WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanguinalis eclipta prostrasta

  1. ECLALBATIN, A TRITERPENE SAPONIN FROM ECLIPTA ALBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. K. UPADHYAY; M. B. PANDEY; R. N. JHA; V. B. PANDEY

    2001-01-01

    From the whole plant of Eclipta alba, a new triterpene saponin, named eclalbatin, together with α-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated. The structure of eclalbatin has been established as 3-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-β-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-0-β-D-arabino-pyranoside (1) on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  2. Differential gene expression for Curvularia eragrostidis pathogenic incidence in crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianshu Wang

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiles of Digitaria sanguinalis infected by Curvularia eragrostidis strain QZ-2000 at two concentrations of conidia and two dew durations were analyzed by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphisms (cDNA-AFLP. Inoculum strength was more determinant of gene expression than dew duration. A total of 256 primer combinations were used for selective amplification and 1214 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs were selected for their differential expression. Of these, 518 up-regulated differentially expressed TDFs were identified. Forty-six differential cDNA fragments were chosen to be cloned and 35 of them were successfully cloned and sequenced, of which 25 were homologous to genes of known function according to the GenBank database. Only 6 genes were up-regulated in Curvularia eragrostidis-inoculated D. sanguinalis, with functions involved in signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell growth and development, stress responses, abscisic acid biosynthesis and response. It appears that a few pathways may be important parts of the pathogenic strategy of C. eragrostidis strain QZ-2000 on D. sanguinalis. Our study provides the fundamentals to further study the pathogenic mechanism, screen for optimal C. eragrostidis strains as potential mycoherbicide and apply this product to control D. sanguinalis.

  3. Differential gene expression for Curvularia eragrostidis pathogenic incidence in crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianshu; Wang, Xuemin; Yuan, Bohua; Qiang, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of Digitaria sanguinalis infected by Curvularia eragrostidis strain QZ-2000 at two concentrations of conidia and two dew durations were analyzed by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphisms (cDNA-AFLP). Inoculum strength was more determinant of gene expression than dew duration. A total of 256 primer combinations were used for selective amplification and 1214 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were selected for their differential expression. Of these, 518 up-regulated differentially expressed TDFs were identified. Forty-six differential cDNA fragments were chosen to be cloned and 35 of them were successfully cloned and sequenced, of which 25 were homologous to genes of known function according to the GenBank database. Only 6 genes were up-regulated in Curvularia eragrostidis-inoculated D. sanguinalis, with functions involved in signal transduction, energy metabolism, cell growth and development, stress responses, abscisic acid biosynthesis and response. It appears that a few pathways may be important parts of the pathogenic strategy of C. eragrostidis strain QZ-2000 on D. sanguinalis. Our study provides the fundamentals to further study the pathogenic mechanism, screen for optimal C. eragrostidis strains as potential mycoherbicide and apply this product to control D. sanguinalis.

  4. Interaction of Plant Epicuticular Waxes and Extracellular Esterases of Curvularia eragrostidis during Infection of Digitaria sanguinalis and Festuca arundinacea by the Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang-Lai Xu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curvularia eragrostidis, a causal agent of head blight on the weed (Digitariasanguinalis, did not cause disease on the turfgrass Festuca arundinacea. Differentextracellular esterase isoenzymes were detected in saprophytic and parasitic phases duringthe fungal germination. The epicuticular waxes of D. sanguinalis were more efficient toinduce the secretion of esterases from the fungus than that of F. arundinacea, but were morerapidly degraded by the fungal enzymes. Component analysis indicated that the epicuticularwaxes from D. sanguinalis were mostly composed of alcohols, with 54.3% being 9,12-Octadecadien-1-ol. The main component of F arundinacea waxes was alkyl compounds,with 49.8% being olefin, 9-Tricosence. More long-chained esters were found in D.sanguinalis waxes, which were easier to be digested than those in F. arundinacea waxes byextreacellular esterases of the fungus. Epicuticular waxes play a role in varyingpathogenicity of C. eragrostidis on D. sanguinalis and F arundinacea.

  5. Effect of Eclipta alba on acute seizure models: a GABAA-mediated effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, anticonvulsant activity of methanol extract of Eclipta alba (10-200 mg/kg was studied using pentylenetetrazole- and picrotoxin-induced seizure models. Mechanism of effect of methanol extract of Eclipta alba was further elucidated by studying its GABA A receptor modulatory activity and its effect on levels of GABA in mice brain. Methanol extract of Eclipta alba exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity but has saturation of its pharmacological activity at 50 mg/kg. At the concentration of 10 mg/ml, contractions induced in guinea pig ileum was blocked by picrotoxin, but it didn′t not show any increase in GABA levels in mice brain after treatment. Hence, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Eclipta alba possesses potent anticonvulsant activity because of its positive modulatory effect on GABA A receptors.

  6. Eclipta Alba as Corrosion Pickling Inhibitor on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Shyamala; A. Arulanantham

    2009-01-01

    Due to ease of application, cost effectiveness and environmentally safe, in this study, the corrosion inhibition effect of aqueous extract of Eclipta alba in 1 N hydrochloric acid has been investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance methods and the extracts of Eclipta alba were found to be effective corrosion pickling inhibitor. The effect of immersion time and temperature revealed that the extracts of Eclipta alba with an optimum concentration of 8.0% v/v showed maximum inhibition efficiency of 99.6% at 3 h immersion time and 30℃. Arrhenius plots for mild steel immersed in 1 N HCI solution in the absence and presence of optimum concentration (8.0% in v/v) of Eclipta alba extract showed the effect of temperature. Polarization studies indicate that this plant extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of Eclipta alba follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition action may be due to the presence of the Wedelactone and also the alkaloid Ecliptine present in the leaves of Eclipta alba.

  7. 马唐对烟嘧磺隆的抗药性研究%Resistance of Digitaria sanguinalis to Nicosulfuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏军; 王贵启; 刘学; 边全乐

    2013-01-01

    2008-2009年在我国东北、华北的6个省份烟嘧磺隆防效下降的玉米田块采集80个马唐种群,在可控温室中采用整株测定法对其进行抗性检测试验.结果表明,不同用药历史玉米田的马唐种群对烟嘧磺隆已经产生了不同程度的抗药性,其中有10个种群产生的抗药性较显著.%Whole - plant bioassays were conducted in 2008 -2009 under controlled greenhouse conditions to determine the response to nicosulfuron of 80 Digitaria sanguinalis populations collected from maize fields in 6 provinces of the North and Northeast of China where efficacy of the herbicide had been declining. D. sanguinalis populations with different herbicide exposure histories had different degrees of resistance to nicosulfuron; ten of the populations were highly resistant to the herbicide.

