in toxicity to humans and other mammals. Plant essential oils could be an alternative source for insect pest control because they constitute a rich source of bioactive chemicals and are commonly used as flavoring agents in foods. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Moreover, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant essential oils or their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of essential oils from Apiaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. The focus of this review lies on the lethal (ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal and sublethal (antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterrent, Growth inhibitory and progeny production activities of plant essential oils and theirmain components from Apiaceae family. These features indicate that pesticides based on Apiaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of pests. It can be concluded that essential oils and phytochemicals isolated from Apiaceae family may be efficacious and safe replacements for conventional synthetic

  18. Environ: E00434 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00434 Anethum graveolens fruit Anethi fructus Crude drug Carvone [CPD:C01767 C113...83], Limonene [CPD:C06078] Anethum graveolens [TAX:40922] ... Apiaceae (carrot family) Anethum graveolens fruit (dried) ...

  19. Anethum graveolens and hyperlipidemia: A randomized clinical trial

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    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been established that hyperlipidemia increases the incidence and mortality associated with coronary heart disease. In this study, the effects of Dill (Anethum graveolens were evaluated on lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, 91 hyperlipidemic patients were randomly designated into two groups. One group received gemfibrozil (900 mg daily and the other group received Dill tablet (six tablets daily for 2 months. The blood lipids including total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol from each group were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Use of gemfibrozil brought about increased HDL-cholesterol by 3.91% (P < 0.05 and reduced triglyceride and total cholesterol by 32.7% (P < 0.05 and 9.41% (P < 0.05, respectively. Applying Dill tablet for 2 months resulted in reduction of total cholesterol up to 18% (P < 0.05 and triglyceride by 7.38% (P < 0.05. However, circulating HDL-cholesterol was not affected by this treatment. In this study, gemfibrozil decreased triglyceride and increased HDL-cholesterol more than anethum (P < 0.05. Anethum decreased total cholesterol more than gemfibrozil (P < 0.05. Patients treated with anethum did not report any side effects. Conclusion: The results of this trial indicate that Dill might be beneficial for hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglycemic patients.

  20. Evaluation of the tickcide, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of the Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae

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    Alessandra Vargas de Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis investigated the tickcide effects of the aqueous extract and chloroform fractions of Ruta graveolens L. (rue on engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus, as well as their genotoxic and mutagenic effects on human leukocytes. The best tickcide activity (non-dependent dose and genotoxic / mutagenic effects (dependent-dose were observed on exposure to chloroform fractions. Results suggest that extract fractions of R. graveolens L are efficient against R. microplus, although the fraction and the tested concentrations show genotoxic and mutagenic potential for human leukocytes.

  1. Identification of highly effective antitrypanosomal compounds in essential oils from the Apiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngahang Kamte, Stephane L; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Sut, Stefania; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bruno, Maurizio; Afshar, Fariba Heshmati; Iannarelli, Romilde; Benelli, Giovanni; Cappellacci, Loredana; Hofer, Anders; Maggi, Filippo; Petrelli, Riccardo

    2018-07-30

    The Apiaceae family encompasses aromatic plants of economic importance employed in foodstuffs, beverages, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Apiaceae are rich sources of essential oils because of the wealth of secretory structures (ducts and vittae) they are endowed with. The Apiaceae essential oils are available on an industrial level because of the wide cultivation and disposability of the bulky material from which they are extracted as well as their relatively cheap price. In the fight against protozoal infections, essential oils may represent new therapeutic options. In the present work, we focused on a panel of nine Apiaceae species (Siler montanum, Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Kundmannia sicula, Crithmum maritimum, Helosciadium nodiflorum, Pimpinella anisum, Heracleum sphondylium and Trachyspermum ammi) and their essential oils as a model for the identification of trypanocidal compounds to be used as alternative/integrative therapies in the treatment of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and as starting material for drug design. The evaluation of inhibitory effects of the Apiaceae essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei showed that some of them (E. spinosa, S. amomum, C. maritimum and H. nodiflorum) were active, with EC 50 in the range 2.7-10.7 μg/mL. Most of these oils were selective against T. brucei, except the one from C. maritimum that was highly selective against the BALB/3T3 mammalian cells. Testing nine characteristic individual components (α-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, limonene, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, and myristicin) of these oils, we showed that some of them had much higher selectivity than the oils themselves. Terpinolene was particularly active with an EC 50 value of 0.035 μg/mL (0.26 µM) and a selectivity index (SI) of 180. Four other compounds with EC 50 in the range 1.0-6.0 μg/mL (7.4-44 µM) had also good SI: α-pinene (>100), β-ocimene (>91), limonene (>18) and sabinene (>17

  2. The Phylogenetic Significance of Fruit Structural Variation in the Tribe Heteromorpheae (Apiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.; Lowry, P. P.; Magee, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Fruit structure of Apiaceae was studied in 19 species representing the 10 genera of the tribe Heteromorpheae. Our results indicate this group has a woody habit, simple leaves, heteromorphic mericarps with lateral wings. fruits with bottle-shaped or bulging epidermal cells which have thickened and cutinized outer wall, regular vittae (one in furrow and two in commissure) and irregular vittae (short, dwarf, or branching and anatosmosing), and dispersed druse crystals. However, lateral winged mericarps, bottle-shaped epidermal cells, and branching and anatosmosing vittae are peculiar in the tribe Heteromorpheae of Apioideae sub family. Although many features share with other early-diverging groups of Apiaceae, including Annesorhiza clade, Saniculoideae sensu lato, Azorelloideae, Mackinlayoideae, as well as with Araliaceae. Our study shows that fruit anatomy can be used to define the tribe by molecular phylogenetic studies and support that Heteromorpheae are close to Annesorhiza clade and both are placed in the basal position of Apioideae. (author)

  3. A novel toxic alkaloid from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L., Apiaceae): identification, synthesis and antinociceptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko; Dorđević, Nevenka; Denić, Marija; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    2-Pentylpiperidine, named conmaculatin, a novel volatile alkaloid related to coniine was identified from the renowned toxic weed Conium maculatum L. (Apiaceae). The structure of conmaculatin was corroborated by synthesis (8 steps starting from cyclohexanol, overall yield 12%). Conmaculatin's strong peripheral and central antinociceptive activity in mice was observed in a narrow dose range (10-20mg/kg). It was found to be lethal in doses higher than 20mg/kg. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

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    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  5. Potent Chemopreventive/Antioxidant Activity Detected in Common Spices of the Apiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Soper, Lisa; Schultz, David J; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2015-01-01

    Spices are used worldwide, particularly in the Asian and Middle Eastern countries, and considered protective against degenerative diseases, including cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of 11 Apiaceae spices for free radical-scavenging activity and to inhibit cytochrome P450s in two separate reactions involving: 1) 4-hydroxy-17ß-estradiol (4E2), DNA, and CuCl2 and 2) 17ß-estradiol, rat liver microsomes, cofactors, DNA and CuCl2. Oxidative DNA adducts resulting from redox cycling of 4E2 were analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling. Aqueous (5 mg/ml) and non-aqueous extracts (6 mg/ml) substantially inhibited (83-98%) formation of DNA adducts in the microsomal reaction. However, in nonmicrosomal reaction, only aqueous extracts showed the inhibitory activity (83-96%). Adduct inhibition was also observed at five-fold lower concentrations of aqueous extracts of cumin (60%) and caraway (90%), and 10-fold lower concentrations of carrot seeds (76%) and ajowan (90%). These results suggests the presence of 2 groups of phytochemicals: polar compounds that have free radical-scavenging activity and lipophilic compounds that selectively inhibit P450 activity associated with estrogen metabolism. Because most of these Apiaceae spices are used widely with no known toxicity, the phytochemicals from the Apiaceae spices used in foods may be potentially protective against estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

  6. Anti-fertility effects of different fractions of Anethum graveolens l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Our previous studies showed the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Anethum graveolens L. (dill) on female infertility. In the present study we ... Female rats assigned to each group were mated with males; after that, crown-rump lengths and weights of newborn rats were measured. Results showed that each ...

  7. Relato de Caso: Dermatite de Contato Causada por Arruda (Ruta graveolens L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Lúcia Elaine Ranieri; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Um homem de 26 anos desenvolveu uma reação fototóxica em suas pernas, após utilizar as partes aéreas frescas da arruda (Ruta graveolens L.), para repelir pernilongos, depois de se expor ao sol. A hipersensibilidade foi causada devido às furanocumarinas (psoralenos) presentes no óleo essencial da arruda.

  8. Suppressive impact of anethum graveolens consumption on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

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    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.

  9. The bacterial community associated with rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaves responds to anthracnose symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollu, Renata Estebanez; Marques, Joana Montezano; Salles, Joana Falcao; Seldin, Lucy

    Background The fungus Colletotrichum is a plant pathogen that causes the anthracnose disease, resulting in huge losses in various crops including the rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens). Although the bacterial community associated with plants has an important role in the establishment of

  10. Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide

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    Justyna Kozlowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.

  11. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae in Argentina

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    Sara I. López Ciruelos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4834FEF4-171C-4EBD-BF91-2137B517491E

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagella, Praveen; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Sun-Jin; Chung, Ill-Min

    2012-04-01

    The leaves of Apium graveolens were extracted and the essential oil composition, immunotoxicity effects, and antioxidant activity were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), which revealed the essential oils of A. graveolens leaves. Twenty-eight components, representing 73.72% of the total oil were identified from the leaves. The major components are 4-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1-imidazolyl)-valerophenone (19.90%), 1-dodecanol (16.55%), 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid, methyl ester (4.93%), ethyl 4,4-D2-N-hexyl ether (4.11%), 3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-phenyl-1-heptadecyn-3-ol (3.28%), 1,4-methano-1H-indene, octahydro-4-methyl-8-methylene-7-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1α,3αα,4α,7α,7αα)]- (2.99%), 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-(3″-t-butyl)benzodioxepine (2.56%), Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (2.53%), 9H-pyrrolo[3',4':3,4]pyrrolo[2,1-α]phthalazine-9, 11(10H)-dione, 10-ethyl-8-phenyl (2.07%). The leaf oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of A. aegypti with an LC(50) value of 59.32 ppm and an LC(90) value of 127.69 ppm. The essential oil from the A. graveolens leaves was investigated for scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity and the results demonstrate that the essential oil from the A. graveolens has potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation process. The above data indicate that the major compounds may play an important role in the toxicity of essential oils and also as natural antioxidant.

  13. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Ruta graveolens L. In Vitro Culture Lines

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    Renuka Diwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. is a medicinal plant used in traditional systems of medicine for treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo, leucoderma, and lymphomas with well-known anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Therefore antioxidant potential of R. graveolens (in planta and in vitro was investigated. As antioxidants present in plant extracts are multifunctional, their activity and mechanism depends on the composition and conditions of the test system. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated using assays that detect different antioxidants: free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS, transition metal ion reduction (phosphomolybdenum assay, reducing power, and nitric oxide reduction. Content of furanocoumarin-bergapten in the extracts showed good corelation with free radical scavenging, transition metal reduction and reducing power, while total phenolic content showed good corelation with nitric oxide reduction potential. Antioxidant activity of in vitro cultures was significantly higher compared to in vivo plant material. The present study is the first report on comprehensive study of antioxidant activity of R. graveolens and its in vitro cultures.

  14. Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Multivariate Analysis, and Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitic, Violeta; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Ilic, Marija; Jovanovic, Olga; Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activities of Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Greuter essential oil was studied. Moreover, using agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHC) and principal component analyses (PCA), the interrelationships of the D. graveolens essential-oil profiles characterized so far (including the sample from this study) were investigated. To evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil, GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were performed. Altogether, 54 compounds were identified, accounting for 92.9% of the total oil composition. The D. graveolens oil belongs to the monoterpenoid chemotype, with monoterpenoids comprising 87.4% of the totally identified compounds. The major components were borneol (43.6%) and bornyl acetate (38.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that the compounds borneol and bornyl acetate exerted the greatest influence on the spatial differences in the composition of the reported oils. The antimicrobial activity against five bacterial and one fungal strain was determined using a disk-diffusion assay. The studied essential oil was active only against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Triterpenos aislados de corteza de Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae y su actividad biologica

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    Jorge Robles

    Full Text Available Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae, known in Colombia as "sasafrás", is useful for its medicinal properties and is rich in secondary metabolites. In our research, we carried out antimicrobial tests of several fractions and ethanolic extracts from aerial parts against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, that showed growth inhibitory activity when applied at 250 mg/mL for extracts and 150 mg/mL for fractions. We carried out an antiinflamatory assay also, that showed 71% of inhibition by extracts (81% of Indomethacin and 70% of inhibition by fractions (78% of Indomethacin. Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Bursera graveolens (Burseraceae yielded three tetracyclic triterpene acids that have oxygenation in C-3, carboxylic acid in C-21 and unsaturation in C-24 and have been identified as 3-oxotirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (b-elemonic acid, 3a-hydroxytirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (a-elemolic acid and 3a-hydroxytirucalla-7,24-dien-21-oic acid. The isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY experiments and comparison with published data. This is the first report of the isolated compounds in Bursera graveolens and they have a very important chemotaxonomic significance within the Burseraceae family and related families from the order Rutales.

  16. Ethnomedicinal review of folklore medicinal plants belonging to family Apiaceae of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, A.; Zahra, N.B.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbs for therapeutic purpose is as old as human history. In Pakistan a major part of population is dependent on the traditional medicine derived from plants for primary health care system. The interest in the use of traditional system of medicine has gained popularity globally. The developed countries are shifting their focus to further research based on the indigenous knowledge collected from aboriginal people. The present study reviews the ethno-medicinal uses of family Apiaceae reported from Pakistan. Out of 167 species reported from Pakistan, 66 are found to be used medicinally. Most commonly treated disorders by use of Apiaceae herbal flora are gastrointestinal tract and liver disorders (28%) followed by cough, cold and respiratory tract problems (11%). The plant parts frequently used are roots (22%) followed by whole plant material (19%), leaf material (18%), fruit (13%), seed (12%), stem, flower, aerial parts (5%) and sap (1%). It is suggested to carry out similar studies for other families to explore the indigenous knowledge for the development of commercial products and to collectively document the scattered existing knowledge. (author)

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Five Apiaceae Taxa and Some of Their Main Constituents Against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Bruno, Maurizio; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Apiaceae are aromatic herbs producing essential oils which are used on an industrial scale for various purposes. Notably, Apiaceae essential oils may replace synthetic insecticides keeping most of their efficacy and avoiding environmental pollution and human poisoning. In the present work, we explored the insecticidal potential of the essential oils from five Apiaceae taxa, namely Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. ternatum, and Trachyspemum ammi, as well as their major constituents (sabinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, myristicin, and thymol), against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. For the purpose, the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their composition was achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their acute toxicity on third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus was determined. The two most active essential oils were those from T. ammi fruits and E. spinosa roots, showing LC 50 below 20 μl/l and LD 90 below 50 μl/l. These oils were dominated by the monoterpene phenol thymol and the phenylpropanoid myristicin, respectively, which showed the strongest larvicidal activity (LC 50 of 15.1 and 16.3 μl/l, respectively) among the pure compounds tested. These results showed that Apiaceae may be useful as source of larvicidal compounds to be used for the development of cheap, effective and eco-friendly insecticidal formulations. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  19. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products.

  20. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  1. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Khan, S.; Ali, M.A.; Hemaid, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  2. Effects of the alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens on spermatogenesis and sex hormones in immature Balb/C mice

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    Farinaz Nasirinezhad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: No special information has been reported about anti-fertility effect of Ruta graveolens. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Ruta graveolens alcoholic extract on fertility of male mice and its contraceptive effects. Methods: 30 immature male Balb/C mice were allocated to three groups of intact control, vehicle, and Ruta graveolens treatment that received Ruta extract. A single sub-LD50 300 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of the plant was injected intraperitoneally, every day for a week. A month after the last injection, the animals were deeply anesthetized and dissected. Blood was collected intracardially for hormonal assay. The testes were extruded, weighed and then fixed for histological studies. Results: Administration of 300 mg/kg Ruta graveolens showed no significant changes in weight of testis, but induced a significant decrease in number of type A spermatogonia (df: 2, 27; F=6.51; p=0.005 and number of spermatid cells (df: 2, 27; F=4.28; p=0.02 compared to control. Four weeks after injection of Ruta graveolens serum, testosterone level (df: 2, 27; F=3.43; p=0.047 significantly decreased compared to control animals. However, there were no significant changes in serum follicle stimulating hormone (df: 2, 27; F=3.34; p=0.051 and luteal hormone (df: 2, 27; F=0.15; p=0.87 levels. Conclusion: The results indicated that alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the activity of male reproductive system by reducing spermatogonia and spermatids, but has no effect on serum level of follicle stimulating hormone and luteal hormone, and might be a useful substance for birth control; however, further studies are suggested.

  3. Antifungal mechanism of the combination of Cinnamomum verum and Pelargonium graveolens essential oils with fluconazole against pathogenic Candida strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Rym; Hammami, Majdi; Gharbi, Dorra; Karkouch, Ines; Hamouda, Thouraya Ben; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Tabbene, Olfa

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-Candida activity of ten essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate their potential synergism with conventional drugs. The effect on secreted aspartic protease (SAP) activity and the mechanism of action were also explored. The antifungal properties of essential oils were investigated using standard micro-broth dilution assay. Only Cinnamomum verum, Thymus capitatus, Syzygium aromaticum, and Pelargonium graveolens exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against a variety of pathogenic Candida strains. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. graveolens/fluconazole, with FIC value 0.37. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that C. verum EO reduced the quantity of ergosterol to 83%. A total inhibition was observed for the combination C. verum/fluconazole. However, P. graveolens EO may disturb the permeability barrier of the fungal cell wall. An increase of MIC values of P. graveolens EO and the combination with fluconazole was observed with osmoprotectants (sorbitol and PEG6000). Furthermore, the combination with fluconazole may affect ergosterol biosynthesis and disturb fatty acid homeostasis in C. albicans cells as the quantity of ergosterol and oleic acid was reduced to 52.33 and 72%, respectively. The combination of P. graveolens and C. verum EOs with fluconazole inhibited 78.31 and 64.72% SAP activity, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report underlying the mechanism of action and the inhibitory effect of SAP activity of essential oils in synergy with fluconazole. Naturally occurring phytochemicals C. verum and P. graveolens could be effective candidate to enhance the efficacy of fluconazole-based therapy of C. albicans infections.

  4. Antifeedant compounds from three species of Apiaceae active against the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Dodds, Catherine J; Henderson, Ian F; Leake, Lucy D; Pickett, John A; Selby, Martin J; Watson, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatum L. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve preparations resulted in the identification of 11 active compounds from the three extracts. Wheat flour feeding bioassays were used to determine which of these compounds had the highest antifeedant activity. One of the most active compounds was the alkaloid gamma-coniceine, from C. maculatum. The role of potentially toxic alkaloids as semiochemicals and the potential for using such compounds as crop protection agents to prevent slug feeding damage is discussed.

  5. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa activity of hemlock (Conium maculatum, Apiaceae) essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Michela; Varcamonti, Mario; Basile, Adriana; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggi, Filippo; Zanfardino, Anna

    2018-05-21

    Conium maculatum is a nitrophilous weed belonging to the Apiaceae family and occurring in hedgerows, pastures, waste ground, along rivers and roadsides. Little is known on the chemistry and bioactivity of other secondary metabolites occurring in the plant. In the present work, we have analysed the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils hydrodistilled from leaves and inflorescenes of C. maculatum growing in Sicily, Italy. The composition of essential oils was achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, whereas the inhibitory effects on the growth of two Gram negative strains, namely Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were assessed by two different analysis. The essential oils exhibited different chemical profiles (1-butylpiperidine and myrcene in the inflorescenes), (mostly (E)-caryophyllene in the leaves). The latter oil was particularly active in inhibiting the growth of P. aeruginosa. These results shed light on the possible application of hemlock essential oils as antimicrobial agents.

  6. Fitoterapide karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiaceae Meyvaları (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum)

    OpenAIRE

    ORTANCIL, Mahmut

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalışmada halk arasında karminatif olarak kullanılan Apiacea bitkileri Foeniculum vulgareve Pimpinella anisum'un kimyasal özellikleri ve biyolojik etkileri literatür verilerine dayanılarak incelenmiştir.Pimpinella anisum uçucu yağının büyük kısmını anetol oluşturmaktadır. Uçucu yağda ayrıcaöstragol, kumarin yapısında bileşikler (bergapten, umbelliferon ve skopoletol), lipitler(petroselinik asit, palmitik asit, linoleik asit) ve flavonoitler de bulunmaktadır.Pimpinella ...

  7. Effect of Silicic Acid on some Anatomical and Biochemical Characteristics of Pelargonium graveolens under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    fateme hasanvand; abdolhossein rezaei nejad; mohamad feizian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) is a perennial plant of the family Geranium (Geraniaceae). Although CaCl2 at higher concentrations than NaCl in the soils and ground water in many areas of the word, most studies have been based on experiments that NaCl is the predominant salt. Relatively few studies have focused on the effects of CaCl2 on plant growth and physiology. Silicon (Si) is considered as an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating dif...

  8. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella, 1995. This study is aimed at assessing "in vivd'the effect of extracts of "oregano", "ruda" and "palta" to 20% on the morphology and growth of preimplantational mouse embryos.

  9. The presence of Alternaria spp. on the seed of Apiaceae plants and their influence on seed emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable damping-off of the seedlings of several commercial Apiaceae plant species was observed in Serbia. The infection of a total of 48 seed samples of nine vegetable and spice plants with phytopathogenic Alternaria spp. was established using the deep-freeze-blotter method. Identification of Alternaria species was performed using both conventional methods and PCR. Four different plant-pathogenic Alternaria species were detected in Serbia: A. dauci, A. radicina, A. petroselini, and A. alternata, all of which caused reduction of carrot, parsley, parsnip, and celery seed emergence. Alternaria dauci, A. radicina, and A. petroselini were relatively more aggressive compared to A. alternata. Substantial seed infection levels and strong influence of Alternaria spp. on seed emergence indicated that production of Apiaceae seed needs to be improved in order to obtain pathogen-free seed.

  10. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  11. Is herbal therapy safe in obesity? A case of Apium graveolens (Celery induced hyperthyroidism

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    Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apium graveolens is one of the well-known herbs used for the treatment of different; however, allergic reactions have been reported after its use. This report aimed to demonstrate the A. graveolens induced hyperthyroidism after its oral consumption for weight loss. CASE REPORT: Mr. A, 48-year-old, with no history of any thyroid diseases, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to daily consumption of 4 g of dried celery leaves for 45 days. After cessation of consumption and treatment with methimazole, the symptoms remitted. Then, the medication was discontinued when the lab tests and ultrasound were normal and indicated the patient’s definite recovery. In 2 months follow up of, he was normal and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, T4, T3, anti-TSH receptor, anti thyroperoxidase and antithyroglobulin were in normal ranges. CONCLUSION: Hyperthyroidism may be induced by consumption celery. Although many studies have reported side effects such as allergic reactions for this herb, this is the first report of hyperthyroidism induced by celery in which the patient recovered after discontinuing the medication. Therefore, it can be assumed that celery induces hyperthyroidism as a side effect of this herb if it is used for a long term. 

  12. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

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    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  13. Is herbal therapy safe in obesity? A case of Apium graveolens (Celery) induced hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Hosseini, Masih; Gharipour, Mojgan; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Apium graveolens is one of the well-known herbs used for the treatment of different; however, allergic reactions have been reported after its use. This report aimed to demonstrate the A. graveolens induced hyperthyroidism after its oral consumption for weight loss. Mr. A, 48-year-old, with no history of any thyroid diseases, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to daily consumption of 4 g of dried celery leaves for 45 days. After cessation of consumption and treatment with methimazole, the symptoms remitted. Then, the medication was discontinued when the lab tests and ultrasound were normal and indicated the patient's definite recovery. In 2 months follow up of, he was normal and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), T4, T3, anti-TSH receptor, anti thyroperoxidase and antithyroglobulin were in normal ranges. Hyperthyroidism may be induced by consumption celery. Although many studies have reported side effects such as allergic reactions for this herb, this is the first report of hyperthyroidism induced by celery in which the patient recovered after discontinuing the medication. Therefore, it can be assumed that celery induces hyperthyroidism as a side effect of this herb if it is used for a long term.

  14. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

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    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  15. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Rece...

  16. Powdery mildew of Ruta graveolens in Brazil caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli Oídio de Ruta graveolens no Brasil causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli

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    José Ricardo Liberato

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis haplophylli is described causing powdery mildew on Ruta graveolens for the first time in Brazil (Viçosa, MG. The fungus causes yellowing of infected leaves accompanied by the presence of a whitish mycelial colony abaxially. The following combination of characters typical of this species was observed on the specimens collected in Viçosa: mycelium hypophyllous, hemiendophytic (partly external and partly internal, entering the leaves through the stomata; conidiophores hypophyllous, produced from the internal mycelium emerging through the stomata, cylindrical, hyaline, smooth; conidia, isolate, dimorphic - primary conidia lanceolate, 66.5-91.5 x 11.0-20.0 mm l/w ratio 3.5-6.2, secondary conidia cylindrical with rounded ends, 57.0-81.5 x 13.5-20.0 mm, l/w ratio 3.1 - 5.3, aseptate, hyaline, smooth.Oidiopsis haplophylli é relatado causando oídio em arruda (Ruta graveolens pela primeira vez no Brasil (Viçosa, MG. O fungo causa um amarelecimento de folhas de arruda sem bordos definidos acompanhado de cobertura fúngica branca na superfície abaxial. O seguinte conjunto de características, típico desta espécie foi observado nos espécimes coletados em Viçosa: presença de micélio hemiendofítico (parcialmente interno e parcialmente externo, tênue a denso com penetração das folhas através dos estômatos; conidióforos originando do micélio interno, emergindo através dos estômatos, cilíndricos, hialinos, lisos; conídios unicelulares, hialinos, produzidos isoladamente, dimórficos - conídios primários lanceolados, 66,5-91,5 x 11,0-20,0 mm, razão c/l 3,5-6,2, conídios secondários cilíndricos com extremidades arredondadas, 57,0-81,5 x 13,5-20,0 mm, razão c/l 3,1-5,3.

  17. Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J

    2002-10-01

    Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures.

  18. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maodaa, Saleh N; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Al-Basher, Gadah I; Wang, Zun Yao

    2016-02-04

    Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration. Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.

  19. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Eryngium campestre L., Apiaceae from Kosovo

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    Flurim Nebija

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is outlined to define the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts of aerial part and root of Eryngium campestre L. (Apiaceae from Kosovo. Analysis of the chemical composition include determination of total ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, loss on drying and the content of water extract, as well as determination of flavonoids in aerial part and hemolytic activity of the root. The mineral composition (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, K, Co, Pb, Cd and Cr in aerial parts and root has been studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and ETAAS. Different part of E. campestre accumulate different amounts of investigated minerals. Antioxidant activity was determined by four various testing systems: DPPH assay, inhibition of production of hydroxyl radical, β-carotenebleaching assay, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBA test. In DPPH system, ethanol extract of root of E. campestre exhibited higher radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.72 mg ml-1 compared to the extract of the aerial part (IC50 = 1.14 mg ml-1. On the other hand, aerial part ethanol extract has exhibited stronger inhibition capacity on the production of hydroxyl radical in deoxyribose system than the root extract (50% and 45%, respectively. However, both ethanol extracts of E. campestre exhibited low antioxidant activity in β-carotenebleaching assay as well as, low capacity for inhibition of spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate.

  20. Insect folivory in Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae in a vegetation mosaic of Brazilian cerrado

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    E. M. Varanda

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae to insect herbivores was investigated in three sites of a cerrado mosaic - composed of campo cerrado (a grassland with scattered trees and shrubs, cerradão (a tall woodland and cerrado sensu stricto (intermediate between the two - situated in Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of folivory with the composition and abundance of the insect herbivore fauna, and with several nutritional and defensive plant characteristics (water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, tannin leaf contents, and leaf toughness. We collected insects associated with D. vinosum every month, and we measured leaf damage every three months. In general, the annual folivory differed among sites. It reached the highest rates in site 1 and site 3: 7.33 and 8.5 percent, respectively. Only 1.32 percent of annual folivory was observed in site 2. These levels resulted from the higher abundance, in sites 1 and 3, of the thrips Liothrips didymopanacis (Phlaeothripidae, the most abundant herbivore sampled, responsible for more than 90 percent of the observed damage. However, no significant relationship was found between insect activity and the chemical and physical composition of the leaves. Our findings suggest that, at least in this species, other chemical compounds or variables related to plant apparency and resource availability to herbivores (e.g. plant architecture might play a more decisive role in the spatial variation of folivory than the nutritional and defensive traits that were analyzed.

  1. Pollination biology of Heracleum sphondylium L. (Apiaceae: the advantages of being white and compact

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    Marcin Zych

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two questions were addressed in the present study: (1 What are the main pollinators of the two subspecies of H. sphondylium?, and (2 Do the studied plants share the pollinators' set or are they attractive for different groups of insects? The survey showed that among 40 insect taxa visiting both subspecies of H. sphondylium approx. only 53% carried significant pollen loads. However, the Pollinator Importance Coefficient (IC calculated for each insect group, and based on observation of insects' abundance, within-umbel activity and pollen load revealed that only two taxa in case of H. s. ssp. sibiricum (Thricops nigrifrons, Eriozona syrphoides and four in case of H. s. ssp. sphondylium (T. nigrifrons,E. syrphoides, Meliscaeva cinctella and Arge ustulata were truly important pollinators. Although both subspecies were visited by similar insects, H. s. ssp. sphondylium, with its characteristic compact and white umbels, was visited more frequently by Diptera and Hymenoptera, while yellow-greenish loose umbels of H. s. ssp. sibiricum were preferred by Coleoptera. This paper indicates that the concept of faithful pollinators may also apply to a broader spectrum of Apiaceae, usually considered primitive in terms of pollination strategies, and suggests possible ways of differentiation in two closely related taxa.

  2. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L. on reproductive parameters in male wistar rat

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    Wesam Kooti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor In recent years, the number of scientific research papers of Iranian scientists has substantially grown in national and international journals that indicates particular attitude of Iranian scientific community to the development of knowledge in different fields. Moreover, improvement of quality of scientific papers is necessary. For this purpose, criticism of published studies is a way to increase the quality of articles and make them clear. In Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, volume (5, issue (2, year 2015, an article entitled “Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats” was published and the papers like this should be appreciated. However, the paper has some drawbacks which if not resolve, could be misleading for researchers who tend to use it or do research in its direction. So, with all due respect to the research team, we decided to evaluate the paper ambiguities in order to improve the quality of future articles.

  3. Effect of light on contents of coumarin compounds in shoots of Ruta graveolens L. cultivated in vitro

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    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoots of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae were cultivated in stationary liquid culture under different light conditions: constant artificial light (900 lx, darkness, constant artificial light (900 ix following irradiation with UV-C light. The contents of five furanocoumarins: psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, as well as biogenetic precursor of these metabolites, umbelliferone, were determined by HPLC method in shoots cultivated in vitro and in overground parts of plants growing in open air. It was shown that light conditions, tested in these experiments, significantly influenced contents of the metabolites in shoots cultivated in in vitro culture. Total content of the coumarin compounds in shoots cultivated under constant artificial light (900 lx was equal or higher than in plants growing under natural conditions. Therefore, it is suggested that stationary liquid shoot culture of R. graveolens. can be an alternative source for obtaining biologically active furanocoumarins.

  4. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

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    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  5. Use of EST-SSR Markers for Evaluating Genetic Diversity and Fingerprinting Celery (Apium graveolens L. Cultivars

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    Nan Fu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting celery molecular breeding are quite limited, thus few studies on celery have been conducted so far. In this study we made use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers generated from previous celery transcriptome sequencing and attempted to detect the genetic diversity and relationships of commonly used celery accessions and explore the efficiency of the primers used for cultivars identification. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of Apium graveolens L. var. dulce showed that approximately 43% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 45% among accessions, and 22% among horticultural types. The neighbor-joining tree generated by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA, and population structure analysis, as well as principal components analysis (PCA, separated the cultivars into clusters corresponding to the geographical areas where they originated. Genetic distance analysis suggested that genetic variation within Apium graveolens was quite limited. Genotypic diversity showed any combinations of 55 genic SSRs were able to distinguish the genotypes of all 30 accessions.

  6. The Wound Healing Effects of Herbal Cream Containing Oliveria Decumbens and Pelargonium Graveolens Essential Oils in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Khamechian, Tahereh; Tamtaji, Omid Reza; Mokhtari, Rasoul; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza

    2018-01-01

    The number of diabetic patients in adult population is increasing. All this population are at risk of developing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that are associated with unwanted ailments and high mortality. In spite of current therapies for DFUs, further therapies are needed to help the patients. The efficacy of herbal cream containing Pelargonium graveolens and Oliveria decombens essential oils was evaluated topically for treatment of DFUs in rat animal model in comparison with two other herbal formulas containing each essential oil alone, placebo (the basic formula without active ingredients) and normal saline as control groups. After anesthesia of diabetic rats (n=75) induced by streptozotocin (STZ), diabetic wounds were visible on the hind dorsal surface of the foot . The treatments were initiated on Day 1 and repeated 3 times a day for thirteen consecutive days. On day 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13, the wound sizes were determined and assessed histologically. Three herbal formulations reduced the size of wounds in rats with DFUs, while the cream containing combined herbals of O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils had the highest tissue repair in DFU rat models. Due to better wound healing effects of combined herbal cream containing O. decumbens and P. graveolens essential oils, it can be recommended in treatment of DFUs.

  7. A study of antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Helichrysum graveolens capitulums in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Orhan, Nilüfer; Sezik, Ekrem; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2007-06-01

    Helichrysum graveolens (Bieb.) Sweet (Asteraceae) grows widely in Turkey. Capitulums of H. graveolens are used in the treatment of many diseases such as jaundice and wound healing and as a diuretic in the rural areas of Anatolia. The decoction from the capitulums of the plant is consumed for the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. In the present study, the hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant potentials of water and ethanol extracts of H. graveolens were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels of animals were measured by the glucose oxidase method. The antioxidant activity of these extracts was also studied in liver, kidney, and heart tissues. In order to determine antioxidant activity, tissue malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels were measured by using spectrophotometric methods. The experimental data obtained from water and ethanol extracts of capitulums confirmed the folkloric utilization. In order to discuss the role of polyphenolic components in the relevant activity, total phenol and flavonoid contents of each extract were also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and a positive correlation was observed.

  8. Sex allocation and functional bias of quaternary and quinary flowers on same inflorescence in the hermaphrodite Ruta graveolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Yu; Ren, Ming-Xun

    2011-09-01

    Intra-inflorescence variation in floral traits is important to understand the pollination function of an inflorescence and the real reproductive outputs of a plant. Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) produce both quaternary (four petals and eight stamens) and quinary (five petals and ten stamens) flowers on the same cymes, while their pollination roles and the effects on the reproductive success remained unexplored. We experimentally examined the biomass of female versus male organs and pollen viability and stigma receptivity to explore the sex allocation patterns between the flowers. The breeding systems and reproductive outputs through either female function (seed set) or male function (pollen dispersal) were also studied for quinary and quaternary flowers to determine whether there was functional bias. The results showed that R. graveolens was protandrous, with a mixed mating system. Its stamens could slowly move one by one and only dehisce when positioning at the flower center, which could greatly enhance pollen dispersal. The first-opened quinary flower allocated significantly higher resources (dry biomass) in female organs while quaternary flowers allocated more resource in male organs. The quaternary flowers experienced higher pollen limitation in seed production but were more successful in pollen dispersal and the quinary flowers reproduced both through female and male functions. Our data suggested that quinary and quaternary flower on same inflorescence in R. graveolens functioned mainly as the sex role that most resources were allocated, which probably reflect an adaptation for floral phenology and pollination process in this plant.

  9. ABA, GA(3), and nitrate may control seed germination of Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Abdallah; Debez, Ahmed; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-08-01

    Impaired germination is common among halophyte seeds exposed to salt stress, partly resulting from the salt-induced reduction of the growth regulator contents in seeds. Thus, the understanding of hormonal regulation during the germination process is a main key: (i) to overcome the mechanisms by which NaCl-salinity inhibit germination; and (ii) to improve the germination of these species when challenged with NaCl. In the present investigation, the effects of ABA, GA(3), NO(-)(3), and NH(+)(4) on the germination of the oilseed halophyte Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) were assessed under NaCl-salinity (up to 200 mM NaCl). Seeds were collected from Tabarka rocky coasts (N-W of Tunisia). The exogenous application of GA(3), nitrate (either as NaNO(3) or KNO(3)), and NH(4)Cl enhanced germination under NaCl salinity. The beneficial impact of KNO(3) on germination upon seed exposure to NaCl salinity was rather due to NO(-)(3) than to K(+), since KCl failed to significantly stimulate germination. Under optimal conditions for germination (0 mM NaCl), ABA inhibited germination over time in a dose dependent manner, but KNO(3) completely restored the germination parameters. Under NaCl salinity, the application of fluridone (FLU) an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, stimulated substantially seed germination. Taken together, our results point out that NO(-)(3) and GA(3) mitigate the NaCl-induced reduction of seed germination, and that NO(-)(3) counteracts the inhibitory effect of ABA on germination of C. maritimum.

  10. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

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    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  11. Exploration of the wound healing potential of Helichrysum graveolens (Bieb.) Sweet: isolation of apigenin as an active component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Keles, Hikmet; Yesilada, Erdem; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2013-08-26

    In Turkish traditional medicine, the flowers of Helichrysum graveolens (Bieb.) Sweet (Asteraceae) have been used for the treatment of jaundice, for wound-healing and as a diuretic. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of this plant in wound-healing, the effect of the plant extract was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Then through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures active wound-healing component(s) was isolated and its possible role in the wound-healing process was also determined. The linear incision and the circular excision wound models were applied in order to evaluate in vivo wound-healing potential of Helichrysum graveolens. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, which are known to involve in wound-healing process, were also assessed by the Whittle method and the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging assay, respectively. The total phenolic content of the crude extract and solvent fractions was estimated to find correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Combined application of the chromatographic separation techniques on sephadex and silica gel columns, and bioassay techniques have yielded the active wound-healing principle of Helichrysum graveolens. Moreover, in vitro inhibitory effect of active principle on hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase enzymes were investigated to explore the activity pathways. The 85% methanol (MeOH) extract of Helichrysum graveolens flowers displayed significant wound-healing, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Then the crude extract was partitioned by successive solvent extractions, in increasing polarity, to give five solvent fractions. Among the solvent fractions, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exerted the highest activity. The EtOAc fraction was further subjected to chromatographic separations to yield active constituent and its structure was elucidated to be apigenin by spectrometric

  12. Phytophagous insects of giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ole; Hattendorf, Jan; Wittenberg, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    Giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), was introduced from the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became all invasive weed which created major problems for European authorities. Phytophagous insects were collected in the native range of the giant hogweed (...... herbivores were restricted to a few taxonomic groups, especially within the Hemiptera, and were particularly abundant oil this weed....

  13. Seed morphology, germination phenology, and capacity to form a seed bank in six herbaceous layer apiaceae species of the eastern deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin

    2007-01-01

    We compared seed mass, seed morphology, and long-term germination phenology of three monocarpic (MI and three polycarpic (P) Apiaceae species of the herbaceous layer of the Eastern Deciduous Forest. Seeds (mericarps) of the six species differed considerably in mass, shape, and ornamentation. Mean seed masses were ranked Cryptotaenia canadensis (M)...

  14. Toxic polyacetylenes in the genus Bupleurum (Apiaceae) - Distribution, toxicity, molecular mechanism and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meiyu; Zhang, Weidong; Su, Juan

    2016-12-04

    The genus Bupleurum includes approximately 200 species that are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, Eurasia and North Africa. Certain species of this genus have long been used as antiphlogistic, antipyretic and analgesic agents in traditional folk medicine. As described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. and B. scorzonerifolium Willd. are the herbal materials that compose Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri), a well-known TCM herb. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information regarding the distribution, toxicity, molecular mechanism and relatively new methods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of polyacetylenes in different Bupleurum species. The information needed for this paper were sourced from publishing sites such as Elsevier, science Direct, PubMed; electronic search engines such as Scopus and Web of Science, Google scholar; other scientific database sites for chemicals such as ChemSpider, PubChem, SciFinder, and also from on line books. Polyacetylenes, which are widely distributed in genus Bupleurum of the Apiaceae family, have high toxicity. Among polyacetylenes, bupleurotoxin, acetylbupleurotoxin and oenanthotoxin have strong neurotoxicity. Through previous research, it was found that the toxicity of Bupleurum polyacetylenes manifested as epileptic seizures, with the target of toxicity being the brain. The neurotoxicity of polyacetylenes exhibits a relationship with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor pathway, and polyacetylenes have been shown to inhibit GABA-induced currents (I GABA ) in a competitive manner. The plants of genus Bupleurum have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. However, certain species of this genus are poisonous, and it was attributed to the high content of polyacetylenes. The present review indicates that certain polyacetylenes in the genus Bupleurum have highly neurotoxic effects. The major challenge with regard to toxic polyacetylenes is

  15. Effect of Apium graveolens Extract Administration on the Pharmacokinetics of Captopril in the Plasma of Rats

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    Siska Siska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Apium graveolens (celery is an edible and traditionally medicinal plant that is used worldwide, among others for the treatment of hypertension. Combining celery with antihypertensive drugs can affect the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the latter drugs. The aim of the study is to assess the effects of administrating the celery extract on captopril pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley strain rats were divided into two groups (n = 6. Group I was given captopril (10 mg/kg Body Weight (BW orally, while Group II was pretreated with celery extract orally (40 mg/kg BW an hour before administration of captopril. The blood samples were withdrawn at various intervals after drug administration. The captopril concentration was determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and from the blood data, the values of Ke, Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, and area under the curve (AUC were calculated. The results showed that oral administration of the celery extract increased Cmax (38.67%, T1/2 (37.84%, and AUC (58.10% and decreased Ke (27.45% of captopril in Group II (celery + captopril compared with Group I (captopril. In conclusion, celery extract can alter the pharmacokinetic of captopril when given in combination. The combination might be beneficial for the treatment of hypertension, as celery causes an increase in the plasma level of captopril, which can enhance its efficacy.

  16. Biosynthesis of sucrose and mannitol as a function of leaf age in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Fellman, J.K.; Loescher, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately.

  17. Effect of Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom on clinical symptoms of patients with functional dyspepsia

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    Maryam Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study aimed at investigating the effect of Iranian traditional remedy prepared from Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom (AT on the severity and frequency of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Material and Methods:In total, 150 FD patients were included in this randomized double-blind trial, based on the ROME III diagnostic criteria, and they were divided into three intervention groups namely, AT, Placebo and omeprazole. Then, severity and frequency of symptoms during this eight-week trial were measured. Obtained information was analyzed using Chi-square test and repeated measures test. Result:In general, the severity and frequency of symptoms after the 4th week significantly decreased in the AT group as compared to the omeprazole and placebo groups, and continued to reduce by the end of the eighth week. General reduction of symptom severity and frequency in the omeprazole group was significantly different from the placebo group by the end of the 4th and 8th weeks. With respect to each individual symptom, AT markedly improved symptoms, such as burning, pain, early satiation, fullness, bloating, belching and nausea, as compared to placebo-treated group. Moreover, AT significantly improved symptoms, like vomiting, and nausea, except for pain, as compared to omeprazole-treated subjects. Conclusion:According to the results, AT, as Iranian traditional remedy, was more effective than omeprazole and placebo in reducing the symptoms in FD patients.

  18. Developmental changes in carbohydrate partitioning and translocation in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The major photoassimilates and translocated carbohydrates in celery (Apium graveolens L.) are sucrose and mannitol. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse-chase labeling studies were conducted to determine if carbon partitioning between and translocation of mannitol and sucrose change with leaf development. After a 10 min pulse and 10 min chase the proportion of /sup 14/C fixed into mannitol increased with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. In contrast, mannitol content was high in all leaves but sucrose content rose as leaves developed. Activities of various enzymes important in sucrose and mannitol metabolism also increased with leaf maturity. After a 1 or 2 h chase, export of /sup 14/C-mannitol, relative to /sup 14/C-sucrose, was also lower in expanding leaves than older leaves, but there was more label in sucrose than mannitol in all petioles. Labeling patterns were different in the light and dark, which was investigated further by following the disappearance of soluble /sup 14/C-carbohydrates from mature leaves during an extended chase in the light or dark. Efflux curves for /sup 14/C-sucrose and /sup 14/C-mannitol from leaf discs that had been incubated with the /sup 14/C-sugars provided further evidence for both of these claims. A diurnal study revealed that mannitol and sucrose remained fairly constant in young and old leaves, but in mature leaves both exhibited diurnal fluctuations; sucrose more so than mannitol.

  19. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI FRAKSI AIR EKSTRAK DAUN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L. PADA MENCIT JANTAN

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    Sapri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman seledri (Apium graveolens L. memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi obat antiinflamasi karena kandungan senyawa glikosida flavonoid yaitu apiin sehingga digunakan fraksi air karena lebih mudah tertarik pada fraksi air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas fraksi air ekstrak daun seledri sebagai antiinflamasi pada mencit putih dengan menggunakan metode induksi karagenan pada telapak kaki serta mengetahui nilai ED50. Pengukuran aktivitas antiinflamasi digunakan 5 kelompok perlakuan hewan uji, kontrol (+ digunakan kalium diklofenak 50 mg, kontrol (- suspensi Na. CMC 0,5%, dosis I adalah 125mg/kgBB, dosis II adalah 250mg/kgBB dan dosis III adalah 500mg/kgBB. Dengan pengukuran setiap 30 menit selama 5 jam dengan alat pletismometer. Analisis data digunakan metode statistik One way ANOVAdengan tingkat kepercayaan 95% yang dilanjutkan dengan uji LSD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga dosis fraksi air ekstrak daun seledri memiliki aktivitas antiinflamasi. Pada menit ke-300 tidak terjadi perbedaan bermakna antara kontrol positif dengan dosis 500 mg/kgBB dengan persen inhibisi 86,04%. Dari perhitungan ED50 didapatkan hasil sebesar 100 mg/kgBB.

  20. The effect of radiation of LED modules on the growth of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

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    Frąszczak Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light quality is thought to affect the growth and development of plants. We examined how light influences the growth and content of some chemical compounds in dill (Anethum graveolens L.. The plants were grown under different light quality. The share of orange and green light in the spectrum was constant and amounted to 10% for either colour. In the first combination (A, 70/10, there was 70% of red light and 10% of blue light. Other combinations had the following proportions: B 60/20, C 50/30, D 40/40 and E 30/50 of red and blue light. The PPFD was about 155 μmol m-2 s-1. Blue light inhibited the elongation growth as well as leaf area. It had positive influence on the accumulation of dry mass, glucose and fructose in the herb. In the combinations with higher percentage of red light the plants were characterised by higher content of essential oils, macronutrients and zinc. To sum up, we can say that the proportion of red and blue light has significant influence on the morphological qualities, chemical composition and dynamics of photosynthesis in these plants. On the other hand, the selection of spectral composition of LEDs will depend on the result we want to achieve.

  1. The effect of celery (Apium graveolens L.) on fertility: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Moradi, Maryam; Peyro, Khadijeh; Sharghi, Maedeh; Alamiri, Fatima; Azami, Milad; Firoozbakht, Mohammad; Ghafourian, Mehri

    2017-10-06

    Background Fertility and infertility problems are among the complex issues in medicine. The use of herbal products in the treatment of fertility has been considered as an alternative to synthetic drugs. Celery containing known compounds can have an impact on the fertility rate. The aim of this study was to do a systematic review on conducted studies in conjunction with the celery and reproduction. Methods Required papers were searched from databases like Science direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Springer. Keywords used in this study were "Apium graveolens L.", "fertility", "reproductive system", "sperm", "testis", "delivery", "sexual hormone", "LH", "FSH", "testosterone", "semen", "male", and "female". Out of 238 collected articles (published in the period 1995 to 2015), 222 were excluded due to non-relevance and lack of access to the original article. Results The notable points were the different results seen by different researchers during different treatment periods or at different doses. Of the 16 studies reviewed in this study, 13 studies have mentioned the positive effect of celery on fertility, while three studies reported the inhibitory effects of this plant. Conclusions Celery can have protective effects against substances such as sodium valproate, propylene glycol, and diethyl phthalate causing damages to the testicular structure and spermatogenesis. In this regard, the doses used and the treatment time while using the plant must be accurately investigated. Since there are compounds such as apigenin, the celery can induce inhibitory effects on fertility in case of chronic use or high concentration.

  2. Dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds essential oil as a potential natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

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    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can induce many undesired side effects, which attracts interest of food producers and consumers in finding ingredients of natural origin. The antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds was investigated in terms of its possible application as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. DPPH test and FRAP method have been used for the investigation of antioxidative activity of essential oil. Disc-diffusion method has been used for investigation of oil antimicrobial activity on following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Candida albicans. Essential oil, in concentration of 29 mg/mL, incubated for 60 minutes has shown the highest degree of DPPH radicals’ neutralization (79.62%. FRAP activity of oil was 40.63 μmol Fe2+/g of essential oil. Essential oil showed the best antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, there was a significant antimicrobial activity on all investigated microorganisms.

  3. Developmental changes in carbohydrate partitioning and translocation in celery (Apium graveolens L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The major photoassimilates and translocated carbohydrates in celery (Apium graveolens L.) are sucrose and mannitol. 14 CO 2 pulse-chase labeling studies were conducted to determine if carbon partitioning between and translocation of mannitol and sucrose change with leaf development. After a 10 min pulse and 10 min chase the proportion of 14 C fixed into mannitol increased with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. In contrast, mannitol content was high in all leaves but sucrose content rose as leaves developed. Activities of various enzymes important in sucrose and mannitol metabolism also increased with leaf maturity. After a 1 or 2 h chase, export of 14 C-mannitol, relative to 14 C-sucrose, was also lower in expanding leaves than older leaves, but there was more label in sucrose than mannitol in all petioles. Labeling patterns were different in the light and dark, which was investigated further by following the disappearance of soluble 14 C-carbohydrates from mature leaves during an extended chase in the light or dark. Efflux curves for 14 C-sucrose and 14 C-mannitol from leaf discs that had been incubated with the 14 C-sugars provided further evidence for both of these claims. A diurnal study revealed that mannitol and sucrose remained fairly constant in young and old leaves, but in mature leaves both exhibited diurnal fluctuations; sucrose more so than mannitol

  4. The Electrical Properties of Plasma-Deposited Thin Films Derived from Pelargonium graveolens

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    Ahmed Al-Jumaili

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inherently volatile at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, plant-derived precursors present an interesting human-health-friendly precursor for the chemical vapour deposition of thin films. The electrical properties of films derived from Pelargonium graveolens (geranium were investigated in metal–insulator–metal (MIM structures. Thin polymer-like films were deposited using plasma-enhanced synthesis under various plasma input power. The J–V characteristics of thus-fabricated MIM were then studied in order to determine the direct current (DC conduction mechanism of the plasma polymer layers. It was found that the capacitance of the plasma-deposited films decreases at low frequencies (C ≈ 10−11 and remains at a relatively constant value (C ≈ 10−10 at high frequencies. These films also have a low dielectric constant across a wide range of frequencies that decreases as the input RF power increases. The conductivity was determined to be around 10−16–10−17 Ω−1 m−1, which is typical for insulating materials. The Richardson–Schottky mechanism might dominate charge transport in the higher field region for geranium thin films.

  5. Fatores que afetam a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas de arruda (Ruta graveolens L. Factors affecting seed germination and seedling emergence in rue (Ruta graveolens L.

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    O.M. Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L., também conhecida com arruda, é planta originária do sul da Europa, cultivada no Brasil e em outros países como planta medicinal, muito utilizada em rituais religiosos. Tendo em vista que a germinação constitui um fator primordial para que a semente possa gerar uma planta vigorosa e com alto potencial produtivo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta germinativa de sementes para arruda sob condições de temperatura, luminosidade, estresse hídrico e salino e emergência de plântulas em diferentes profundidades de semeadura. Sementes de Ruta graveolens são indiferentes à luz, germinando melhor em temperatura constante de 25ºC ou alterna (20-30ºC. Os potenciais osmóticos induzidos por manitol a partir de -0,4MPa e por NaCl a partir de -0,8MPa influenciam negativamente o processo germinativo. Maiores percentuais de plântulas são obtidas quando a espécie é semeada na superfície do substrato.Ruta graveolens L., also known as rue, is from the south of Europe, cultivated in Brazil and other countries as a medicinal plant greatly used in religious rituals. Since germination is essential for the seed to generate a vigorous plant of high productive potential, this work aimed to evaluate the germinative response of rue seeds under different temperatures, luminosity conditions, and water and salt stress, besides seedling emergence at different sowing depths. Ruta graveolens L. seeds are indifferent to light, better germinating at constant temperature of 25ºC or alternated temperature (20-30ºC. The osmotic potentials induced by mannitol from -0.4MPa and by NaCl from -0.8MPa negatively influenced the germination process. Higher seedling percentages are obtained when the species is sown on the substratum surface.

  6. The biology of flowering and pollination in umbellate vegetables. Part III. (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.

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    Zofia Warakomska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried-out on turnip root celery (Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum Gaud.. Aim of the study was to examine the biology of flowering and the degree of flower atractiveness, as well as the insect influence on their pollination. The research was conducted during 1979 and 1981 vegetation seasons. Observations were made near Lublin on the loessy brown soil. Seeds were the most abundant in IV and V umbel rows. The isolated flowers did not produce less fertile seeds than the non-isolated ones. Recorded pollen production ranged to 100 kg per ha. The Syrphidae which pollinated celery, fed on their pollen.

  7. The westernmost locality of Macrosciadium alatum (Apiaceae in Europe and a new diagnostic feature of the species

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    Proćkуw Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new locality of Macrosciadium alatum in the Western Bieszczady Mts. (Duszatyn, Komańcza district, Sanok county is described in this paper. The locality is currently the westernmost point of distribution of the species. As Macrosciadium alatum is an invasive species, it is advisable to monitor it cyclically in this area. A newly discovered diagnostic feature of this species, not included in descriptions of this plant so far, is conically elongated cells, i.e. papillae on the upper side of the petals. It is suggested that this feature be used in the identification of representatives of the Apiaceae family in Poland and Europe. The distribution map of the species has been updated in this work.

  8. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 μg mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 μg mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Apium graveolens L. Seeds using Response Surface Methodology

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    Şule Dinç Zor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimum conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of antioxidants from Apium graveolens L. seeds were investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. A Box-Behnken Design (BBD was used to evaluate the effect of sonication time (5, 10, 15 min, ultrasound power (60, 120, 180 W and the ratio of extraction solvent in terms of methanol (0, 50, 100% on antioxidant capacity. The optimal UAE conditions for the parameters investigated were 11 min of sonication time, ultrasound power of 131 W and 100% methanol as an extraction solvent. Under these conditions, UAE of antioxidants from the seeds achieved a maximum of 95.08% in respect to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the high value of the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj = 0.9192 and the non-significant difference between experimental and predicted values confirmed the validity of the quadratic polynomial model. Hence, UAE is a suitable, fast, economical and practical technique for the extraction of antioxidants from Apium graveolens L. seeds.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira; Campos, Michel Leandro; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Stremel, Dile Pontarolo; Trindade, Angela Cristina Leal Badaró; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2017-11-03

    The ability of plant extracts and preparations to reduce inflammation has been proven by different means in experimental models. Since inflammation enhances the release of specific mediators, inhibition of their production can be used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of plants widely used in folk medicine for this purpose. The study was performed for leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris , and leaves of Sida cordifolia and Pelargonium graveolens . These are three plant species known in Brazil as Malva. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and residual) was evaluated by quantitation of prostaglandins (PG) PGE₂, PGD₂, PGF 2α , and thromboxane B₂ (the stable nonenzymatic product of TXA₂) concentration in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of anti-inflammatory mediator release was observed for plants mainly in the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and residual fraction. The results suggest superior activity of S. cordifolia , leading to significantly lower values of all mediators after treatment with its residual fraction, even at the lower concentration tested (10 μg/mL). M. sylvestris and P. graveolens showed similar results, such as the reduction of all mediators after treatment, with leaf crude extracts (50 μg/mL). These results suggest that the three species known as Malva have anti-inflammatory properties, S. cordifolia being the most potent.

  12. Isolation of Insecticidal Constituent from Ruta graveolens and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies against Stored-Food Pests (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2015-08-01

    Isolates from essential oil extracted from the flowers and leaves of Ruta graveolens and commercial phenolic analogs were evaluated using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against adults of the stored-food pests Sitophilus zeamais, Sitophilus oryzae, and Lasioderma serricorne. The insecticidal activity of these compounds was then compared with that of the synthetic insecticide dichlorvos. To investigate the structure-activity relationships, the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol and its analogs was examined against these stored-food pests. Based on the 50% lethal dose, the most toxic compound against S. zeamais was 3-isopropylephenol, followed by 2-isopropylphenol, 4-isopropylphenol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and 2-methylphenol. Similar results were observed with phenolic compounds against S. oryzae. However, when 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol isolated from R. graveolens oil and its structurally related analogs were used against L. serricorne, little or no insecticidal activity was found regardless of bioassay. These results indicate that introducing and changing the positions of functional groups in the phenol skeleton have an important effect on insecticidal activity of these compounds against stored-food pests.

  13. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannadi, A; Bagherinejad, Mr; Abedi, D; Jalali, M; Absalan, B; Sadeghi, N

    2012-12-01

    Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L'Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities. The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity. Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes). The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  14. First report of a 16SrI-C phytoplasma infecting celery (|Apium graveolens) with stunting, bushy top and phyllody in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Špak, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 9 (2013), s. 666-670 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12074 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apium graveolens * PCR/RFLP * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2013

  15. Simultaneous determination three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in Artemisia apiacea by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwoo; Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2015-01-01

    Background: Artemisia apiacea is a traditional herbal medicine using treatment of eczema and jaundice in Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. Objective: An accurate and sensitive analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array ultraviolet/visible detector and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of three phytosterol compounds, campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea was established. Materials and Methods: The analytes were separated on a Shiseido C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and detection wavelengths were set at 205 and 254 nm. Results: Validation of the method was performed to demonstrate its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9994). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.55–7.07 μg/mL and 1.67–21.44 μg/mL, respectively. And, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were <2.93%. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 90.03–104.91%. Conclusion: The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis for quality control of campesterol, stigmasterol and daucosterol in A. apiacea. PMID:25829768

  16. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

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    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ferula flabelliloba Rech. F. & Aell., (Apiaceae, a perennial plant with medicinal value, is one of important soil protective grown in Binalood mountains. Decreased precipitation in the previous years caused plants subjected to drought stress condition. Drought stress limits the growth and productivity of plants more than any other environmental factors. Drought stress can alter plant light absorption and consumption processes and increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS is responsible for lipid peroxidation and associated injury to membranes, nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes. To detoxify ROS, plants develop different types of antioxidants to reduce oxidative damage and confer drought tolerance. ROS scavengers are either non- enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids and phenolic compound or enzymatic containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The activity of these antioxidants and enzymes allows short-term acclimation to temporary water deficit, but these biochemicals cannot overcome the effects of extreme or prolonged drought. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer formed by low alkaline deacetylation of chitin, an important component of the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crab, crawfish and shrimp. Chitosan can affect plant physiology and gene expression, hence these materials can increase the plant resistant to many unfavorable environmental condition. The biological properties of chitosan have led to use it for various purposes. Chitosan has been used as plant protectant against fungi, bacteria and viruses, to improve soil fertility and to stimulate plant defense system. Thus, it seems that chitosan is a promising material for improving plant growth, especially under drought stress conditions where water deficit limits plant growth and establishment. In the present study, the effects of chitosan as foliar spraying of F. flabelliloba

  17. Uji Aktivitas Ekstrak Daun Seledri ( Apium graveolens L. terhadap Kumbang Kacang Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae

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    NI NENGAH DARMIATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Activity Test of Celery Leaf Extract (Apium graveolens L. Against Bean Weevil, Callosobruchus cinensis L. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Pest and Disease Management,Department of Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the activity of celery leaf extract against bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. The experiment was Randomized Complete Design, with five treatments of formulation concentration. The activities of celery leaf extract was indicated through i.e. contact poison test, repellent test, and the placement of eggs (oviposition test. The results showed that the celery leaf extract has activity as a contact poison with concentration 75% formulations caused over 50% death of the total insect. The extract with 100% concentration acted as a repellent and anti oviposition as well.

  18. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs.

  19. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

  20. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mancuso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (rue is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  1. Phytochemicals from Ruta graveolens Activate TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors and TRP Channels Involved in Gustation and Nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Giuseppe; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2015-10-16

    Ruta graveolens (rue) is a spontaneous plant in the Mediterranean area with a strong aroma and a very intense bitter taste, used in gastronomy and in folk medicine. From the leaves, stems and fruits of rue, we isolated rutin, rutamarin, three furanocoumarins, two quinolinic alkaloids, a dicoumarin and two long chain ketones. Bitter taste and chemesthetic properties have been evaluated by in vitro assays with twenty receptors of the TAS2R family and four TRP ion channels involved in gustation and nociception. Among the alkaloids, skimmianine was active as a specific agonist of T2R14, whereas kokusaginin did not activate any of the tested receptors. The furanocoumarins activates TAS2R10, 14, and 49 with different degrees of selectivity, as well as the TRPA1 somatosensory ion channel. Rutamarin is an agonist of TRPM5 and TRPV1 and a strong antagonist of TRPM8 ion channels.

  2. Protective antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Buddleja perfoliata and Pelargonium graveolens against fungi isolated from stored grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Z N; Bach, H; Sánchez-Arreola, E; Bach, H; Hernández, L R

    2016-05-01

    The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from Buddleja perfoliata and Pelargonium graveolens were analysed to assess their efficacy as a potential alternative to synthetic chemical fungicides to protect stored grain. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, while GC-MS were used to characterize the components of theses oils. The main components identified from the essential oil of B. perfoliata were cubenol, eudesmol, germacrene D-4-ol and cis-verbenol; whereas (-)-aristolene, β-citronellol and geraniol, were identified in P. graveolens. These essential oils were tested against a panel of fungal strains isolated from stored grains. Toxicity of the essential oils was assessed using two models represented by human-derived macrophages and the brine shrimp assay. Moreover, inflammatory response of the oils was assessed by measuring secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α using a human-derived macrophage cell line. Results show potent antifungal activity against a collection of fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0·3 to 50 μg ml(-1) for both plants. A moderated cytotoxicity was observed, but no inflammatory responses. These oils can be used as an alternative for synthetic chemical fungicides used to protect stored grains. Synthetic chemical fungicides are used to protect stored grains, but their broad use raises concerns about effects on the environment and human health. The impact of the present report is that the use of essential oils is an eco-friendly alternative for fungal control in postharvest grains with a low impact to the environment. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. The phylogeographical history of the Iberian steppe plant Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae): a test of the abundant-centre hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Collazos, E; Sanchez-Gómez, P; Jiménez, F; Catalán, P

    2009-03-01

    The geology and climate of the western Mediterranean area were strongly modified during the Late Tertiary and the Quaternary. These geological and climatic events are thought to have induced changes in the population histories of plants in the Iberian Peninsula. However, fine-scale genetic spatial architecture across western Mediterranean steppe plant refugia has rarely been investigated. A population genetic analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism variation was conducted on present-day, relict populations of Ferula loscosii (Apiaceae). This species exhibits high individual/population numbers in the middle Ebro river valley and, according to the hypothesis of an abundant-centre distribution, these northern populations might represent a long-standing/ancestral distribution centre. However, our results suggest that the decimated southern and central Iberian populations are more variable and structured than the northeastern ones, representing the likely vestiges of an ancestral distribution centre of the species. Phylogeographical analysis suggests that F. loscosii likely originated in southern Spain and then migrated towards the central and northeastern ranges, further supporting a Late Miocene southern-bound Mediterranean migratory way for its oriental steppe ancestors. In addition, different glacial-induced conditions affected the southern and northern steppe Iberian refugia during the Quaternary. The contrasting genetic homogeneity of the Ebro valley range populations compared to the southern Iberian ones possibly reflects more severe bottlenecks and subsequent genetic drift experienced by populations of the northern Iberia refugium during the Pleistocene, followed by successful postglacial expansion from only a few founder plants.

  4. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  5. Development and detection efficiency of sequence characterized amplified region markers for authentication of medicinal plant Ruta graveolens and its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides

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    Irum Gul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increase in demand of herbal medicines, adulteration in these drugs is also gaining momentum and remains an indispensable problem in domestic and export markets. Correct identification is the first step toward assuring quality, safety, and efficacy of indigenous herbal medicines. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR markers were developed to discriminate Ruta graveolens from its adulterant Euphorbia dracunculoides. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD was performed and subsequently converted into SCAR markers. Results: After performing RAPD, SCAR primers were designed from the selected unique RAPD amplicons of the genuine drug as well as its adulterant. These primers produced 670 bp and 750 bp SCAR markers with genomic DNA sample of R. graveolens and E. dracunculoides, respectively. Conclusion: Development of these markers will help in the quality control of herbal drugs and monitoring widespread adulteration of these drugs by pharmaceutical industries and government agencies.

  6. Extracción, caracterización y evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya

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    Kiev Ochoa Pumaylle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue extraer, caracterizar y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Senecio graveolens Wedd (Wiskataya frente a Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29923. Las hojas y tallos se recolectaron a una altitud de 3800 m.s.n.m. en el distrito de Puquio, provincia de Lucanas, departamento de Ayacucho. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua, a partir de las hojas y tallos desecados de S. graveolens, con rendimiento de 1,26 % (p/p. La muestra extraída fue caracterizada a través de ensayos físicos. La composición química del aceite se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gas con detector de masa (CG-SM. La actividad antibacteriana del aceite de S. graveolens se realizó por el método de difusión en agar en pocillos, utilizando cepas de microorganismos gram positivo como S. aureus y gram negativo como E. coli. La densidad del producto resultó 0,8755 g/ml a 20 ºC; índice de refracción 1,4726; índice de rotación 102°85’ y soluble en etanol; el cromatograma mostró componentes mayoritarios con un contenido de 52,39 % Sabineno, 8,20 % (+-4-careno, 7,11 % τ-terpineno, 6,74 % β-myrceno, 3,78 % 4-terpinenol, 3,67 % Pulegona. Los resultados mostraron actividad antibacteriana marcada y moderada, para S. aureus y E. coli, respectivamente, observándose formación de halos de inhibición para concentraciones del aceite esencial a 80, 90 y 100 %. El aceite esencial de S. graveolens se presenta con actividad antibacteriana promisoria.

  7. Polyphyly of the spring-parsleys (Cymopterus): molecular and morphological evidence suggests complex relationships among the perennial endemic genera of western North American Apiaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downie, S.R.; Hartman, R.L.; Sun, F.-J.; Katz-Downie, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Cladistic analyses of DNA sequences from the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and cpDNA rps16 intron and, for a subset of taxa, the cpDNA trnF-trnL-trnT locus were carried out to evaluate the monophyly of Cymopterus and to ascertain its phylogenetic placement among the other perennial genera of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) subfamily Apioideae endemic to western North America. To elucidate patterns in the evolution of specific fruit characters and to evaluate their utility in circumscribing genera unambiguously, additional evidence was procured from cross-sections of mature fruits and the results of cladistic analysis of 25 morphological characters. Analyses of the partitioned data sets resulted in weakly supported and largely unresolved phylogenetic hypotheses, possibly due to the rapid radiation of the group, whereas the combined analysis of all molecular evidence resulted in a well-resolved phylogeny with higher bootstrap support. The traditionally used fruit characters of wing shape and composition and orientation of mericarp compression are highly variable. The results of these analyses reveal that Cymopterus and Lomatium, the two largest genera of western North American Apiaceae, are polyphyletic, and that their species are inextricably linked with those of other endemic perennial genera of the region (such as, Aletes, Musineon, Oreoxis, Pseudocymopterus, Pteryxia, and Tauschia), many of which are also not monophyletic. Prior emphasis on characters of the fruit in all systems of classification of the group has led to highly artificial assemblages of species. A complete reassessment of generic limits of all western endemic Apiaceae is required, as is further systematic study of this intractable group. (author)

  8. Effect of Silicic Acid on some Anatomical and Biochemical Characteristics of Pelargonium graveolens under Salinity Stress

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    fateme hasanvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens is a perennial plant of the family Geranium (Geraniaceae. Although CaCl2 at higher concentrations than NaCl in the soils and ground water in many areas of the word, most studies have been based on experiments that NaCl is the predominant salt. Relatively few studies have focused on the effects of CaCl2 on plant growth and physiology. Silicon (Si is considered as an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the role of Si in alleviation the deleterious effects of salinity on geranium have been studied. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted in spring-summer 2014 in research greenhouse situated on the Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran. The greenhouse temperature was 16.5–37.5 ◦C and relative humidity of greenhouse was 30–80%. Terminal stem cuttings with five nodes were obtained from mother plants in the same greenhouse and placed in a sand substrate for rooting in April. Uniform rooted cuttings were then transplanted into plastic pots (22 cm diameter and height filled with sand substrates and grown hydroponically. Transplanting was done in May and one plant per pot was cultivated. Cultivated plants were irrigated with Hoagland’s medium electrical conductivity (EC 1.8 dS/m, (pH 5.8 twice a day. Experiment was arranged as factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. Factors consisted of daily application of 1.8, 4 and 6 ds/m CaCl2 and weekly application of 0, 0.5 and 1 mM silicic acid in nutrient solution. Plants were harvested in November. In this research some characteristics include the number of leaf, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments (chla, chlb. Total chl, carotenoids, MDA, EL, RWC, proline, number of stomata in surface unit of leaf, density of stomata and stomata index and antioxidant enzyme include CAT and POD measured. Results

  9. UJI IRITASI DAN AKTIVITAS PERTUMBUHAN RAMBUT TIKUS PUTIH: EFEK SEDIAAN GEL APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

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    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPerasan seledri (Apium graveolens L. biasa dipergunakan untuk memacu pertumbuhan rambut. Salah satu senyawa utama yang terkandung di dalam seledri adalah apigenin. Penelitian ini membahas tentang pengaruh pemakaian gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri sebagai penumbuh rambut, meliputi uji iritasi dan aktivitas pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih jantan galur Spraque-Dawley. Uji iritasi menggunakan metode Kamkaen dan Rao, sedangkan uji aktivitas penumbuh rambut menggunakan metode Hattori-Ogawa dan Suzuki-Hamada. Berdasarkan indeks iritasi primer, semua formulasi gel tidak potensial menyebabkan iritasi pada kulit tikus putih (p>0,05. Gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik dalam memacu pertumbuhan rambut (p<0,05 dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan. Apigenin menunjukkan aktivitas lebih baik (p<0,05 dalam meningkatkan ketebalan rambut dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Namun perlakuan perasan herba seledri tidak nyata (p>0,05 meningkatkan ketebalan rambut. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa gel yang mengandung apigenin dan perasan herba seledri dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan rambut pada tikus putih dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan.Kata kunci : seledri, apigenin, gel, iritasi kulit, penumbuh rambutAbstractCelery (Apium graveolens L. juice is widely used for promoting hair growth. One of the main compounds in celery is apigenin. This research discusses about the effect of gel containing apigenin and celery juice application as hair growth in term of skin irritation and its hair growth activity on Spraque-Dawley male mice. The irritation test was Kamkaen and Rao methods, while hair growth activity was HattoriOgawa and Suzuki-Hamada methods. Based on primary index irritation, all of the gel formulations did not signifiantly potential in resulting skin irritation on the mice (p>0,05. Gel containing apigenin andcelery juice showed better activity in promoting hair growth (p<0,05 than

  10. Métodos de extração e concentrações no efeito inseticida de Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte e Petiveria alliacea L. a Diabrotica speciosa Germar Extraction methods and concentrations for the insecticidal effect of Ruta graveolens L., Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte, and Petiveria alliacea L. against Diabrotica speciosa Germar

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    F.S. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor método de extração e concentração para Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae e Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae quanto ao efeito inseticida a Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Os extratos que utilizaram óleo de soja comercial, pelo menos como um dos solventes, apresentaram maior mortalidade de D. speciosa em suas testemunhas (solvente = óleo, nas três plantas estudadas, em relação às suas concentrações. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens, a 5% de concentração, apresentou maior mortalidade corrigida de D. speciosa (32,5% que os extratos de A. verlotorum em água (10% de concentração (20,3% e P. alliacea em álcool etílico (2% de concentração (12,5%. O método de extração com água é simples, sendo passível de utilização por pequenos agricultores. A R. graveolens é planta facilmente cultivada, sendo, portanto, boa alternativa de controle dessa praga.The aim of this work was to determine the best extraction method and concentration for Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae, Artemisia verlotorum Lamotte (Asteraceae and Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae concerning their insecticidal effect against Diabrotica speciosa Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Extracts using commercial soybean oil as at least one of the solvents resulted in higher D. speciosa mortality in controls (solvent = oil of the three studied plants, relative to their treatment concentrations. R. graveolens extract in water, at 5% concentration, showed higher D. speciosa corrected mortality (32.5% than A. verlotiorum extracts in water (10% concentration (20.3% and P. alliacea in ethanol (2% concentration (12.5%. The extraction method with water is simple and can be used by small farmers. R. graveolens is an easily cultivated plant and constitutes, therefore, a good alternative to control this plague.

  11. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  12. Validation and comparison of reference genes for qPCR normalization of celery (Apium graveolens at different development stages

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    Meng-Yao eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A suitable reference gene is an important prerequisite for guarantying accurate and reliable results in qPCR analysis. Celery is one of the representative vegetable in Apiaceae and is widely cultivated and consumed in the world. However, no reports have been previously published concerning reference genes in celery. In this study, the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes in leaf blade and petiole at different development stages were evaluated using three statistics algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results showed that TUB-B, TUB-A, and UBC were the most reference genes among all tested samples. GAPDH represented the maximum stability for most individual sample, while the UBQ displayed the minimum stability. To further validate the stability of reference genes, the expression pattern of AgAP2-2 was calculated by using the selected genes for normalization. In addition, the expression patterns of several development-related genes were studied using the selected reference gene. Our results will be beneficial for further studies on gene transcription in celery.

  13. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of dill (Anethum graveolens L.

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    S. Madadi Bonab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of (Anethum graveolens L., a field experiment was performed in Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. The experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation treatments (irrigation after 70, 100, 130 mm evaporation from class A pan and nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 kg.ha-1 were allocated to main and sub-plots, respectively. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant (p≤0.05 effect on minor diameter umbrella, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index. However, irrigation and effect between irrigation and nitrogen were not affected any of the traits. The greatest minor diameter umbrella was obtained with control nitrogen treatment and maximum 1000-seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were obtained from 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. There was no any significant difference between 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 nitrogen levels. Therefore, it seems that for producing the highest yield application of 40 kg.ha-1 nitrogen is suitable. As water deficit no significant effects on this traits, of dill, it can be concluded that dill is a tolerant plant to drought stress.