  8. Identification and evaluation of anti Hepatitis C Virus phytochemicals from Eclipta alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvar, Dinesh; Mishra, Mahesh; Kumar, Suriender; Pandey, Virendra N.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Eclipta alba, traditionally known as bhringraj, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 1000 years in India. It is used for the treatment of infective hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver enlargement and other ailments of liver and gall bladder in India. Aim of the study To evaluate anti-hepatitis C virus activity present in the Eclipta alba extract, perform bioassay based fractionation and identify anti-HCV phytochemicals from the active fractions. Materials and methods Identification of active compounds was performed by bio-activity guided fractionation approach. Active isolates were separated by the combination of silica gel chromatography and preparative scale reverse phase HPLC. Eclipta alba extract and its isolates were examined for their ability to inhibit HCV replicase (HCV NS5B) activity in vitro and HCV replication in a cell culture system carrying replicating HCV subgenomic RNA replicon. The purified isolates were also examined for their binding affinity to HCV replicase by fluorescence quenching and their cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Results Eclipta alba extract strongly inhibited RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of HCV replicase in vitro. In cell culture system, it effectively inhibited HCV replication which resulted in reduced HCV RNA titer and translation level of viral proteins. Bioassay-based fractionations of the extracts and purification of anti-HCV phytochemicals present in the active fractions have identified three compounds, wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin. These compounds exhibited dose dependent inhibition of HCV replicase in vitro, and anti-HCV replication activity in the cell culture system Conclusion Eclipta alba extract and phytochemicals isolated from active fractions display anti-HCV activity in vitro and in cell culture system. The standardized Eclipta alba extract or its isolates can be used as an effective alternative and complementary treatment against HCV. PMID:23026306

  9. Mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A; Bharali, P; Konwar, B K

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba, against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The probable chemical structure was determined by using various spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by well diffusion technique, pH sensitivity, chemotaxis, and crystal violet assays. Eclalbasaponin showed clear zone of inhibition against both Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exhibited growth inhibition at the pH range of 5.5-9.0. The isolated saponin exhibited its positive chemoattractant property for both bacterial strains. Results of crystal violet assay and the presence of UV-sensitive materials in the cell-free supernatant confirmed the cellular damages caused by the treatment of Eclalbasaponin. The release of intracellular proteins due to the membrane damage was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Changes in the cell surface structure and membrane disruption were further revealed by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The present study suggests that the isolated saponin from E. alba causes the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane which leads to the loss of bacterial cell viability.

  10. Anti-oxidant activity of Methanolic extract of leaves of Eclipta Prostrata (L. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Devi D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta Prostrata (L.L is medicinally important plant species to treat of different diseases such as hepatic diseases. The present work is aimed to screen this medicinal plant for phytochemicals. leaf, stem, flower and seed of this plant were extracted in methanol solvents by sox let extraction and screened for secondary metabolites. The plant has been reported to contain alkaloids, steroids, polypeptides, phytosterol, β-amyrin, triterpenes, phenols, flavones, luteolin, coumarin and wedelolactone. The study confirmed that Eclipta Prostrata (L.L has good antihepatotoxic potential effects due to the presence of wedelolactone. Luteolin, coumarin using methanol extract. 

  11. Algunos aspectos de la biología y manejo de Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. En asociación con el cultivo del arroz y otras especies adventicias Sorne aspects of the biology and rnanagernt of Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. in rice crop and other weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza T. Guido A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el cultivo del arroz en Colombia se reportan más de 70 especies de malezas que, por orden de competitividad biológica y económica, las malezas gramíneas son las de mayor afección al cultivo. Por su nocividad, las más importantes son: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Oryza sativa L. (arroz rojo, Cyperus rotundus L., Rottboellia cochinchinensis U., Fimbristylis annua (Alt. Riets, Murdania nudiflora (L. Brenan, y Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. La ausencia de trabajos realizados sobre Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., dirigidos al conocimiento de sus aspectos biológicos, el aumento en la incidencia y agresividad de la especie en los cultivos de arroz y sorgo en la zona norte del Tolima, justificó la elaboración del presente estudio, para el cual se propusieron los siguientes objetivos: identificar aspectos de
    la biología y fenología, evaluar el banco de semillas y medir el efecto de la competencia de diferentes densidades de población de Digitaria sanguina lis (L. Scop. en los cultivos de arroz en Lérida, (Tolima. Los momentos de mayor suceptibilidad a la presencia de malezas en el cultivo del arroz fueron: a Germinación: D. sanguinalis completó esta fase en los tres primeros días después de humedecer el terreno, a diferencia de las semillas de arroz que requirieron dos días más. b Macollamiento: D. sanguinalis inició esta fase a los 20 días, a diferencia de las plantas de arroz que iniciaron a los 28 días. e Formación de Panícula: D. sanguina lis, la inició a los 65 días, a diferencia del arroz que inició a los 70 días. d Maduración de semillas: Las semillas de D. sanguinalis necesitaron 110 días para completar esta fase, las semillas de las plantas de arroz necesitaron 10 días más. D sanguinalis comenzó a liberar semillas a los 100 días aproximadamente. Mediante la emergencia de plántulas se
    logró estimar la composición del Banco de Semilla, obteniendo los mayores porcentajes de emergencia en

  12. Alcoholic Extract of Eclipta alba Shows In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity without Exhibiting Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Sharma, Chetan; Hossain, Zakir; Meena, Sanjeev; Arya, K. R.; Gayen, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    As per WHO estimates, 80% of people around the world use medicinal plants for the cure and prevention of various diseases including cancer owing to their easy availability and cost effectiveness. Eclipta alba has long been used in Ayurveda to treat liver diseases, eye ailments, and hair related disorders. The promising medicinal value of E. alba prompted us to study the antioxidant, nontoxic, and anticancer potential of its alcoholic extract. In the current study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of the alcoholic extract of Eclipta alba (AEEA) in multiple cancer cell lines along with control. We have also evaluated its effect on different in vivo toxicity parameters. Here, we found that AEEA was found to be most active in most of the cancer cell lines but it significantly induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA damage. Moreover, AEEA treatment inhibited migration in both MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose dependent manner. Further, AEEA possesses robust in vitro antioxidant activity along with high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In summary, our results indicate that Eclipta alba has enormous potential in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28250894

  13. Remove of lead from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique (Eclipta Alba plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad J. Noufal, Zena A. Maalla, Dareen J. Noufal, Ali A. Hossean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soils by toxic heavy metals. The aim of current study was estimation the ability of Eclipta alba plant for the removal of (Pb from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique and study the effect of a number of parameters(Pb concentration, contact time and pH values. The plant showed higher removal efficiency (99.2% after 7 days of treatment at 50 ppm. The best removal efficiency of Pb 98.95% at 100 ppm was occurred at pH7. The root ability to accumulate Pb was more than the shoot ability, after 7 days treatment of water and pH=7, they were 2852.5 mg/kg, 2497.5 mg/kg and 502.5 mg/kg in roots, stems and leaves respectively. These results showed that Eclipta Alba can be used in biological treatment of polluted water.

  14. Optimization of Extraction Conditions and Development of a Sensitive HPTLC Method for Estimation of Wedelolactone in different extracts of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Savita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of various ailments. An attempt has been made to optimize different extraction conditions for Eclipta alba. Further an accurate, precise, reproducible and sensitive accurate, precise and reproducible (HPTLC method has been developed for the estimation of Wedelolactone in Eclipta alba. An attempt has been made to quantify wedelolactone in various extracts by HPTLC method. Precoated aluminum silica gel F plates were used as stationary phase and toluene: ethyl acetate (9:1 was used as mobile phase. This system was found to give compact spots for wedelolactone (RF value of 0.30 ± 0. 3 with a linearity range of 1 to 80 µg per spot. The proposed method was applied to evaluate efficiency of different methods of extraction i.e. percolation, maceration, hot solvent extraction (Soxhlet apparatus, supercritical fluid extraction, microwave, orbital shaker bath and sonication method for extraction of wedelolactone from Eclipta alba.

  15. Accentuating the prodigious significance of Eclipta alba - an inestimable medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidra, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2013-11-01

    Eclipta alba is a small branched perennial herb, which has been used as a traditional medicine in different countries mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant E. alba plays a significant role in the ayurvedic, traditional and unani systems of medicine. It is popularly known as "Bhringaraj". The herb has been known for its medicinal value and has been used as an analgesic, antimytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihaemorrhagic, antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory and also recognized as a reincarnated plant. Broad range of chemical constituents have been detached from E. alba including coumestans, alkaloids, thiopenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, triterpenes and their glycosides. Pharmacological activities have been seen in the metabolites and extracts of this plant. Therefore this herb produces robust curative lead compounds, which would be propitious for humanity. The purpose of this review recapitulates all data related to E. alba considering its prodigious medicinal importance.

  16. Screening of Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous extracts of Leaves, Flower and Stem of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhsimran Singh Sandhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds, and have provided humankind with many medically useful compounds for centuries. In this study aqueous extract of leaves, stem and flower of Eclipta alba were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC25923,Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC10699, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC10741, Proteus vulgaris (ATCC12454 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC15380 and Staphylococcus. Saprophyticus (ATCC35552 It was shown that leaves extract effective against E. cloacae & K .pneumoniae but not against others, while aquous extract of stem shown good antitimicrobial effect against E. cloacae, E. faecali, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus but E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus were found resistant and The aqueous extract of flower shown reliabe ZOI against P.vulgaris ,S.aureus and S.saprophyticus while resistant against all other microbes.

  17. Bio-assay guided isolation of alpha-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Eclipta alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ghosh, Rina; Pal, Bikas C

    2012-08-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk is used traditionally in diabetes mellitus in India and the plant extract is reported to possess anti-diabetic activity. A bioactivity-guided isolation approach based on alpha-glucosidase inhibition was used to identify the constituents contributing towards the inhibition of the enzyme and probably contributing towards its anti-diabetic activity. Four echinocystic acid glycosides were thus isolated, of which eclalbasaponin VI, isolated from the n-butanol fraction, was found to be the most potent (IC50 54.2 +/- 1.3 microM). The compound is an uncompetitive type of inhibitor with Ki 26.1 microM. A quantitative estimation of the constituents was established using RP-HPLC.

  18. Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In this study, larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous extract from Eclipta prostrata, a member of the Asteraceae was investigated against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus say and malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable measured 35-60 nm in size. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24h. The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous, and synthesized AgNPs against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=27.49 and 4.56 mg/L; LC(90)=70.38 and 13.14 mg/L), and against A. subpictus (LC(50)=27.85 and 5.14 mg/L; LC(90)=71.45 and 25.68 mg/L) respectively. The chi-square value were significant at pmosquito larvicidal activity of synthesized AgNPs against vectors.

  19. Potent Antioxidative and UVB Protective Effect of Water Extract of Eclipta prostrata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, including Ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage, is involved in numerous diseases. This study demonstrates that water extract of Eclipta prostrata L. (WEP has a potent effect in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide radicals, and chelating ferrous ion, exhibiting IC50 values of 0.23 mg/mL, 0.48 mg/mL, and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The WEP total phenol content was 176.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g sample. Chlorogenic acid, a component of the plant's active ingredients, was determined by HPLC and antioxidative assay. However, no caffeic acid, stigmasterol, or wedelolactone was present in WEP. WEP absorbs both UVA and UVB irradiation, and furthermore, the extract shows a dose-dependent response in the protection of HaCaT human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts 3T3 cells against UVB-induced cytotoxicity, which may result from a synergistic effect between chlorogenic acid and other active components present in WEP.

  20. Leishmanicidal activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Eclipta prostrata and Gymnema sylvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of saponin, dasyscyphin C of Eclipta prostrata and sapogenin, gymnemagenol from Gymnema sylvestre leaves under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Dasyscyphin C/Gymnemagenol were dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS and diluted with liquid medium to obtain concentrations ranging from 1000 to 15 µg /ml. The leishmanicidal activity against leishmanial parasites, Leishmania major, Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica promastigotes was studied by the MTS assay. Result: The Dasyscyphin C isolated from E. prostrata showed good leishmanicidal activity at 1000µg/ml concentration, with the IC 50 value of 450µg/ml against L. major promastigote and the percentage of parasitic death was 73; whereas, gymnemagenol of G. sylvestre showed only 52% parasitic death at 1000 µg/ml concentration. The other Leishmania species, L. aethiopica and L. tropica promastigotes, were less sensitive to the saponins of E. prostrata and G. sylvestre. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the dasyscyphin C of E. prostrata has significant leishmanicidal activity against L. major promastigote.

  1. Toksisitas larvisida fraksi polar dan non polar herba Eclipta alba Hassk. terhadap larva nyamuk Aedes aegypti Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmanida Rosmanida

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever is a disease caused by virus and spread out by mosquitoes. Until now Aedes aegypti is thought as important vector in spreading procces of this disease. The general technique with synthetic chemical insecticide used to control density of mosquito population but this way causes the resistence of insect target, kill the untarget insect, and disturbs the environment quality. Due this problem, insecticide from plant is one of alternative such as Eclipta alba (Urang aring. The research aimed to distinguish toxicity larvacida degree between the polar fraction and non polar herba Eclipta alba to the growth of mosquito larva of Aedes aegypti. The experimental method applied with the complete random design used in this research. Each treatment to mosquito larvae of Aedes aegypti had replictions and the data was analyzed of Variance (ANOVA. The result showed that non polar fraction has the higher toxicity effect compared with the polar fraction. The concentration of LC non polar fraction 319.1826 ppm50, and concentration LC50 polar fraction is 1033.888 ppm and instar larva change of non polar fraction give higher elimination than polar fraction, non polar is 24% from population has change into IV instar and non polar 45%.