  15. Comparative Study of the Analgesic Activity of Two Iraqi Medicinal Plants, Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla Extracts

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    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was performed to compare the analgesic activity of different fractions of the extracts of Ruta graveolens and Matricaria chamomilla. Materials and Methods: The plant materials were extracted with 70% ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of each plant were evaporated to dryness and analyzed by HPLC. The analgesic activity of these extracts was evaluated using writhing reflex test and compared with that produced by a standard drug (Diclofenac sodium. Results: Flavonoids were found in all fractions of both plants (i.e ethyl acetate and n-butanol, while trace of alkaloids in were found in the ethyl acetate fraction of Ruta. The prepared extracts showed better analgesic activity than the standard drug; when compared with each other, Matricaria extracts showed better analgesic activity compared to Ruta extracts. Conclusion: There is similar efficacy of chamomile and common rue as analgesic agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 79-83

  16. ECOLOGÍA, APROVECHAMIENTO Y COMERCIALIZACIÓN DEL ORÉGANO (Lippia graveolens H. B. K. EN MAPIMÍ, DURANGO

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    Diódoro Granados-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El orégano, Lippia graveolens H. B. K., es una planta adaptada a las condiciones de aridez con capacidad para prosperar bajo diversos grados de presión por la recolección. En Mapimí, Durango, la planta ha sido colectada y comercializada durante años y significa una fuente de ingresos para las familias que dependen de su recolección, aunque los comerciantes obtienen la mayor parte de los beneficios. En la región de Mapimí se evaluaron las diversas áreas productoras con el fin de establecer la dinámica e impacto del proceso de recolección y sus efectos sobre la planta. Para esto, se hicieron recorridos de campo, toma de muestras y delimitación de las áreas de distribución del orégano. También se analizó el proceso de producción y los canales de comercialización, a fin de diseñar una alternativa de manejo que garantice la sustentabilidad de la actividad. El proceso de producción y comercialización se estudió mediante la aplicación de entrevistas abiertas a productores, visitas de campo y visitas a las empresas beneficiadoras y comercializadoras, así como a los intermediarios que intervienen en diferentes etapas del proceso.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

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    Hong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI. And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activity was analyzed by microbiological and histological techniques and was compared with that of fluconazole (FCZ. The results showed essential oil was active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.312 μL/mL (for C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei to 0.625 μL/mL (for 6 isolated C. albicans strains. Essential oil (2% v/v was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans 09-1555 clearance from experimentally infected mice vagina by prophylaxis and therapeutic treatments. In both therapeutic efficacy and prophylaxis studies, the histological findings confirmed the microbiological results. The experimental results revealed that the tested essential oil is effective against vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed mice.

  18. DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shagun; Tandon, Simran

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of various potencies of Ruta graveolens (Ruta) on COLO-205 cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, migration, clonogenecity, morphological and biochemical changes and modification in the levels of genes associated with apoptosis and cell cycle. On treatment of COLO-205 cells maximal effects were seen with mother tincture (MT) and 30C potencies, wherein decrease in cell viability along with reduced clonogenecity and migration capabilities were noted. In addition morphological and biochemical alterations such as nuclear changes (fragmented nuclei with condensed chromatin) and DNA ladder-like pattern (increased amount of fragmented DNA) in COLO-205 cells indicating apoptotic related cell death were seen. The expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle related regulatory genes assessed by reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed an up-regulation of caspase 9, caspase-3, Bax, p21 and p27 expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The mode of cell death was suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic pathway along with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals present in Ruta showed potential for natural therapeutic product development for colon carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation between growth stages and synthesis of flavonoids and essential oils affected by irradiation in Ruta graveolens seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, A.I.; El-Kholei, S.A.; Ragab, M.A.; Abou El-Seoud, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ruta graveolens plants are radio-adaptive up to 8 Krad gamma radiation. Flavonoids and essential oils were remarkably increased as function of irradiation doses from 2 up to 8 Krad. Doses of 4 and 8 Krad were the most effective ones. Concerning flavonoids, 4 and 8 Krad treatments exerted the following percent increase over control plants: 76, 77% (leaves), 137, 100% (stems), 153, 80% (flowers) and 77, 61% (fruits). The distribution pattern of flavonoids was in the following order: Leaves > flowers > fruits > stems. Treated plants with 4 or 8 Krad resulted in an increase in essential oil yield by 65-67% over control plants. Chemical constitution of oil: ketones and esters did not seem to be affected by seed irradiation (0-8 Krad). Similarly, physical properties ''refractive index, solubility and specific gravity'' did not materially affect. However, chemical properties ''acid value, ester value and saponification value'' were increased by 24% over control treatment as a function of 4 Krad. Yet higher doses had the capacity of increasing the acid value but not of both ester or saponification value

  20. Inhibition of Various Cancer Cells Proliferation of Bornyl Acetate and Essential Oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf

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    Tunay Karan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inula species are medicinal and aromatic plants used for folk medicine extensively. In this work, hydrodistilled essential oil of Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf. analyzed by GC-MS which revealed that bornyl acetate was the major product (69.15%. Camphene was the second major compound (11.11%. Antiproliferative activity of the essential oil and bornyl acetate was investigated on HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, HT29 (human colon carcinoma , A549 (human lung carcinoma, MCF7 ( human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells and FL (human amnion cells normal cells. The cytotoxicity was executed by a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Essential oil and bornyl acetate displayed the outstanding activities on HeLa (IC 50, 64.1, 72.0 µg/mL, HT29 (IC 50, 24.6, 60.5 µg/mL, A549 (IC 50, 28.3, 44.1 µg/mL, MCF-7 (IC 50, 66.5, 85.6 µg/mL, and FL (IC 50, 42.1, 50.6 µg/mL cell lines respectively.

  1. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

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    Maria Teresa Gentile

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138 widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1 obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

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    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  3. The effect of chronic administration of Apium graveolens aqueous extract on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats

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    Mehdad Roghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Diabetes mellitus accompanies with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of Apium graveolens (AG , this research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic i.p. administration of AG on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests.   Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, AG-treated control, diabetic, and AG-treated diabetic groups. AG treatment continued for 4 weeks. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks as compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in AG-treated diabetic group as compared to control group at the end of study. In addition, STL did not significantly change in AG-treated control group in comparison with control group. In addition, results of Y-maze test showed that there is no significant difference between diabetic and Ag-treated diabetic groups and between control and Ag-treated control group regarding alternation behavior. Discussion: In summary, chronic oral administration of AG could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals.  

  4. The effect of chronic administration of Apium graveolens aqueous extract on learning and memory in normal and diabetic rats

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    Mehdad Roghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Introduction: Diabetes mellitus accompanies with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of Apium graveolens (AG , this research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic i.p. administration of AG on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests.   Methods: Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, AG-treated control, diabetic, and AG-treated diabetic groups. AG treatment continued for 4 weeks. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks as compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and AG-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.05 in AG-treated diabetic group as compared to control group at the end of study. In addition, STL did not significantly change in AG-treated control group in comparison with control group. In addition, results of Y-maze test showed that there is no significant difference between diabetic and Ag-treated diabetic groups and between control and Ag-treated control group regarding alternation behavior. Discussion: In summary, chronic oral administration of AG could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information only in diabetic animals and did not affect spatial memory of diabetic animals.

  5. Auxin-cytokinin synergism in vitro for producing genetically stable plants of Ruta graveolens using shoot tip meristems

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    Mohammad Faisal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ruta graveolens Linn. using shoot tip meristems derived from a 4-month-old field grown plant. In vitro shoot regeneration and proliferation was accomplished on Murashige and Skoogs (MS semi-solid medium in addition to different doses of cytokinins viz.6- benzyl adenine (BA, Kinetin (Kn or 2-isopetynyl adenine (2iP, singly or in combination with auxins viz. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. Highest regeneration frequency (27.6% was obtained on (MS medium composed of BA (10 µM with maximum number (9.4 of shoots and 4.3 cm shoot length after 4 weeks of incubation. Among various combinations tried best regeneration frequency (71% of multiple shoot formation with highest number (12.6 of shoots per shoot tip explants were achieved in MS medium augmented with a combination BA (10.0 µM and NAA (2.5 µM after 4 weeks of incubation. The optimum frequency (97% of rhizogenesis was achieved on half-strength MS medium having 0.5 µM IBA after 4 weeks of incubation. Tissue culture raised plantlets with 5–7 fully opened leaves with healthy root system were successfully acclimatized off in Soilrite™ with 80% survival rate followed by transportation to normal soil under natural light. Genetic stability among in vitro raised progeny was evaluated by ISSR and RAPD markers. The entire banding pattern revealed from in vitro regenerated plants was monomorphic to the donor. The present protocol provides an alternative option for commercial propagation and fruitful setting up of genetically uniform progeny for sustainable utilization and germplasm preservation.

  6. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits

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    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.

  7. Composición química y efecto antibacteriano in vitro de extractos de larrea tridentata, origanum vulgare, artemisa ludoviciana y ruta graveolens

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    Lucía Delgadillo Ruíz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción . Los extractos de algunas plantas han demostrado tener propiedades antimicr o bianas relacionadas a ciertos compuestos químicos como son el timol, carvacrol, limoneno, linalol y terpineno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la concentración de estos compue s tos en los extractos de Larrea tridentata , Origanum vulgare , Artemisa ludoviciana y Ruta graveolens ; así como evaluar su efecto antimicrobiano en Escherichia coli , Acinetoba c ter baumanii , Pseudomona sp y Staphyloc o ccus aureus . Método . Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación simple empleando alcohol etílico como solvente, la composición química se evaluó mediante cromatografía de gases. La actividad antimicrobia na de cada uno de los extractos de plantas se realizó por los métodos difusión en pozo y difusión en disco. Resultados . Las bacterias mostraron diferentes grados de sensibilidad a los extractos, prese n tando inhibición de crecimiento S. aureus con el extra cto de O. vulgare y R. graveolens , mientras que la bacteria Pseudomona sp. , con los extracto s de A. ludoviciana, L. tridentata y O. vulgare . Discusión . La mayor concentración de timol y carvacrol se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y L. tridentata . El compuesto linalol se encontró en una proporción mayor en O. vulgare y en menor proporción en A. ludoviciana . Limoneno se encontró en los extractos de O. vulgare y R. graveolens . De las cuatro plantas evaluadas, el extracto de L. tridentata fue mejor , de bido a que presenta la mayor inhibición en comparación con los otros extractos; y con un efecto similar a los aceites empleados como control. La técnica de dif u sión en disco, permitió observar mejor los efectos inhibitorios de los extra c tos y los aceites s obre cada una de las bacterias empleadas en comparación con el método de difusión en pozo.

  8. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract derived from root of Apium graveolens L. in mice

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    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Apium graveolens L. (celery has been considered as sedative, analgesic, carminative, antispasmodic and diuretic plant in traditional Iranian medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of celery root in mice. Methods: Analgesic effect of celery root was determined by two animal models of hot plate and acetic acid writhing test. Anti-inflammatory potential of the extract was also determined by formalin induced ear edema and xylene induced paw edema tests.  Results: The result showed no significant difference between the positive control group and the test group in hot plate test and the most effective dose of celery root was 200 mg/kg, while the frequency of writhings was significantly different in whole test groups in comparison with control group (p

  9. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish.

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    Snuossi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; Ben Taleb, Sabrine; Dehmeni, Ameni; Flamini, Guido; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-10-22

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus , Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella ornithinolytica , Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera . The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils' antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  10. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens Essential Oils: Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Bacteria Isolated from Fish and Shellfish

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    Mejdi Snuossi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leaves, Zingiber officinale rhizomes and Anethum graveolens aerial parts was studied by GC and GC/MS. The essential oils’ antioxidant and antibacterial activities against the isolated microorganisms were studied. Low concentrations of the three essential oils were needed to inhibit the growth of the selected bacteria and the lowest MBCs values were obtained for the laurel essential oil. The selected essential oils can be used as a good natural preservative in fish food due to their antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  11. The effect of a vaginal suppository formulation of dill (Anethum graveolens) in comparison to clotrimazole vaginal tablet on the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Karjalian, Maryam; Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Khorsand, Imaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Mirteimouri, Masumeh; Babakhanian, Masoudeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourali, Leila; Bahman, Sara

    2018-03-19

    The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Anethum graveolens (dill) vaginal suppositories and 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets on vulvovaginal Candidiasis. This study was a single centre, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, in which 60 women with microbiology-confirmed vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly assigned to dill and clotrimazole groups. At the end of the study, the estimated prevalence of leucorrhoea, burning, and itching was 23%, 23% and 20% in dill users, respectively. This figure was 20%, 10% and 16.7% for the clotrimazole group, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not significant. 13% of suppository patients, compared with 10% of clotrimazole-treatment patients, had a positive culture, which was not significant (p = .68). According to findings, 2% dill vaginal suppositories were as effective as clotrimazole vaginal tablets in reducing both clinical and microbiological symptoms of Candidiasis. Studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm current findings. Impact statement What is already known on the subject? Based on results from in vivo and in vitro animal studies, dill (Anethum graveolens) has anti-candida activity. What do the results of this study add? It appears that 2% dill vaginal suppositories were as effective as 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets in reducing both the clinical and microbiological symptoms. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and further research? Obstetricians and gynaecologists can offer dill as a useful alternative to chemical drugs, especially in women who are often interested in herbal medicine, or in women who are resistant or are not allowed to use antifungal drugs.

  12. Free radical scavengers from the aerial parts of Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils from its fruits Substâncias eliminadoras de radicais livres das partes aéreas de Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn. (Apiaceae e análise por CG-MS dos óleos essenciais de seus frutos

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    Hossein Nazemiyeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae is one of three endemic Iranian species of the genus Grammosciadium DC. Consumption of the aerial parts of this plant affects renal function and causes diuresis. In the DPPH assay the methanol extract showed the highest level of free radical scavenging activity (RC50 = 1.196 x 10-2 mg/mL among the extracts. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analyses of the methanol extract yielded nine flavonoids, which were responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the MeOH extract. The GC-MS analyses of the essential oils led to the identification of 29 terpenoids, mainly monoterpenes (non-oxygenated 3.97% and oxygenated 77.49% accounting for over 96% of the total oils.Grammosciadium platycarpum Boiss. & Hausskn (Apiaceae é uma das três espécies endémicas no Irã do gênero Grammosciadium DC. Consumo da parte aérea da planta afeta a função renal e causa diurese. No ensaio por DPPH o extrato metanólico apresentou o maior nível de atividade de antioxidante por radicais livres (RC50 = 1,196 x 10-2 mg/mL entre os extratos. Análises por HPLC preparativa de fase reversa do extrato metanólico resultou no isolamento de nove flavonóides, os quais foram responsáveis pela atividade de antioxidante do extrato metanólico. A análises por CG-EM dos óleos essenciais levou à identificação de 29 terpenóides, principalmente monoterpenos (não-oxigenados 3,97% e oxigenados, 77,49%, os quais representam mais de 96% do total de óleos.

  13. Phytochemical Profile, Chemotaxonomic Studies, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Two Endemisms from Madeira Archipelago: Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae).

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    Spínola, Vítor; Castilho, Paula C

    2016-10-01

    Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae) are two endemic plants from Madeira archipelago, phytochemical compositions of which remains little explored, despite their use in folk medicine. Using liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis, their polyphenolic profile was established for the first time. Fifty-six compounds were identified with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-O-(malonyl)hexoside, luteolin diacetyl, and quercetin-O-hexoside being the major constituents in the leaves of both plant species (≥ 0.76 mg/g of dry extract). Principal component analysis provided a suitable tool to differentiate targeted plants. Naringenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside, and 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid can be used as discriminatory taxonomic/geographical markers for M. edulis subspecies from Madeira and Porto Santo populations. This methodology of using polyphenols as chemotaxonomic markers proved to be useful for identification of plant species since the results are consistent with previous taxonomical data. The free-radical scavenging activities of the M. decipiens extracts proved to be higher than those of M. edulis, which correlated well with their phenolic content (R 2  > 0.906). © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  14. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A.W. Hill, Apiaceae) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with CCl(4).

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    Popović, Mira; Kaurinović, Biljana; Jakovljević, Vida; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bursać, Marija

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of different extracts of leaves and root of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A.W. Hill, Apiaceae) were studied. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated measuring the scavenging activity on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and OH radicals. Also, the effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) were evaluated. The results obtained showed that all examined extracts act as good scavengers of DPPH and OH radicals and reduce the intensity of LP. The in vivo effects were evaluated on some antioxidant systems (activities of LPx, GSH-Px, Px, CAT and XOD, and GSH content) in the mice liver and blood after treatment with the examined parsley extracts, or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts exhibited a certain protective effect. However, combined treatments with CCl(4) and the examined extracts showed both positive and negative synergism, inducing or suppressing the influence of CCl(4) alone. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. CYP98A22, a phenolic ester 3’-hydroxylase specialized in the synthesis of chlorogenic acid, as a new tool for enhancing the furanocoumarin concentration in Ruta graveolens

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    Karamat Fazeelat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Furanocoumarins are molecules with proven therapeutic properties and are produced in only a small number of medicinal plant species such as Ruta graveolens. In vivo, these molecules play a protective role against phytophageous insect attack. Furanocoumarins are members of the phenylpropanoids family, and their biosynthetic pathway is initiated from p-coumaroyl coA. The enzymes belonging to the CYP98A cytochrome P450 family have been widely described as being aromatic meta-hydroxylases of various substrates, such as p-coumaroyl ester derivatives, and are involved in the synthesis of coumarins such as scopoletin. In furanocoumarin-producing plants, these enzymes catalyze the step directly downstream of the junction with the furanocoumarin biosynthetic pathway and might indirectly impact their synthesis. Results In this work, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of the first CYP98A encoding gene isolated from R. graveolens. Using Nicotiana benthamiana as a heterologous expression system, we have demonstrated that this enzyme adds a 3-OH to p-coumaroyl ester derivatives but is more efficient to convert p-coumaroyl quinate into chlorogenic acid than to metabolize p-coumaroyl shikimate. Plants exposed to UV-B stress showed an enhanced expression level of the corresponding gene. The R. graveolens cyp98a22 open reading frame and the orthologous Arabidopsis thaliana cyp98a3 open reading frame were overexpressed in stable transgenic Ruta plants. Both plant series were analyzed for their production of scopoletin and furanocoumarin. A detailed analysis indicates that both genes enhance the production of furanocoumarins but that CYP98A22, unlike CYP98A3, doesn’t affect the synthesis of scopoletin. Conclusions The overexpression of CYP98A22 positively impacts the concentration of furanocoumarins in R. graveolens. This gene is therefore a valuable tool to engineer plants with improved therapeutical values that might

  16. Efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh y Citrus aurantium L. sobre los niveles de glucosa, colesterol y triacilglicéridos en un modelo de rata diabética

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    Lauro Figueroa-Valverde

    Full Text Available Varias plantas con propiedades hipoglucemicas se han utilizado en medicina popular y sistemas curativos tradicionales en todo el mundo. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos inducidos por Ruta graveolens L., Rutaceae, Cnidoscolus chayamansa McVaugh, Euphorbiaceae, y Citrus aurantium L., Rutaceae, en un modelo de rata diabética, a la que se le cuantificaron los niveles de glucosa cada 24 horas por un mes después de la administración gástrica del extracto de las plantas. Además, el colesterol y los triglicéridos fueron evaluados usando técnicas enzimáticas. Los resultados mostraron que la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce un aumento hipoglucemico ( 200 mg/dL. Otros resultados, mostraron que Citrus aurantium ejerce cambios en la concentración de triacilglicéridos (158-172 mg/dL y colesterol (120-128 mg/dL. Finalmente, la administración de Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 g/kg induce un efecto hipoglucemico (< 200 mg/dL. Además, Ruta graveolens a dosis de 0.5 a 1.5 g/kg induce variaciones en los niveles de triacilglicéridos (110-120 mg/dL y colesterol (116-124 mg/dL. En conclusión la administración de Cnidoscolus chayamansa ejerce efectos hipoglucemicos en una manera dosis dependiente en comparación con Ruta graveolens y Citrus aurantium. Además, las plantas evaluadas inducen cambios en los niveles de lípidos dependiente de la dosis.

  17. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae). Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae).

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    Camila Moura SANTOS; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Diego ROMEIRO; Antonio Carlos Scatena ZANATTO; Eurípedes MORAIS; Marcelo ZANATA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM

    2011-01-01

    Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP). Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os result...

  18. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

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    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  19. Pemanfaatan Herba Seledri (Apium Graveolens L. untuk Menurunkan Kolesterol dan Lipid dalam Darah Tikus Putih yang diberi Diit Tinggi Kolesterol dan Lemak

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    Juheini

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that celery herbs (Apium graveolens L contain unsaturated fatty acid, so it could be used as hypocholesterolemia and hypolipidemia agents. A study about the effect of celery herbs juice to cholesterole and lipid blood concentration high feeding cholesterol and lipid diet white rat, has been carried out. In this observation, 30 (thirty male white rats with 150 to 200 g of weight and 4 months of age were used and divided into five groups randomly. The first group was as a normal control, the second group was given high cholesterol and lipid diet 2,5 g/200 g bow (body weight/day as a treatment control. For the third, the fourth and the fifth groups, each of them was given with high cholesterol and lipid diet in the same quantity with the second group and get celery herb juice with 0,14 g/200 g bow/day; 0,72 g/200 g bow/day; 3,6 g/200 g bow/day dosage. After six weeks of treatment, the rats were surgeried, the blood was taken out from the heart and then total cholesterol and total lipid concentration were measured. The results showed that all of dosages of celery herb juice has lowering cholesterol and lipid effects, but did not decrease the total cholesterol and total lipid concentration significantly.

  20. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

    2001-05-01

    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  1. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  2. Studies on fertilization of dill (Anethum graveolens L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.: II Oil yield of dill affected by fertilization

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    S. Hälvä

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different levels of basic fertilization and nitrogen top-dressing on the herb and oil yield of dill (Anethum graveolens L. was studied in 1984 and 1985 in Finland. The total nitrogen doses were 0, 15, 30, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg/ha. The crop in 1984 yielded 12 000—34 000 kg/ha fresh dill herb and 10.3—21.1 kg/ha essential oil. The figures in 1985 were 10600—21 000 and 9.4—16.6 kg/ha, respectively. Of the 22 volatile components identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, the four most abundant compounds were analysed quantitatively. These compounds were a-phellandrene, 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran, β-phellandrene and limonene, composing 70—95 % of the total aroma content. The optimum basic fertilization for the herb yield proved to be a compound fertilizer of the rate of 40-16-68 kg NPK/ha. The small nitrogen doses (30—40kg N/ha gave also good results in respect to oil yield and the amount of 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran, the most important aroma compound in the dill herb.

  3. Estudio comparativo de la composición química y actividad antibacteriana del aceite esencial de Ruta graveolens L. recolectada en los estados Mérida y Miranda, Venezuela.

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    Janne Rojas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from two R. graveolens samples collected from Mérida and Miranda states, Venezuela, were analyzed by GC/MS identifying as major components: 2-undecanone, 2-nonanonae and pregeijerene. On the other hand, the antibacterial activity assays showed the wide range of activity of the oils that inhibited the bacterial strains grow not only for the Gram positive (S. aureus and E. faecalis but the Gram negative (E. coli and K. pneumonie as well, displaying MIC values between 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL.

  4. Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of 3 Species of Oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick Paul; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel Angel; León-Félix, Josefina; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-01

    Oregano phenolic compounds have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, after ingestion, the gastrointestinal environment can affect their antioxidant stability and thus their bioactive properties. To evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion on the phenolic compounds of 3 species of oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia palmeri), the total reducing capacity, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated before and after in vitro GI digestion. In addition, the phenolic compounds of the 3 oregano species were identified and quantified by UPLC-PDA before and after in vitro GI digestion. It was shown that the reducing capacity, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were affected by the GI digestion process. Moreover, the phenolic compounds identified were apigenin-7-glucoside, scutellarein, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, and their levels were affected by the in vitro GI process. Our results showed that the phenolic compounds from these 3 species of oregano are affected by the in vitro digestion process, and this effect is largely attributable to pH changes. These changes can modify the bioavailability and further anti-inflammatory activity of oregano phenolics, and thus, further research is needed. Oregano is a rich source of polyphenols that have shown bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory potential. However, little is known of the gastrointestinal fate of oregano polyphenols which is imperative to fully understand its bioaccessibility. Our results are important to develop new administration strategies which could help protect the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and bioaccessibility of such compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Floristic changes in alpine plant communities induced by the cushion plant Azorella madreporica (Apiaceae in the Andes of central Chile Cambios florísticos en comunidades de plantas alpinas inducidos por la planta en cojín Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae en los Andes de Chile central

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    CONSTANZA L QUIROZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of plant species associated with nurse plants increases with elevation. However, studies conducted so far have largely ignored the effect of nurse plants on other community attributes, such as the species abundances, diversity and evenness. Moreover, changes in these community attributes along environmental gradients have also been seldom examined. The present study evaluates the effect of the cushion plant Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae on species richness, species abundance, diversity and evenness of vascular plants at two elevations in the Andes of central Chile. Theoretically, the impact of this nurse cushion plant on these community attributes should be grater at a higher elevation. Results showed that the proportion of plant species associated with cushion plants increases with elevation, and the abundance of some species is also greater within cushions than on bare ground. Although the proportion of species growing within cushions increased with elevation, diversity and evenness were higher on bare ground. This is due to some few species that attained very high densities within cushions, generating assemblages highly dominated by some few species. Ordination analyses indicated differences in species assemblages within and outside A. madrepórica at the higher elevation. Therefore, the influence of cushion plants on community structure changes with elevation. Accordingly, we suggest that attributes other than species richness must be included in future studies in order to analyze the impact of nurse species on community structure along environmental gradients.Se sabe que el número de especies asociado a plantas nodrizas aumenta con la altitud. Sin embargo, el efecto de plantas nodrizas sobre otros atributos de las comunidades, como la abundancia de especies, diversidad y equidad, ha sido largamente ignorado. Más aún, cambios en estos atributos en gradientes ambientales han sido pocas veces examinados

  6. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Larvicidal, Repellent and Irritant Potential of the Seed-derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sarita eKumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti L., the primary carrier for viruses causing dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever is widespread over large areas of the tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures; the eco-friendly, bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens; was investigated for anti-mosquito potential against Ae. aegypti. Evaluation of larvicidal potential of celery seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti resulted in LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 ppm and 29.08 ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24 h; the toxic effect of the oil increasing by 1.2 fold with an LC50 value of 13.22 ppm after an exposure to 48h. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause rapid mortality, suggesting a delayed type of larval killing effect. The remarkable finding of the present study was effective repellency of the essential oil leading to 100% protection till 165 min as compared to control that did not show any repellency against mosquitoes. Only 1 bite was recorded in the 165th minute after which only 2 bites were scored until 180 min of exposure of the oil to the adult mosquitoes. An exciting observation was the knocked-down of mosquitoes caused by the exposure to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The exposure to 1% oil resulted in first flight only after 4 sec and a total of 63.66 average flights during 15 min exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97.The qualitative phytochemical study of the oil showed the presence of terpenoids, lactones and flavonoids as the major constituents suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Present investigations proved celery seed essential oil to be an efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity and effects on non-target organisms and the

  8. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito

  9. Germinação in vitro e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Ruta graveolens L. sob influência de fenantreno e benzo[a]pireno

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    Siomara Dias da Costa Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A exposição a contaminantes orgânicos como os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos tem atraído considerável atenção devido aos efeitos dessas substâncias sobre a saúde humana, o ambiente e o desenvolvimento vegetal. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do fenantreno e do benzo[a]pireno sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento pós-seminal in vitro de R. graveolens. Sementes comerciais descontaminadas foram inoculadas em tubos de ensaio com meio MS suplementado com 0 (controle; 1,0; 5,0 e 10,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e 0 (controle; 0,001; 0,01 e 0,1 mg L-1 de benzo[a]pireno. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sementes germinadas, o índice de velocidade de germinação e a entropia. Após dois meses, avaliou-se o comprimento da parte aérea e radicular e contabilizou-se o número de folhas desenvolvidas. Durante o primeiro mês, a presença do fenantreno não alterou o processo germinativo, enquanto que o benzo[a]pireno na concentração de 0,01 mg L-1 proporcionou aumento significativo da germinação (p≤0,05. Durante o segundo mês, as concentrações de 5,0 mg L-1 de fenantreno e de 0,001 mg L-1 benzo[a]pireno resultaram em desenvolvimento radicular significativamente superior. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas quanto à fitomassa, ao desenvolvimento da parte aérea e número de folhas por plântulas. Tais resultados sugerem potencial para o cultivo de R. graveolens em áreas contaminadas, nos níveis investigados.

  10. Effects of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens and its ingredients on cytochrome P450, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-quinone oxidoreductase in mice

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    Yune-Fang Ueng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens (the common rue has been used for various therapeutic purposes, including relief of rheumatism and treatment of circulatory disorder. To elucidate the effects of rue on main drug-metabolizing enzymes, effects of an aqueous extract of the aerial part of rue and its ingredients on cytochrome P450 (P450/CYP, uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase were studied in C57BL/6JNarl mice. Oral administration of rue extract to males increased hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities in a dose-dependent manner. Under a 7-day treatment regimen, rue extract (0.5 g/kg induced hepatic Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities and protein levels in males and females. This treatment increased hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity only in males. However, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase activity remained unchanged. Based on the contents of rutin and furanocoumarins of mouse dose of rue extract, rutin increased hepatic Cyp1a activity and the mixture of furanocoumarins (Fmix increased Cyp2b activities in males. The mixture of rutin and Fmix increased Cyp1a and Cyp2b activities. These results revealed that rutin and Fmix contributed at least in part to the P450 induction by rue.

  11. Mutational epitope analysis of Pru av 1 and Api g 1, the major allergens of cherry (Prunus avium) and celery (Apium graveolens): correlating IgE reactivity with three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Philipp; Lehmann, Katrin; Nerkamp, Jörg; Haase, Tanja; Wangorsch, Andrea; Fötisch, Kay; Hoffmann, Silke; Rösch, Paul; Vieths, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Birch pollinosis is often accompanied by adverse reactions to food due to pollen-allergen specific IgE cross-reacting with homologous food allergens. The tertiary structure of Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen, for example, is nearly identical with Bet v 1, the major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen. In order to define cross-reactive IgE epitopes, we generated and analysed mutants of Pru av 1 and Api g 1.0101, the major celery (Apium graveolens) allergen, by immunoblotting, EAST (enzyme allergosorbent test), CD and NMR spectroscopy. The mutation of Glu45 to Trp45 in the P-loop region, a known IgE epitope of Bet v 1, significantly reduced IgE binding to Pru av 1 in a subgroup of cherry-allergic patients. The backbone conformation of Pru av 1 wild-type is conserved in the three-dimensional structure of Pru av 1 Trp45, demonstrating that the side chain of Glu45 is involved in a cross-reactive IgE epitope. Accordingly, for a subgroup of celery-allergic patients, IgE binding to the homologous celery allergen Api g 1.0101 was enhanced by the mutation of Lys44 to Glu. The almost complete loss of IgE reactivity to the Pru av 1 Pro112 mutant is due to disruption of its tertiary structure. Neither the mutation Ala112 nor deletion of the C-terminal residues 155-159 influenced IgE binding to Pru av 1. In conclusion, the structure of the P-loop partially explains the cross-reactivity pattern, and modulation of IgE-binding by site-directed mutagenesis is a promising approach to develop hypo-allergenic variants for patient-tailored specific immunotherapy. PMID:12943529

  12. Phylogenomics of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. We here explore the utility of multiple nuclear orthologs for the taxonomic resolution of a wide variety of Daucus species and outgroups. We studied the phylogeny of 89 ...

  13. Beslenme ve Halk Sağlığı Yönünden Önemli Bazı Sebzeler I: Sarımsak (Allium sativum L., Enginar (Cynara scolymus L., Kereviz (Apium graveolens L. ve Lahana (Brassica oleraceae

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    Nejat Altıniğne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Karbonhidrat, mineral madde ve vitamin gibi önemli bazı besin ögelerini çok miktarda içeren sebzeler, beslenme amacıyla kullanıldıkları gibi, içerdikleri bazı ilaç etken maddeleri nedeniyle halk sağlığında tedavi amacıylada kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede genel özellikleri, besin içerikleri ve halk sağlığında kullanılma amaçları yönünden sarımsak (A. sativum, enginar (C. scolymus, kereviz (A. graveolens ve lahana (B. oleraceae sebzeleri ele alınarak incelenmiştir.

  14. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    diabetes, cancer and aging [5, 6]. Spices, widely ... cage at a temperature of 22 ± 2 °C with. 12h/12h ... into four groups (I, II, III, and IV), each ... days). Groups II, III and IV were administered .... On the other hand, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin. C) is ...

  15. Comparison of Current Chemical and Stereochemical Tests for the Identification and Differentiation of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. (Geraniaceae Essential Oils: Analytical Data for (--(1S, 4R, 5S-Guaia-6,9-diene and (--(7R,10S-10-epi-γ-Eudesmol

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    Mei Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commercial geranium oil samples, steam-distilled oils of authenticated plant samples, and a reference sample were investigated by GC/MS to determine the validity and applicability of a series of chemical and stereochemical tests that have been proposed in the literature to identify the country of origin, phytochemical identity or authenticity of geranium oils. The chemical tests evaluated include the ratio of the concentrations of geraniol to citronellol and the presence or absence of certain sesquiterpenes, viz., (-- guaia-6,9-diene and (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol. The stereochemical tests include the stereochemical distribution of i citronellol, ii menthone and isomenthone, and iii rose oxides. The most reliable chemical test was the presence or absence of the sesquiterpene probes. The stereochemical tests proved to be less reliable. Most of the tests could be used to classify geranium oils into general types; however, none of the tests provided a foolproof method to distinguish cultivars or country of origin. During this study, the ambiguity in the absolute stereochemistry of (--10-epi-γ-eudesmol and (--guaia-6,9-diene was addressed, and these two sesquiterpenes could serve as effective markers for the authentication of P. graveolens essential oils.

  16. Reconstructing the invasion history of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) into Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijal, D. P.; Alm, T.; Jahodová, Šárka; Stenoien, H. K.; Alsos, I. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 22 (2015), s. 5522-5543 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : approximate Bayesian computation * genetic variation * population genetics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  17. Morphometrics of Daucus (Apiaceae): A counterpart to a phylogenomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. A companion phylogenomics analysis of Daucus (carrots) using 94 conserved nuclear orthologs supported many of the traditional species but showed unexpected results that ...

  18. Coumarins from the aerial parts of Prangos uloptera (Apiaceae

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    Seyed Mehdi Razavi

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies on the aerial parts of Prangos uloptera, an endemic Iranian species of the genus Prangos, yielded five coumarins, xanthotoxin (1, prangenin (2, scopoletin (3, deltoin (4 and prangolarin (5. The structures of these coumarins were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and the antioxidant potential of 1-5 was evaluated by the DPPH assay. The chemotaxonomic significance of 1-5 is also discussed.

  19. Application of Apium Graveolens in treatment of hypertension

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    Sarkarati AR

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Apium graveolence has an small brown olyptical seed with pharmacological activity. To evaluate it's application in treatment of hypertension, 37 hypertensive patients (20 female, 17 male with the age range of 45-65 were given 6 grams of powder of Apium graveolence seed and then the blood pressures before and after the remedy were compared. Before treatment, the mean systolic blood pressure was 171.35 mlHg and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 94 mlHg. After they became 154.3 mlHg and 89.6 mlHg respectively. The difference of blood pressure before and after treatment was statistically significant (P<0.05, so we concluded that Apium graveolence seed can be used as is a safe and effective treatment for high blood pressure. Further controlled studies should be done to compare it with available anti-hypertensive drugs.

  20. DNA fingerprinting for the authentication of Ruta graveolens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was employed to ... samples using the DNA isolated from the dried leaf, seed and stem of both samples. ..... opposite strands and is complementary to the primer for.

  1. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

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    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian territory. It is commonly known as fennel or "erva-doce" and has been used in medicine as analgesic, digestive, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, lactigenous, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic agent. Crude ethanolic extract for the verification of biological activities was prepared from seeds bought in the market. For the phytochemical profile, analytical thin-layer chromatography was used; the antimicrobial activity was determined by the paper disc diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; the antinociceptive activity was verified by the method of abdominal writhings in the animals. The tested microorganisms were multiresistant clinical isolates obtained from the Bacteriology Sector of the Clinical Hospital of Pernambuco. The phytochemical study identified the majority of secondary compounds present in the methanolic fraction of seeds, as follows: triterpenes, flavanoid glycosides, smaller terpenes (monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids and reducing sugars. The obtained results showed that the ethanolic extract had greater activity against Micrococcus spp. (MIC=250µg/mL. Results of the evaluation of the antinociceptive activity demonstrated that only the dosage of 298 mg/Kg, compared to the indomethacin pattern, led to a significant reduction in the number of abdominal writhings in the animals. Further studies will be carried out for the identification and isolation of some secondary compounds, as well as other analgesic protocols.

  2. Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae crude extract induces apoptosis in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC 3

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    Fatemeh Zare Shahneh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the second leading malignancy worldwide and the second prominent cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Therefore, there is a serious necessity for finding advanced alternative therapeutic measures against this lethal malignancy. In this article, we report the cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death of the methanolic extract prepared from Echinophora platyloba DC plant against human prostate adenocarcinoma PC 3 cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells HUVEC cell line. Methods: Cytotoxicity and viability of the methanolic extract were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and dye exclusion assay. Cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production resulting from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determine whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The cell death was identified as apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis. Results: E. platyloba could decrease cell viability in malignant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values against PC 3 were determined as 236.136 ± 12.4, 143.400 ± 7.2, and 69.383 ± 1.29 μg/ml after 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively, but there was no significant activity in HUVEC normal cell (IC50 > 800 μg/ml. Morphological characterizations and DNA laddering assay showed that the methanolic extract treated cells displayed marked apoptotic characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and DNA laddering fragment. Increase in an early apoptotic population was observed in a dose-dependent manner. PC 3 cell death elicited by the extract was found to be apoptotic in nature based a clear indication of TUNEL assay and gel electrophoresis DNA fragmentation, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. Conclusions: In summary, the E. platyloba extract attenuated the human prostate adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. E. platyloba is likely to be valuable for the treatment of human prostate adenocarcinoma.