  2. Efeitos de hexazinone e diuron, e suas misturas, no controle de capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop em cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp Effects of hexazinone and diuron and mixtures on crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop control on sugarcane (Saccharum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em 1976 /77, um experimento de campo em área do Centro de Tecnologia da Copersucar, em Piracicaba, SP , com a finalidade de se conhecer o efeito dos herbicidas hexazinone e diuron , assim como o de suas misturas, no controle do capim-de -colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop em avançado estádio de desenvolvimento vegetativo infestando cultura de cana-deaçúcar (Saccharum spp. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação pós - emergente de hexazinone a 0,30, 0,35, 0,45 e 0, 65 kg/h a; de diuro na 0, 88 , 1, 20 e 2, 50 kg/h a; de hexazinone -i - diuron a 0,30 0,88, 0,35 + 1 , 2 0 e 0 , 4 5 + 1 , 3 6 kg / ha . Foram incluídos mais dois tratamentos com herbicidas ( ter - bacila 0,9 6 kg/ ha e metribuzin a 1,5 0 kg/ ha e um sem herbicida, mantidos empreno limpo com o auxílio de enxada. Esses 13 tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados também os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a produção de cana -de-açúcar no campo e sobre suas características tecnológicas (Brix, Pol, Pureza, Fibra. Os melhores resultados de controle da gramínea , aos 15 dias da aplicação dos herbicidas , foram obtidos com a mistura de hexazinone a 0, 45 kg/h a com diuron a 1, 36 kg/h a. Hexazinon e a 0,6 4 kg /h a, aplicado isolado, também apresentou bons resultados de controle. Nos tratamentos com hexazinone apareceram sintomas de fitotoxicidade na cana-de-açúcar, os quais desapareceram posteriormente, sem interferir na produção. Os demais tratamentos também não foram prejudiciais à cana de-açúcar.A field experiment was carried out at the Centre of Technology of Copers ucar, Piracicaba , SP, to know the action of hexazinone and diuron and mixtures on crab grass (Digitaria sanguinali s (L . Scop control, at advanced stage of development in sugarcane crop. Treatments were post -emergence aplication of hexazinone at 0,30; 0,35; 0,45 and 0,64 kg/ha; diuron at 0,88; 1,20 ; 1,36 and 2, 50 kg/h a

  3. 墨旱莲水提物的抑菌活性研究%Study on the Bacteriostatic Activity of Aqueous Extracted from Herba Ecliptae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锦慧; 周琳; 赖颖

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriostatic activities of aqueous extracts from herba ecliptae were studied with Escherichia coli and Staphylococ-cus aureus. The liquid medium with aqueous extracts from herba ecliptae at different mass concentrations was prepared, and the liquid medium inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus at 37℃, and then the bacteriostatic effects at different time were determined. The results showed that aqueous extracts from herba ecliptae had slight inhibitory action to E. coli and obvious inhibitory action to S. aureus.%以大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)为供试菌,研究墨旱莲水提物的抑菌活性.制备不同含量的墨旱莲水提物的培养基,接种大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌,测定不同培养时间的抑菌效果.结果表明,墨旱莲水提物对大肠杆菌有轻微的抑制作用,抑菌活性较弱;对金黄色葡萄球菌有明显的抑制作用,抑菌活性较强.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Govindarajan; P Karuppannan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods: Twenty five early III instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was exposed to various concentrations (50-300 ppm) and was assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the E. alba leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis. For ovicidal activity, slightly modified method of Su and Mulla was performed. The ovicidal activity was determined against Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100-350 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The egg hatch rates were assessed 48 h post treatment. Results: The LC50 values of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform extract of E. alba against early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were 151.38, 165.10, 154.88, 127.64 and 146.28 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanol extract followed by chloroform, benzene, ethyl acetate and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in control. Among five solvent tested the methanol extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. The methanol extracts exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 300 ppm. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of E. alba was an excellent potential for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito.

  5. [Comparison of protective effects of eight ethyl acetate extracts from Eclipta prostrate on NHBE cells based on component structure theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shu-Min; Liu, Dan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-08-01

    To analyze and compare the protective effects of active components in different ethyl acetate extracts (EAEEPs) from Eclipta prostrate, in order to study the comparison of materials bases protecting normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The MTT assay was taken to compare the protective effect of different EAEEPs on cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) -induced NHBE cells. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was applied to analyze the content of phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEPs. According to the results, all of the eight EAEEPs (0-200 mg x L(-1)) showed certain protective effect on NHBE cells, with statistical difference. Specifically, the total mass of EAEEP VII (89.15 mg x L(-1)) and EAEEP VIII (57.44 mg x L(-1)), which showed the strongest activity, was not the highest, while EAEEP III (132.25 mg x L(-1)) displayed the highest total mass. In the combination with the "component structure" theory, the analysis showed a significant difference in the mass structure among phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEP VIII and EAEEP VIII, which were 1.0: 1. 0: 0.5 and 1.0: 1.9: 0.8, respectively. The results suggested a specific optimal "component structure" relationship may exist in EAEEP, which could provide reference for the material base study and quality control.

  6. Development and validation of a rapid high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array detection method for estimation of a bioactive compound wedelolactone in extracts of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanshu Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following optimization of extraction, separation and analytical conditions, a rapid, sensitive and simple reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA method has been developed for the identification and quantification of wedelolactone in different extracts of Eclipta alba. The separation of wedelolactone was achieved on a C18 column using the solvent system consisting of a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid (95: 5: 0.04 as a mobile phase in isocratic elution mode followed by photo diode array detection at 352 nm. The developed method was validated as per the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH. Calibration curve presented good linear regression (r²>0.998 within the test range and the maximum relative standard deviation (RSD, % values for intra-day assay were found to be 0.15, 1.30 and 1.1 for low (5 µg/mL, medium (20 µg/mL and high (80 µg/mL concentrations of wedelolactone. For inter-day assay the maximum RSD (% values were found to be 2.83, 1.51 and 2.06 for low, medium and high concentrations, respectively. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated to be 2 and 5 µg/mL respectively. Analytical recovery of wedelolactone was greater than 95%. Wedelolactone in different extracts of Eclipta alba was identified and quantified using the developed HPLC method. The validated HPLC method allowed precise quantitative analysis of wedelolactone in Eclipta. alba extracts.Desenvolveu-se método rápido, sensível e simples de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência em fase reversa, utilizando-se arranjo de fotodiodo (HPLC-PDA, visando à separação, extração e às condições analíticas para a identificação e quantificação de wedelolactona em diferentes extratos de Eclipta alba. A separação de wedelolactona foi efetuada por meio de uma coluna C18, utilizando mistura de metanol:água:ácido acético (95:5:0.04 como fase móvel, em sistema de