  3. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. (Apiaceae) seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavela, R.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 165, mar (2016), s. 51-57 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : botanical larvicide * Furanochromenes * Visnagin * Khellin * Sublethal effect * Mosquito Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  4. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  5. Creating new populations of Apium bermejoi (Apiaceae, a critically endangered endemic plant on Menorca (Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apium bermejoi is a stoloniferous plant endemic to the island of Menorca (Balearic Islands. It is found only at one locality, and it is listed as Critically Endangered (according to the IUCN criteria. We describe the main results of population restoration actions undertaken under the Recovery Plan for this species, including the following: 1 introduction at two new localities (2008, 2 reinforcement of the original wild and the introduced populations, and 3 a programme for monitoring population dynamics (including both wild and introduced populations spanning four years (2006-2010. The plant material for the introduction and reinforcement projects was generated from seeds gathered in the wild. We carried out a monthly census of all of the individuals/patches and emerged seedlings, from which we assessed their survival at 3-4months. The survival rates of the planted individuals in the two new localities after three months were found to be 59.0% and 56.3%, and more than 80% of the surviving plants produced fruits. A seasonal pattern was observed based on the minimum cover values recorded in the censuses taken at the end of summer, with an increase detected during autumn, and maximal cover values recorded during May/June. The A. bermejoi populations showed large inter-annual fluctuations in both the number of patches and area of occupancy. The number of seedlings varied across the study years, and their survival was linked to specific meteorological events, such as severe storms and dry and hot spells during autumn. The initial phase of introduction for this species has been overall successful, but a final evaluation can only be made on a longterm basis.Apium bermejoi, planta estolonífera endémica de Menorca (Islas Baleares, de la que se conoce una sola localidad en el medio natural, está considerada en Peligro Crítico de extinción (según criterios UICN. Se presentan los principales resultados de las acciones de restauración de las poblaciones previstas en el Plan de Recuperación de esta especie que, entre otras, constaba de: 1 introducción en dos nuevas localidades (2008, 2 re - for zamiento de la población original y 3 programa de seguimiento de la dinámica de todas las poblaciones (naturales e introducidas a lo largo de 4 años (2006-2010. Para la introducción y reforzamiento se utilizaron plantas germinadas a partir de un lote de semillas de la población original. Se realizaron censos mensuales de todos los individuos/manchas y de las plántulas emergidas, de éstas se evaluó su supervivencia a los 3-4 meses. La supervivencia de los individuos plantados a los tres meses fue del 59,0% y del 56,3% en las dos nuevas localidades; más del 80% de estas plantas fructificaron. Se observó un patrón estacional con valores de cobertura mínimos en los censos de finales de verano, incrementos durante el otoño y valores máximos en el censo de mayo/junio. Las poblaciones presentaron una elevada fluctuación interanual tanto en número de individuos/manchas como en cobertura. El número de plántulas emergidas fue muy variable entre años, su número y supervivencia se relacionó con eventos meteorológicos puntuales, como lluvias torrenciales y periodos secos y cálidos durante el otoño. La fase inicial de las introducciones ha sido globalmente exitosa, aunque la evaluación final deberá hacerse a largo plazo.

  6. Phylogenetic prediction of Alternaria leaf blight resistance in wild and cultivated species of carrots (Daucus, Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant scientists make inferences and predictions from phylogenetic trees to solve scientific problems. Crop losses due to disease damage is an important problem that many plant breeders would like to solve, so the ability to predict traits like disease resistance from phylogenetic trees derived from...

  7. Extrusion technology as a promising tool for vegetable oil extraction: Biorefinery of Apiaceae fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Uitterhaegen, Evelien; Merah, Othmane; Talou, Thierry; Stevens, Chris; Rigal, Luc; Evon, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    As fossil resources are steadily depleting and environmental concerns have developed into one of the main discussion points in public and political agendas, sustainability and an ecological viewpoint have become indispensable terms in modern society. This critical pressure towards ‘greener’ alternatives has led to a progressive application of renewable resources by the chemical industry. Vegetable oils present an interesting class of bioresources, with a market comprising both food and non-fo...

  8. Purification and some kinetic properties of catalase from parsley (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm., Apiaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Lokman; Bülbül, Metin; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ciftçi, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    In this study, catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) was purified from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves; analysis of the kinetic behavior and some properties of the enzyme were investigated. The purification consisted of three steps, including preparation of homogenate, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and fractionation by DEAE-Sephadex A50 ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme was obtained with a yield of 9.5% and had a specific activity of 1126 U (mg proteins)(-1). The overall purification was about 5.83-fold. A temperature of 4 degrees C was maintained during the purification process. Enzyme activity was spectrophotometrically measured at 240 nm. In order to control the purification of the enzyme, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out in 4% and 10% acryl amide for stacking and running gel, respectively. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band for the enzyme. The molecular weight was found to be 183.29 kDa by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. The stable pH, optimum pH, and ionic strength were determined for phosphate and Tris-HCl buffer systems. In addition, K(M) and V(max) values for H(2)O(2), at optimum pH and 25 degrees C, were determined by means of Lineweaver-Burk plots.

  9. Characterization of nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers for Falcaria vulgaris (Apiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbottam Piya; Madhav P. Nepal

    2013-01-01

    Falcaria vulgaris (sickleweed) is native to Eurasia and a potential invasive plant of the United States. No molecular markers have been developed so far for sickleweed. Characterization of molecular markers for this plant would allow investigation into its population structure and biogeography thereby yielding insights into risk analysis and effective management...

  10. Biological Assays and Chemical Composition of Volatile Oils of Bupleurum fruticosum L. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maxia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of supercritical CO 2 extracts and essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Bupleurum fruticosum L., growing spontaneously in Italy and Portugal, and its antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus.

  11. Essential oil constituents of the aerial parts and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides (Apiaceae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, N; Shamkhani, H; Ghelichpour, Z; Mohammadi, M A; Sonboli, A

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts at different growing stages and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides DC., from Iran were investigated. The oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty-five, 52, 40 and 36 components were identified in the essential oils of aerial parts (vegetative, flowering and fruit) and root representing of the 99.2, 99.0, 99.8 and 99.6% of the total oils, respectively. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant in vegetative stage was dominated by n-decanal (36.5%) and n-dodecanal (25.3%). n-Decanal (35.8%) and 2E-decenal (25.1%) were the main constituents of the plant oil in flowering stage whereas 2E-decenal (32.1%) and 2E-dodecenal (21.5%) were characterised as the main components of the plant oil in fruit stage. In the essential oil of root, the major identified components were 2-dodecenoic acid (29.8%) and 2E-Dodecenol (12.7%).

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Deverra scoparia Coss. & Dur. (Apiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi, R.; Dehak, K.; Hadj Mahammed, M.; Didi Ouldelhadj, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of the aerial part of the plant Deverra scoparia Coss. &Dur. The extraction of essential oils was carried out by hydrodistillation. The composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). 22 constituents were identified, representing 84.63% of the essential oil. The major compounds are: α-bornyl acetate (31.99%) andα-pinene (12.05%). The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH and ABTS. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil wasmore effective than the two references tested,ascorbic acidand Trolox (author)

  13. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  14. A Novel Model for Multicomponent Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Application to Ruta graveolens.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Stateva, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, Part 1 (2017), s. 102-112 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * multicomponent equilibrium * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  15. Food emulsions with amidated pectin from celery (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum D.C. tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Petrova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Hydrocolloids, especially polysaccharides from traditional plant sources and their derivatives possessed significant emulsifying properties. Pectin was isolated from celery tubers by accelerated “green” method for extraction based on ultrasonic irradiation. Further chemical modification of celery pectin was performed with 4 mol/L NH The amidated celery pectin was obtained with the following characteristics: the degree of esterification (DE 31%, the degree of 3. amidation (DA 16%, degree of acetylation (DAc 2% and anhydrouronic acid content (AUAC 68%. This modified pectin was incorporated in preparation of model 30, 40 and 50% oil-in-water emulsions. The effect of amidation of celery pectin on the stability of emulsions was investigated. The results showed that amidation increased the emulsifying properties of pectic polysaccharides. It affected also the rheological characteristics of model emulsion. The current study demonstrated preparation of emulsion with low-caloric amidated pectin as proper alternative to the traditional emulsifiers.

  16. Effects on nitrogen fertilization on dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed and carvone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Research was conducted to remedy the lack of information on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the seed and carvone (a potato sprouting inhibitor) production of dill under Dutch conditions. From two trials conducted in 1995 on fertile loamy soils it can be concluded that dill is able to

  17. Mannitol utilisation by celery (Apium graveolens) plants grown under different conditions in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Lenka; Stodůlková, E.; Bartoníčková, A.; Lipavská, H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 163, - (2002), s. 907-916 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : Carbohydrates * Osmotic stress * Sugar alcohol Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2002

  18. Application of different fertilizers on morphological traits of dill (Anethum graveolens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fatemeh; Gholami-Borujeni, Fathollah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitroxin biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the growth, yield, and essential oil composition of dill. The experiment was conducted under field condition in randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors. The first factor was the concentrations of nitroxin biofertilizer (0%, 50%, and 100%) of the recommended amount (1 l of biological fertilizer for 30 kg of seed). The second factor was the following chemical fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (control) and 50 and 100 kg ha(-1) urea along with 300 kg ha(-1) ammonium phosphate. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of umbel per plant, number of umbellet per umbel, number of grain per umbellet, 1,000 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield, and oil percentage were recorded. According to the results, the highest height, biological yield, and grain yield components (except harvest index) were obtained on biological fertilizer. The results showed the highest essential oil content detected in biological fertilizer and chemical fertilizer. Identification of essential oil composition showed that the content of carvone increased with the application of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers. The results indicated that the application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and other plant criteria in this plant. Generally, it seems that the use of biofertilizers or combinations of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer could improve dill performance in addition to reduction of environmental pollution.

  19. Production of oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth seedling from seeds in nursery for transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martínez-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de orégano en vivero es una opción para la obtención de plantas de buena calidad para trasplante. El propósito del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de cinco sustratos y cinco contenedores en el crecimiento y calidad de la planta de orégano. Los sustratos fueron: mezcla comercial BM2 (turba, perlita y vermiculita, 80:10:10, BM2 + arena de río (1:1, BM2 + arena de río (1.5:1, BM2 + perlita + vermiculita (1:1:1 y mezcla de composta + arena de río (1.5:1. Los contenedores incluyeron charolas de poliestireno expandido (PE de 200, 128 y 76 cavidades, vaso de PE de 250 cm 3 y bolsa de plástico negro de 712 cm 3 (calibre 150 μm . Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial, con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento. Los sustratos y el tipo de contenedor afectaron el crecimiento y calidad de la planta. Se observó mayor crecimiento de la planta y mayor área foliar en la combinación bolsa y sustrato BM2. Este mismo sustrato y el contenedor bolsa promovieron el índice de calidad de Dickson más alto. La relación peso seco del vástago y peso seco de la raíz fue mayor en los contenedores de mayor volumen.

  20. Extraction of Botanical Pesticides from Pelargonium graveolens using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machalová, Zdeňka; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Topiař, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 67, MAY (2015), s. 310-317 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : botanical pesticides * geranium oil * supercritical fluid extraction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  1. Inferring introduction history and spread of Falcaria vulgaris Bernh. (Apiaceae) in the United States based on herbarium records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbottam Piya; Madhav P. Nepal; Achal Neupane; Gary E. Larson; Jack L. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Herbarium records were studied to infer the introduction history and spread of the exotic Eurasian sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris Bernh.) in the United States. The spread of the plant was reconstructed using the location of early collections as the possible sites of primary introduction, and the location of subsequent collections as potential pathways along which this...

  2. Cytotoxic Activity and Composition of Petroleum Ether Extract from Magydaris tomentosa (Desf. W. D. J. Koch (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Autore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether extract of Magydaris tomentosa flowers (Desf. W. D. J. Koch has been analyzed by GC-MS. It is mainly constituted by furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isopimpinellin, and bergaptene. Other coumarins such as 7-methoxy-8-(2-formyl-2-methylpropyl coumarin and osthole also occurred. The antiproliferative activity of Magydaris tomentosa flower extract has been evaluated in vitro on murine monocye/macrophages (J774A.1, human melanoma (A375 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 tumor cell lines, showing a major activity against the latter.

  3. Gastroprotective effect of diligustilide isolated from roots of Ligusticum porteri coulter & rose (Apiaceae) on ethanol-induced lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Moyado, Josué A; Martínez-González, Alejandro; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Mata, Rachel; Navarrete, Andrés

    2015-11-04

    The rhizome of Ligusticum porteri Coulter& Rose (LP) has been traditionally used by the ethnic group Raramuri in the North of México for treatment of diabetes, tuberculosis, stomachaches, diarrhea and ritual healing ceremonies. It is use as antiulcer remedy has been extended to all Mexico. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of LP organic extracts and the major natural product diligustilide (DLG),using as experimental model the inhibition of the ethanol-induced lesions in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by intragastric instillation of absolute ethanol (1 mL). We tested the gastroprotective activity of the organic extracts of LP and the pure compound DLG. The ulcer index (UI) was determined to measure the activity. In order to elucidate the action mechanism of DLG the animals were treated with L-NAME, N-ethylmalemide, Forskolin, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, Indomethacin, Glibenclameide, Diazoxide, NaHS and DL-Propargylglycine. The pylorus-ligated rat model was used to measure gastric secretion. The oral administration of organic extracts of Ligusticum porteri showed gastroprotective effect at 30 mg/Kg on ethanol induced gastric lesions; hexane and dichloromethane extracts were the most active. DLG was the major compound in the hexane extract. This compound at 10 mg/kg prevented significantly the gastric injuries induced by ethanol. The alkylation of endogenous non-protein-SH groups with N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotective effect of DLG and blocking the formation of endogenous prostaglandins by the pretreatment with indomethacin attenuated the gastroprotective effect of DLG. The gastroprotective activity demonstrated in this study tends to support the ethnomedical use of Ligusticum porteri roots. DLG, isolated as major compound of this medicinal plant has a clear gastroprotective effect on the ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The results suggest that the antiulcer activity of DLG depends on the participation of the endogenous non-protein -SH groups and prostaglandins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium L. and L. ochridanum Micevski (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Višnja B; Petrović, Silvana D; Milenković, Marina T; Drobac, Milica M; Couladis, Maria A; Niketić, Marjan S

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Laserpitium latifolium and L. ochridanum were investigated. The essential oils were isolated by steam distillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. All essential oils were distinguished by high contents of monoterpenes, and α-pinene was the most abundant compound in the essential oils of L. latifolium underground parts and fruits (contents of 44.4 and 44.0%, resp.). The fruit essential oil was also rich in sabinene (26.8%). Regarding the L. ochridanum essential oils, the main constituents were limonene in the fruit oil (57.7%) and sabinene in the herb oil (25.9%). The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils as well as that of L. ochridanum underground parts, whose composition was reported previously, was tested by the broth-microdilution method against four Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two Candida albicans strains. Except the L. latifolium underground-parts essential oil, the other investigated oils showed a high antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, or Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentrations of 13.0-73.0 μg/ml), comparable to or even higher than that of thymol, which was used as reference compound. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Chemical Composition of Volatiles; Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. (Apiaceae) Essential Oils and Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Goran M; Stamenković, Jelena G; Kostevski, Ivana R; Stojanović, Gordana S; Mitić, Violeta D; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition of the headspace volatiles (HS) and essential oils obtained from fresh Chaerophyllum aromaticum root and aerial parts in full vegetative phase, as well as biological activities of their essential oils and MeOH extracts. In HS samples, the most dominant components were monoterpene hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the essential oils consisted mainly of sesquiterpenoids, representing 73.4% of the root and 63.4% of the aerial parts essential oil. The results of antibacterial assay showed that the aerial parts essential oil and MeOH extract have no antibacterial activity, while the root essential oil and extract showed some activity. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited anticholinesterase activity (47.65% and 50.88%, respectively); MeOH extract of the root showed only 8.40% inhibition, while aerial part extract acted as an activator of cholinesterase. Regarding the antioxidant activity, extracts were found to be more effective than the essential oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. OENANTHE CROCATA (APIACEAE, APIOIDEAE, PLANTA TÓXICA NUEVA PARA LA FLORA ADVENTICIA DE ARGENTINA Y AMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el hallazgo de Oenanthe crocata en la provincia de Buenos Aires, una nueva especie se suma a la flora adventicia de la Argentina y de América. Se trata de una planta tóxica, originaria de Europa; la toxicidad se debe a la presencia, particularmente en las raíces, de enantotoxina, un alcohol poliacetilénico. En los países de origen se han reportado casos de envenenamiento y muerte en ganado y seres humanos debido a la ingestión de tubérculos radicales. La identificación de la especie se corroboró con la comparación de la región ITS de ADN nuclear ribosomal del material argentino con las secuencias nucleotídicas disponibles en GenBank y con un análisis filogenético de máxima verosimilitud de las especies de Oenanthe. Además se remite, por primera vez, Oenanthe divaricata a la sinonimia de O. crocata. En este aporte se describe e ilustra la nueva cita, se provee un mapa de distribución y se señalan los caracteres diferenciales con otras apioideas que crecen en Argentina.

  7. Yielding of leaf celery Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef. depending on the number of harvests and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rożek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf celery (Apium graveolensvar. secalinum is a vegetable with medicinal and spicy properties. Its numerous intensely fragrant leaves can be cut several times during the plant growing period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and number of harvests on leaf celery yield of the cultivars ‘Afina’ and‘Gewone Snij’. Plant irrigation significantly increased leaf yield and plant height of leaf celery. Higher total yield was obtained from non-irrigated plants when leaves were harvested three times, whereas for irrigated plants yield was higher in the case of two leaf harvests. Irrespective of the experimental factors, higher yield was obtained from the cultivar ‘Gewone Snij’.

  8. Partitioning and transport of the translocates mannitol and sucrose in the light and dark in celery (Apium Graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Loescher, W.H.

    1987-04-01

    Sucrose and mannitol are major photosynthetic products and translocates in celery. Assimilate partitioning and transport were studied by pulse-labeling leaves with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ followed by different length chases in ambient air. After a 2 h chase in the light there was more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol in source leaves and their petioles. In contrast after a 2 h dark chase leaves contained more /sup 14/C in mannitol than sucrose but petioles had more /sup 14/C in sucrose than mannitol. After a 15 h chase (6 h light; 9 h dark) labeled sucrose was higher in source petiole vascular bundles than in adjacent parenchyma tissue but label in glucose and fructose was higher in the parenchyma tissue. After the 15 h chase most of the /sup 14/C remaining in developing sink leaves and their petioles was in mannitol. Although in the light mannitol:sucrose ratios are the same in leaf and petiole tissues, in the dark sucrose is initially the major translocate with mannitol becoming more important as leaf sucrose pools are depleted. When synthesized, sucrose is rapidly transported and then metabolized to hexose sugars whereas mannitol is used both for transport and storage.

  9. De novo assembly, gene annotation and marker development using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences in celery (Apium graveolens L..

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    Nan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery is an increasing popular vegetable species, but limited transcriptome and genomic data hinder the research to it. In addition, a lack of celery molecular markers limits the process of molecular genetic breeding. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method to generate a large transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery, molecular marker development and marker-assisted selection breeding. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Celery transcriptomes from four tissues were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 42,280 unigenes (average length of 502.6 bp that represent the first transcriptome of the species. 78.43% and 48.93% of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant protein database (Nr and Swiss-Prot database respectively, and 10,473 (24.77% unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG. 21,126 (49.97% unigenes harboring Interpro domains were annotated, in which 15,409 (36.45% were assigned to Gene Ontology(GO categories. Additionally, 7,478 unigenes were mapped onto 228 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG. Large numbers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs were indentified, and then the rate of successful amplication and polymorphism were investigated among 31 celery accessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information by Illumina paired-end sequencing and efficient assembling. Our results provide a valuable resource for celery research. The developed molecular markers are the foundation of further genetic linkage analysis and gene localization, and they will be essential to accelerate the process of breeding.

  10. Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Seledri (Apium graveolens L. pada Sistem Hidroponik Sumbu dengan Jenis Sumbu dan Media Tanam Berbeda

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    Riana Pradina Embarsari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman seledri dipergunakan sebagai pelengkap masakan ataupun sebagai obat. Tingginya permintaan seledri dalam bentuk segar oleh masyarakat  Indonesia belum dapat terpenuhi, selain itu tanaman seledri bersifat aditif dalam bahan makanan sehingga dipergunakan dalam jumlah sedikit tetapi penting. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei – Agustus 2014 di Screen House Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat dengan ketinggian sekitar 700-800 m dpl. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial dua faktor. Faktor pertama terdiri dari 2 taraf, yaitu kain sumbu bahan wol dan kain sumbu bahan katun. Faktor ke dua adalah media tanam yang terdiri dari beberapa 5 taraf yaitu media tanam 100% kompos, media tanam 50% kompos + 50% arang sekam, media tanam 25% kompos daun bambu + 75% arang sekam, media tanam 75% kompos daun bambu + 25% arang sekam dan media tanam 100% arang sekam. Sehingga terdapat 10 kombinasi taraf perlakuan yang diulang sebanyak tiga kali.Uji lanjut menggunakan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Parameter utama yang diamati adalah tinggi tanaman, jumlah batang, dan bobot segar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi interaksi antara jenis sumbu dan media tanam pada tinggi tanaman dari umur 3 MST sampai umur 8 MST dengan perlakuan (s2m2, pada jumlah batang terjadi interaksi pada umur 6 dan 8 MST dengan perlakuan (s2m3, bobot segar terjadi interaksi umur 8 MST dengan perlakuan (s2m2. Jenis sumbu dan media tanam yang paling baik pada umur 8 MST terhadap tinggi tanaman dan bobot segar adalah (s2m2 sedangkan pada jumlah batang terdapat pada perlakuan (s2m3. Celery plant is used as a food supplement or as a medicine. The high demand in the form of fresh celery by the people of Indonesia has not been met by supply, besides celery plants are additive in food ingredients also used in small amounts but vital. The experiment was conducted in May until August 2014 at screen house Faculty of Agriculture, University of Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Sumedang regency, West Java Province, altitude 700-800 m above sea level. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD factorial of two factors. The first factor composed of 2 levels, s1 = wool fabrics and s2 = cotton fabrics. Second factor was the growing media consisting of 5 levels respectively m1 = 100% of bamboo leaf compost, m2 = 50% of bamboo leaf compost + 50% of rice husk pyrolysis, m3 = 25% of bamboo leaf compost + 75% of rice husk pyrolysis, m4 = 75% of bamboo leaf compost + 25% of rice husk pyrolysis and m5 = 100% of rice husk pyrolysis. So there were 10 combinations level of treatment was repeated three times. Further test used Duncan Multiple Range Test. Parameter observed were plant height, number of stems and fresh weight. The results showed there were interaction between wick types and growing medias on plant height from 3 MST (Week After Planting until 8 MST (Week After Planting treatment (s2m2, the number of stems interaction at  6 MST and 8 MST treatment (s2m3, fresh weight interaction at 8 MST (Week After Planting treatment (s2m2. The best of wick types and growing media at 8 MST on plant height and fresh weight was (s2m2 while the number of stems were in treatment (s2m3.

  11. Evaluation of radiation interception and use by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and dill (Anethum graveolens L. intercropping canopy

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    Mehdi myousefnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that legumes give benefits to the soil such as improved nutrient availability, improved structure, reduced pest and disease incidence, and hormonal effects (Wani et al., 1995. The major benefit of legume crops comes from biologically nitrogen fixation, deriving from the symbiosis involving leguminous plants and rhizobium bacteria (Vance, 1998. Based on this purpose, a field study was conducted to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency in fenugreek and dill in row intercropping as replacement series at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2013-2014. Treatments included 20% fenugreek+ 80% dill, 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill, 60% fenugreek+ 40% dill, 80% fenugreek+ 20% dill and their monoculture. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT were performed using SAS version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Results indicated that leaf area index, light absorption, total dry matter accumulation and radiation use efficiency (RUE of fenugreek and dill increased in all intercropping ratios compared to monoculture. RUE range for fenugreek was from 0.95 g.MJ-1 in monoculture to 1.24 g.MJ-1 in 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill. RUE range for dill was from 0.64 g.MJ-1 in monoculture to 1.02 g.MJ-1 in 40% fenugreek+ 60% dill.

  12. Estimación de la biomasa foliar seca de Lippia graveolens Kunth del sureste de Coahuila

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    Eulalia Edith Villavicencio Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El orégano es un recurso forestal no maderable de importancia comercial, considerado como una especie aromática y culinaria que se aprovecha en las zonas semiáridas de Coahuila, con una producción mayor a 700 t anuales, y representa para el sector rural una opción productiva. Con el propósito de cuantificar el recurso y contribuir a regular su aprovechamiento, se determinaron las relaciones alométricas de individuos de orégano recolectados en 20 poblaciones naturales distribuidas en los municipios General Cepeda, Parras de la Fuente y Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, para seleccionar un modelo que estime la biomasa foliar seca (Bfs de la planta. A partir de un muestreo destructivo, se analizaron 706 plantas, de las cuales se obtuvo su altura total (At, diámetro mayor arbustivo (DM y diámetro menor arbustivo (Dm, diámetro promedio (Dp de la copa y biomasa foliar seca (Bfs. Con la prueba de correlación de Pearson se eligieron las variables más relacionadas con la Bfs , las cuales se emplearon para ajustar 10 modelos de regresión mediante el procedimiento PROC MODEL. El modelo seleccionado fue el de Schumacher-Hall Bfs 0.00599(Dp1.935454(At0.256803por registrar valores superiores de R2aju (0.80 y el menor valor en la raíz del cuadrado medio del error (RCME, 0.304, considerando la significancia de sus parámetros (p≤ 0.0001, a partir de este se elaboró una tabla de doble entrada que estima la Bfs de las plantas.

  13. Anti-Candida activity assessment of Pelargonium graveolens oil free and nanoemulsion in biofilm formation in hospital medical supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Janice Luehring; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Fausto, Viviane Pedroso; Quatrin, Priscilla Maciel; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Gündel, André; Gomes, Patrícia; Steppe, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Infections due to microbial biofilm formation on the surface of catheters and other medical devices are constantly reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospitals. Furthermore, sessile cells are more resistant to phagocytosis and most antimicrobial, which complicates the treatment of such infections. Researches aimed at new antimicrobial originating mainly from plants have increased in recent years and the development of new strategies for their release is critical in combating the formation of biofilms. Geranium oil (GO) has proven antimicrobial activity. Because of this, the aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions containing this oil (NEG) and evaluate its activity after the biofilm formation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei in hospital medical supplies. For quantification of the biofilm, crystal violet, total protein, and ATP-bioluminescence assays were used. The results revealed that GO and NEG showed lower MIC for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The biofilms formed by different species of Candida on the surfaces of polyethylene and polyurethane were quantified. GO and NEG significantly inhibited the formation of biofilms in all species tested on the surfaces of polyethylene. However, NEG antibiofilm has had better activity than GO for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, according to the surface potential analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The analysis of the biofilm formation on the polyethylene surface by ATP-bioluminescence and CFU showed similar results. In both methods the formation of biofilm in the catheter occurred in greater quantity for C. albicans and C. tropicalis. GO did not significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms only in C. krusei, although NEG significantly increased this activity GO in all species tested when compared to the control training biofilm. The following study shows that the development of NEG may become an effective alternative to reduce the adhesion of microorganisms and prevent infections resulting from the use of some hospital medical materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EVALUASI, UJI STABILITAS FISIK DAN SINERESIS SEDIAAN GEL YANG MENGANDUNG MINOKSIDIL, APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.

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    Emma Sri Kuncari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMinoxidil, apigenin and celery are believed to have the same bioactivity as a vasodilator that can widen blood vessels. This study discusses about the gel formulation in the scope of evaluation of gel preparation, using carbomer as a gelling agent each containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice. The method used in gel evaluation were organoleptic observation, homogeneity, pH, consistency and viscosity; physical stability at 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C and syneresis. Based on the result, all gel formulations showed their consistency and viscosity were higher after 8 weeks of storage at room temperature. The rheogram of three gel formulations in term of flow properties remain unchanged after 8 weeks of storage. It was indicated that the flow properties of gel formulation was pseudoplastis tixotropic. The gel containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice showed good physical stability at 28±2 °C and 40±2 °C, but less stable at 4±2 °C after 14 weeks of storage. The highest number of syneresis was found in a gel containing celery juice.Keywords : Celery, Apigenin, Gel, StabilityAbstrakMinoksidil, apigenin dan seledri memiliki aktivitas biologi yang sama sebagai vasodilator yang dapat memperlebar pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini sebagai evaluasi sediaan gel, menggunakan karbomer sebagai gelling agentyang mengandung masing-masing minoksidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri. Metode yang digunakan dalam evaluasi gel adalah pengamatan organoleptis, homogenitas, pH, konsistensi dan viskositas; stabilitas fisik pada suhu 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C dan sineresis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketiga formula gel menunjukkan konsistensi dan viskositas yang lebih tinggi setelah 8  minggu  penyimpanan  pada  temperatur  ruang.  Hasil  rheogram  dari  ketiga  formula gel  menunjukkan  sifat  alir  yang  tetap  tidak  berubah  setelah  8  minggu  penyimpanan, yaitu pseudoplastis tiksotropik. Gel yang mengandung minoxidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan stabil fisik pada penyimpanan suhu 28±2 °C dan 40±2 °C, tetapi kurang stabil pada suhu 4±2 °C setelah 14 minggu penyimpanan. Angka sineresis tertinggi terdapat pada gel yang mengandung perasan herba seledri.Kata kunci : Seledri, Apigenin, Gel, Stabilitas

  15. Comparative structure of the osmophores in the flowers of Stanhopea graveolens Lindley and Cycnoches chlorochilon Klotzsch (Orchidaceae

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tradescantia comprises about 70 species. In Poland Tradescantia x andersoniana is basically grown as an ornamental plant that is recommended for borders and to be planted around garden ponds. The present study investigated flowering as well as the micromorphological and anatomical features of some floral elements of Tradescantia x andersoniana W. Ludw. Rohweder 'Karin'. The macro- and micromorphology of the flowers was examined using stereoscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Spiderwort produces flowers with a diameter of 4.6-5 cm, which open early in the morning and close at noon. Non-glandular and glandular hairs grow on the abaxial surface of the calyx and on the apical part of the ovary. The glandular hairs develop a several-celled stalk and a unicellular spherical or elongated head. The staminal filaments produce chain-shaped trichomes. Striate cuticular ornamentation is found on their surface and on the epidermis covering the perianth. The striae on the cells of the stamen hairs run to the two poles of the cell. The pistil develops a wet stigma with unfused unicellular papillae. The cuticle on their surface is smooth, whereas on the style near the stigma it forms dense folds.

  16. Evaluation of mechanism for antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of hexanic and hydroalcoholic extracts of celery seed in normotensive and hypertensive rats

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    Faezeh Tashakori-Sabzevar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae is one of the popular aromatic vegetables and part of the daily diet around the world. In this study, aqueous-ethanolic and hexane extracts of celery seed were prepared and the amount of n-butylphthalide, as an active component, was determined in each extract. Then the effects of hexanic extract on systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated in an invasive rat model. The vasodilatory effect and possible mechanisms of above mentioned extracts on aorta ring were also measured. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that hexanic extract contains significantly higher amounts of n-butylphthalide, compared to aqueous-ethanolic extract. The results indicated that hexanic extract significantly decreased the systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our data revealed that celery seed extract exerts its hypotensive effects through its bradycardic and vasodilatory properties. Moreover, the active components in celery seed extracts could induce their vasodilatory properties through Ca2+ channel blocking activity in endothelial and non-endothelial pathways and particularly by interference with the extra or intracellular calcium.

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  18. Effect of silicon and selenium on enzymatic changes and productivity of dill in saline condition

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    Fariborz Shekari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anethum graveolens is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae. The experiment was carried out in a factorial design with two factors include salinity, which was applied to the root medium as NaCl (0 and 10 ds/m and nutrition as sodium silicate (0 and 1.5 mM, and selenate (0, 5 μM. Supplementary Si or Se ameliorated the negative effects of salinity on plant dry matter and chlorophyll content. Application of Si or Se decreased Na+ concentration and increased K+ concentration in roots and shoots of dill plants. Salinity imposed oxidative stress and leaded to increase malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. Under saline condition, addition of Si/Se significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in salt-stressed plant when compared with plant subjected to salinity alone. Our results revealed that improvement in growth of salt stressed plants under the influence of Si and Se may be due to the improved ion balance, antioxidant enzymes activities and osmotic adjustment. These trace elements had negative effect on growth under non-saline conditions. Therefore, application of these trace elements (especially Silicon under saline condition could be a better strategy for maintaining the crop productivity in these regions.

  19. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  20. Effects of gamma irradiation and comparison of different extraction methods on sesquiterpene lactone yields from the medicinal plant Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, Abir M.; Martinez-Swatson, Karen A.; Benkaci-Ali, Farid

    2017-01-01

    methods Quantification of the compounds of interest was done using an HPLC. The antioxidant activity extracts was determined using the two free radical scavenging assays: the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS). Results...... the combined effect of microwave assisted extraction and gamma irradiation on the highly bioactive compounds found in extracts of Algerian T. garganica, samples from different locations in Algeria were prepared by extraction from dried leaf and root samples of dried plant material, using different extraction......: It was found that location and extraction method had significant impact on the phytochemical composition of extracts. Gamma irradiation was found to have no effect on the phytochemical composition of the plant extracts or on their antioxidant properties. Conclusion: The study has shown that microwave assisted...

  1. Chemical composition and bio-pesticidal values of essential oil isolated from the seed of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer (Apiaceae

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to analyse the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer and assess its lethal and sub-lethal effects against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Essential oil from hydro-distilled seeds of H. persicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and hexyl butyrate (50.58%, octyl acetate (9.80% and hexyl hexanoate (8.75% were found as principal constituents. Repellent activity, contact and fumigant toxicity and antifeedant effects of this oil were assessed against the adults of T. castaneum. The essential oil strongly repelled T. castaneum adults even at the lowest concentration (0.035 μL cm-2. Complete repellency (100% occurred when the highest concentration (0.212 μL cm-2 was applied for 8 h. T. castaneum was very susceptible to H. persicum oil at both contact and fumigant bioassays. In the fumigant toxicity, essential oil killed the larvae, pupae and adults and significantly decreased larvae emerged from treated eggs. LC10 to LC40 values of fumigation adult’s bioassay as sub-lethal concentrations were used to evaluate the antifeedant effects. H. persicum essential oil has significant antifeedant effects on T. castaneum adults and decrease of feeding happened when oil concentrations increased. The results of the present study indicate that essential oil of H. persicum, with wide bio-effects on T. castaneum, is a source of biologically active agents which may potentially prove to be efficient insecticides.

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Helicobacter Activities of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), and Galinsoga ciliata (Asteraceae) against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouitcheu Mabeku, Laure Brigitte; Eyoum Bille, Bertrand; Nguepi, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extracts of Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga ciliata, and Eryngium foetidum against 6 clinical strains of Helicobacter pylori in vitro and in vivo. Broth microdilution method was used in vitro. In vivo, Swiss mice were inoculated with H. pylori and divided into 5 groups; the control group received the vehicle and the four others received 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum and ciprofloxacin (500 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively. Helicobacter pylori colonization and number of colonies in gastric biopsies culture were assessed on days 1 and 7 after treatment. The lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) and the best spectrum of bactericidal effect (MBC/MIC = 1) were obtained with the methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum. The number of H. pylori infected animals was 17% (plant-extract) and 0% (ciprofloxacin) compared to 100% for the infected untreated group. Plant-extract (381.9 ± 239.5 CFU) and ciprofloxacin (248 ± 153.2 CFU) significantly reduced bacterial load in gastric mucosa compared to untreated, inoculated mice (14350 ± 690 CFU). Conclusion. The present data provided evidence that methanol extract of Eryngium foetidum could be a rich source of metabolites with antimicrobial activity to fight Helicobacter pylori infections.

  3. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  4. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  5. [Relaxant activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Nym. ex A. W Hill, Apiaceae) on isolated ileum of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branković, Suzana; Kitić, Dusanka; Radenković, Mirjana; Ivetić, Vesna; Veljković, Slavimir; Nesić, Milkica

    2010-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is used in the traditional herbal medicine to treat intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley on spontaneous and acetylcholine induced contractions on isolated rat ileum. Wistar albino rats (250-300 g) were used in this study. The ileum portions were isolated out and cleaned off mesenteries. Preparations 2 cm long were mounted in 20 ml tissue baths containing Tyrode's solution maintained at 37 degrees C and aerated with a mixture of 5% carbon dioxide in oxygen. In the first part of experiments, contractile responses to the aqueous (ethanol) extracts of parsley were recorded. In the second part, increasing concentrations of acetylcholine were added to the organ bath for a full concentration response curve and then concentration response curves were obtained after adding the aqueous (ethanol) extracts of parsley. Our results showed that aqueous (62.22 +/- 7.15%) and ethanol (79.16 +/- 9.34%) extracts of parsley in dose dependent manner decreased the tonus of spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The aqueous (32.16 +/- 2.75%) and ethanol (53.96 +/- 4.86%) extracts of parsley reduced the acetylcholine induced contraction, the reduction was greater with ethanol extract than with the aqueous one. It can be concluded that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of parsley exert antispasmodic activity on rat ileum. The relaxant effect of ethanol extract was better comparing to aqueous extract of parsley.

  6. Karyotyping and in situ chromosomal localization of rDNA sites in black cumin Bunium persicum (Boiss B. Fedtsch,1915 (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chahota

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique has been applied to somatic chromosomes in the medicinally important species, Bunium persicum, to elucidate its karyotypes. The bicolour FISH technique involving 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes as probes was used to assign physical localization and measurement of rDNA sites on homologous pairs of chromosomes. The two 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites were at the terminal regions of the short arms of the chromosomes 1 and 2 involving NOR region of chromosome 1. The 5S rDNA sites were found on subtelomeric region of the long arm of the chromosome number 5 and at interstitial regions of the short arm of chromosome 7. Based on direct visual analysis of chromosome length, morphology and position of FISH signals, a pioneer attempt has been made to construct metaphase karyotype in B. persicum, an endangered medicinal plant of North Western Himalayas.