  7. Biological synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Eclipta alba leaf extract and evaluation of its cytotoxic and antimicrobial potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paramasivam Premasudha; Mudili Venkataramana; Marriappan Abirami; Periyasamy Vanathi; Kadirvelu Krishna; Ramasamy Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    With increasing global competitions there is a growing need to develop environmentally benevolent nanoparticles without the use of toxic chemicals. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant extracts became one of the potential areas of research. The bioreduction of metal ion is quite rapid, readily perform at room temperature and easily scale up. The present study describes a rapid and eco-friendly synthesis of AgNPs using Eclipta alba plant extract in a single pot process. The efficiency and the influence of various process variables in the biosynthesis of AgNPs analysed include redundant concentration, temperature and time. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using aqueous leaf extract of E. alba and was observed when the medium turned to brown colour with the addition of silver ion. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by the help of UV–visible spectroscopy for their stability and physicochemical parameters were studied by dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results confirmed that recorded UV spectra show the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band for AgNPs in the range of 400–440 nm and physiochemical structural analysis shown that obtained AgNPs were crystalline in nature. Further, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of biosynthesized AgNPs against RAW 254.7, MCF-7 and Caco-2 cells as well as Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were assessed. In-vitro cytotoxicity activity of characterized AgNPs against tested cell lines showed significant anti-cell-proliferation effect in nanomolar concentrations. The antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs showed effective inhibitory activity against human pathogens, including, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the significant outcome of this study would help to formulate value added herbal-based nano-materials in biomedical and nanotechnology industries.

  8. Effects of Volatile Components and Ethanolic Extract from Eclipta prostrata on Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhong Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta prostrata, an aromatic plant, is known in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In the present study, the volatile components were isolated from the aerial parts of this plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC–MS. A total of 55 compounds, which were the major part (91.7% of the volatiles, were identified by matching mass spectra with a mass spectrum library (NIST 05.L. The main components were as follows: heptadecane (14.78%, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (12.80%, n-hexadecanoic acid (8.98%, pentadecane (8.68%, eudesma-4(14,11-diene (5.86%, phytol (3.77%, octadec-9-enoic acid (3.35%, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester (2.74%, (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (2.36%, (Z-7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene (2.08% and (Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (2.07%. The effects of volatile components and ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of this plant on the proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts were evaluated by the MTT method and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. Both volatile components and ethanolic extract (1 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL significantly (p < 0.01 stimulated the proliferation and increased the ALP activity of primary osteoblasts. These results propose that E. prostrata can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation, and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  9. Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a

  10. EFFECTS OF ECLIPTA ALBA AND BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSSA ON NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE AND HYPERTENSION IN RATS AND THEIR COMPARISON WITH AMLODIPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Verma*, Pratap Shankar, Shailendra Dwivedi and Rakesh K. Dixit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is an immensely pervaded problem in today’s population and is a unanimous major risk factor for heart diseases. Various natural herbs have been found to control the hypertension exquisitely without causing any significant adverse effect. Eclipta alba (EA and Boerhaavia diffusa (BD are two herbaceous plants. EA is used to treat hepatic-dysfunction, hair diseases and anemia since ancient time. Similarly, BD is a great treatment-option for renal and urinary disorders. They have also been found quite effective in the safe treatment of hypertension. But studies in this respect are very scanty and confirmatory role of these herbs in hypertension is yet to be established. In the present study, effects of EA and BD on normal blood pressure (NBP and hypertension were studied. Their antihypertensive activities were also compared with those of Amlodipine (Amlo.Methods: Adult Wistar rats of both sexes, weighing 140-150 g were randomized equally to make 9 groups (6 rats/ group. First 6 groups were given high fat diet for 49 days to produce hypertension. Then drugs were given for next 45 days without stopping high fat diet. 7th, 8th & 9th groups were meant to see the effects of EA and BD on NBP; they were kept on normal diet and were given EA-200 mg/kg, BD-200 mg/kg, EA+BD (200 mg/kg of each respectively for first 45 days. SBP (systolic blood pressure was measured by ‘Tail-cuff method’ with the help of NIBP (non-invasive blood pressure measurement-controller machine.Results: All drugs showed significant antihypertensive activities. Rats on Amlo-10 mg/kg showed most significant reduction (39.54%, followed by rats on EA+BD (200mg/kg of each; 31.01% reduction, BD-200 mg/kg (28.91% reduction, EA-200 mg/kg (25.54% reduction, BD-100 mg/kg (20.68% reduction. EA, BD and EA+BD caused no significant reduction in NBP.Conclusion: To conclude, EA and BD comprise significant antihypertensive activities with no harmful effects on (reduction in

  11. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  12. Preparation of Chinese Medicinal Fluoride Toothpaste with Eclipta prostrata L.%旱莲草中草药含氟牙膏的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏异; 林叶青; 王俊清; 黄雅玲; 林燕如

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探索制作旱莲草中草药牙膏的最优配方。[方法]以旱莲草为原料,考察不同配比的甘油、二氧化硅、提取液和CMC对牙膏感官性状的影响,并对牙膏的去污能力进行检测。[结果]最优配方为旱莲草提取液12.10 g、甘油7.50 g、二氧化硅3.75 g、CMC 0.35 g、单氟磷酸钠0.10 g、苯甲酸钠0.15 g、薄荷脑和薄荷油0.30 g、K120.60 g、糖精0.10 g、香精0.05 g。[结论]制备得到的牙膏膏体光亮细腻,呈墨绿色,气味清凉薄荷,拉丝现象明显。%[Objective] The aim was to explore the optimal fornmla for manufacturing Chinese medicinal toothpaste of Eclipta prostrata L.. [Method] Eclipta prostrata L. was chosen as the raw materials to study eft'eels of differenl proportions of glycerol, silica, extracts and CMC on sensory attributes of toothpaste. The decontamination abilily of toothpaste was detected. [Result] The optimal ingredient formula was extracts 12.10 g, glycerol 7.50 g, silica 3.75 g, CMC 0.35 g, single fluorine sodium 0.10 g, sodium benzoate 0.15 g, mint brain and peppermint oil 0.30 g, K12 0.60 g, saccharin 0.10 g, essence 0.05 g. [Conclusion] The prepared toothpasies were fine and bright, dark green, good smell with mercilessness, significant wiredrawing phenomenon. Key words

  13. Anticancer-cytotoxic activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre and Eclipta prostrata on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer-cytotoxic activities of isolated saponins, gymnemagenol (C 30 H 50 O 4 from Gymnema sylvestre and dasyscyphin C (C 28 H 40 O 8 from Eclipta prostrata leaves were tested under in vitro conditions in HeLa cells. The gymnemagenol and dayscyphin C at 50 μg/ml showed a good cytotoxic activity (63% and 52%, respectively in HeLa cells at 48 hours with the IC50 value of 37 and 50 μg/ml, respectively. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, a positive control, showed 57.5 % cell death with the IC50 value of 36 μg/ml. The percentage of HeLa cell death was maximum (73% after 96 hours with gymnemagenol, whereas dasyscyphin C showed only 53%. The isolated saponins were not toxic to Vero cells. From this study, it can be concluded that the saponins, gymnemagenol, and dayscyphin C have significant anticancer-cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells under in vitro conditions.