  7. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae): Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David M; Ruess, Holly; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Simon, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results with prior phylogenetic results using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. We used Illumina sequencing to obtain full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgroups, analyzed the data with phylogenetic methods, and examined evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer to the plastid ( Dc MP). Our phylogenetic trees of the entire data set were highly resolved, with 100% bootstrap support for most of the external and many of the internal clades, except for the clade of D. carota and its most closely related species D. syrticus . Subsets of the data, including regions traditionally used as phylogenetically informative regions, provide various degrees of soft congruence with the entire data set. There are areas of hard incongruence, however, with phylogenies using nuclear data. We extended knowledge of a mitochondrial to plastid DNA insertion sequence previously named Dc MP and identified the first instance in flowering plants of a sequence of potential nuclear genome origin inserted into the plastid genome. There is a relationship of inverted repeat junction classes and repeat DNA to phylogeny, but no such relationship with nonsynonymous mutations. Our data have allowed us to (1) produce a well-resolved plastid phylogeny of Daucus , (2) evaluate subsets of the entire plastid data for phylogeny, (3) examine evidence for plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenetic incongruence, and (4) examine mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertion into the plastid. © 2017 Spooner et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  8. Ethnopharmacological approach to the herbal medicines of the "Antidotes" in Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, E; Marselos, M; Sakellaridis, N; Constantinidis, Th; Skaltsa, H

    2015-04-02

    This paper focuses on the plants quoted in the recipes of the first chapter entitled "About the Antidotes" belonging to the first and largest section "Element Alpha" of Nikolaos Myrepsos׳ Dynameron, a medieval medical manuscript. Nikolaos Myrepsos was a Byzantine physician at the court of John III Doukas Vatatzes at Nicaea (13th century). He wrote in Greek a rich collection of 2667 recipes, the richest number known in late Byzantine era, conventionally known as Dynameron and divided into 24 sections, the "Elements". The only existing translation of this work is in Latin, released in 1549 in Basel by Leonhart Fuchs. Since no other translation has ever been made in any language, this work still remains poorly known. Our primary source material was the codex written in 1339 and kept in the National Library of France (in Paris) under the number grec. 2243. For comparison, all the other codices, which contain the entire manuscript, have also been studied, namely the codices EBE 1478 (National Library of Greece, Athens), grec. 2237 and grec. 2238 (both in Paris), Lavra Ε 192 (Mont Athos, Monastery of Megisti Lavra), Barocci 171 (Oxford) and Revilla 83 (Escorial). The exhaustive study of the "About the Antidotes" led us to the interpretation of 293 plant names among which we recognized 39 medicinal plants listed by the European Medicines Agency, (Herbal Medicines, www.ema.eu); the therapeutic indications of some of them provided by Myrepsos were similar or related to their current ones, as given in their monographs. The plants belong to various families of which the most frequent are: Apiaceae 10.6%; Lamiaceae 9.2%; Asteraceae 8.9%; Fabaceae 6.8% and Rosaceae 5.1%. The most frequently mentioned plants even under several different names are the following: Apium graveolens L., Crocus sativus L., Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC., Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Rosa centifolia L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Papaver somniferum L., Costus sp., Petroselinum

  9. Parameters of Cs 137 and Sr 90 transition from soil into salad crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevich, T.M.; Barashenko, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Transition coefficients of Cs 137 and Sr 90 from soil into plants for potherb of bulb onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been defined. (authors)

  10. Screening of Fruits of Seven Plants Indicated for Medicinal Use in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldulaimi, Omar

    2017-07-01

    Coumarins exert many biological effects in humans, animals, and plants, which make the evaluation of their biological activities and study of their role in ethnomedicine highly valued. Here, we selected seven plants which have ethnopharmacological use as antimicrobial in Iraq and the aims were to quantify the two structural isomers bergapten and methoxsalen in their seeds, to evaluate the antibacterial activities against several clinical isolates, and to isolate bergapten and methoxsalen from Ammi majus . Seven plants were extracted by petroleum ether (PE) and ethanol (EtOH). Bergapten and methoxsalen were separated and purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Quantification of the furanocoumarins has been conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography, and all the plant extracts and pure compounds were checked for antibacterial activities utilizing alamar blue microplate assay. Cuminum cyminum was deprived of bergapten and methoxsalen and methoxsalen was not detected from Apium graveolens . Bergapten was abundant in PE more than in EtOH; on the other hand, EtOH was rich in methoxsalen. The separation of the two structural isomers was performed using normal phase chromatography and ultraviolet light as an indicator. All extracts showed weak to moderate antibacterial activities against Gram-positive isolates which were more sensitive than the negative ones. C. cyminum extract was least active, uncover the antibacterial role of bergapten and methoxsalen. These findings support the medicinal use of seeds of seven plants from Apiaceae family and quantify the two pharmacologically important furanocoumarins (bergapten and methoxsalen). This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of seven plants seeds used in local medicine in Iraq. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify bergapten and xanthotoxin in non-polar and polar extracts of these seeds. This study supports the medicinal use of these plants and clarifies the

  11. Combined HPLC-CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay of parsley, celery leaves, and nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Leyla; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2008-10-19

    This study aims to identify the essential antioxidant compounds present in parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and celery (Apium graveolens) leaves belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) belonging to Urticaceae family, to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of these compounds with CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) and ABTS spectrophotometric methods, and to correlate the TAC with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) findings. The CUPRAC spectrophotometric method of TAC assay using copper(II)-neocuproine (2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as the chromogenic oxidant was developed in our laboratories. The individual antioxidant constituents of plant extracts were identified and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using a modified mobile phase of gradient elution comprised of MeOH-0.2% o-phosphoric acid and UV detection for polyphenols at 280 nm. The TAC values of HPLC-quantified antioxidant constituents were found, and compared for the first time with those found by CUPRAC. The TAC of HPLC-quantified compounds accounted for a relatively high percentage of the observed CUPRAC capacities of plant extracts, namely 81% of nettle, 60-77% of parsley (in different hydrolyzates of extract and solid sample), and 41-57% of celery leaves (in different hydrolyzates). The CUPRAC total capacities of the 70% MeOH extracts of studied plants (in the units of mmol trolox g(-1)plant) were in the order: celery leaves>nettle>parsley. The TAC calculated with the aid of HPLC-spectrophotometry did not compensate for 100% of the CUPRAC total capacities, because all flavonoid glycosides subjected to hydrolysis were either not detectable with HPLC, or not converted to the corresponding aglycons (i.e., easily detectable and quantifiable with HPLC) during the hydrolysis step.

  12. Ethnomedicinal utilization of wild edible vegetables in district harnai of balochistan province-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareen, N.M.; Ahmad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wild edible plants have a tremendous influence on human being even before civilization. These plants contain considerably high nutritional value. Present survey was conducted to explore edible wild vegetables species and their ethnomedicinal uses by the inhabitants of district Harnai, Balochistan, Pakistan. Information was obtained through informed free listing interviews with randomly selected informants and field interviews with key informants selected after free listing. A total of 59 wild edible vegetables belonging to 41 genera, 59 species and 20 plant families are used not only as vegetables and salads but treatment of various diseases The most common plant families in terms of the number of species are the Brassicaceae (10 species), Apiaceae (9 species) and Asteraceae (6 species). The most common parts of the plants used as vegetables and medicine are their leaves (44.45%) and whole plant (22.22%). Plants are often used as decoction (34%), powder (26%). Highest plants species are used for gastrointestinal diseases (45 species). Highest ICF value (0.4) was recorded for dermatological disorders category. 100% fidelity level was found for two plant species i.e., Descurainia sophia, and Caralluma tuberculata. The highest use value was reported for the Lepidium sativum (0.63). Highest RFC value was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata (0.14). Highest use report was calculated for three species Apium graveolens Lepidium sativum and Mentha longifolia, (7 UR for each). The highest FIV was calculated for family Brassicaceae (14 FIV).Our study reveals that plants are still used as a major source of food like vegetables as well as medicine for the local people. Too little or no information is available on their uses, cooking methods and nutritional and physiotherapeutic values. Necessary steps should be taken to perform phytochemical and pharmacological studies to explore the potential nutritional values and herbal drug discovery of such plants. (author)

  13. Dinámica de impregnación al vacío en apio (Apium graveolens L. y pepino (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisell Martelo C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta a la impregnación al vacio (IV en apio y pepino, con soluciones isotónicas de NaCl. Materiales y métodos. Se determinaron variables de impregnación en troncos de apio y rodajas de pepino (3 posiciones diferentes a lo largo de su estructura, considerando, fracción y deformación volumétrica en la etapa de vacío (X1 y g1 y atmosférica (X y g, y la porosidad disponible (Ee al proceso IV. Resultados. El apio y pepino no presentaron diferencias estadísticas por efecto de la posición. En las etapas de proceso se obtuvieron para el apio y el pepino valores de X1 (-14.32 ± 2.75 y -5.51±1.76%, g1 (-0.587±0.69 y -0.079±0.99%, X(13.49±2.32 y 6.72±2.72%, g (-1.40±1.042% y -2.33±1.26% y Ee (15.73±2.31 y 9.35±2.57%, respectivamente. Estos resultados indicaron una salida de líquido nativo (X1<0 y una ligera contracción volumétrica de las estructuras (g y g1<0, lo cual se evidenció microestructuralmente. Conclusiones. La respuesta a la IV en apio y pepino, permite identificar estas matrices alimentarias, como aptas para la incorporación de componentes que le proporcionen un valor agregado a estos productos.

  14. Interactive effects of eight weeks massage therapy along with Apium graveolens seed consumption on serum levels of IGF-1 and P53 in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Asadi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results show that massage therapy along with celery seed supplements, especially the combination of these two non-pharmaceutical approaches have beneficial effects on body weight and IGF-1 and P53 levels in overweight women.

  15. Onderzoek over de door Phoma apiicola Klebahn veroorzaakte schurftziekte van de knolselderijplant, Apium graveolens L. en over synergetische vormen en locale rassen van deze zwam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, J.A.A.M.H.

    1928-01-01

    Symptoms of Phoma apiicola on celeriac were described. Severe ones were like the Phoma rot described by Bennet (Mich. Agric. Exp. Stat. Tech. Bull. 53 (1921). Seed did not transmit P. apiicola but contained a second unidentified Phoma sp. with larger spores and not harmful to celeriac. Two isolates

  16. Roughness comparison of heat cured type of acrylic resin in disinfectant solution immersion (Immersion in a solution of alkaline peroxide and 75% Celery extract (Apium graveolens L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Puspitasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture base has the properties absorbing that affecting physical and mechanical properties. One of the physical properties of acrylic resin is surface roughness. The aim of the study was to find out the roughness effect on heat cured acrylic that was immersed in alkaline peroxide and 75% celery (Apium graveoens L extract as a disinfectant solution. The study was a true experimental and posttest with control group designed with a rectangular shape size 65 x 10 x 3.3 mm based on the ISO standard 1567, six samples were used for alkaline peroxide, celery extract 75% and aquadest group for 5 and 15 days. A Surface Roughness Tester was used for the surface roughness changes observation. The statistical test used One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni. The results of this study showed the value of roughness on 5 days for alkaline peroxide (1.51 µm is greater than celery extract (0.36µm and aquadest (0.30 µm. The soaking for 15 days in alkaline peroxide (1.52 µm is greater than 75% celery extracts (0.38 µm and aquadest (0.34 µm. Alkaline peroxide caused higher roughness value of heat cured acrylic resin than 75% celery extract.

  17. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF CELERY (Apium graveolens L. EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITY OF XANTHINE OXIDASE AND DETERMINATION OF ITS ACTIVE COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition effect of celery extracts toward xanthine oxidase by in vitro method, and its active compounds. Roots and herb of celery were extracted using water and ethanol solvents. Results indicated that the herbal ethanol extract had the highest inhibition effect (91.40% at 1400 ppm. The components contained in the herbal ethanol extract were then separated by column chromatography using the best eluent (chloroform : ethyl acetate at 7:3. All of the fractions had inhibition effect greater than 50%. The fraction number 4 was the one with the highest inhibition effect followed by fraction 5 with inhibition percentage of both fractions at 200 ppm were 88.62 and 85.44%, respectively. The analysis of the ultraviolet spectrum of fraction 4 showed the presence of π-π* transition which was resulted by the aromatic C=C, -OH, and C-O chromophores, and also showing the n-σ* transition which was given by -C=O chromophore. The infrared spectrum analysis indicated the presence of aromatic -C=C, -OH, and C=O functional groups. Based on the phytochemical assay and both instrumental spectrums, it was thought that the active compounds of fraction 4 and 5 were in the flavonoid group.

  18. The effect of hydro-alcoholic celery (Apium graveolens leaf extract on cardiovascular parameters and lipid profile in animal model of hypertension induced by fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Dianat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the modern era. This study evaluates the effect of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract onsystolic blood pressure (SBP, heart rate (HR and lipid profile in animals’ model of hypertension induced by fructose. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: 1 control group (free access to tap drinking water, 2 group receiving 200mg/kg celery leaf extract, 3 group receiving fructose 10%, and 4,5 receiving fructose and 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of extract (n=8. In all groups, before and during the test period, SBP and HR were measured by Power lab system. Lipid profiles were determined by auto analysis. Repeated measurement and one way ANOVA were used for data analysis. PResults:The SBP in the fructose group significantly increased compared to control group (P

  19. Endogenous enzymes, heat, and pH affect flavone profiles in parsley (Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanum) and celery (Apium graveolens) during juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Gregory L; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-01-11

    Flavones are abundant in parsley and celery and possess unique anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in animal models. However, their bioavailability and bioactivity depend in part on the conjugation of sugars and other functional groups to the flavone core. The effects of juice extraction, acidification, thermal processing, and endogenous enzymes on flavone glycoside profile and concentration in both parsley and celery were investigated. Parsley yielded 72% juice with 64% of the total flavones extracted, whereas celery yielded 79% juice with 56% of flavones extracted. Fresh parsley juice averaged 281 mg flavones/100 g and fresh celery juice, 28.5 mg/100 g. Flavones in steamed parsley and celery were predominantly malonyl apiosylglucoside conjugates, whereas those in fresh samples were primarily apiosylglucoside conjugates; this was apparently the result of endogenous malonyl esterases. Acidification and thermal processing of celery converted flavone apiosylglucosides to flavone glucosides, which may affect the intestinal absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  20. Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea in compared with mefenamic acid: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has negative effects on women′s life. Due to side-effects of chemical drugs, there is growing trend toward herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Dill compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, clinical trial study was conducted on 75 single female students between 18 and 28 years old educating in Nursing and Midwifery School and Paramedical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences of Iran in 2011. They were allocated randomly into one of the three groups: In Dill group, they took 1000 mg of Dill powder q12h for 5 days from 2 days before the beginning of menstruation for two cycles. Other groups received 250 mg mefenamic acid or 500 mg starch capsule as placebo, respectively. Dysmenorrhea severity was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analog scale (VAS. Students with mild dysmenorrhea were excluded. Data were analyzed by SPSS using the descriptive statistic, paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Mann-Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There were no significant differences between three groups for demographic or descriptive variables. Comprising the VAS showed that the participants of Dill and mefenamic acid groups had lower significant pain in the 1 st and the 2 nd months after treatment, whereas in the placebo group this was only significant in the 2 nd month (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

  1. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L. SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD. This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in a time per three days. The data analysis was done by using normality test (liliefors, homogeneity test (barlett and Ttes. It shows that there is no negative effect of fertilizer use PLC in the long term against the growth of celery in entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice.

  2. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.) SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC) in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD). This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in ...

  3. Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens essential oils: Composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities against bacteria isolated from fish and shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Snuossi, M.; Trabelsi, N.; Taleb, S. B.; Dehmeni, A.; Flamini, G.; De Feo, V.

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. The identification of these strains showed the dominance of the Aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by Staphylococcus spp., Vibrio alginolyticus, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia odorifera. The isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. The chemical composition of the essential oils from Laurus nobilis leav...

  4. Use of Plantago major seed mucilage as a novel edible coating incorporated with Anethum graveolens essential oil on shelf life extension of beef in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Shahidi, Fakhri; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Plantago major seed mucilage (PMSM) was extracted from whole seeds using hot-water extraction (HWE). The dill (D) essential oil components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and its antioxidant properties were examined through the methods of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and ß-carotene-linoleic acid assay (B-CL). Total phenolic content (TPC) was characterized through the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antimicrobial effect was evaluated on 10 pathogenic microorganisms. PMSM edible coating incorporated were prepared in four different concentrations of essential oils, including 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (w/w). The control and the coated beef samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count, psychrotrophic count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi), chemical (thiobarbituric acid, peroxide value and pH), and sensory characteristics. The IC 50 , FRAP, B-CL and TPC of the dill essential oil were equal to 11.44μg/ml, 9.45mmol/g, 82.86 and 162.65μg/ml GAE, respectively. PMSM extended the microbial shelf life of beef by 3days, whereas the PMSM+0.5%D, PMSM+1%D and PMSM+1.5%D resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the beef by 6, 9 and 9days, respectively, as compared to the control samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oregano (Lippia graveolens) essential oil added within pectin edible coatings prevents fungal decay and increases the antioxidant capacity of treated tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Cruz-Valenzuela, M Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda A; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Moctezuma, Edgar; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M Melissa; Tapia-Rodriguez, Melvin R; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Tomato is a fruit widely consumed due to its flavor and nutritional value; however, it is susceptible to fungi contamination. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is a fungicide whose constituents are volatile; therefore, their incorporation within edible coatings can protect them and maintain their efficacy. In this context, this study evaluated the effect of OEO applied within pectin coatings on the inhibition of Alternaria alternata growth, antioxidant content and sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. The major volatile compounds of OEO were carvacrol (47.41%), p-cymene (26.44%) and thymol (3.02%). All the applied OEO concentrations (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 g L(-1) ) inhibited the in vitro growth of A. alternata, whereas the in vivo effective concentrations were 25.9 and 36.1 g L(-1) . Additionally, there was an increment of total phenols and antioxidant activity in coated tomatoes compared to controls. Aroma acceptability of tomatoes was not affected by the pectin-OEO coating; additionally, the pectin, pectin-OEO 15.7 g L(-1) treatments and control tomatoes showed higher flavor acceptability than those coated with pectin-OEO 25.9 and 36.1 g L(-1) . Pectin-OEO coatings showed antifungal effect and increased the antioxidant activity without negative effects on the sensorial acceptability of tomatoes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Climatic niche of Selinum alatum (Apiaceae, Selineae), a new invasive plant species in Central Europe and its alterations according to the climate change scenarios: Are the European mountains threatened by invasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalik, Kamil; Proćków, Małgorzata; Proćków, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a few established populations of Selinum alatum have been found in the Eastern Carpathians outside its native range that is the Caucasus and the Armenian Highlands. The species is spreading predominantly in Poland where it can outcompete native plants in certain cases. This study addresses a potential climatic niche of the plant with the special aims to illuminate future spreading and indicate areas suitable for invasion. Our results show that the extent of the favourable habitat of the species is broader than currently known. This suggests that the plant has the ability to become a potential new element in some semi-natural or disturbed ecosystems associated with mountainous areas, especially in Central and Southern Europe. Future (2070) models mostly rendered similar suitability maps, but showed slight differences over particular areas and a contraction of suitable habitats, mainly in the northern part of the non-native range.

  7. Environ: E00421 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00421 Processed changium smyrnioides root Crude drug ... Changium smyrnioides [TAX:3...86280] ... Apiaceae (carrot family) Changium smyrnioides root removed cortex (boiled, dried) ...

  8. Effect of antioxidant and anti-aggregating properties of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.T. Ramanathan

    super oxide dismutase, glutathaione reductase, glutathaione peroxidase and glutathiaone-S- transferase ... present study regenerated R. graveolens for conservation ..... metals (Ribarov and Bemov, 1981) and pharmaceuticals .... Food Chem.

  9. Efecto de la aplicación de aceite esencial de orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris en factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Ochoa Velasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunos factores de calidad de rodajas de manzana sumergidas en soluciones de aceite esencial (AE de orégano y tomillo. Rodajas de manzana fueron sumergidas en diferentes soluciones de AE: 100 ppm de AE de orégano (T1, 100 ppm de AE de tomillo (T2, 75:25 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T3, 50:50 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T4, 25:75 ppm de AE de orégano:tomillo (T5; 100 ppm de ácido ascórbico (T6 y agua destilada estéril (T7 que se utilizó como control. Las rodajas de manzana fueron empacadas y almacenadas a 5 ºC. Se evaluó el pH, sólidos solubles totales, acidez titulable, color, actividad de la polifenoloxidasa, compuestos fenólicos, actividad antioxidante, bacterias aerobias mesófilas, mohos y levaduras durante 9 días y atributos sensoriales. Después de 9 días de almacenamiento las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en los tratamientos T1 y T3 presentaron menor valor de pH y menos oscurecimiento. T1 y T5 mostraron el menor cambio neto de color, esto se vio reflejado en una baja actividad de la polifenoloxidasa. La aplicación de AE incrementó significativamente (p < 0,05 los compuestos fenólicos y la actividad antioxidante en los tratamientos T2, T3, T4, T5 y T6. Sin embargo, este incremento se redujo drásticamente después de 9 días de almacenamiento, obteniéndose una actividad antioxidante del 32,1 y 35,2 % (respecto al inicio en los tratamientos T6 y T4, respectivamente. Las bacterias aerobias mesófilas se inhibieron durante 3 días en las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en solución T1, mientras que después de 9 días las que presentaron la menor carga de bacterias fueron las rodajas de manzana sumergidas en T2 y T5. Los mohos y levaduras se inhibieron en los tratamientos T1, T2 y T5. Las rodajas de manzana con mayor aceptación sensorial por parte de los jueces fueron las de los tratamientos T4, T6 y T7 al inicio del almacenamiento y de los tratamientos T4, T5 y T6 después de 6 días.

  10. Entyloma scandicis, a new smut fungus on Scandix verna from Mediterranean forests of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entyloma is a genus of more than 170 species of smut fungi parasitizing dicotyledons. Within the genus, the species sporulating in vegetative organs of Apiaceae form a separate group. In this study, the morphology and phylogeny of Entyloma on Scandix verna (Apiaceae, Scandiceae) collected in Mount C...

  11. Environ: E00099 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00099 Bupleurum root Crude drug Saikosaponins [CPD:C08975 C08976], Phytosterols, ... as: D06727 Apiaceae (carrot family) Bupleurum falcatum root Major component: Saikosaponin [CPD:C08975 C08976] ...

  12. Drug: D09146 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available niaca[TAX:36596], Artemisia apiacea [TAX:262982], Xanthium strumarium [TAX:318068], Persicaria hydropiper [T...eae (daisy family) Xanthium strumarium juice, and Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Persicaria hydropiper juice (dried) ... PubChem: 96025826 ...

  13. Cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... yohimbe, Rauvolfia vomitoria, Solanum lycopersicum,. Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Voacanga africana, Voacanga thouarsii, Zingiber officinale. Les espèces exotiques sont : Acanthus montanus,. Ageratum conyzoides, Aloe vera, Allium sativum,. Apium graveolens, Amaranthus hybridus, Ananas.

  14. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  15. Mellem et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(1):38 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    2010). Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects and the probable mechanism of action of Ruta graveolens infusion and rutin in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetol. Croat. 39: 15-35. 2. Ali, H., Houghton ...

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 6, No 10 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Ratheesh, A Helen ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -flowering ocimum graveolens methanol extracts, Abstract. KD Mwambete, CM Nshimo, L George. Vol 26, No 2 (2012), A missed case of achalasia in an eight year old girl: a case report, Abstract. F Fredrick, AH Mwanga, LO ...

  18. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Licorice Root Nettle, Stinging Nettle Oregon Grape Root Parsley Root Pennyroyal Ruta Graveolens Uva Ursi Yohimbe What ... bucha leaves and juniper berries. Uva Ursi and parsley capsules may also have bad side effects. Can ...

  19. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique García-Pérez; Castro-Álvarez Fernando Francisco; Janet Alejandra Gutiérrez-Uribe; Silverio García-Lara

    2012-01-01

    El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace) nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae), originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagac...

  20. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  1. Miscellaneous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2002-01-01

    CONSTANCE, LINCOLN (Eugene, OR, USA, 16 February 1909 — Berkeley, CA, USA, 11 June 2001) Foremost expert on Umbelliferae/Apiaceae systematics. His long and distinguished career began as a graduate student with Willis Linn Jepson in the 1930s. He was Curator of Seed Plants in the University Herbarium

  2. Composition of Prangos pabularia essential oil, indentification of an unknown compound from the oil and its insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil of air dried fruits of Prangos pabularia Lindl (Apiaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical profile was identified using GC-FID and GC-MS. Bicyclogermacrene (21%), (Z)-'-ocimene (19%), '-humulene (8%), '-pinene (8%) and spathulenol (6%) were the main constituents o...

  3. Biology and ecology of sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris) in the Fort Pierre National Grassland of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Korman

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades the exotic plant sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris Bernh., Apiaceae) has invaded, and come to dominate, large areas of the Fort Pierre National Grassland (FPNG) in central South Dakota, USA. Currently sickleweed is estimated to infest over 3200 ha of FPNG. The purpose of this study was to examine several of the biological and ecological traits that...

  4. Drug: D03381 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Carum carvi Obtained by steam distillation Major component: (+)-Carvone [CPD:C11383] ... CAS: 8000-42-8 PubChem: 17397528 ... ... Sabinene [CPD:C16777] ... Carum carvi L. [TAX:48032] ... Same as: E00237 ... the crushed ripe seeds of Apiaceae

  5. In vitro regeneration of wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrawati, Oktavia; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver; Finer, J.

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae) is a common wild plant that accumulates the lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin. Deoxypodophyllotoxin can be hydroxylated at the C-7 position in recombinant organisms yielding podophyllotoxin, which is used as a semi-synthetic precursor for the anticancer drugs,

  6. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof

    2014-01-01

    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...

  7. 7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-12 Miscellaneous plant families. Kinds of seed by family: Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot, celery...

  8. Essential oil composition of Pimpinella cypria and its insecticidal, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella cypria Boiss. (Apiaceae), an endemic species in northern Cyprus, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-five compounds were identified in the oil and these comprised 81.7% of the total composition. The compound classes in the oil were ...

  9. Biological Evaluation, Overpressured Layer Chromatography (OPLC) separation and Isolation of a New Acetylenic Derivative Compound from Prangos platychlaena ssp. platychlaena Fruit Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present work, fruits of Prangos platychlaena Boiss. ex Tchihat. ssp. platychlaena (Apiaceae) collected from eastern (Sample A) and central (Sample B) parts of Turkey were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition of P. platychlaena ssp. platychlaen...

  10. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  11. Postharvest quality of carrot cultivars, packaged and in bulk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... presented the highest number of sprouts when stored in bulk (48.5%) and the largest number of carrots with radicels (54.7%). ... The carrot (Daucus carota L.), a plant of the family. Apiaceae ... widespread global consumption and large planted area. .... increased temperature and CO2 concentration and the.

  12. Localization and in-vivo characterization of thapsia garganica CYP76AE2 indicates a role in thapsigargin biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Martinez-Swatson, Karen Agatha; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica (dicot, Apiaceae), also known as deadly carrot, produces the highly toxic compound thapsigargin. This compound is a potent inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase calcium pump in mammals and is of industrial importance as the active...

  13. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    in the umbels of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Lévier Apiaceae) giant hogweed), an invasive weed in Europe, which is moreover toxic to human skin. The complicated and controversial nomenclature of the related A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Phalaena (Tortrix)) is discussed, as is that of Depressaria heracliana...

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  15. Contribution of microwaves or ultrasonics on carvone and limonene recovery from dill fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, D.C.; Chemat, S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate alternative preparation techniques such as microwave and ultrasound
    for the recovery and evaluation of carvone and limonene from flaked dill fruits (Anethum graveolens L.).
    The study indicates that microwave-assisted extraction using hexane is

  16. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: R. graveolens (100 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly reduced the number of acetic acid-induced ... of the leaf methanol extract (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Effect of antioxidant and anti-aggregating properties of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, we developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and evaluated antioxidant and anti aggregating properties of micro propagated leaf and callus extract of Ruta graveolens. The maximum number of callus induction was achieved from leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 0.5 ...

  18. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Southern Africa against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, essential oils from four plants including Melissa officinalis, Mentha piperita, Pelargonium graveolens and Leucosidea sericea, traditionally used to treat infectious diseases were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven Gram-positive bacteria, eight Gram-negative bacteria and six yeast species ...

  19. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIZPURU, I., APERRIBAY, J.A., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cuscuta scandens Brot. subsp. cesatiana (BERTOL. Soó, Fallopia sachalinensis (FRIEDERICH SCHMIDT PETROP. Ronse Decraene, Galium debile Desv., Geum hispidum Fries y Myosurus minimus L.; se combina, además, Apium graveolens L. subsp. butronensis (D. GOMEZ and G. MONTSERRAT I. AIZPURU, stat. nov.

  20. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Egger, Matthias; Ferrara, Rosetta; Briza, Peter; Santos, Keity Souza; Zennaro, Danila; Girbl, Tamara; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. 786 non-randomized subjects

  1. Sensitization Prevalence, Antibody Cross-Reactivity and Immunogenic Peptide Profile of Api g 2, the Non-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 of Celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadermaier, G.; Hauser, M.; Egger, M.; Ferrara, R.; Briza, P.; Santos, K.S.; Zennaro, D.; Girbl, T.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L.; Mari, A.; Ferreira, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. Methodology: 786

  2. Localization and characterization of CYP76AE2 part of thapsigargin biosynthesis in Thapsia garganica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Martinez-Swatson, Karen Agatha; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm

    2018-01-01

    The Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica (dicot, Apiaceae), also known as Deadly carrot, produces the highly toxic compound thapsigargin. This compound is a potent inhibitor of the SERCA calcium pump in mammals, and is of industrial importance as the active moiety of the anticancer drug Mipsagar......The Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica (dicot, Apiaceae), also known as Deadly carrot, produces the highly toxic compound thapsigargin. This compound is a potent inhibitor of the SERCA calcium pump in mammals, and is of industrial importance as the active moiety of the anticancer drug...... epikunzeaol into epidihydrocostunolide. Furthermore, we show that thapsigargin is likely to be stored in secretory ducts in the roots. Transcripts from TgTPS2 (epikunzeaol synthase) and TgCYP76AE2 in roots were only found in the epithelial cells lining these secretory ducts. This emphasizes the involvement...

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Sequence Assembly and Identification of AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Related to Abiotic Stress in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation...

  4. Chemical Composition and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Different Parts of Daucus aristidis Coss. Essential Oils from Two Locations in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mebarka Lamamra; Hocine Laouer; Smain Amira; Ilkay Erdogan Orhan; Fatma Sezer Senol; Betul Demirci; Salah Akkal

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts of Daucus aristidis Coss. (syn. Ammiopsis aristidis Batt.) (Apiaceae) from two locations (Ghoufi and Bousaada) in East of Algeria, was investigated for the first time by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity, the enzymes linked to Alzheimer’s disease, by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA m...

  5. Levisticum officinale hairy root cultures: influence of light and light type on growth and essential oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, A. Sofia; Sousa, Maria João; Pedro, Luís G.; Figueiredo, A. Cristina; Barroso, J.G.; Deans, S.G.; Scheffer, J.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (Apiaceae), including those isolated from the roots, are used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries [1]. This perennial and herbaceous plant, commonly known as lovage, is widely known by its aromatic, ornamental and medicinal properties. The effect of light and light type on growth and essential oil production of lovage hairy root cultures was studied by comparison of cultures maintained under “blue-basic” (400-550nm) and “...

  6. Extinciones históricas: el caso de la enigmática planta del Silfio

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Ruiz, Segundo

    2016-01-01

    This review refers to the Silphium (Apiaceae), one of the most enigmatic plants in the history of the Mediterranean. In Greco-Roman world, it was a panacea and especially, a powerful aphrodisiac which left many written historical references, in addition to their image mosaics and coins. Silphium extinction, due to over-exploitation is certainly a good example for the conservation of biodiversity and for the defense of sustainable use of natural resources.

  7. Efficacy of hydroalcoholic extracts of two plantson adult ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Julián Pulido Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of the natural extract of Verbena officinalisL. and Ruta graveolens L. in vitro monitoring ofadult tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus wasestablished. The extract of each plant was obtained bymaceration. For testing two sizes (small and medium of adult ticks were exposed to extracts of each plant,by immersion technique. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 h ofexposure, mortality was recorded taken as 60% mortality as the effective minimum. Initial tests were conducted with pure extracts, and if efficacy detected, increaseddilutions were made to establish the minimum efficiency. Tests were conducted in cool climates conditions. The extract of R. graveolens (rue, showed effectiveness in small and medium tick only with the pure extract; V. officinalis (common vervain was effective on small and medium-tick in dilution 5:10. V. officinalis showed greater efficacy and found that the best results wereobtained at higher concentrations.

  8. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  9. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  10. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and afte...

  11. Evaluation of furocoumarins as photosynthetic inhibitor by chlorophyll a fluorescence assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Olívia Moreira; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Veiga, Thiago Andre Moura [UNIFESP; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2012-01-01

    The evaluations of Chorophyll a fluorescence emitted by superior plants carry structural information and photosynthetic apparatus function. Quantitative analysis apparatus of fluorescence kinetic were measured by energy flows (ABS), (TR), (ET) and (DI), known as phenomenological phenomena of OJIP test. Four furocoumarins were isolated from Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae), and chorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence assays were performed with these compounds to evaluate the photosynthesis inhibition pote...

  12. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  13. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages.

  14. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z.S.; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E.; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L.; Engela, Marcela R.G.S.; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B.; Alves, Edenise S.; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S.; Gomes, Eduardo P.C.; Furlan, Claudia M.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. - Highlights: • We searched for tree species from Atlantic Forest for future air pollution monitoring in Brazil. • Croton floribundus, Astronium graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha were possible bioindicators. • P. gonoachanta was a potential bioindicator of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. • C. floribundus was a potential bioindicator of heavy metals and sulfur. • A. graveolens may be used for monitoring oxidative pollutants, due to its biochemical leaf traits. - Inherent characteristics of the most abundant native tree species were potential biomarkers for assessing pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil

  15. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, M.D.; PICANÇO, M.C.; BARBOSA, L.C. de A.; GUEDES, R.N.C.; CAMPOS, M.R. de; SILVA, G.A.; MARTINS, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed...

  16. Changes in yogurt fermentation characteristics, and antioxidant potential and in vitro inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme upon the inclusion of peppermint, dill and basil

    OpenAIRE

    Amirdivani, Shabboo

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita), dill (Anethum graveolens) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) on yogurt formation, proteolysis and inhibition of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE). Herbal-yogurts had faster rates of pH reduction than plain-yogurt. All herbal-yogurts had higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant activities than plain-yogurt, both at the end of fermentation and throughout the storage period. The o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) peptides in herbal-yogurts in...

  17. Registros de ocorrência e novos hospedeiros de Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr (Hemiptera: Tingidae nos estados do Acre e Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2017-12-01

    Abstract. The occurrence of Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr (Hemiptera: Tingidae was observed in leaves of four host plants: rue (Ruta graveolens L. and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC in an urban residential garden, in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil and Crotalaria spectabilis (L., jack bean and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench in a greenhouse, in the municipality of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The colonies were found exclusively on the abaxial face of the leaves, causing chlorosis, wilting and early senescence of the same. Because G. lunulata is considered to be an important passion fruit pest in Brazil, the planting of the mentioned plant species, in intercropping or near to passion fruit crops, would not be recommended, since they could serve as plant species inoculum to passion fruit cultivation. Therefore, the occurrence of G. lunulata associated to R. graveolens and jack bean in Acre State; and C. spectabilis, jack bean, and okra, in Paraná State is record for the first time. In addition, the present work reports the first occurrence of this tingid to the States of Acre and Paraná and reports two new hosts for this insect, R. graveolens and C. spectabillis in Brazil.

  18. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  19. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  1. Miscellaneous

    OpenAIRE

    NN

    2002-01-01

    CONSTANCE, LINCOLN (Eugene, OR, USA, 16 February 1909 — Berkeley, CA, USA, 11 June 2001) Foremost expert on Umbelliferae/Apiaceae systematics. His long and distinguished career began as a graduate student with Willis Linn Jepson in the 1930s. He was Curator of Seed Plants in the University Herbarium (UC) beginning in the 1940s, Chair of the Department of Botany in the early 1950s, Dean of the College of Letters and Science from the mid 1950s to the early 1960s, Vice-Chancellor of Academic Aff...

  2. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  3. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de cinco cultivares de apio (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft) colectados en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Eduardo; Marcano, María; Azócar, Carmen Julia; Mora, Argenis

    2015-01-01

    El apio (Arracacia xanthorriza Bancroft) es una planta de la familia Apiaceae, originaria de Los Andes, de raíces reservantes comestibles, de considerable valor nutritivo y apreciado sabor, reconocida como un cultivo con alto potencial especialmente para poblaciones de países en vías de desarrollo. Con el fin de valorar las posibilidades de propagación in vitro de esta planta, algunos esfuerzos han sido reportados. El presente trabajo constituye un primer intento para determinar condiciones a...

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Ferulogo Bernardii Tomk & M.Pimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalighi-Sigaroodi F.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the hexane extract of the aerial parts of Ferulago Bernardii (Apiaceae four coumarins, namely prantschimgin 1, oxypeucedanin 2, psoralen 3 and umbelliferone 4; β-sitosterol 5; and nonacosane 6 were isolated by Column Chromatography (CC, Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (PTLC and crystallization. The structures were elucidated by melting point, UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectra. The presence of compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5 in some others Ferulago species could be used as chemotaxonomic marker in genus Ferulago. This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of Ferulago Bernardii Tomk. & M. Pimen.

  5. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

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    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  6. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great r...

  7. Floristic diversity of 'Chinarite' protected area – Rodopi municipality, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dospatliev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Study on the species composition of vascular plants in 'Chinarite' protected area in Belashtitsa village, Rodopi Municipality, Bulgaria was conducted using the floristic analysis method. A total of 147 species of vascular plants were identified, belonging to 124 genera and 51 families. The families Poaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae are the most highly represented. The comparative analysis shows that the angiosperm taxa are dominating in the studied area. Dicotyledonous plants are prevailing among them, while monocotyledonous are significantly less in number. Molinia caerulea species, identified in the present study, has not been reported to have been found so far in the Thracian lowland floristic region.

  8. Localization and in-vivo characterization of thapsia garganica CYP76AE2 indicates a role in thapsigargin biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Martinez-Swatson, Karen Agatha; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica (dicot, Apiaceae), also known as deadly carrot, produces the highly toxic compound thapsigargin. This compound is a potent inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase calcium pump in mammals and is of industrial importance as the active...... in Nicotiana benthamiana, converts epikunzeaol into epidihydrocostunolide. Furthermore, we show that thapsigargin is likely to be stored in secretory ducts in the roots. Transcripts from TgTPS2 (epikunzeaol synthase) and TgCYP76AE2 in roots were found only in the epithelial cells lining these secretory ducts...

  9. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Shehata, Afaf H.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Ezzat, Shahera M.

    2002-01-01

    An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl)-rhamnoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside) (2), quercitrin (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), rutin (6), and miquelianin (quercetin-3...

  10. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Tinoco; M. R. Martins; J. Cruz-Morais

    2007-01-01

    O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva co...

  11. Allergenic relevance of nonspecific lipid transfer proteins 2: Identification and characterization of Api g 6 from celery tuber as representative of a novel IgE-binding protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejvar, Eva; Himly, Martin; Briza, Peter; Eichhorn, Stephanie; Ebner, Christof; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    Apium graveolens represents a relevant food allergen source linked with severe systemic reactions. We sought to identify an IgE-binding nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) in celery tuber. A low molecular weight protein exclusively present in celery tuber was purified and designated Api g 6. The entire protein sequence was obtained by MS and classified as member of the nsLTP2 family. Api g 6 is monomeric in solution with a molecular mass of 6936 Da. The alpha-helical disulfide bond-stabilized structure confers tremendous thermal stability (Tm > 90°C) and high resistance to gastrointestinal digestion. Endolysosomal degradation demonstrated low susceptibility and the presence of a dominant peptide cluster at the C-terminus. Thirty-eight percent of A. graveolens allergic patients demonstrated IgE reactivity to purified natural Api g 6 in ELISA and heat treatment did only partially reduce its allergenic activity. No correlation in IgE binding and limited cross-reactivity was observed with Api g 2 and Art v 3, nsLTP1 from celery stalks and mugwort pollen. Api g 6, a novel nsLTP2 from celery tuber represents the first well-characterized allergen in this protein family. Despite similar structural and physicochemical features as nsLTP1, immunological properties of Api g 6 are distinct which warrants its inclusion in molecule-based diagnosis of A. graveolens allergy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Leyssen, Pieter; Liu, Maoxuan; Neyts, Johan; Luyten, Walter

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial ( E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans ); anthelmintic ( C. elegans ); and antiviral ( enterovirus 71 ) bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery. Of the 35 plants, eight plants (23%) showed broad-spectrum in vitro antimicrobial activity (inhibiting all three test strains), while 12 (34%) exhibited narrow spectrum activity against individual pathogens (seven as anti-staphylococcal and five as anti-candidal). Plants such as Alangium salviifolium, Antidesma bunius, Bauhinia racemosa, Careya arborea, Caseria graveolens, Cleistanthus patulus, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Crotalaria pallida, Croton roxburghii, Holarrhena pubescens, Hypericum gaitii, Macaranga peltata, Protium serratum, Rubus ellipticus , and Suregada multiflora showed strong antibacterial effects, whilst Alstonia scholaris, Butea monosperma, C. arborea, C. pallida, Diospyros malbarica, Gmelina arborea, H. pubescens, M. peltata, P. serratum, Pterospermum acerifolium, R. ellipticus , and S. multiflora demonstrated strong antifungal activity. Plants such as A. salviifolium, A. bunius, Aporosa octandra, Barringtonia acutangula, C. graveolens, C. pallida, C. patulus, G. arborea, H. pubescens, H. gaitii, Lannea coromandelica, M. peltata, Melastoma malabathricum, Millettia extensa, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, P. serratum, P. acerifolium, R. ellipticus, S. multiflora, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Ventilago maderaspatana , and Wrightia arborea inhibit survival of C. elegans and could be a potential source for anthelmintic activity. Additionally, plants such as A. bunius, C. graveolens, C. patulus, C. oppositifolia, H. gaitii, M. extensa

  13. Desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices

    OpenAIRE

    MARTELO CASTAÑO, YISELL JOHAN; CORTES RODRIGUEZ, MISAEL; SUAREZ MAHECHA, HÉCTOR

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio), en terminos de la cuantificacio...

  14. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  15. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  16. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  17. Avaliação de furanocumarinas como inibidores da fotossíntese através de ensaios de fluorescência da clorofila a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Moreira Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluations of Chorophyll a fluorescence emitted by superior plants carry structural information and photosynthetic apparatus function. Quantitative analysis apparatus of fluorescence kinetic were measured by energy flows (ABS, (TR, (ET and (DI, known as phenomenological phenomena of OJIP test. Four furocoumarins were isolated from Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, and chorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence assays were performed with these compounds to evaluate the photosynthesis inhibition potential. This test was realized in spinach`s leaf discs and in Lolium perenne leaves. The results indicated the herbicide potential mainly for bergapten and chalepin.

  18. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

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    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  19. Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Luhansk Region

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    S.Yu. Naumov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To establish a resource base of medicinal plants of Donbass, and to develop methods for their balanced use, it is necessary to conduct an inventory and analysis of the spread of wild species, that recently was not carried out in Luhansk and Donetsk region. These circumstances have served as an incentive to carry out special investigations. Test species belong to 403 genus and 108 families. List of vascular plants of Luhansk region has more than 1,200 species. We have established that in the study area, there are 718 species of medicinal plants, representing 60 % of the total flora of the region, covering so much of the taxonomic diversity of Donbass flora. The family of the Asteraceae (105 species, 50 genuses is different in terms of the greatest number of species of medicinal plants and genus family. The families of Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Poaceae contain more than 40 species, the families of Apiaceae и Rosaceae — over 30 species, Caryophylaceae и Polygonaceae — more than 20 species, a total of 301 species. The remaining 99 families presented a small number of basic taxonomic units. The species Viscum album, Ajuga chia, Salvia nemorosa were found during expeditions. These species have not been previously described for the region.

  20. Diversity and ecological characteristics of flora of mastuj valley, district chitral, hindukush range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Shah, S.M.; Badshahi, L.; Durrani, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed that the floristic diversity consisted of 571 species belonging to 82 families including 65 dicots, 13 monocots, 2 gymnosperms and 2 pteridophyte families. There were 334 genera including 3 Pteridophytes, 2 gymnosperms, 54 monocot and 275 dicot genera. Asteraceae (91 Spp., 15.95 %), Poaceae (58 Spp., 10.16 %), Papilionaceae (38 Spp., 6.65 %), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (each with 26 Spp., 4.55 %), Polygonaceae (25 spp; 4.38), Caryophyllaceae (23 spp.; 4.03%), Apiaceae (21 Spp., 3.68 %), Boraginaceae and Brassicaceae (20 Spp., each with 3.50 %) were the leading families. There were 45 (13.47%), 32 (9.58%), 19 (5.69%), 18 (5.39%) and 16 (4.79%) genera respectively in Asteraceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Apiaceae and Papilionaceae. Flora consisted of 91.59% wild species, 92.64% deciduous species, 92.12% nonspiny species, 80.04% mesophytes and 94.57% heliophytes. Biological spectrum was dominated by therophytes (234 spp., 40.98%), followed by hemicryptophytes (154 spp., 26.97%), geophytes (82 spp., 14.36%), chamaephytes (44 spp., 7.71%), nanophanerophytes (31 spp, 5.43%) and megaphanerophytes (24 spp., 4.20%). The leaf size spectra was dominated by nanophylls (40.98%), leptophylls (24.87%), mesophylls 18.56%) and microphylls (9.11%). Further plant exploration is suggested in this remote inaccessible valley in the Hindukush Range, Pakistan. (author)

  1. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

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    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  2. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

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    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  3. A Review of Botany and Pharmacological Effect and Chemical Composition of Echinophora Species Growing in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zohreh; Lorigooini, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirmardi, Hamzeh Ali; Solati, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    This review was conducted to investigate the botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Echinophora species. The information of this review was obtained by searching for keywords Apiaceae , Echinophora , pharmacological effects, and traditional and modern medicine in scientific articles and books published in search engines Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Web of Science. The traditional uses of Echinophora and the existence of valuable phytochemicals in the plant have led to isolation and drug discovery of natural medicines such as antibiotic, analgesics, and anticancer drugs, and the beneficial effects of these plants can widely be used in healthcare. Echinophora species are medicinal and aromatic plants that are belong to Apiaceae family. This genus have four species in Iran. The botany, geographical distribution, traditional and pharmacological effects of Echinophora genus were described. Also, the major chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of different species of Echinophora that have been reported. Overall, the existence of valuable phytochemicals purpose Echinophora species as novel candidate to isolation and drug discovery of natural medicines such as antibiotic, analgesics, and anticancer drugs.

  4. The effect of sodium on the mineral balance of plants, using the example of root celery and stalk celery. Part I. The role of sodium and potassium in the process of accumulation and utilization of mineral elements

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    Urszula Kruszelnicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1977 - 1980, studies were conducted on the effect of sodium used to supplement low (K = 800 mg/5 kg and high (K = 1400 mg/5 kg potassium doses on the content of mineral components, their accumulation in the yield and the percentage of their utilization. The study was carried out on root celery - Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum (Mill. and stalk celery - Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.. The results obtained in these experiments point to the following conclusions: it was found that potassium and sodium mutually limit each other's uptake. Sodium was more antagonistic towards the uptake of calcium than was potassium. However, no clearly antagonistic effect of these elements on the uptake of magnesium was determined. The accumulation of potassium and sodium by the experimental plants rose while the percentage of utilization of these elements decreased as their level in the nutrient medium increased. Sodium exerted a more distinct effect on the accumulation and utilization of other mineral elements than did potassium.

  5. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Antidiabetic and cytotoxicity screening of five medicinal plants used by traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huyssteen, Mea; Milne, Pieter J; Campbell, Eileen E; van de Venter, Maryna

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisation assays with Chang liver cells and C2C12 muscle cells, and growth inhibition assays with Chang liver cells were conducted. The aqueous extracts of Bulbine frutescens (143.5%), Ornithogalum longibracteatum (131.9%) and Tarchonanthus camphoratus (131.5%) showed significant increased glucose utilisation activity in Chang liver cells. The ethanol extracts of Ruta graveolens (136.9%) and Tulbaghia violacea (140.5%) produced the highest increase in glucose utilisation in C2C12 muscle cells. The ethanol extract of Bulbine frutescens produced the most pronounced growth inhibition (33.3%) on Chang liver cells. These findings highlight the potential for the use of traditional remedies in the future for the management of diabetes and it is recommended that combinations of these plants be tested in future.

  7. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

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    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  8. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  9. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  10. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

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    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  11. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles. These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  12. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  13. Differential effects of the essential oils of Lavandula luisieri and Eryngium duriaei subsp. juresianum in cell models of two chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Ana T; Ferreira, Isabel; Judas, Fernando; Salgueiro, Lígia; Lopes, M Celeste; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Mendes, Alexandrina F

    2015-08-01

    Effective drugs to treat osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are needed. To identify essential oils (EOs) with anti-inflammatory activity in cell models of OA and IBD. EOs from Eryngium duriaei subsp. juresianum (M. Laínz) M. Laínz (Apiaceae), Laserpitium eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium Sennen & Pau (Apiaceae), Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martínez (Lamiaceae), Othantus maritimus (L.) Hoff. & Link (Asteraceae), and Thapsia villosa L. (Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of EOs (5-200 μg/mL) was evaluated by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation (total and phosphorylated IκB-α), in primary human chondrocytes and the intestinal cell line, C2BBe1, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), respectively. The EO of L. luisieri significantly reduced iNOS (by 54.9 and 81.0%, respectively) and phosphorylated IκB-α (by 87.4% and 62.3%, respectively) in both cell models. The EO of E. duriaei subsp. juresianum caused similar effects in human chondrocytes, but was inactive in intestinal cells, even at higher concentrations. The EOs of L. eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium and O. maritimus decreased iNOS expression by 45.2 ± 8.7% and 45.2 ± 6.2%, respectively, in C2BBe1 cells and were inactive in chondrocytes. The EO of T. villosa was inactive in both cell types. This is the first study showing anti-inflammatory effects of the EOs of L. luisieri and E. duriaei subsp. juresianum. These effects are specific of the cell type and may be valuable to develop new therapies or as sources of active compounds with improved efficacy and selectivity towards OA and IBD.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF THE CAPITULA OF EIGHT ANATOLIAN HELICHRYSUM SPECIES

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    Mustafa ASLAN

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract\tSixteen extracts prepared with petroleum ether and ethanol from the capitula obtained from eight Helichrysum species including H. armenium subsp. araxinum, H. armenium subsp. armenium, H. arenarium, H. pallasii, H. stoechas subsp. barrelieri, H. sanguineum, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. graveolens (Asteraceae growing in Turkey were screened for their antibacterial activity against ten different bacteria, six of which are the Gram-positive bacteria; namely Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, Streptococcus mutans, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes as well as four Gram-negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritis, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using disk diffusion method. Ampicilline, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin were employed as the reference drugs. Among the extracts screened, the ethanol extracts of H. pallasii, H. armenium subsp. armenium, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. graveolens were found to be the most active ones with the wider antibacterial spectrum. The Helichrysum species screened herein also displayed remarkable inhibitory activity against the enteric-type of bacteria, S. enteritis and S. sonnei.\tÖzet\tH. armenium subsp. araxinum, H. armenium subsp. armenium, H. arenarium, H. pallasii, H. stoechas subsp. barrelieri, H. sanguineum, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. graveolens (Asteraceae olmak üzere Türkiye’de yetisen 8 Helichrysum türünden petrol eteri ve etanol ile hazirlanan onalti ekstre, 6’si Gram-pozitif (Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, Streptococcus mutans, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus ve Listeria monocytogenes, 4’ü Gram-negatif (Salmonella enteritis, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ve Escherichia coli olan 10 farkli bakteriye karsi antibakteriyel aktiviteleri açisindan disk diffüzyon yöntemi kullanilarak taranmistir. Ampisilin, kloramfenikol ve eritromisin referans ilaçlar olarak kullanilmistir. Taranan

  15. Dillapiol: a pyrethrum synergist for control of the Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S Q; Scott, I M; Pelletier, Y; Kramp, K; Durst, T; Sims, S R; Arnason, J T

    2014-04-01

    Dillapiol, the main constituent in dill Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming (Apiaceae) oil and wild pepper, Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae), is an effective cytochrome P450 inhibitor similar to piperonylbutoxide (PBO). Laboratory and field trials with pyrethrum Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) vis. extracts combined with dillapiol (1:5 and 1:16 ratio) were effective against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In the laboratory, pyrethrum efficacy was increased 2.2-fold with the SS strain and 9.1-fold with the RS strains by using pyrethrum + dillapiol. Two field trials with the pyrethrum + dillapiol formulation demonstrated efficacy > or = 10 times than that of pyrethrum alone. The residual activity (half-life) of the combination exposed to direct sunlight was 3 h but it increased to 10.7 h by adding 2% of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate.

  16. Chemical Composition of a New Taxon, Seseli gummiferum subsp. ilgazense, and its Larvicidal Activity against Aedesaegypti

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    Mine Kurkcuoglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors for many pathogens and parasites that cause human diseases including dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, chikungunya, filariasis and malaria which cause high rates of human morbidity and mortality under extreme conditions. Plants are an excellent source for mosquito control agents because they constitute rich sources of bioactive chemicals. They are also biodegradable and environment-friendly. The present study reports on the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Seseli gummiferum. subsp. ilgazense (Apiaceae against Aedes aegypti larvae. Essential oil showed 100 and 70% mortality at 125 and 62.6 ppm, respectively, with no mortality at 31.25 ppm. Aerial parts of S. gummiferum subsp. ilgazense were subjected to hydrodistillation to yield 0.6% oil. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents in the oil were sabinene (28.8%, germacrene D (9.5% and α -pinene (7.2%.

  17. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

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    Catherine Kleier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  18. A systematic review of the effects of Iranian pharmaceutical plant extracts on Giardia lamblia

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    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a systematic review regarding anti-Giardia effect of different Iranian plant extracts used in vivo and in vitro on cysts and trophozoites. Many reports indicated that most of plant extracts used as anti-Giardia were obtained from Liliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae. These extracts included different fractions such as aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts as well as Soxhlet extraction of juice or essence. The findings of this review showed that hydroalcoholic extract of asafoetida, Chenopodium botrys, and chloroformic extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium have the maximum effect (100% efficacy on in vitro application against Giardia. However, the highest in vivo effect of 100% therapeutic significance was recorded for the extract of Allium sativum at 80 mg/mL concentration. Given the plant species richness of Iran in terms of herbal medicines with fewer side effects, it can be a good alternative to chemical drugs used to treat giardiasis.

  19. Etude des groupements d'adventices dans le Maroc occidental

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    Douira, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the weeds groupings in western Morocco. An ecological floristic study was carried out in the principal areas of Morocco severely infested by the sterile oats. From 110 readings taken in cereals, the 324 listed species belong to 47 botanical families including 39 dicotyledons. Six families: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Apiaceae add up 59% of the total staff complement alone. The biological aspect shows a prevalence of the therophytes with 80%, followed by the hemicryptophytes and the geophytes with respectively 11 and 7%. Mediterranean taxa are dominating with 62% of the total staff complement. The taking into account of the index partial of noxiousness made it possible to release 27 problematic species whose Avena sterilis, Phalaris paradoxa, Phalaris brachystachys, Scolymus maculates, Lolium multiflorum, Papaver rhoeas and Lolium rigidum are most harmful by far. The factorial analysis of correspondences (A.F.C., by the means of the edaphic variables, made it possible to highlight six ecological groups.

  20. Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Legrand, Chantal; Lafeve, Françoise Fauvel; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2009-08-17

    Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increase in blood platelet activity. In Morocco, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension. In this study, crude aqueous extract (CAE) of parsley was evaluated for its anti-platelet activity in experimental animals on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo; and on bleeding time in vivo. The in vitro aggregation was monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with CAE. The bleeding time and ex vivo aggregation were performed after oral treatment. CAE inhibited dose dependently platelet aggregation in vitro induced by thrombin, ADP, collagen and epinephrine. The oral administration of CAE (3g/kg) inhibited significantly (pparsley may be benefit in the normalization of platelet hyperactivation, in the nutritional prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are potentially interesting in the development of new prevention strategies.

  1. Total phenols and antioxidant activities of leaf and stem extracts from coriander, mint and parsley grown in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Juhaimi, F.; Ghafoorr, K.

    2011-01-01

    Leaves and stems of three different herbs from two different families were used to extract phenolic compounds and the bioactivity of the extracts was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH scavenging ability or their antioxidant activities. Extract from leaves of mint, which belongs to Lamiaceae family contained 1.24 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic compounds and 34.21% antioxidant activity which were significantly higher than those in extracts from coriander and parsley, both of which belong to Apiaceae family. Extracts of leaves from these herbs showed more quantity of total phenols and higher antioxidant activities than extracts from stem parts, however both leaves and stems of these three herbs grown in Saudi Arabia contained good quantities of total phenols (>1.02 mgGAE/100 mL) and showed more than 18.3% free radical scavenging activity. (author)

  2. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of ammi visnaga (apiacae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, S.; Jan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammi visnaga (bisnaga, toothpick weed or khella) belongs to the family Apiaceae and it is a herbaceous medicinal plant. It is found mainly in the Mediterranean regions and also distributed abundantly throughout the world as introduced species. Many times, A. visnaga is weed as well as used in many countries as herbal medicine for different purposes. Ancient records reveal various medicinal properties of A. visnaga as a popular source to cure variety of different ailments. The plant is used directly as a herb or as a component for production of a number of herbal medicines used in the cure of renal colic, ureteric stones, angina pectoris, the coronary vessels, cardiovascular disorders and asthma. Also it is used as a folk medicine for vitiligo and psoriasis. This review highlights the commonly recognized medicinal uses of A. visnaga, its chemistry and ethnobotanical uses and will also serve as ready reference for future research. (author)

  3. The trophic plasticity of genus phelipanche pomel (orobanchaceae in bulgaria Trofichna plastichnost na rod phelipanche pomel (orobanchaceae v bulgaria

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    Kiril STOYANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New data about the natural parasitism of Phelipanche ramosa (L Pomel, P. mutelii (Shultz Pomel, P. oxyloba, P. arenaria and P. purpurea in Bulgaria are collected. The information for the hosts describes 46 new trophic systems with species from the families: Brassicaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Araliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Dioscoreaceae and Verbenaceae. The samples are collected outside the crop fields, far from the known host crops, from different parts of the country. Some of the registered hosts are new for Bulgaria. The voucher specimens with physical connection to the hosts are deposited in the Herbarium of The Agricultural University - Plovdiv (SOA. The collected data suggest that genus Phelipanche is represented by two trophic groups according to the known sections. Sect. Phelipanche unites the polyphags P. ramosa, P. oxyloba and P. mutelii. Sect. Arenariae consist oligophags - P. arenaria and P. purpurea.

  4. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

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    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  5. Umbelliferone: Sources, chemistry and bioactivities review

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    Ofentse Mazimba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Umbelliferone is a 7-hydroxycoumarin that is a pharmacologically active agent. It is widely distributed within the Rutaceae and Apiaceae (Umbelliferae families and is efficiently extracted using methanol. Umbelliferone is a fluorescing compound used as a sunscreen agent. It is synthesized using the Pechmann condensation reaction of resorcinol and formyl acetic acid. Biosynthetically it is synthesized using the phenylpropanoid pathway. Umbelliferone is a synthon for other coumarins and heterocycles with improved biological activities. In the Literature modest antibacterial and antifungal activities are reported with MIC values of 500–1000 μg/mL, but exhibited good E. coli anti-biofilm formation. Umbelliferone shows good inhibitions of DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and ABTS radicals. Other reported activities are anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, molluscicidal and anti-tumor activities. Keywords: Umbelliferone, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor, Cytotoxicity, Synthesis, Biosynthesis

  6. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

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    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  7. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

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    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  8. Comunidade de Syrphidae (Diptera: diversidade e preferências florais no Cinturão Verde (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil Syrphidae (Diptera community: diversity and floral preferences in the Green Belt (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil

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    Mírian Nunes Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a comunidade de Syrphidae, do Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, permitindo a obtenção de informações acerca da composição e estrutura desta comunidade, suas preferências florais e interações entre as espécies na utilização de recursos alimentares. Realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica, entre setembro/2001 a janeiro/2005. Foram capturados 1.283 espécimes de Syrphidae, representados por 88 espécies, distribuídos em 21 gêneros. Eristalinae apresentou o maior número de espécies coletadas, seguida por Syrphinae e Microdontinae. O gênero Palpada Macquart e a espécie P. urotaenia (Curran foram os mais abundantes. As coletas alcançaram cerca de 80% do que se estima para a área de estudo. Coletaram-se 1.187 sirfídeos (74 espécies visitantes de 51 espécies de plantas, de 23 famílias, onde Apiaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram o maior número de visitantes. O grau de especialização alimentar variou de acordo com os tipos de flores visitadas. A facilidade do acesso aos recursos florais e a coloração clara das flores são os principais responsáveis pela atração dos sirfídeos em Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae e Solanaceae. A diversidade da comunidade de Syrphidae é regulada por interações locais entre as espécies, principalmente entre as condições ambientais e disponibilidade de recursos alimentares.The aim of this study was to investigate the Syrphidae community in the area of the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, as well as to obtain information on the structure and composition of this community, its floral preferences and the interactions between the species in the food resource utilization. The specimens were collected with entomological net, from September/2001 to January/2005. A total of 1.283 syrphid specimens were collected, totaling 88 species distributed in 21 genera. Eristalinae presented the highest number of

  9. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

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    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    , where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and,respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa ,Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and bestrepresented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site.The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the allianceswhere these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neitheras frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surfaceand time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.

  10. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

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    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  11. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Saeid; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  12. EVA GREEN REAL-TIME PCR USED TO DETECT CELERY AS AN ALLERGEN IN FOOD

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    Ondrej Škultéty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available EvaGreen®  Real-Time PCR method has been used for celery(Apium graveolens allergen detection. A primer designed in mannitol dehydrogenase gene region has been used for specific celery identification in sample. The results show possibility to create calibration curve using artificially adulterated samples. The increasing variability between parallel calibration of celery samples has been observed from 0.1 % to 100%. Detection limit has been set to value 0.1% in celery representing 1000 ppm. Fluorescent signal has been presented even in samples with lower percentage addition of celery but these samples have been excluded according to unspecific melting curve.doi:10.5219/138

  13. Desarrollo de apio mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina e, utilizando la ingeniería de matrices. / Development of minimally processed celery fortified with vitamin E, by matrix engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Martelo Castaño, Yisell Johan; Cortés Rodríguez, Misael; Suárez Mahecha, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto mínimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce), utilizando la ingeniería de matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacío con dlαtocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solución isotónica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en función del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacío), en términos de la cuantificación...

  14. Flower associations and nesting of the pollen wasp Quartinia major Kohl, 1898 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Masarinae in Morocco

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    Volker Mauss

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Females of Quartinia major Kohl were observed to visit flowers of Pulicaria mauritanica Batt., Cladanthus arabicus (L. Cass. and Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk. Less., (all Asteroideae Asteraceae at two localities in southern Morocco. Pollen in the provisions of two brood cells was more than 99% Aster-type (Asteroideae, indicating broad oligolecty. During pollen uptake from P. mauritanica, the females of Q. major employed a hitherto undescribed harvesting technique: They used their mouthparts to squeeze pollen from the corolla tubes of early male phase disc florets. Pollen was ingested immediately after it had been extracted. The nest was a multicellular subterranean burrow excavated in friable soil and surmounted by a turret. The nest walls were stabilized with self-generated silk.

  15. Antiinflammatory Effect of Several Umbelliferae Species

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    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  16. Efek Antiinflamasi Beberapa Tumbuhan Umbelliferae

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    SUWIJIYO PRAMONO

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A screening for antiinflammatory effects was performed on several Indonesian Umbelliferae plants based on the contents of saponins and flavonoids. They were compared with Bupleurum falcatum L. as an introduced antiinflammatory plant. Roots and grains of each plant were collected, dried, and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were then analyzed for their saponin and flavonoid contents by gravimetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric method. Antiinflammatory activity test was conducted on carragenin induced rat paw oedema. The results showed that the highest contents of saponin and flavonoid were found in the grains of Apium graveolens L. and showed antiinflammatory effect that was equivalent to that of the root of B. falcatum.

  17. Use of Medical Plants in Schools Communities from Sinop, Mato Grosso.

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    A. C. M. Urtado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was conducted in Sinop, Mato Grosso, on two school communities. It was applied semi-structured questionnaires with questions focused on socioeconomic and the use of medicinal plants. It has as finality proved the effective use of medicinal plants on the everyday and a levy of the most used plant. The general profile of the respondents has shown that the women detain the major part of the knowledge, and that pass this uses to the future generations and friends, and find these plants on specialty stores, backyards, supermarket, root stores, bush and fairs. The plants that were found more frequently was (Ruta graveolens L., Babosa (Aloe vera L., Erva-Cidreira (Lippia alba Mill., Erva-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Boldo (Plectranthus amboinicus Spreng., Hortel(Menta x vilosa Huds. e Terramicina (Alternanthera dentata Moench..Keywords: medical plants, Sinop, school.

  18. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  19. Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

  20. Pollen morphology and its relationship to the taxonomy of the some taxa of helichrysum gaertner (asteraceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, O.; Bagci, E.

    2017-01-01

    Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns. (author)

  1. New species of Scolytodes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae from Costa Rica and Panamá

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    Bjarte H. Jordal

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Scolytodes (tribe Ctenophorini are described as new to science: S. concavus and S. circumsetosus (from Ficus branches, La Selva, S. montanus (Monteverde, S. nudifrons (Las Cruces near San Vito, and S. triangulus (fogging sample, La Selva, all from Costa Rica, and S. ungulatus (Cerro Punta and S. punctifrons (from Astronium graveolens, Canal Zone, both from Panama. New distributional and host plant data are given for the following species: S. amoenus (Ficus branch, La Selva, and the first record south of Mexico, S. immanis (Cerro de La Muerte, S. impressus (Xylopia branch, Peninsula de Osa, S. ochromae (Ochroma branch, La Selva, S. piceus (fogging sample, La Selva, the first low altitude record, and S. swieteniae (fogging sample, La Selva and Braulio Carrillo, the first exact locality data, all from Costa Rica, and S. nanellus (Barro Colorado Island from Panama.

  2. [Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Thiago da Silva; Braga, Eliana Mara

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5%) of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate) were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. There was a statistically significant decrease (p Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  3. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  4. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the

  5. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... fertility, the term “mobile green manures” is used for green-manure crops that are harvested in one field and then moved as a whole and used as fertilizer in other fields. To further investigate mobile-green-manure crops for use as efficient fertilizers, pot and field experiments were conducted...... with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and kale (Brassica oleracea sabellica) supplied with organic matter consisting of a wide range of plant species with varying nutrient concentrations. Further, field experiments were conducted with leek (Allium porrum) and celery (Apium graveolens dulce) supplied...

  6. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, I.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. - Highlights: ► Elemental contents of three medicinal seeds have been analyzed using INAA. ► All three seeds contain K as major element with ample contents of Fe and Na. ► This baseline data that can be used in future research for medicinal preparations.

  7. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  8. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  9. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  10. Efeito de extratos de plantas medicinais no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum, agente causal da flor preta do morangueiro Effect of plant extract on control of Colletotrichum acutatum the causal agent of the black spot of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Ferreira Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor preta do morangueiro, causada por Colletotrichum acutatum, acarreta sérios problemas à cultura. Com o objetivo de verificar a utilização de extratos vegetais no controle da doença, testes "in vitro" foram realizados com 11 extratos vegetais hidroalcoólicos produzidos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular. Os extratos foram preparados a partir de diferentes partes da planta, de acordo com a espécie, utilizando água e álcool no processo de extração por maceração. Foi verificada a influência dos extratos no crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinaç��o de esporos de C. acutatum, e também no controle do patógeno em folhas e frutos destacados. De acordo com a metodologia utilizada, os extratos vegetais que apresentaram maior eficiência foram os de folha e ramos de Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium e bulbos de Allium sativum, indicando ter essas plantas potencial fungitóxico para o controle de C. acutatum.The black spot of strawberry plants caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, causes serious problems to the culture. To control the disease and minimize the use of fungicides, in vitro assays were accomplished with 11 different plant hydroalcoholic extract from plants species used in the popular medicine. The extracts were produced from plant parts (according to the species using water and alcohol in the extraction process for infusion. The influence of the extracts was verified in the micelial growth, esporulation and germination of the pathogen, besides a test with leaves and outstanding fruits. In agreement with the methodology used in this study, the extracts that showed the highest efficiency were the ones from Ruta graveolens, Artemisia absinthium and Allium sativum, which indicate such plants as potential fungitoxics for the control of C. acutatum.

  11. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  12. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  13. Ozone affects leaf physiology and causes injury to foliage of native tree species from the tropical Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; Alves, Edenise Segala; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Schaub, Marcus; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O 3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of São Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O 3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey. Exposure to 70ppb O 3 reduced assimilation and leaf conductance but increased respiration in Astronium graveolens while gas exchange in Croton floribundus was little affected. Both A. graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha developed characteristic O 3 -induced injury in the foliage, similar to visible symptoms observed in >30% of trees assessed in the MRC, while C. floribundus remained asymptomatic. The underlying structural symptoms in both O 3 -exposed and field samples were indicative of oxidative burst, hypersensitive responses, accelerated cell senescence and, primarily in field samples, interaction with photo-oxidative stress. The markers of O 3 stress were thus mostly similar to those observed in other regions of the world. Further research is needed, to estimate the proportion of sensitive forest species, the O 3 impact on tree growth and stand stability and to detect O 3 hot spots where woody species in the Atlantic Forest are mostly affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  16. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM. PMID:27041871

  17. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  18. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  19. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  20. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  1. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  2. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  3. Spiritual and ceremonial plants in North America: an assessment of Moerman's ethnobotanical database comparing Residual, Binomial, Bayesian and Imprecise Dirichlet Model (IDM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Christina E; Murch, Susan J

    2013-07-09

    Ethnobotanical research and the study of plants used for rituals, ceremonies and to connect with the spirit world have led to the discovery of many novel psychoactive compounds such as nicotine, caffeine, and cocaine. In North America, spiritual and ceremonial uses of plants are well documented and can be accessed online via the University of Michigan's Native American Ethnobotany Database. The objective of the study was to compare Residual, Bayesian, Binomial and Imprecise Dirichlet Model (IDM) analyses of ritual, ceremonial and spiritual plants in Moerman's ethnobotanical database and to identify genera that may be good candidates for the discovery of novel psychoactive compounds. The database was queried with the following format "Family Name AND Ceremonial OR Spiritual" for 263 North American botanical families. Spiritual and ceremonial flora consisted of 86 families with 517 species belonging to 292 genera. Spiritual taxa were then grouped further into ceremonial medicines and items categories. Residual, Bayesian, Binomial and IDM analysis were performed to identify over and under-utilized families. The 4 statistical approaches were in good agreement when identifying under-utilized families but large families (>393 species) were underemphasized by Binomial, Bayesian and IDM approaches for over-utilization. Residual, Binomial, and IDM analysis identified similar families as over-utilized in the medium (92-392 species) and small (<92 species) classes. The families Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Ericacea, Pinaceae and Salicaceae were identified as significantly over-utilized as ceremonial medicines in medium and large sized families. Analysis of genera within the Apiaceae and Asteraceae suggest that the genus Ligusticum and Artemisia are good candidates for facilitating the discovery of novel psychoactive compounds. The 4 statistical approaches were not consistent in the selection of over-utilization of flora. Residual analysis revealed overall trends that were supported

  4. Shadows of the colonial past--diverging plant use in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2009-02-02

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin, and in Loja province, with special focus on the development since the early colonial period. Northern Peru represents the locus of the old Central Andean "Health Axis." The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go as far back as the Cupisnique culture early in the first millennium BC. Northern Peru and Southern Ecuador share the same cultural context and flora but show striking differences in plant use and traditional knowledge. Two hundred fifteen plant species used for medicinal purposes in Ecuador and 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes in Peru were collected, identified,. and their vernacular names, traditional uses, and applications recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors, and members of the public interviewed in Peru still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. In Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. In Peru, 433 (85%) were Dicotyledons, 46 (9%) Monocotyledons, 21 (4%) Pteridophytes, and 5 (1%) Gymnosperms. Three species of Giartina (Algae) and one species of the Lichen genus Siphula were used. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had 12 species, and Poaceae and Apiaceae each accounted for 11 species. In Ecuador the families best represented were Asteraceae (32 species), Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae (11 species each), and Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Lycopodiaceae (9 species each). One hundred eighty-two (85%) of the species used were Dicotyledons, 20 Monocotyledons (9.3%), 12 ferns (5.5%), and one unidentified lichen was used. Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru

  5. Back to the roots: A quantitative survey of herbal drugs in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, P O; Casu, L; Leonti, M

    2016-09-15

    De Materia Medica written by Pedanios Dioscorides (1 century CE) has shaped European and Mediterranean herbal medicine to a large extent. Despite its fundamental importance for modern medico-botanical traditions the content of this work has never been systematically assessed. We present a quantitative survey of the botanical drugs described in De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568) and identify overall therapeutic, diachronic and botanical patterns. The extracted data may serve as a baseline and help to better contextualize research on herbal drugs and phytotherapy. Therapeutic uses of herbal drugs were extracted through line-by-line reading of a digitized version of the treatise. For each plant usage mentioned in the text we recorded (I) the chapter number, (II) the putative botanical identity, (III) the plant part, (IV) the symptoms or disease, (V) the mode of administration, (VI) our biomedical interpretation of the ancient ailment or disease description as well as (VII) the organ- and symptom-defined category under which the use was filed. An introduction to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Matthioli's Renaissance commentary is followed by a description of the employed methodology. The results and discussion section introduces the generated database comprising 5314 unique therapeutic uses of 536 plant taxa and 924 herbal drugs. Separate subsections address salient patterns such as the frequent recommendation of Fabaceae seeds for dermatology, Apiaceae seeds as antidotes and Apiaceae exudates for neurology and psychosomatic disorders as well as the heavy reliance on subterranean parts as drugs. The therapeutic knowledge described in De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568) offers unique insights into classical Mediterranean epidemiology and herbal medicine. Drugs that lost importance over time as well as remedies used for diseases now controlled by preventive medicine and industrially produced drugs may be interesting starting points for research on herbal

  6. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  7. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  8. Efeito embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo de plantas medicinais Embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortive effects of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso milenar de plantas medicinais mostrou ao longo dos anos, que determinadas plantas apresentam substâncias potencialmente perigosas. Do ponto de vista científico, algumas pesquisas mostraram que muitas dessas plantas possuem substâncias agressivas e por essa razão devem ser utilizadas com cuidado, respeitando seus riscos toxicológicos. Os efeitos mais preocupantes do uso indiscriminado de plantas medicinais são embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo, uma vez, que os constituintes da planta podem atravessar a placenta, chegar ao feto e gerar um desses efeitos. Este estudo objetiva fornecer uma listagem das principais plantas medicinais que tenham efeitos embriotóxicos, teratogênicos e abortivos comprovados, conhecendo as partes da planta utilizadas e seus respectivos nomes científicos, com a finalidade de alertar gestantes quanto aos riscos de seu uso. Realizou-se buscas nas bases eletrônicas de dados SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES e Google acadêmico. Nos resultados encontrados, plantas como Arnica (Arnica montana, Artemísia (Artemisia vulgaris, Arruda (Ruta chalepensis/ Ruta graveolens, Barbatimão (Stryphnodendron polyphyllum, Boldo (Vernonia condensata dentre outras, podem vir a gerar um desses efeitos. A partir deste estudo comprova-se que para a maioria das plantas medicinais não há dados a respeito da segurança de seu uso durante a gravidez.The ancient use of medicinal plants has shown over the years that certain plants have potentially dangerous substances. From a scientific point of view, some studies have shown that many of these plants contain aggressive substances and therefore should be used with caution, respecting their toxicological risks. The most important effects of the indiscriminate use of medicinal plants are embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortifacient since the plant constituents can cross the placenta, reaching the fetus and leading to one of these effects. This study aimed to provide a list of

  9. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  10. FEATURES OF THE SEED DORMANCY IN UMBELLIFER CROPS CAUSED BY VARIOUS FACTORS

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    D. N. Baleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out at FGBNU VNIIO in 20112016. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of different types of organic dormancy caused by various factors on seed quality of some representatives of umbellifer crops. The objects of the study were seeds: parsnip ‘Kulinar’ (Pastinaca sativa L.; carrot ‘Rogneda’ (Daucus carrota L.; root parsley ‘Ljubasha’ (Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill.; root celery ‘Kupidon’ (Apium graveolens L.; coriander ‘Yantar’ (Coriandrum sativum L. and dill ‘Kentavr’ (Anethum graveolens L.. In all seeds studied, the speed of embryo growth was decreased by 30% or0.03 mma day. Under influence of the induced dormancy caused by incubation in extract from dill seeds, the speed of embryo growth in all species was decreased by 94-97% on average. The process of germination of just picked seeds in all crops studied showed itself in reduction of germinated seed number by 54% as compared with control variant. Under the effect of incubation at high temperature the seeds of parsnip and root celery didn’t germinate, whereas the germination in the seeds of coriander, root parsley and carrot was decreased by 51%, 47% and 46%, respectively as compared with control. There is no germination observed in parsnip, carrot, root celery and coriander under influence of induced dormancy caused by incubation in extract from dill seeds. In this case, the germination of seeds of root parsley and dill was 8.1% and 15%, respectively. The Pearson correlation between the speed of embryo growth and percent of seed germination showed the significant and positive relationship in the range 0.706-0.952. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that induced by temperature or allelopathic dormancy had impact on the speed of embryo’s growth in the crops studied, where factor effect was 89-86% depending on type of dormancy. Analysis of variance between the factors of dormancy and germination revealed that all

  11. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a

  12. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

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    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  14. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

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    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  15. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

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    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-10-13

    This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but

  16. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

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    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  17. Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase III monocentre randomized placebo controlled study

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    Paris, A; Gonnet, N; Chaussard, C; Belon, P; Rocourt, F; Saragaglia, D; Cracowski, J L

    2008-01-01

    Aims The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH, Hypericum perforatum 5 CH and Ruta graveolens 3 DH) on cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA over 24 h after knee ligament reconstruction. Methods This was an add-on randomized controlled study with three parallel groups: a double-blind homeopathic or placebo arm and an open-label noninterventional control arm. Eligible patients were 18–60 years old candidates for surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament. Treatment was administered the evening before surgery and continued for 3 days. The primary end-point was cumulated morphine intake delivered by PCA during the first 24 h inferior or superior/equal to 10 mg day−1. Results One hundred and fifty-eight patients were randomized (66 in the placebo arm, 67 in the homeopathic arm and 25 in the noninterventional group). There was no difference between the treated and the placebo group for primary end-point (mean (95% CI) 48% (35.8, 56.3), and 56% (43.7, 68.3), required less than 10 mg day−1 of morphine in each group, respectively). The homeopathy treatment had no effect on morphine intake between 24 and 72 h or on the visual analogue pain scale, or on quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire. In addition, these parameters were not different in patients enrolled in the open-label noninterventional control arm. Conclusions The complex of homeopathy tested in this study was not superior to placebo in reducing 24 h morphine consumption after knee ligament reconstruction. What is already known about this subject The efficacy of homeopathy is still under debate and a recent meta-analysis recommended further randomized double-blind clinical trials to identify any clinical situation in which homeopathy might be effective. What this study adds The complex of homeopathy tested in this study (Arnica montana 5 CH, Bryonia alba 5 CH

  18. Effects of Ferula assa-foetida extract on spermatogenesis of rats

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    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula assa-foetida is an herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to Apiaceae family. It is native to the east and central parts of Iran. This old traditional medicine has been used as antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, sedative, stimulant, emmenagogue and vermifuge. In addition to the several therapeutic effects of the plant, it is known as an aphrodisiac herb traditionally; therefore, the present study has evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of F. assa-foetida on spermatogenesis of rats. Methods: The seeds of the plant (500 g were identified and extracted by aqueous ethanol 80% using maceration methods (3×48 h.Adult male rats (6 weeks were orally treated with 50 mg/kg body weight of extract for 6 weeks. The extract was dispersed in distilled water. Control group received distilled water for the same duration. Some fertility parameters including sperm count, morphology and mobility of sperms with serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were evaluated using immunoassay methods.  Results: Sperm parameters and levels of testosterone and LH were significantly improved in the treated group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results revealed that extract of F. assa-foetida significantly (p

  19. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

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    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  20. Taxonomic Identity, Geographic Distribution, and Commercial Exploitation of the Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus nebrodensis (Basidiomycetes).