  14. Simultaneous extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata using microwave-assisted extraction combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Jifu; Li, Xueke; Guo, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata, a common herb and vegetable in China. The optimized parameters of MAE were: employing 50% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 400 W, temperature 70 °C, ratio of liquid/solid 30 mL/g and extraction time 2 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the optimized MAE can avoid the degradation of the phenolic compounds and simultaneously obtained the highest yields of all components faster with less consumption of solvent and energy. Six phenolic acids, six flavonoid glycosides and one coumarin were firstly identified. The phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD with good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The extract obtained by MAE showed significant antioxidant activity. The proposed method provides a valuable and green analytical methodology for the investigation of phenolic components in natural plants.

  15. An Investigation of the Cytotoxicity and Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Effect of Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata on Human Liver Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and sustained focus is on the discovery and development of newer and better tolerated anticancer drugs, especially from plants. In the present study, a simple, eco-friendly, and inexpensive approach was followed for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs using the aqueous leaf extract of Eclipta prostrata. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and Selected area (electron diffraction (SAED. The HRTEM images confirmed the presence of triangle, radial, hexagonal, rod, and rectangle, shaped with an average size of 29 ± 1.3 nm. The functional groups for synthesized ZnO NPs were 3852 cm−1 for H-H weak peak, 3138 cm−1 for aromatic C-H extend, and 1648 cm−1 for Aromatic ring stretch. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT, caspase and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of ZnO NPs ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL. The synthesized ZnO NPs showed dose dependent cytopathic effects in the Hep-G2 cell line. At 100 mg/mL concentration, the synthesized ZnO NPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays.

  16. Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) allelochemicals that interfere with crop growth and the soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Kong, Chui-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Hua

    2013-06-05

    Three chemicals, veratric acid, maltol, and (−)-loliolide, were isolated from crabgrass and their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The chemicals were detected in crabgrass root exudates and rhizosphere soils, and their concentrations ranged from 0.16 to 8.10 μg/g. At an approximate concentration determined in crabgrass root exudates, all chemicals significantly inhibited the growth of wheat, maize, and soybean and reduced soil microbial biomass carbon. Phospholipid fatty acid profiling showed that veratric acid, maltol, and (−)-loliolide affected the signature lipid biomarkers of soil bacteria, actinobacteria, and fungi, resulting in changes in soil microbial community structures. There were significant relationships between crop growth and soil microbes under the chemicals' application. Chemical-specific changes in the soil microbial community generated negative feedback on crop growth. The results suggest that veratric acid, maltol, and (−)-loliolide released from crabgrass may act as allelochemicals interfering with crop growth and the soil microbial community.

  17. Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

    1992-01-01

    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity.

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of Eclipta alba against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra S. Beedimani

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of the study confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of E. alba at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, the dose adjustments may be necessary to optimize the similar hepatoprotective efficacy in clinical settings. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 404-409

  19. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Boehmeria cylindrica - + + + + + - - - - Brunnchia cirrhosa - + + + - + + + + + Campsisradicans - - + + - + + + + - Carya illinoensis ...erythrorhizos - - - + + + + + + - Desmanthus illinoensis + + + - - - - Digitaria ischaemum - - - - + - + + + + Digitaria sanguinalis

  20. Osteoprotective Effect of Echinocystic Acid, a Triterpone Component from Eclipta prostrata, in Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporotic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Deng

    Full Text Available Echinocystic acid (EA is a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs and has been used for medicinal purposes in China. In the present study, we systematically examined the effects of EA on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats for the first time. Three-month-old female ovariectomy (OVX Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of EA. Results showed that administration of EA (5 or 15 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks prevented lower levels of maximum stress and Young's modulus of femur induced by OVX. EA also recovered bone metabolic biomarkers levels in OVX rats, including osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatese, deoxypyridinoline, and urinary calcium and phosphorus. EA (5 and 15 mg/kg/day could prevent the alteration of total bone mineral density in the femur caused by OVX. However, only high dose (15 mg/kg/day of EA significantly improved trabecular architecture, as evidenced by higher levels of bone volume/tissue volume, trabecula number, and trabecula thickness, and lower levels of trabecula separation and structure model index compared with OVX rats. In addition, EA treatment decresed the serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in OVX rats. In conclusion, EA could prevent reduction of bone mass and strength and improve the cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties in OVX rats. Hence, EA may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for anti-osteoporosis.

  1. Study on Application of Chemical Control Techniques for Worst Weeds in Landscape Plant Nurseries in Jianghuai Region%江淮地区园林苗圃地恶性杂草化学防除技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新洋; 周根土; 张均

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the integrated control techniques regarding the main weed species, herbicides and the times,concentrations, methods of their applications for chemical weeding and artificial weeding in landscape plant nurseries were introduced. Chemical and artificial weeding techniques for 6 worst weeds in pre-emergence and seedling stages were elaborated in detail including Alternanthera philoxeroides, Commelina communis, Cyperus rotundus, Artemisia Selengensis, Cirsium setosum and Imperata cylindrica,so were the chemical weeding methods for difficult-to-control weed species Digitaria sanguinalis, Acalypha australis, Amaranthus tricolor, Eclipta prostrata, Chenopodium quinoa,Convolvu arvensis,Celosia cristata, Portulaca oleracea and Abutilon theophrasti. The study could provide practical chemical weeding operation techniques for landscape plant nurseries.%本文叙述了园林苗圃地主要杂草、除草剂,化学除草施用时间、浓度、方法,以及人工除草等综合防除技术,详细叙述了芽前、苗期化学和人工除草技术及苗圃地空心莲子草、鸭跖草、香附子、芦蒿、刺儿菜、白茅6种恶性杂草,以及防除难度较大的杂草马唐、铁苋菜、苋菜、醴肠、藜、田旋花、野鸡冠花、马齿苋、茼麻等化学除草方法,为园林苗木培育提供实用的苗圃化学除草操作技术。

  2. 不同秸秆水提液在不同光照强度下对马唐萌发与生长的影响%The Effects of Water Extracts from Different Straws on Seed Germination and Growth of Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) Under Different Light Intensities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩宏; 田兴山; 冯莉; 张泰劼; 高家东; 岳茂峰; 崔烨

    2014-01-01

    为了明确不同秸秆水提液在不同光照强度下对马唐种子萌发与生长的影响.本研究采用室内种子培养皿法测定了水稻、甜玉米、香蕉假茎以及甘蔗秸秆水浸提液在3种光照强度下对马唐种子发芽率、胚根、胚芽生长的影响.结果显示,(1)与800 lx、4000 lx光照强度下对照马唐种子的萌发率相比(>90%),完全黑暗条件能够抑制对照马唐种子的萌发,但萌发率仍>70%;(2)3种光照强度下,与对照相比,不同秸秆水提液均对马唐种子发芽率有抑制作用,水提液浓度越高,发芽率越低,且完全黑暗条件下抑制作用更显著,而对胚芽和胚根生长影响不大;(3)4种秸秆水提液在3种光照强度下对马唐种子发芽率的抑制作用顺序均为稻秆>甘蔗>香蕉假茎>甜玉米.