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    Venturella, Giuseppe; Zervakis, Georgios I; Polemis, Elias; Gargano, Maria Letizia

    2016-01-01

    An updated overview of the outcome of studies conducted on the culinary-medicinal mushroom Pleurotus nebrodensis is presented by placing emphasis on the clarification of the taxonomic identity of P. nebrodensis and other related taxa possessing entirely white to cream basidiomes, which grow in association with different plants of the family Apiaceae. Cultivation techniques, quality of the product sold and sales price, as well as nutritional and medicinal aspects are discussed. Taking also into consideration the high economic importance of P. nebrodensis, it is essential to proceed with the verification of the commercial strains currently available in the international market under the name of "P. nebrodensis" since it is very probable that many (or most) of them do not represent the real P. nebrodensis. TO confirm this hypothesis, an in silico analysis was conducted on a large of number of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA sequences deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database under the name P. nebrodensis. Results demonstrated that all "P nebrodensis" material examined from China (plus several sequences of no reported origin) corresponded to P. eryngii subsp. tuoliensis, with only 2 exceptions, which were grouped within P. eryngii sensu stricto. The real P. nebrodensis biological material from Italy and Greece is certified and is available upon request by the authors at the University of Palermo and the Agricultural University of Athens.

  1. Blessings in disguise: a review of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of plants belonging to the genus Eryngium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Sinem Aslan; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-12-14

    Medicinal and edible plants play a crucial role in the prevention and/or mitigation of different human diseases from ancient times to today. In folk medicine, there are different plants used for infectious disease treatment. During the past two decades, much attention has been paid to plants as novel alternative therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases due to their bioactive natural compounds such as phenol, flavonoids, tannins, etc. The genus Eryngium (Apiaceae) contains more than 250 flowering plant species, which are commonly used as edible and medicinal plants in different countries. In fact, some genus Eryngium species are used as spices and are cultivated throughout the world and others species are used for the treatment of hypertension, gastrointestinal problems, asthma, burns, fevers, diarrhea, malaria, etc. Phytochemical analysis has shown that genus Eryngium species are a rich source of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and triterpenoids. Moreover, eryngial, one the most important and major compounds of genus Eryngium plant essential oil, possesses a significant antibacterial effect. Thus, the objective of this review is to critically review the scientific literature on the phytochemical composition and antibacterial effects of the genus Eryngium plants. In addition, we provide some information about traditional uses, cultivation, as well as phytochemistry.

  2. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Cercospora spp. from Different Host Plant Families

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    Floreta Fiska Yuliarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the genus Cercospora is still complicated due to the host preferences often being used as the main criteria to propose a new name. We determined the relationship between host plants and multilocus sequence variations (ITS rDNA including 5.8S rDNA, elongation factor 1-α, and calmodulin in Cercospora spp. to investigate the host specificity. We used 53 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting 12 plant families for phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of 23 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting the plant families of Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Solanaceae were determined in this study. The sequences of 30 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting the plant families of Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Malvaceae, Cistaceae, Plantaginaceae, Lamiaceae, and Poaceae were obtained from GenBank. The molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of Cercospora species lack host specificity, and only C. zinniicola, C. zeina, C. zeae-maydis, C. cocciniae, and C. mikaniicola were found to be host-specific. Closely related species of Cercospora could not be distinguished using molecular analyses of ITS, EF, and CAL gene regions. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on the CAL gene showed a better topology and Cercospora species separation than the trees developed based on the ITS rDNA region or the EF gene.

  3. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of Cachrys cristata DC. extracts

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    Matejić Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl-acetate, acetone and water extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruits of Cachrys cristata DC.(Apiaceae were compared. The total phenolic contents of the tested extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The amounts per g of dry plant extract of gallic acid (GA and quercetin (Qu ranged between 22.60-166.97 mg, and 8.91-46.02 mg, respectively. The antioxidant activity, expressed as IC50, ranged from 1.784-17.621 mg/mL and from 1.01-3.42 mg L(+-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C/g when tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated by the microwell dilution assay, for the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC15313, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results indicate that C. cristata can be regarded as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  4. Effect of Temperature Regimes on Seed Germination Asafoetida (Ferula Assafoetida L.

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    Zangoie M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Asafoetida is a medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. Gum obtained from the lower part of the stem and roots of this plant has many industrial and pharmaceutical applications. This plant is subject to extinction in its natural habitats due to over-utilization. Understanding the biology of seed germination can help to restore such degradation by implementing agricultural development programs. The present study is an attempt to determine the germination responses to two temperature regimes (constant and fluctuating during the course of the study. The experiment was planned based on a factorial-completely randomized design with two factors (constant and fluctuating temperature regimes at 3 levels each (15, 20 and 25°C with 4 replications. The results showed that the characteristics of germination in asafoetida were significantly improved under the fluctuating temperature as compared with the constant regime. It showed a mean germination time of 1.88 days for the fluctuating regime, while it was 4.88 days for the constant regime. The same results were found on germination rates in favor of fluctuating (0.62 per day in comparison with constant regime (0.33 per day. Under the fluctuating regime, the lowest level of imposed temperature (daily application of 10 and 20 degree during the first and the second 12 hours, respectively was the best for seed germination in this experiment.

  5. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

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    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  6. An ethnobotanical survey of galactogenic plants of Berhoum district (M'sila, Algeria

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    Sarri Madani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: This work aimed an ethnobatanical study on the galactogenic plants used in the Berhoum region (East of M’sila, Algeria; as a part of different studies on the medicinal plants related to M’sila region. Methods: The fieldwork was undertaken as an ethnobotanical survey involving 76 informants (mean age: 50; 64% women, 36% men. Used the medicinal plants were identified and the results were analyzed according to literature investigation dealing with ethnobotany. Use value (UV, fidelity level (FL, and informant consensus factor (FIC were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: A total of 29 plant species belonging to 29 genera and 12 families (mainly Apiaceae and Fabaceae has been registered. Fruits and seeds were the most commonly used plant part (80%. The used plants are mainly prepared as an infusion and decoction (69%. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV = 0.58 was the species most commonly used by local healers. The FIC factors ranging from 0.45 to 0.89 for the six uses categories retained for this study. The ICF (0.65 was registered for the use galactogenic category with 29 species. Conclusion: This work showed that the population of Berhoum district uses various medicinal plants for galactogenic purposes. Furthermore, ethnobotanical analysis will provide data on sustainable use and valorization of this plant heritage for ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 311-315

  7. Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. on the Quality of Protein Bread

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    Sayed-Ahmad Bouchra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05 effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

  8. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

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    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available.

  9. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

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    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  10. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

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    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  11. Ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the adolescent rat dentate gyrus

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    Bai Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb that belongs to the Oenanthe genus in Apiaceae family, and it displays well-known medicinal properties such as protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. However, few studies regarding effects of Oenanthe javanica on neurogenesis in the brain have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of a normal diet and a diet containing ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adolescent rats using Ki-67 (an endogenous marker for cell proliferation and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast. Our results showed that Oenanthe javanica extract significantly increased the number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adolescent rats. In addition, the immunoreactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. However, we did not find that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased in the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. These results indicate that Oenanthe javanica extract improves cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus.

  12. Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of roots and fruits fractions of Astrodaucus persicus extract

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    Saied Goodarzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus (Apiaceae is one of the two species of this genus which grows in different parts of Iran. Roots of this plant were rich in benzodioxoles and used as food additive or salad in Iran and near countries. The aim of present study was evaluation of antimalarial and cytotoxic effects of different fractions of A. persicus fruits and roots extracts. Materials and Methods: Ripe fruits and roots of A. persicuswere extracted and fractionated by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, separately. Antimalarial activities of fractions were performed based on Plasmodium berghei suppressive test in mice model and percentage of parasitemia and suppression were determined for each sample. Cytotoxicity of fruits and roots fractions were investigated against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7, colorectal carcinoma (SW480 and normal (L929 cell lines by MTT assay and IC50 of them were measured. Results: Hexane fraction of roots extract (RHE and ethyl acetate fraction of fruits extract (FEA of A. persicus demonstrated highest parasite inhibition (73.3 and 72.3%, respectively at 500 mg/kg/day which were significantly different from negative control group (P

  13. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  14. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  15. Evaluation of the nutrient profile of Trachyspermum ammi L. seed under the influence of nanoparticles during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I Z; Fatima, U; Tabassum, H; Mabood, A; Ahmad, A; Srivastava, G; Das, M

    2017-07-31

    Trachyspermum ammi L. commonly known as Ajwain is an annual herb belonging to the family Apiaceae. It is enormously grown in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India as well as European region. Seeds of Ajwain were highly administered by traditional healers and usually employed for different ailments. Nanomaterials are known to have plant growth promoting effects, which could find applications in agriculture. In this study, the nanoparticles (NPs) showed the potential to enhance the primary metabolites when administered during germination. Therefore, nanoparticles elicitation can be used to increase the productivity, nutritional values and metabolite contents in Trachyspermum ammi L. This study aimed to provide new insight of the potential growth promoting effects of the nanoparticles () on plant system. Different concentrations of two nanoparticles, that is, iron pyrite (FeS2) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) at three different concentrations of 25ug/ml, 50ug/ml and 75ug/ml were tested on the seeds of Trachyspermum ammi L. The data indicated that nanoparticles enhanced the seedling growth as greener leafs and increased lengths of epicotyl and hypocotyls were seen. These nanoparticles also showed the potential to increase the contents of primary metabolites during germination and the total soluble protein content in seed was increased in nanoparticles-treated seeds as compared to control. The total protein profiling by SDS-PAGE indicated significant differences in number and molecular weights of protein bands upon exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. PATENT ANALYSIS: A LOOK AT THE INNOVATIVE NATURE OF PLANT-BASED COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C. S. César

    Full Text Available The use of plants have become a important trend in cosmetic market, with a crescent number of patent applications. Despite various herbal-based ingredients have been described in scientific literature, most of them are restricted to patent databases. In this work we analyze the innovative use of plants and its derivatives in cosmetic technologies, based on patent analysis. The investigation was conducted using Derwent World Patents Index (Thomson Reuters Scientific, USA from 1995 to 2015. The search was carried out to evaluate the number of patent deposits, the patent depositors profiles, the countries with most patent applications, the International Patent Classification (IPC and the main plant families using in cosmetics. Patent analysis revealed an increase number of applications involving cosmetic containing plants components, with a higher number of deposits related to anti-ageing and whitening skin treatment. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Lilliacae and Apiaceae were the key plant families used in cosmetic formulations for skin care treatment. Comparison between scientific and technological data pointed out divergences between patents deposits and aid-based scientific reports. The use of patent analysis in combination with scientific data opens up wider aspects of knowledge and enables a better rationalization of innovative works.

  17. Cuminum cyminum extract attenuates scopolamine-induced memory loss and stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in rats: a noninvasive biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.

  18. Steroids from Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum L.: A GC-MS analysis

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    Radulović Niko S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The steroid content of Conium maculatum L. (Poison Hemlock, Apiaceae, a well-known weed plant species, was studied herein for the first time. This was achieved by detailed GC-MS analyses of twenty two samples (dichloromethane extracts of different plant organs of C. maculatum at three or four different stages of phenological development, collected from three locations. In total, twenty four different steroids were identified. Six steroids had an ergostane nucleus while the other ones possessed a stigmastane carbon framework. The identity of these compounds was determined by spectral means (MS fragmentation, GC co-injections with authentic standards and chemical transformation (silylation. Steroid compounds were noted to be the main chemical constituents of root extracts (up to 70 % of this plant species in the last phase of development. The predominant ones were stigmasta-5,22- dien-3β-ol (stigmasterol and stigmasta-5-en-3β-ol (β-sitosterol. In an attempt to classify the samples, principal component analysis (PCA and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC were performed using steroid percentages as variables.

  19. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death.

  20. Influence of changes in crop cultivation areas on pollen contents of honey (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-L. VARIS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen counts were done on honey collected by a Finnish honey corporation in late summer 1997 from the entire beekeeping area of Finland. The most common pollen type was Brassicaceae pollen, which was represented by 60% of the grains counted. It was followed by Salix spp. (10%, Trifolium repens + T. hybridum (10% and T. pratense + T. medium (6.5% species. Pollen grains of Phacelia spp, Filipendula ulmaria, Apiaceae, Sorbus aucuparia, Malus domestica, and Rubus idaeus were also numerous. These pollen types constituted 96% of all the pollen examined. These results and those of the earlier pollen counts in Finland were compared with the cultivation areas of the most important nectariferous crops. In the 1930s white clover was the most important honey source in Finland and its pollen was very dominant in honey. Since the 1950s oilseed crops have been grown in increasing rates and pure timothy-meadow fescue pastures and hay stands with heavy N applications have decreased the share of Trifolium species. The proportion of Brassicaceae pollen has continuously increased with the increase of the growing area of turnip rape Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and rape, B. napus ssp. oleifera. At the same time the proportion of T. repens + T. hybridum pollen has decreased so that their mutual relationships are now reversed compared to the beginning of the 1960s. Changes in land use were thus very clearly to be seen in the pollen content of honey.;

  1. Chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Carum copticum against two stored product beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIBI ZAHRA SAHAF; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHAMMAD HADI MESHKATALSADAT

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or antifeedant activity against insects. Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) is one of these plants that have medicinal effects on humans. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dry seeds of C. copticum was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (41.34%), α-terpinolene (17.46%) and ρ-cymene (11.76%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. In fumigant toxicity tests with the essential oil against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at 27 +-1℃ and 60%+-5% RH, it was observed that S. oryzae (LC50= 0.91 μL/L) were significantly susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50= 33.14 μL/L). The mortalities of the insect species reached 100% at concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L and 12-h exposure time. The findings indicate the strong insecticidal activity of C. copticum oil and its potential role as a fumigant for storedproduct insects.

  2. A review on phytopharmaceutical importance of asiaticoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Raghav Mishra; Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herbal plant materials have huge potential in the field of medicine, nutraceuticals, perfumery, beverages, fragrances, cosmetics and dyeing industry.Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (family: Apiaceae) (C. asiatica) is a very popular medicinal herb in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, India and other parts of Asia. Gotu kola, Brahmi and Mandukparniin are the synonyms ofC. asiatica which is mainly used for improving memory power. The pharmacological importance ofC. asiatica is mainly because of triterpenes such as asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassoside and madecassic acid,etc.C. asiatica is mainly used for the treatment of mental fatigue, anxiety, epidermal wound, eczema, leprosy, asthma, psoriasis, ulcers and vein diseases. Asiaticoside is a pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin having anti-depression, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant properties and further it also possesses wound healing, antiulcer and anti-hepatofibrotic activities. It improved cognitive impairment in diabetic condition because of the decreased oxidative stress. Quantification of asiaticoside inC. asiatica has been done by several methods which were mainly based on high performance liquid chromatography methods using different compositions of mobile phase sand detection systems. In these days scientists are trying to discover novel medicine from natural sources for the development of better drugs. In this review we have collected information of asiaticoside in respect to its medicinal values, pharmacological activities, extraction, isolation, and other analytical aspects. So the present review will be supportive to the scientists who are trying to develop some novel medicines from asiaticoside for the better health prospects.

  3. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Boroomand, Naser; Solaimani-Sardou, Farshad

    2017-03-06

    The aim of this study was to collect and document information concerning the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and traditional healers in the south of Kerman Province, Iran. Overall, 64 informants between the ages of 30 and 89 were interviewed about the modes of application and consumption of medicinal plants in the region. Quantitative analysis was conducted that included informant consensus factor (ICF), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural importance index (CI). In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were reported in the south of the Kerman region. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (with 14 species each) were the families with the most medicinal plants. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves at 26.17% and aerial parts (23.49%). Decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%) were the most common preparation methods. The highest UVs were obtained from the following medicinal plants: Amygdalus eburnea Spach, Genista tinctoria L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. and Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. The ICF results indicated that cold-flu and fever were the most common diseases (0.67) in the south of Kerman. Based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants, and these plants should be the focus of future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Antimicrobial Activity of Scaligeria DC. Taxa and Implications for Taxonomy

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    Ayşe Baldemir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Six different Scaligeria DC. taxa (Apiaceae essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation from herba with the flowers collected from different sites from Turkey. The oils were analyzed and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS simultaneously. A total of 133 different compounds were identified and relative qualitative and quantitative differences were observed among the evaluated samples. Analytical profiles of the Scaligeria EOs showed characteristic differences in terms of different main chemical constituents, between the two taxa S. lazica Boiss. and S. tripartita (Kalen. Tamamsch; and S. napiformis (Sprengel Grande, S. meifolia (Fenzl Boiss., S. capillifolia Post, S. hermonis Post, S. glaucescens (DC. Boiss. taxa, respectively. The main component germacrene D can be utilized as marker for the chemical discrimination of the Scaligeria genus. In addition, Scaligeria EOs were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei standard strains by using a micro-dilution assay. As a general result, the oils showed moderate inhibitory range when compared with standard antimicrobial agents.

  5. Trypanocidal activity of Brazilian plants against epimastigote forms from Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Renata Tomé Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the main public health problems in Latin America. Since the available treatments for this disease are not effective in providing cure, the screening of potential antiprotozoal agents is essential, mainly of those obtained from natural sources. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of the trypanocidal activity of 92 ethanol extracts from species belonging to the families Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Verbenaceae against the Y and Bolivia strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Additionally, cytotoxic activity on LLCMK2 fibroblasts was evaluated. Both the trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the MTT method, in the following concentrations: 500, 350, 250, and 100 µg/mL. Benznidazole was used for positive control. The best results among the 92 samples evaluated were obtained with ethanol extracts of Ocotea paranapiacabensis (Am93 and Aegiphila lhotzkiana (Am160. Am93 showed trypanocidal activity against epimastigote forms of the Bolivia strain and was moderately toxic to LLCMK2 cells, its Selectivity Index (SI being 14.56, while Am160 showed moderate trypanocidal activity against the Bolivia strain and moderate toxicicity, its SI being equal to 1.15. The screening of Brazilian plants has indicated the potential effect of ethanol extracts obtained from Ocotea paranapiacabensis and Aegiphila lhotzkiana against Chagas disease.

  6. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  7. Medical ethnobotany of herbal practitioners in the Turkestan Range, southwestern Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Pawera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study recorded and analyzed traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Turkestan Range in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, where ethnobotanical knowledge has been largely under-documented to date. Data was collected through participant observation and both semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 10 herbal specialists. A total of 50 medicinal plant taxa were documented, distributed among 46 genera and 27 botanical families. In folk medicine they are applied in 75 different formulations, which cure 63 human and three animal ailments. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were calculated to analyze traditional knowledge of the informants and to determine the cultural importance of particular medicinal plants. Ziziphora pamiroalaica, Peganum harmala, and Inula orientalis obtained the highest use value (UV. The best-represented and culturally important families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, and Apiaceae. Gastro-intestinal system disorders was the most prevalent ailment category. Most medicinal plants were gathered from nearby environments, however, species with a higher cultural value occurred at distant rather than nearby collection sites. The findings of this study proved the gap in documentation of traditional knowledge in Kyrgyzstan, indicating that further studies on the traditional use of wild plant resources could bring important insights into ecosystems’ diversity with implications to human ecology and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Central Asia.

  8. A survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of dysentery in amathole district municipality, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolayan, A.J.; Wintola, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the prevalence of dysentery in developing countries such as South Africa and the erosion of indigenous knowledge of phytomedicine due to lack of interest by the young generation, a survey of five local municipalities of Amathole district, Eastern Cape Province was carried out in 2012. A questionnaire-guided interview of the indigenous people by random sampling was done with the help of an interpreter during a survey of the district. Fifty-five (55) respondents participated in the study. The respondents comprised of 25% traditional medical practitioners, 15% herb-sellers and 15% rural elders. Fifty-one (51) plants species of 32 families were documented. Fabaceae had the highest representation of seven (14%) plant species used for the treatment of dysentery; some other families were Asphodelaceae, Apiaceae, Geraniaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Asclepiadiaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Balanophaceae, Celstraceae, Convolvulaceae, Cornaceae, Iridaceae, and Hydronaceae. The medicinal plants with the highest frequency of prescription were Hydnora africana and Alepidea amatymbica. The plants were used singly or in combination in recipes. Leaves (28%) had the highest use-value of plant parts, followed by the roots (24%), bark (22%) and the whole plant (9%). Methods of preparation of recipes were decoction, infusion and tincture. The use of recipe as an enema was also documented. The study of the pharmacology and mode of action of the plants will contribute immensely to their therapeutic value. (author)

  9. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities,  a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  10. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly and identification of AP2/ERF transcription factor related to abiotic stress in parsley (Petroselinum crispum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yao Li

    Full Text Available Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation showed that 30,516 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes. In addition, 3,244 putative simple sequence repeats were detected in curly parsley. Finally, 1,569 of the identified unigenes belonged to 58 transcription factor families. Various abiotic stresses have a strong detrimental effect on the yield and quality of parsley. AP2/ERF transcription factors have important functions in plant development, hormonal regulation, and abiotic response. A total of 88 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the transcriptome sequence of parsley. Seven AP2/ERF transcription factors were selected in this study to analyze the expression profiles of parsley under different abiotic stresses. Our data provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for intensive parsley research.

  11. Suitable Reference Genes for Accurate Gene Expression Analysis in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) for Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Song, Xiong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Parsley, one of the most important vegetables in the Apiaceae family, is widely used in the food, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Recent studies on parsley mainly focus on its chemical composition, and further research involving the analysis of the plant's gene functions and expressions is required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and is widely used to study gene expression. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization. In this study, four software, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of eight candidate reference genes of parsley ( GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4 α, SAND, UBC, TIP41, EF-1 α, and TUB ) under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli treatments (GA, SA, MeJA, and ABA). Results showed that EF-1 α and TUB were the most stable genes for abiotic stresses, whereas EF-1 α, GAPDH , and TUB were the top three choices for hormone stimuli treatments. Moreover, EF-1 α and TUB were the most stable reference genes among all tested samples, and UBC was the least stable one. Expression analysis of PcDREB1 and PcDREB2 further verified that the selected stable reference genes were suitable for gene expression normalization. This study can guide the selection of suitable reference genes in gene expression in parsley.

  12. Suitable reference genes for accurate gene expression analysis in parsley (Petroselinum crispum for abiotic stresses and hormone stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parsley is one of the most important vegetable in Apiaceae family and widely used in food industry, medicinal and cosmetic. The recent studies in parsley are mainly focus on chemical composition, further research involving the analysis of the gene functions and expressions will be required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and widely used for gene expression studies. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization. In this study, three software geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of eight candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4α, SAND, UBC, TIP41, EF-1α, and TUB under various conditions including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought and hormone stimuli treatments (GA, SA, MeJA, and ABA. The results showed that EF-1α and TUB were identified as the most stable genes for abiotic stresses, while EF-1α, GAPDH, and TUB were the top three choices for hormone stimuli treatments. Moreover, EF-1α and TUB were the most stable reference genes across all the tested samples, while UBC was the least stable one. The expression analysis of PcDREB1 and PcDREB2 further verified that the selected stable reference genes were suitable for gene expression normalization. This study provides a guideline for selection the suitable reference genes in gene expression in parsley.

  13. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly and identification of AP2/ERF transcription factor related to abiotic stress in parsley (Petroselinum crispum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation showed that 30,516 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes. In addition, 3,244 putative simple sequence repeats were detected in curly parsley. Finally, 1,569 of the identified unigenes belonged to 58 transcription factor families. Various abiotic stresses have a strong detrimental effect on the yield and quality of parsley. AP2/ERF transcription factors have important functions in plant development, hormonal regulation, and abiotic response. A total of 88 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the transcriptome sequence of parsley. Seven AP2/ERF transcription factors were selected in this study to analyze the expression profiles of parsley under different abiotic stresses. Our data provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for intensive parsley research.

  14. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  15. Mapping Sub-Antarctic Cushion Plants Using Random Forests to Combine Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Terrain Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricher, Phillippa K.; Lucieer, Arko; Shaw, Justine; Terauds, Aleks; Bergstrom, Dana M.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in the distribution and density of plant species often requires accurate and high-resolution baseline maps of those species. Detecting such change at the landscape scale is often problematic, particularly in remote areas. We examine a new technique to improve accuracy and objectivity in mapping vegetation, combining species distribution modelling and satellite image classification on a remote sub-Antarctic island. In this study, we combine spectral data from very high resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery and terrain variables from a high resolution digital elevation model to improve mapping accuracy, in both pixel- and object-based classifications. Random forest classification was used to explore the effectiveness of these approaches on mapping the distribution of the critically endangered cushion plant Azorella macquariensis Orchard (Apiaceae) on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Both pixel- and object-based classifications of the distribution of Azorella achieved very high overall validation accuracies (91.6–96.3%, κ = 0.849–0.924). Both two-class and three-class classifications were able to accurately and consistently identify the areas where Azorella was absent, indicating that these maps provide a suitable baseline for monitoring expected change in the distribution of the cushion plants. Detecting such change is critical given the threats this species is currently facing under altering environmental conditions. The method presented here has applications to monitoring a range of species, particularly in remote and isolated environments. PMID:23940805

  16. Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa.

  17. Daucus aristidis Coss. essential oil: Volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity in pre-flowering stage

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    Mebarka Lamamra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Daucus aristidis Coss. (Apiaceae (D. aristidis (synonym Ammiopsis aristidis Batt. collected in pre-flowering stage in East of Algeria. Methods: The aerial parts of D. aristidis Coss were collected. Essential oil (in pre-flowering stage obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated for the first time by gas chromatograph and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion method at various dilutions of the oil. Results: The main components of D. aristidis oil in pre-flowering stage were α-pinene (20.13%, cedrol (20.11% and E-asarone (18.53%. D. aristidis oil exhibited an antibacterial activity against almost all the strains tested except for Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 K6 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452 which exhibited a resistance against the oil with all dilutions. Also, the oil of D. aristidis had no activity against all fungi tested. Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antimicrobial activity of D. aristidis in pre-flowering stage. The studied essential oil possesses moderate antibacterial activity against almost all strains tested but no antifungal activity.

  18. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jun Yan; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2005-04-26

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori has been ascertained to be an important etiologic impetus leading usually to chronic active gastritis and gastric ulcer with growing incidences worldwide. Utilizing as the test pathogen a standard and five clinic strains of Helicobacter pylori, the antibacterial action was assessed in vitro with ethanol extracts of 30 Chinese herbal medicines which have been frequently prescribed since ancient times for treating gastritis-like disorders. Among the 30 tested materials, the ethanol extracts of Abrus cantoniensis (Fabaceae), Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) and Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) were strongly inhibitory to all test strains (MICs: approximately 40 microg/ml), and Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii (Liliaceae), Magnolia officinalis and Schisandra chinensis (Magnoliaceae), Corydalis yanhusuo (Papaveraceae), Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae), Bupleurum chinense and Ligusticum chuanxiong (Apiaceae) substantially active with MICs close to 60.0 microg/ml. As to antibacterial actions of the aqueous extracts of the same drugs, those derived from Cassia obtusifolia (Fabaceae), Fritillaria thunbergii and Eugenia caryophyllata were remarkably inhibitory against all the six Helicobacter pylori strains (MICs: approximately 60 microg/ml). The work compared almost quantitatively the magnitude of the anti-Helicobacter pylori actions of the 30 most prescribed gastritis-treating Chinese herbal drugs, and located as well some source plants where potent anti-Helicobacter pylori phytochemicals could be characterized.

  19. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

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    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  20. A review on phytopharmaceutical importance of asiaticoside

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    Kanika Patel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plant materials have huge potential in the field of medicine, nutraceuticals, perfumery, beverages, fragrances, cosmetics and dyeing industry. Centella asiatica (L. Urban (family: Apiaceae (C. asiatica is a very popular medicinal herb in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, India and other parts of Asia. Gotu kola, Brahmi and Mandukparniin are the synonyms of C. asiatica which is mainly used for improving memory power. The pharmacological importance of C. asiatica is mainly because of triterpenes such as asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassoside and madecassic acid, etc. C. asiatica is mainly used for the treatment of mental fatigue, anxiety, epidermal wound, eczema, leprosy, asthma, psoriasis, ulcers and vein diseases. Asiaticoside is a pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin having anti-depression, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties and further it also possesses wound healing, antiulcer and anti-hepatofibrotic activities. It improved cognitive impairment in diabetic condition because of the decreased oxidative stress. Quantification of asiaticoside in C. asiatica has been done by several methods which were mainly based on high performance liquid chromatography methods using different compositions of mobile phase sand detection systems. In these days scientists are trying to discover novel medicine from natural sources for the development of better drugs. In this review we have collected information of asiaticoside in respect to its medicinal values, pharmacological activities, extraction, isolation, and other analytical aspects. So the present review will be supportive to the scientists who are trying to develop some novel medicines from asiaticoside for the better health prospects.

  1. Mutagenic potential of water from Pelotas Creek in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T C O; Maciel, L F; Leal, K S; Bender, A E N; Paiva, T S; Garcias, G L; Martino-Roth, M G

    2009-09-01

    Water resource degradation is one of mankind's greatest worries, as it causes direct and indirect damage to the associated biota. We initiated a water monitoring study in Pelotas Creek in 2003 in order to assess the mutagenic effect of the creek's waters. Allium cepa cells exposed to water samples and a chronically exposed macrophyte were analyzed, through evaluation of the mitotic index, mitotic anomalies, interphase anomalies, and total anomalies. Five points were chosen along the lower course of Pelotas Creek, from which water samples and floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Apiaceae) were collected in 2006 and 2007. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli was found at all sampling points; in the physical-chemical analysis, a few variables exceeded permitted limits, pH (from 6 to 9), chloride (250 mg/L), hardness (from 10 to 200 mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (100 microOmega/cm). There was an increased number of cytogenetic anomalies in exposed A. cepa cells and in the pennywort in 2006 relative to 2007, which may be explained by the increased rainfall, which was three times greater in 2007 at some stations than in 2006.Omega/cm). There was an increased number of cytogenetic anomalies in exposed A. cepa cells and in the pennywort in 2006 relative to 2007, which may be explained by the increased rainfall, which was three times greater in 2007 at some stations than in 2006.

  2. Plants and pollinating bees in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Toledo Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to survey the bees as visitors to melliferous flora in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 331 insects were captured, and the fauna comprised 39.88% Trigona spinipes, 38.37% Apis mellifera, 8.16% Tetragonisca angustula, 3.93% Halictidae, 1.21% Megachilidae, 2.42% Anthophoridae, and 3.32% other Hymenoptera. Eleven plant species from nine families were observed. The four families most frequently visited by A. mellifera were Pontederiaceae (93.53%, Sterculiaceae and Polygoniaceae (47.22%, Apocynaceae and Apiaceae (42.86%. The families most visited by T. spinipes were Lamiaceae (64.70%, Apocynaceae (57.14%, Sterculiaceae (51.85% and Anacardiaceae (48.39%, and the families most visited by T. angustula were (28.57%, Asteraceae (22.22% and Labiatae (16.47%. Three species predominated in number of bee visits Dombeya wallichii (32.63%, Ocimum americanum (15.5% and Antigonon leptopus (15.2%. T. angustula was the most frequent visitor of O. gratissimum flowers (60.87%.

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

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    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  4. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

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    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  5. Analyses of the essential oil from Bunium persicum fruit and its antioxidant constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Adeli, Abrisham; Nickavar, Azar

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to analyze and identify the antioxidant constituents of the essential oil of Bunium persicum (Apiaceae) fruit. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS. The essential oil was tested for antioxidant capacity in DPPH radical scavenging and linoleic acid/β-carotene assays. The TLC-bioautography method based on DPPH radical assay and GC analyses were carried out to characterize the major antioxidant compounds in the essential oil. GC analyses showed the presence of sixteen compounds with p-cymene (31.1%), cuminaldehyde (22.2%), and γ-terpinene (11.4%) as the main components in the essential oil. The oil exhibited good radical scavenging [IC50 (DPPH·) = 4.47 (3.96 - 5.05) mg/mL] and antilipid peroxidation [IC50 (β-carotene bleaching) = 0.22 (0.16 - 0.31) mg/mL] activities. The TLC tests resulted in identification of cuminaldehyde, p-cymene-7-ol, and cuminyl acetate as the main constituents of the active oil fraction.

  6. Digitizing information for wider reach through 'him-Padap-Sanklan', an e-inventory of Himalayan flora

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    Amit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'him-Padap-Sankalan' is a digital directory of floral resources of Himachal Pradesh H.P., a biologically rich state of the Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot. It provides information on nomenclature, taxonomic classification, local name(s, trade name(s and uses of 3348 plant species along with maps showing their distribution in H.P. The information housed in 'Him-Padap-Sankalan' has been compiled from published sources, primarily the Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Analysis. The Graphic User Interface of the 'him-Padap-Sankalan' has been prepared using ASP.Net having MS-Access database in the back end. The 'scientific names', 'trade names', 'local names', 'synonyms', 'genus' and 'species' are the various search modules of 'him-Padap-Sankalan', which can be accessed using an internet browser connected through local area network. Analysis of information reveals that of the 201 families, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Scrophularariaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae and Apiaceae are the ten dominat families in the state. 24 families and 18 genera are common to all the 12 districts of H.P. The maximum number of families, genera and species are in Shimla district and the least in Bilaspur district of H.P.

  7. Antiprotozoal and Antiglycation Activities of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Exudate

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    Adnan Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exudate of Ferula narthex Boiss. (Apiaceae is widely used in the Indian subcontinent as a spice and because of its health effects. Six sesquiterpene coumarins have been isolated from this exudate: feselol, ligupersin A, asacoumarin A, 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A, 10′R-karatavacinol and 10′R-acetyl-karatavacinol. Based on its use in infectious and diabetic conditions, the isolated constituents were evaluated for antimicrobial and antiglycation activities. Some compounds showed activity against protozoal parasites, asacoumarin A being the most active one against Plasmodium falciparum K1 (IC50 1.3 μM. With regard to antiglycation activity, in the BSA-glucose test, ligupersin A displayed the highest activity (IC50 0.41 mM, being more active than the positive control aminiguanidine (IC50 1.75 mM. In the BSA-MGO assay, the highest activity was shown by 8′-O-acetyl-asacoumarin A (IC50 1.03 mM, being less active than aminoguanidine (IC50 0.15 mM. Hence, the antiglycation activity of the isolated constituents was due to both oxidative and non-oxidative modes of inhibition.

  8. Antioxidant activity of Trifolium resupinatum L. exposed to different extracts from leaves, flowers and shoots of Prangos ferulacea

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    Bazdar, M.; Sadeghi, H.

    2017-07-01

    Prangos ferulacea is a member of Apiaceae family, is a popular fodder for livestock production and an important species in rangeland restoration. The objectives of the research are the comparative phytotoxic activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from different organs (flower, shoot and leaf) of P. ferulacea on antioxidant response of Trifolium resupinatum was investigated in a laboratory bioassay. Antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbic peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in line with content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide were measured. Results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of P. ferulaceae flower possess the highest total phenolic content as well as highest phytotoxic effect on T. resupinatum. The highest antioxidant enzyme activity belonged to hydroalcoholic treatment. The treated T. resupinatum seedlings experienced lipid peroxidation at high extract concentrations (12% of hydroalcoholic and 100% of aqueous extract) as evidenced by increased concentration of MDA. In response to this, the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX increased at lower extract concentrations but significantly dropped as concentrations increased. According to results of this study, rehabilitation of T. resupinatum sites through the use of P. ferulaceae will probably not be successful.

  9. Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran

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    Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 species (43.3% in 42 families (58.3% showed antibacterial activities against B. cereus (88.4%, B. subtilis (39.7%, B. pumilis (37.1%, P. fluorescens (37.1% and P. aeruginos (10.2%. The most active plant families were Apiaceae, Compositae and Labiatae with 9, 8 and 7 active plant species respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the active plants were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plant against Bacilli was Myrtus communis L. with MIC of 1.87 mg/ml. For Pseudomonas species, Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertner Retz. were more active with the MIC of 0.46 mg/ml for P. fluorescens and of 1.87 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa respectively.

  10. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

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    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  11. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  12. Inventory and valuation of flora used by the village Santa Teresa, Palmira (Valle del Cauca

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    Miguel Macgayver Bonilla Morales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plants cultivated is associated with food security as well as special benefits for different human communities around the world. The objective of this paper was to determine the plant species used by a rural community formed five years ago, hence values categories were established to learn more about the use value, the number of species per family, the part used and the distribution of species among farms. Among the results obtained, 113 species grouped into 52 families were reported, of which the most representative were Asteraceae and Lamiaceae and Apiaceae with 8 and 7 respectively, all of them associated with medicinal plants. Meanwhile corn corn and bananas have the highest use values (6, corresponding to 28% of the species of food grade. With the fruit (28% and the leaf (26% being the parts most often utilized. The farms of Limonar and Encanto, colectively, contain 47% of species of the studied area. The study permits the establishment of the interfamily and interspecific richness and the the use value of the diversity of plants cultivated by the inhabitants of the village of Santa Teresa, Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

  13. ESPECIALLY VEGETATION ISLANDS OF NORTHWEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA(SEAL, CHECHEN ISLAND, NORDOVA

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    S. I. Soltanmuradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim The identification of the species flora of Northwest islands of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The collection of useful material were implemented by route-forwarding method. For collect and herbarization of theplants were used the traditional equipments necessary for fioristic studies. For identifying plants in the laboratory conditions were used by binocular MBS-2, and in the field conditions were used by magnifiers with eight-fold increase.Results. Flora of the islands of the Northwest of the Caspian Sea counts 269 species of higher plants, belonging to 49 families and 186 geniuses: the Seals – 32 families, the Nordova – 26 families, 57 geniuses, 65 species.Main conclusions. All the leading families of the islands are specific for Iran-Turan and Mediterranean of floristic areas. Also shared with the Central Asian deserts are families Tamaricaceae, Frankeniaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, and the geniuses Halocnemum, Halopeplis, Suaeda.

  14. Identification of octanal as plant growth inhibitory volatile compound released from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishyna, Maryia; Laman, Nikolai; Prokhorov, Valery; Maninang, John Solomon; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden of the Apiaceae family is a malignant invasive plant in Eastern Europe, Belarus and Russia. The species is known for its prolific seed production, which has been linked to the plant's invasive success. The fruit also has a strong aroma, but the contribution of the fruit's volatile constituent to out-compete neighboring plants has not been fully established. In this study, fruit volatiles of H. sosnowskyi and conspecifics (i.e. H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum, H. hirtum) were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Octyl acetate, octanol, octanal, hexyl isobutyrate, and hexyl-2-methyl butyrate were found to be the principal volatiles. Using authentic standards, the growth-inhibitory property of the individual compounds was assayed by the novel Cotton swab method. Assay results with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed that octanal strongly inhibited seed germination and radicle elongation of seedlings. The results suggest that octanal may be the main contributor to the allelopathic activity of H. sosnowksyi fruits. Furthermore, the mixture of fruit volatiles from the invasive H. sosnowskyi more strongly delayed lettuce seedling elongation than the volatiles from fruits of the non-invasive H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum and H. hirtum. Thus, the present study is the first to demonstrate the possible involvement of fruit volatiles of Heracleum species in plant-plant interaction.

  15. Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

  16. Evaluation of Effects of Zingiber officinale on Salivation in Rats

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    Goli Chamani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are some herbal plants in Iranian traditional system of medicine which are believed to be excellent remedies to alleviate the symptoms of xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of seven different herbal extracts on the rate of salivation in rats. The extracts of 7 herbs; Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae, Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae, Pimpinella anisum L.(Apiaceae, Portulaca oleracea L.(Portulacaceae, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae were prepared. Nine groups of animals (including negative and positive control groups were used and seven rats were tested in each group. After the injection of extracts, saliva volume was measured gravimetrically in four continuous seven-minute intervals. The results showed that after injection of ginger extracts salivation was significantly higher as compared to the negative control group and other herbal extracts in all of the four intervals (P<0.01. The peak action of the ginger was during the first 7-minute interval and following this, salivation decreased to some extent. The present study suggests that the extract of Zingiber offiicianle can increase the rate of salivation significantly in animal model. Further investigations on different constituents of ginger seem to be essential to identify the responsible constituent for stimulation of saliva secretion.

  17. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  18. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils and supercritical CO2 extracts of Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxia, Andrea; Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Frau, Maria Assunta; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2012-07-01

    Aerial parts of Apium nodiflorum collected in Portugal and Italy were submitted to hydrodistillation; also a supercritical fluid extract was obtained from Italian plants. The extracts were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Both essential oils, obtained from Portuguese and Italian plants, posses high content of phenylpropanoids (51.6 vs. 70.8%); in the former, the percentage split in myristicin (29.1%) and dillapiol (22.5%), whereas in the latter, the total percentage is only of dillapiol (70.8%). The co-occurrence of myristicin and dillapiol is frequent because dillapiol results from enzymatic methoxylation of myristicin. Antimicrobial activity of phenylpropanoids has been patented, what suggest the potential of plants with high amounts of these compounds. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration, determined according to NCCLS, were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oils against yeasts, Aspergillus species and dermatophytes. Essential oils exhibited higher antifungal activity than other Apiaceae against dermatophytes, with MIC ranging from 0.04 to 0.32 μl/ml. These results support the potential of A. nodiflorum oil in the treatment of dermatophytosis and candidosis.

  19. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  20. Approach to pharmacological and clinical applications of Anisi aetheroleum

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    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisi aetheroleum is the oil obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum by steam distillation. P. anisum seeds were air-dried, and then the dry seeds were crushed, pulverized, and weighed in sequence for anise oil preparation. P. anisum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that belong to family Apiaceae. The fruit of P. anisum is harvested in August and September. P. anisum is widespread in Asia, Africa and Europe. Local names of P. anisum include anise, anisoon, roomy, saunf, sweet cumin and yansoon. The anise oil odour is aromatic while the oil tastes sweet. The average daily dose of Anisi aetheroleum is 0.3 g. trans-Anethole is the major ingredient of the anise oil. Anisi aetheroleum also displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. In addition, Anisi aetheroleum increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat. The plant oil have pharmacological (antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, estrogenic, expectorant and insecticidal effects and clinical effects on nausea, constipation, menopausal period, virus, diabetes, obesity and sedative action. Owing to the wide application of Anisi aetheroleum in pharmacological and clinical fields, it is recommended for more clinical trails to discover a new medication from the active constituents of the plant oil in the future to treat human diseases especially chronic ones.

  1. ALTERNATIVE NOURISHMENT BESIDE VEGETABLE AND FRUIT IN OUR COUNTRY SOURCE: WILD MUSHROOM (Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae

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    Mehmet Akyüz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available P. eryngii var. ferulae which is known very well in Eastern Anatolia Region and picked up from the nature in spring months is sold by the side of the roads and in neighbour markets with the name of ‘’ çaşır, çakşır, çaşur, heliz, kırkor, göbek, göbelek and mendik’’ mushroom. As a member of Apiaceae family; Ferulae sp. that preads at the slope of the mountains, grows up naturally on the roots of its species that remained from the previous year especially at the altitude of 1000-2500 meters on high mountains. It is known that local people has benefited from the natural products special to periodic times. It is seen that it is not benefited from alternative natural nourishment resources like cultuıre vegetables and fruit with their important features and effective nutritive value. In our opinion, this article will be useful for mentioning the importance of the mushroom beside the vegetables and fruits which are vital for our life. It will be useful to expose the medical features, nourishment content and effective nutritive valu and effective nutritious features of mushroom. Furthermore, It is determined that it is necessary to describe P. eryngii and its similarities with the identification of scientific facts as species, subspecies, variety, taxa or synonym in our country.

  2. Ethnopharmacological review of plants traditionally used in Darab (south of Iran

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    Mahmoodreza Moein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical information have been known as effective tools for drug discovery. Iran is a location with long medical history. Darab is one of the cities in Iran which can be important in regard of ethnopharmacological aspects. Current paper documented the folk medical information by Darab inhabitants. Therefore, field studies on this area were conducted from March to July 2012 and May to July 2013 under supervision of one local person. A questionnaire was utilized in this study and was filled by local inhabitants. In total, 58 species belonging to 27 plant families were documented in management of 53 ailments. The most cited plant family was Asteraceae which was followed by Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Papilionaceae. Herbs were applied for gynecologic and genitourinary, respiratory, central nervous system, infectious and cardiovascular ailments as well as musculoskeletal and skin disorders, respectively. This study can indicate the folk knowledge of a region in south of Iran. Moreover, the effectiveness of unexamined plants can be evaluated according to informants’ claims. Therefore, such investigations may be indeed, a useful way to search for drug discovery as well as keeping ethnopharmacological information alive.

  3. The role of cell walls and pectins in cation exchange and surface area of plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatanik-Kloc, A; Szerement, J; Józefaciuk, G

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms. Total amount of surface charge, as well as the cation exchange capacity were markedly higher in roots than in their cell walls, suggesting large contribution of other cell organelles to the binding of cations by the whole root cells. Significantly lower charge of the residues after removal of pectins was noted indicating that pectins play the most important role in surface charge formation of cell walls. The specific surface was similar for all of the studied materials. For the separated cell walls it was around 10% smaller than of the whole roots, and it increased slightly after the removal of pectins. The surface charge density and water vapor adsorption energy were the highest for the whole roots and the lowest for the cell walls residues after removal of pectins. The results indicate that the cell walls and plasma membranes are jointly involved in root ion exchange and surface characteristics and their contribution depends upon the plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of essential oil content and composition of Ducrosia anethifolia at two phenologocal stage

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    Z. Karimi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ducrosia anethifolia is one species which belongs to Apiaceae family that is used to improve the odor of foods and drinks. It is used also to treat catarrh, headache and backache in folk medicine. The herb is also reported to relax the mind and body and induce a peaceful sleep. The growing stage has an important role in quantity and quality of medicinal plants metabolite. In this study, the oil content and composition of D. anethifolia at two growth stages (full flowering and seed formation were studied. Methods: Oil content of this plant was isolated by hydrodistillation method by Clevenger type apparatus. Chemical composition was detected by GC and GC/MS analysis. Results: The results showed that the phenological stage had significant effect on the oil content and composition. Oil content at seed formation was more than the flowering stage (0.24 and 0.96% v/w, respectively. At the flowering stage, n-dodecanal (14.43%, dodecanal (13.30% and n-decanoic acid (11.61% were the major constituents while in the seed formation stage, they were detected slightly. Besides, at seed formation stage cis-chrysanthenyl acetae (39.06%, cubenol (7.97% and p-cymene-7-ol (4.30% were identified as the main composition. Conclusion: The results showed depending on our goal for each plant usage, the harvest time could be different; during seed formation the oil content increased significantly.

  5. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the flower-visiting wasps. The collected specimens were deposited at the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. 1.483 specimens were captured belonging to 73 wasp species, whose 78.9% were Polistinae (30 species and 21.1% Eumeninae (43 species, visiting the flowers of 33 plant species classified in 16 botanical families; the families with the larger number of plant species were Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 and Apiaceae (3. The plant species with the largest number of wasps collected was Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, followed by Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 and Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. The analysis of the trophic niche overlap of 26 species with four or more visited plant species, showed an overlap equal or higher than 50% in six cases.

  6. Market survey on traditional medicine of the third month fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2014-01-01

    The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people. In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded. As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China. Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.

  7. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

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    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  8. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

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    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    area, where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and, respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa , Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and best represented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site. The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the alliances where these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neither as frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surface and time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.

  9. Presencia de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA en especies representativas del bosque seco tropical del litoral ecuatoriano

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    Ivette Chiquito Noboa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA son microorganismos que mantienen una relación simbiótica mutualista con las raíces de las plantas. El bosque seco tropical contiene abundantes especies de interés silvícola, sin embargo, en Ecuador se desconoce las relaciones simbióticas de los HMA con los árboles que representan el bosque seco. El propósito de este estudio fue aislar e identificar la presencia de HMA en determinadas especies vegetales de este nicho ecológico del Ecuador. Las muestras de suelo y raíces se recolectaron en la época húmeda entre los meses de marzo y abril del 2017. Los porcentajes de micorrización encontrados fueron los siguientes: Cochlospermun vitifolium (Bototillo 80.8%, Triplaris cumingiana (Fernán Sánchez 71.7%, Albizia multiflora (Compoño 70.0%, Tecoma castanifolia (Moyuyo de montaña 68.6%, Bursera graveolens (Palo Santo 68.3%, Sapindus saponaria (Jaboncillo 67.5%, Croton wagneri (Purga 65.0%, Ceiba trichistandra (Ceibo 62.2%. Todas las plantas muestreadas presentaron una densidad media de esporas por 100 gr de suelo, pero Triplaris cumingiana (Fernán Sánchez obtuvo una mayor esporulación a pesar de presentar la misma densidad media.

  10. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  11. A Review of Recent Advances in Neuroprotective Potential of 3-N-Butylphthalide and Its Derivatives

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    Idriss Ali Abdoulaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of alternative treatment for ischemic stroke and degenerative diseases has always been a priority in neurology. 3-N-Butylphthalide (NBP, a family of compounds initially isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn., has shown significant neuroprotective effects. Previous extensive studies have demonstrated that NBP promotes a better poststroke outcome and exerts a multitargeted action on several mechanisms, from oxidative stress to mitochondrial dysfunction to apoptosis to inflammation. Additionally, recent findings on several neurological disorders have shown that NBP’s beneficial effects extend beyond the management of stroke. However, despite the increasing number of studies toward a better understanding and the rapid advances made in therapeutic options, to date, dl-3-N-butylphthalide, a synthetic variation of l-3-N-butylphthalide, remains the only clinically approved anti-ischemic agent in China, stressing the difficulties for a viable and effective transition from experimental to clinical practice. Events indicate that NBP, due to its multitargeted effect and the adaptability of its basic structure, can be an important game changer and a precursor to a whole new therapeutic approach to several neurological conditions. The present review discusses recent advances pertaining to the neuroprotective mechanisms of NBP-derived compounds and the possibility of their clinical implementation in the management of various neurological conditions.

  12. The effects of celery leave extract on male hormones in rats

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    Kooti Wesam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Celery (Apium graveolens belongs to the Umbelliferae family, and has a plenty of nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. The presence of phytoestrogenic compounds has been reported in this plant. These compounds may affect the pituitary-gonad axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of celery leaves on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, eight rats included in each. The control group did not receive any treatment. The placebo group received distilled water and the case groups received 200 and 300 mg/kg/B.W of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract for 20 consecutive days by oral administration. After completion of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and blood sampling from their heart was carried out. Then, serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured using immunoassay methods. The obtained data were analyzed by the SPSS using the statistical ANOVA test. Results: The level of LH in the case group receiving 200 mg/kg B.W of celery extract showed a significant decrease compared with the control and placebo groups (P0.05. Conclusion: The result of the present study shows that in the administered dose, celery extract does not have any considerable side effect on the secretion of hormones in male rats.

  13. Copper and lead levels in crops and soils of the Holland Marsh Area-Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czuba, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the soils and crops of the important horticultural area north of Toronto known as the Holland Marsh. The soils are deep organic mucks (> 85% organic matter), derived by the drainage of black marshland soils, which has been carried out over the past 40 years. A comparison is made between the Pb and Cu concentrations in undrained, uncultivated areas of the marsh and in the intensively used horticultural area. Analyses show a marked accumulation of Cu in surface layers of cultivated soils, with a mean surface concentration of 130 ppM, declining to 20 ppM at a 32-cm depth. Undrained (virgin) soils of the same marshes had < 20 ppM at all depths. Lead concentrations also declined through the profile, from concentrations of 22 to 10 ppM. In comparison, undrained areas had elevated Pb levels. Cultivation appeared to have increased Cu, but lowered Pb in the marsh. Copper and lead levels found in the crops were generally higher in the young spring vegetables than in the mature fall ones. Leafy crops, especially lettuce (Lactuca L.) and celery (Apium graveolens), accumulated higher Pb levels in their foliage compared with levels in root crops. Cultivation procedures, including past pesticide applications and fertilizer additions, appeared to be principal sources of Cu. Mobility from the soil and into the plant for these elements in the marsh muck soils is discussed.

  14. Unusual carbon partitioning during phosphate deficiency in celery, a mannitol-synthesizing species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, R.H.; Loescher, W.H. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mannitol and sucrose are the main photosynthetic products and translocated carbon compounds in celery (Apium graveolens L.). Carbon partitioning was studied in greenhouse-grown celery plants supplied with a nutrient solution containing or lacking phosphate (P). P-deficient plants developed new leaves at about the same rate as control plants, but showed greatly reduced growth of leaves and petioles; root growth was apparently unaffected. P-deficient leaves contained less mannitol and more sucrose than control leaves. Starch content increased with P-deficiency only in mature (the most photosynthetically-active) leaves, and then amounted to less than 10 mg/g fresh weight. Similarly, when {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was supplied to intact plants, P-deficient leaves contained less label in mannitol and more in sucrose than did control leaves; labeling of starch changed little. The P-status of celery leaves apparently affects the partitioning of carbon between mannitol and sucrose more than it affects starch accumulation. This is in marked contrast to the large increase in starch content commonly observed during P-deficiency in species that produce and translocate predominantly sucrose.

  15. L-3-n-Butylphthalide Protects HSPB8 K141N Mutation-Induced Oxidative Stress by Modulating the Mitochondrial Apoptotic and Nrf2 Pathways

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    Xiao-Dong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, is the most common inherited peripheral nerve disorder. Missense mutations, such as K141N, in the small heat shock protein HSPB8 are known to cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy 2A (dHMN2A or Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2L (CMT2L. However, of critical clinical significance, very few specific therapies for this disease exist. In the present study, we investigated the impact of mutant K141N HSPB8 on mitochondrial distribution and function in a cellular model of CMT2L. Our results indicate that K141N HSPB8 induced mitochondrial aggregation and caused increased oxidative stress injury. As an extraction from Chinese celery Apium graveolens Linn seeds, L-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP, has been reported to exert many neuroprotective effects, we interrogated whether NBP could elicit a protective effect on the cell injury typically caused by HSPB8 K141N mutations. We found NBP could reverse the pathological processes induced by HSPB8 K141N mutation via an antioxidant effect, modulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 mitochondrial apoptotic and Nrf2 pathways. We propose a novel function of HSPB8, highlighting the consequence of the K141N pathogenic mutation. Furthermore, we suggest NBP may have promising therapeutic potential in the treatment of CMT2L.

  16. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  17. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  19. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  20. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  1. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  2. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  3. Ethno-gynecological knowledge of medicinal plants used by Baluch tribes, southeast of Baluchistan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish a regional profile of the indigenous knowledge on the treatment of various gynaecological disorders by Baluch Tribes of Iran. The ethical guidelines adopted by the International Society of Ethnobiology were strictly followed during the field survey. Data were collected during 2013-2014 based on interviews, group conversations and close consultation with local informants. Participants were selected using the snowball sampling technique. Secondary methods of data collection were also used for triangulation. A quantitative analysis including the informant consensus factor and use value was performed to evaluate the medicinal plants. A total of 33.3% Baluch women reported high affiliation with herbal remedies for gynaecological problems, while others attribute was also positive for medicinal plants. A total of eighty plant species belonging to 43 botanical families were documented. Levels of Relative frequency of citation decreased as follows: Nigella sativa (0.92, Pistacia atlantica (0.91, Anethum graveolens (0.88, Carum carvi (0.87 and Trigonella foenum-graecum (0.85. Results of the informant consensus factor showed that menstrual problems (0.87 and vaginal infection (0.74 were the most common problems of women in the studied area. The use value and informant consensus factor validated that the relative importance of plant species and shared knowledge of herbal therapies between Baluch womenfolk of this area is still rich.

  4. Mathematical modeling of microwave dried celery leaves and determination of the effective moisture diffusivities and activation energy

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    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef leaves with 50±0.07 g weight and 91.75±0.15% humidity (~11.21 db were dried using 8 different microwave power densities ranging between 1.8-20 W g-1, until the humidity fell down to 8.95±0.23% (~0.1 db. Microwave drying processes were completed between 5.5 and 77 min depending on the microwave power densities. In this study, measured values were compared with predicted values obtained from twenty thin layer drying theoretical, semi-empirical and empirical equations with a new thin layer drying equation. Within applied microwave power density; models whose coefficient and correlation (R² values are highest were chosen as the best models. Weibull distribution model gave the most suitable predictions at all power density. At increasing microwave power densities, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 1.595 10-10 to 6.377 10-12 m2 s-1. The activation energy was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. The linear relationship between the drying rate constant and effective moisture diffusivity gave the best fit.

  5. Identification and Quantification of Celery Allergens Using Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Devin; Peeters, Bernd; Delport, Filip; Remans, Tony; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Spasic, Dragana

    2017-07-31

    Abstract : Accurate identification and quantification of allergens is key in healthcare, biotechnology and food quality and safety. Celery ( Apium graveolens ) is one of the most important elicitors of food allergic reactions in Europe. Currently, the golden standards to identify, quantify and discriminate celery in a biological sample are immunoassays and two-step molecular detection assays in which quantitative PCR (qPCR) is followed by a high-resolution melting analysis (HRM). In order to provide a DNA-based, rapid and simple detection method suitable for one-step quantification, a fiber optic PCR melting assay (FO-PCR-MA) was developed to determine different concentrations of celery DNA (1 pM-0.1 fM). The presented method is based on the hybridization and melting of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles to the FO sensor surface in the presence of the target gene (mannitol dehydrogenase, Mtd ). The concept was not only able to reveal the presence of celery DNA, but also allowed for the cycle-to-cycle quantification of the target sequence through melting analysis. Furthermore, the developed bioassay was benchmarked against qPCR followed by HRM, showing excellent agreement ( R ² = 0.96). In conclusion, this innovative and sensitive diagnostic test could further improve food quality control and thus have a large impact on allergen induced healthcare problems.

  6. Identification and Quantification of Celery Allergens Using Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Daems

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Accurate identification and quantification of allergens is key in healthcare, biotechnology and food quality and safety. Celery (Apium graveolens is one of the most important elicitors of food allergic reactions in Europe. Currently, the golden standards to identify, quantify and discriminate celery in a biological sample are immunoassays and two-step molecular detection assays in which quantitative PCR (qPCR is followed by a high-resolution melting analysis (HRM. In order to provide a DNA-based, rapid and simple detection method suitable for one-step quantification, a fiber optic PCR melting assay (FO-PCR-MA was developed to determine different concentrations of celery DNA (1 pM–0.1 fM. The presented method is based on the hybridization and melting of DNA-coated gold nanoparticles to the FO sensor surface in the presence of the target gene (mannitol dehydrogenase, Mtd. The concept was not only able to reveal the presence of celery DNA, but also allowed for the cycle-to-cycle quantification of the target sequence through melting analysis. Furthermore, the developed bioassay was benchmarked against qPCR followed by HRM, showing excellent agreement (R2 = 0.96. In conclusion, this innovative and sensitive diagnostic test could further improve food quality control and thus have a large impact on allergen induced healthcare problems.

  7. Efecto embriotóxico y teratogénico de Ruta chalepensis L. «ruda», en ratón (Mus musculus

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    José Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens L. y R. chalepensis L. son plantas usadas en medicina folclórica como antiespasmódicos, antihelmínticos, antimicrobianos, emenagogos y abortivos. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto del extracto acuoso liofilizado (EAL de las hojas de R. chalepensis en embriones postimplantacionales de ratón. Ratonas albinas preñadas recibieron intraperitonalmente (ip 10 mg de ruda liofilizada/kg de peso corporal (grupo tratado, n=12 durante el periodo post-implantacional (día 9 – día 17 post-cópula, y un grupo control(C, n=18, que recibió sólo agua destilada durante el mismo período. El EAL de ruda no afectó negativamente el peso de la madre pero sí del útero durante el tratamiento (p<0,05. En el grupo tratado la frecuencia de reabsorciones fetales fue mayor (p<0,05 y el peso fetal fue significativamente menor en comparación con el control (p<0,01. Además en el grupo tratado se evidenció la presencia de malformaciones esqueléticas. En conclusión, encontramos que el EAL de R. chalepensis muestra efectos embriotóxicos en ratones expuestos durante el período postimplantacional.

  8. Atividade elicitora de fitoalexinas em Soja e Sorgo por extratos e tinturas de espécies medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matiello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A verificação da capacidade indutora de fitoalexinas a partir de extratos e tinturas de espécies vegetais pode representar uma forma potencial de controle de doenças em plantas cultivadas. O objetivo foi verificar a capacidade de indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de Soja e mesocótilos de Sorgo a partir de extratos brutos aquosos (EBAs e tinturas de espécies medicinais. As espécies utilizadas foram as plantas medicinais Arruda (Ruta graveolens, Manjerona (Origanum majorana e Carqueja (Baccharis trimera. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os EBAs são eficientes na indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de Soja. Em mesocótilos de Sorgo os EBAs das plantas medicinais Carqueja e Manjerona induzem a produção de fitoalexinas em concentrações elevadas (15, 20, 25 e 50%. As tinturas são capazes de induzir a produção de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de Soja nas concentrações de 10 e 15%, porém, não são capazes de induzir acúmulo de fitoalexinas em mesocótilos de Sorgo.

  9. Case report: pulicosis por Ctenocephalides felis felis en ovinos y caprinos en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the rearing of hair sheep and goats are expanding in various regions for being an alternative for meat and milk production at competitive prices due to their adaptability and easiness to digest rough fodder. Among the ectoparasites that affect small ruminants traditionally are recognized the lice and the sheep keds Melophagus ovinus (Díptera: Hippoboscidae, however fleas are not included. Here the occurrence of the common cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Díptera: Siphonaptera affecting sheep and goats in a farm at the Sabana de Bogotá are described an so there was performed an epidemiological and parasitological evaluation. The barn maintained animals in rotational grazing at an approximated stocking rate of 25 head/ha, receiving additional supplements of hay and silage. The presence of the flea was confirmed in sheep and goats, young and adult, as well as in dogs. Diverse degrees of anemia were evidenced but the association between flea infestation and anemia, or the presence of other anemia producing agents could not be studied. In the farm synthetic parasiticides are not used, extracts of Ruda (Ruta graveolens are administered to mitigate parasitosis, without major efficacy. Sheep and goat breeders in the tropics should consider flea infestation as an agent causing adverse animal welfare situations in their farms. Control should start from the knowledge of the life cycle of the flea, trying to interrupt it.

  10. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of CAM Therapies: An In Vitro Study in Normal Kidney Cell Lines

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    Shagun Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this current study was to justify the incorporation of complementary and alternate medicine (CAM in current cancer treatments. The major drawback of anticancer drugs is their nonselective killing, which ultimately leads to attrition of normal cells. Keeping this as the foundation of our study, we made an effort to compare the cytotoxicity associated with a known chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, with certain CAM therapies previously reported to have anticancer activity. The parameters chosen for the study were based on antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on normal, kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E. The MTT assay, colony formation assay, DNA fragmentation, and differential staining using AO/EB, following treatment with either 5-FU or CAM therapies, were performed. The CAM therapies under study were various extracts of wheatgrass, roots of Achyranthes aspera (AA, mushroom extracts (Pleurotus ostreatus, Macrolepiota procera, and Auricularia polytricha, and a homeopathic drug, Ruta graveolens (Ruta. The results showed that treatment of normal cells with the CAM therapies led to minimum cell damage in comparison to 5-FU. This evidence-based study will lead to greater acceptance of alternative therapies against cancer.

  11. Characterization of rue extract and its potential for controlling rice blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karinna Bannach Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to purify and standardize the rue (Ruta graveolens extract and evaluate its effect on Magnaporthe oryzae as an alternative to the integrated management of rice blast. The drug was characterized, the liquid extract was obtained, and the methodology for quantifying the standard markers psoralen and bergapten was validated. Rue extract and the markers, solely or in combination, were assayed in vitro, as well as in greenhouse conditions, for their ability to suppress leaf blast, by the evaluation of mycelial growth, conidial germination, and appressorium formation. Rue extract inhibited M. oryzae mycelial growth (100%, conidial germination (LD50=0.237 mg, and the appressorium formation (LD50=0.121 mg; besides, the extract reduced leaf blast severity by 80.84%. Fluorescence microscopy showed that rue extract did not damage M. oryzae cell wall and plasma membrane, indicating another mode of action. Rue extract has a great potential for controlling rice leaf blast.

  12. Self-anointing behavior in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Matthias; Bauer, Verena; Salazar, Laura Teresa Hernandez

    2007-04-01

    During 250 h of observation, a total of 20 episodes of self-anointing, that is, the application of scent-bearing material onto the body, were recorded in a group of free-ranging Mexican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). The animals used the leaves of three species of plants (Brongniartia alamosana, Fabaceae; Cecropia obtusifolia, Cecropiaceae; and Apium graveolens, Umbelliferae) two of which have not been reported so far in this context in any New World primate species. The findings that only two males displayed self-anointing, that only the sternal and axillary regions of the body were rubbed with the mix of saliva and plant material, and a lack of correlation between the occurrence of self-anointing and time of day, season of the year, ambient temperature or humidity do not fit the hypothesis that this behavior functions in repelling insects and/or mitigating topical skin infections in this species. Rather, the data and the observation that the leaves of all three plant species spread an intensive and aromatic odor when crushed, support the hypothesis that self-anointing in A. geoffroyi may play a role in the context of social communication, possibly for signaling of social status or to increase sexual attractiveness.

  13. DESARROLLO DE APIO MINIMAMENTE PROCESADO FORTIFICADO CON VITAMINA E, UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERIA DE MATRICES

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    YISELL JOHAN MARTELO CASTAÑO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un producto minimamente procesado fortificado con vitamina E, a partir de apio (Apium graveolens L. var.dulce, utilizando la ingenieria de matrices como metodologia de obtencion de alimentos funcionales. Trozos de apio impregnados al vacio con dl¿¿tocoferol acetato emulsificado en una solucion isotonica al vegetal de NaCl, 1,2%, fueron evaluados en funcion del tiempo de almacenamiento y el envasado (con y sin vacio, en terminos de la cuantificacion de sus propiedades fisicoquimicas, color, textura, estabilidad de la vitamina E y caracteristicas sensoriales. Se formulo la emulsion con el objetivo de adicionar teoricamente un 73% del Valor Diario Recomendado (VDR vitamina E/100 g de apio fresco y su cuantificacion se realizo por HPLC. La respuesta a la impregnacion en la matriz fue de 12,10+-1,15%, lo cual permitio alcanzar un 112% VDR vitamina E/100g apio fresco, manteniendose este contenido durante el almacenamiento de 9 dias en ambos tipos de envasado. Los parametros fisicoquimicos del producto fueron afectados por la IV, el tiempo y el envasado, manteniendo su coloracion verdosa y presentando disminucion en la firmeza. La ingenieria de matrices constituye una metodologia efectiva para el desarrollo de apio minimamente procesado adicionado con vitamina E.

  14. Antigenotoxic Effect Against Ultraviolet Radiation-induced DNA Damage of the Essential Oils from Lippia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Ruiz, Nathalia; Córdoba Campo, Yuri; Stashenko, Elena E; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2017-07-01

    The antigenotoxicity against ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage of essential oils (EO) from Lippia species was studied using SOS Chromotest. Based on the minimum concentration that significantly inhibits genotoxicity, the genoprotective potential of EO from highest to lowest was Lippia graveolens, thymol-RC ≈ Lippia origanoides, carvacrol-RC ≈ L. origanoides, thymol-RC > Lippia alba, citral-RC ≈ Lippia citriodora, citral-RC ≈ Lippia micromera, thymol-RC > L. alba, myrcenone-RC. EO from L. alba, carvone/limonene-RC, L. origanoides, α-phellandrene-RC and L. dulcis, trans-β-caryophyllene-RC did not reduce the UV genotoxicity at any of the doses tested. A gas chromatography with flame ionization detection analysis (GC-FID) was conducted to evaluate the solubility of the major EO constituents under our experimental conditions. GC-FID analysis showed that, at least partially, major EO constituents were water-soluble and therefore, they were related with the antigenotoxicity detected for EO. Constituents such as p-cymene, geraniol, carvacrol, thymol, citral and 1,8-cineole showed antigenotoxicity. The antioxidant activity of EO constituents was also determined using the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay. The results showed that the antigenotoxicity of the EO constituents was unconnected with their antioxidant activity. The antigenotoxicity to different constituent binary mixtures suggests that synergistic effects can occur in some of the studied EO. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Celery-based topical repellents as a potential natural alternative for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2008-12-01

    Celery-based products were investigated for chemical composition, skin irritation, and mosquito repellency in comparison to commercial repellents and the standard chemical, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), with a goal to develop a natural alternative to synthetic repellents for protection against mosquitoes. Chemical identification by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry discovered that the major constituents of Apium graveolens hexane extract (AHE) were 3-n-butyl-tetrahydrophthalide (92.48%), followed by 5.10% beta-selinene and 0.68% gamma-selinene. Evaluation of skin irritation in 27 human volunteers revealed no irritant potential from 25% ethanolic AHE solution. Laboratory investigated repellent against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes demonstrated that G10 formula, the best AHE-developed product, provided remarkable repellency with a median protection time of 4.5 h (4.5-5 h), which was greater than that of ethanolic DEET solution (25% DEET, 3.5 h) and comparable to that of the best commercial repellent, Insect Block 28 (28.5% DEET, 4.5 h). According to significantly promising results, including highly effective repellency and no potential skin irritation or other side effects, the G10 formula is a worthwhile product that has the promise of being developed for commercialized registration. This developed AHE product could be an acceptable and affordable alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals in preventing mosquito bites, and in turn, helping to interrupt mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  16. Activity of essential oils from spices against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dal Pozzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OE de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lipia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, e de suas frações majoritárias, carvacrol e timol, frente a 32 isolados de Staphylococcus spp, oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros bovinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Orégano, tomilho e lípia (Orégano Mexicano apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana similar, médias geométrica de CIM de 1600µg mL-1; 1564µg mL-1; 1562µg mL-1, respectivamente, no entanto menos ativos que carvacrol, 584µg mL-1 e thymol, 427µg mL-1. Isolados com diferentes perfis de susceptibil idade aos antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina, quando subagrupados, foram inibidos por concentrações semelhantes de OE . Estes resultados confirmam a atividade antimicrobiana de OE e algumas frações majoritárias.

  17. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  18. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638