  3. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo; Délio Soares Raslan; Claudia Mashrouah Jamal; Dâmaris Silveira

    2006-01-01

    ... (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus...

  4. Global warming increases the interspecific competitiveness of the invasive plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ismail, Mohannad; Ding, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Global warming could accelerate the spread of invasive species to higher latitudes and intensify their effects on native species. Here, we report results of two years of field surveys along a latitudinal gradient (21°N to 31°N) in southern China, to determine the species structure of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides community. We also performed a replacement series experiment (mono and mixed) to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature on the competitiveness of A. philoxeroides with the native co-occurring species Digitaria sanguinalis. In the field survey, we found that the dominance of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing of latitude gradient while cover of D. sanguinalis decreased. In monospecific plantings, artificial warming reduced the length of D. sanguinalis roots. In mixed plantings, warming reduced both A. philoxeroides abundance and D. sanguinalis stem length when A. philoxeroides was more prevalent in the planting. Warming also significantly reduced D. sanguinalis biomass, but increased that of A. philoxeroides. In addition, elevated temperatures significantly reduced the relative yield (RY) of D. sanguinalis, particularly when A. philoxeroides was planted in higher proportion in the plot. These results suggest that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing latitude, and that warming may increase the effectiveness of its interspecific competition with D. sanguinalis. Hence, under global warming conditions, the harm to native species from A. philoxeroides would increase at higher latitudes. Our findings are critical for predicting the invasiveness of alien species under climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and identiifcation of Serratia marcescens Ha1 and herbicidal activity of Ha1‘pesta’ granular formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Juan; WANG Wei; YANG Peng; TAO Bu; YANG Zheng; ZHANG Li-hui; DONG Jin-gao

    2015-01-01

    A total of 479 bacterial strains were isolated from brine (Bohai, Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China). Bioassay results indicated that 4 strains named Ha1, Ha17, Ha38, and Ha384 had herbicidal activity. And strain Ha1 had the highest effective herbicidal activity. As a result, this study aims to identify strain Ha1, characterize its physiological and biological activities, evaluate the herbicidal activity of its metabolites, and develop a‘pesta’ formulation and assess its effectiveness on Digitaria sanguinalis. Ha1 was identiifed as Serratia marcescens based on 16S rDNA sequencing. This strain has a lfagel um, a diameter of 0.5 to 0.8μm, and a length of 0.9 to 2.0μm. The indole test shows positive results, and the catalase enzyme exhibits strong positive reactions. Results further showed that the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the crude extracts to D. sanguinalis radicula and coleoptile were 3.332 and 2.828 mg mL–1, respectively. Both the suppression of D. sanguinalis and the cel viability of the Ha1 formulation in‘pesta’ were higher when stored at 4°C than at (25±2)°C. These results indi-cated that S. marcescens Ha1 can potential y be used as a biocontrol agent against D. sanguinalis.

  6. The Herbicidal Activity of Mutant Isolates from Botrytis cinerea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-lin; ZHANG Li-hui; LIU Ying-chao; MA Juan; LI Chuan; DONG Jin-gao

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen mutant isolates were obtained by ultraviolet mutation from parent isolate Botrytis cinerea BC-4. Among them three mutant isolates, BC4-1, BC4-2, and BC4-15, showed strong herbicidal activity. BC4-1 showed maximum herbicidal activity for inhibition of germination and growth of Digitaria sanguinalis L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L. The results also showed that herbicidal activity was influenced by differing pH of PD media, with pH value of 4.0 being the optimum.The crude toxin was extracted using chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethyl acetate, respectively, and the ethyl acetate extracts showed the strongest inhibitory activity on the germination and growth of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L.Using HPLC, one fraction with an absorption peak at 271 nm was separated from the crude toxin. This fraction could strongly inhibit the growth of D. sanguinalis L. at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 and could completely inhibit the seed germination of D. sanguinalis L. and A. retroflexus L. at a concentration of 50 mg L-1.

  7. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  8. Antimicrobial screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiart, C; Mogana, S; Khalifah, S; Mahan, M; Ismail, S; Buckle, M; Narayana, A K; Sulaiman, M

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two extracts (methanol) obtained from the leaves, barks, and roots of 50 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Peristrophe tinctoria, Polyalthia lateriflora, Knema malayana, Solanum torvum, Celosia argentea, Eclipta prostrata, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Dillenia suffruticosa, Piper stylosum and Rafflesia hasseltii displayed the broadest spectrum of activity.

  9. Novos longicórneos neotrópicos: XIII. (Col., Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Zajciw

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes one new genus, Dihammaphoroides allied to Dihammaphora Chevr., 1859 and tree new species: Coleoxestia omega, approximate to bivittata (Buq., 1852, Ommata (Eclipta melzeri resembling castanea Bat., 1873 and Dihammaphoroides sanguinicollis, all from Brazil, Prov. Rio de Janeiro, National Park Itatiaia, collected by J. F. Zikan.

  10. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sushma, V; Patra, Sujata; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Sreedhar, Bojja; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-16

    The biological approach to synthesis of AuNPs is eco-friendly and an ideal method to develop environmentally sustainable nanoparticles alternative to existing methods. We have developed a simple, fast, clean, efficient, low-cost and eco-friendly single-step green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) using a water extract of Eclipta Alba leaves at room temperature. The AuNPs using Eclipta extract have been formed in very short time, even in less than 10 min. The as-synthesized AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by several physico-chemical techniques. The in vitro stability of as-synthesized AuNPs was studied in different buffer solutions. A plausible mechanism for the synthesis of AuNPs by Eclipta extract has been discussed. The biocompatibility of AuNPs was observed by in vitro cell culture assays. Finally, we have designed and developed a AuNPs-based drug delivery system (DDS) (Au-DOX) containing doxorubicin (DOX), a FDA approved anticancer drug. Administration of this DDS to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) shows significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation compared to pristine doxorubicin. Therefore we strongly believe that the use of Eclipta Alba offers large-scale production of biocompatible AuNPs that can be used as a delivery vehicle for the treatment of cancer diseases.

  11. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F

    2013-01-01

    Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides), Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta,...

  12. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sushma, V.; Patra, Sujata; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Sreedhar, Bojja; Ranjan Patra, Chitta

    2012-11-01

    The biological approach to synthesis of AuNPs is eco-friendly and an ideal method to develop environmentally sustainable nanoparticles alternative to existing methods. We have developed a simple, fast, clean, efficient, low-cost and eco-friendly single-step green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) using a water extract of Eclipta Alba leaves at room temperature. The AuNPs using Eclipta extract have been formed in very short time, even in less than 10 min. The as-synthesized AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by several physico-chemical techniques. The in vitro stability of as-synthesized AuNPs was studied in different buffer solutions. A plausible mechanism for the synthesis of AuNPs by Eclipta extract has been discussed. The biocompatibility of AuNPs was observed by in vitro cell culture assays. Finally, we have designed and developed a AuNPs-based drug delivery system (DDS) (Au-DOX) containing doxorubicin (DOX), a FDA approved anticancer drug. Administration of this DDS to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) shows significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation compared to pristine doxorubicin. Therefore we strongly believe that the use of Eclipta Alba offers large-scale production of biocompatible AuNPs that can be used as a delivery vehicle for the treatment of cancer diseases.

  13. Isolation, Identiifcation, and Herbicidal Activity of Metabolites Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CB-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Juan; CAO Hong-zhe; WANG Wei; ZHANG Li-hui; DONG Jin-gao

    2014-01-01

    CB-4, a bacterial strain with highly effective herbicidal activity, was isolated from infected corn leaves. Through morphology, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing methods, CB-4 was identiifed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We conducted activity-evaluation experiments in the laboratory to assess the herbicidal potential of metabolites produced by strain CB-4. Crude extracts of strain CB-4 have high inhibition activity on Digitaria sanguinalis. In general, the root and shoot growth parameters of D. sanguinalis were signiifcantly reduced by metabolites of strain CB-4. The IC50 of the culture ifltrate extracts for the radicula and coleoptile of D. sanguinalis were 0.299 and 0.210 mg mL-1, respectively. Component 2 of the herbicidal activity of the crude toxin from strain CB-4 was successfully puriifed for the ifrst time by using high-speed counter current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:5:4:5, v/v) and high-performance liquid chromatography. We concluded that the metabolites of strain CB-4 have the potential to be developed as a microbe-based herbicide.

  14. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Kummee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN using the multiplate integration assay (MIA. Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml, the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 26.4 μg/ml, the chloroform extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 33.0 μg/ml, the methanol extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 38.2 μg/ml and the chloroform extract of Piper betle (leaf, IC50 = 39.3 μg/ml, respectively.

  15. Variations in Growth, Photosynthesis and Defense System Among Four Weed Species Under Increased UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Liusheng Duan; Anthony Egrinya Eneji; Zhaohu Li

    2007-01-01

    Weed tolerance of UV-B radiation varies with species, and the radiation could affect weed ecology and management.Variations in growth, photosynthesis and defense system among four important agronomic weeds, Abutilon theophrasti Medik, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Digitaria sangulnalis (L.) Scop and Chloris virgata Swartz, under increased UV-B radiation (ambient and increased radiation at 2.7, 5.4 and 10.8 kJ·m-2·d-1) were studied in the greenhouse experiment. After 2 weeks of radiation, the shoots' dry mass decreased with increasing UV-B radiation except for D. sanguinalis. The reduction in biomass was the result of changes in morphology and physiology.Higher levels of UV-B treatment decreased the leaf area, plant height, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents, while it increased the contents of wax and UV-B absorbing compound in all species, except for A. retroflexus,which did not increase significantly. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and the content of ascorbic acid changed differently among the weed species as UV-B radiation increased. D. sanguinalis was the most tolerant and A. retroflexus the most sensitive to increased UV-B radiation. The results also show that the two grass species (D. sanguinalis and C. virgata) were more tolerant to UV-B radiation than the two broadleafed species (A. theophrasti and A. retroflexus). The UV-B absorbing compound and leaf wax played important roles against UV-B damages in the two grass weeds. The overall results suggest that weed community, competition and management will be altered by continuous ozone depletion.

  16. Isolation and Structural Speculation of Herbicide-Active Compounds from the Metabolites of Pythium aphanidermatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-hui; ZHANG Jin-lin; LIU Ying-chao; CAO Zhi-yan; HAN Jian-min; YANG Juan; DONG Jin-gao

    2013-01-01

    Natural herbicides, or environment-friendly bioherbicides have been attracted more and more attentions. Isolation and structural identification of natural herbicide-active compounds from plant pathogens has been proved to be an effective approach for novel lead discovery of the pesticide development. In this study, the metabolites of the mutant strain PAM1, which obtained from PA1 of Pythium aphanidermatum (Eds.) Fitzp by ultraviolet radiation were separated and identified by HPLC, NMR, and IR. The results revealed that three active compounds including 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid and two indole derivatives, exhibited inhibition activity on the elongation of radical and coleoptile of Digtaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

  17. A study on the genus Digitaria (Poaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amini Rad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In current research, the genus Digitaria has been studied in Iran. As a results, D. ischaemum, D. sanguinalis, D. sabulosa, D. ciliaris, D. nodosa with D. violascens which is reported for the first time from Iran here, are confirmed for the flora of Iran. In addition, the record of D. stricta from Iran is rejected as referable to D. violascens after the studying their specimens. Finally, a key to all species of the genus Digitaria in Iran along with morphological descriptions of species are provided.

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho (Zea mays L. por meio de herbicidas Weed control in maize (Zea mays L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. L. dos Santos

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a ação do butylate, aplicado isoladamente e em mistura com atrazine, no controle de plantas daninhas da cultura do milho, foi instalado um experimento de campo em solo fino areno-argiloso. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: butylate a 2,80; 3,60 e 4,32 kg/ha (p.p.i.; butylate + atrazine a 3,24 + 0,80; 3,24 + 1,20 e 3,60 + 0,96 kg/ha (p.p.i.; atrazine a 3,00 kg/ha e atrazine + metolachlor a 1,40 + 2,10 kg/ha, ambos aplicados em pré-emergência e empregados como herbicidas padrão para a cultura. As plantas daninhas encontradas foram: tiririca - Cyperus rotundus L., carurú comum - .:maranthus viridis L., capim de colchão - Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. e capim pé-de-galinha Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate nas três doses apresentou-se bem contra C. rotundus e E. indica; nas doses de 3,60 e 4,32 kg foram obtidos bons resultados sobre D. sanguinalis. Butylate + atrazine controlou, nas três doses, todas as espécies incidentes, o mesmo ocorrendo com a mistura atrazine + metolachlor. Atrazine foi mais eficiente para A. viridis e E. indica. Nas condições em que foi conduzido o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas foi prejudicial para a cultura.Butylate at 2.80; 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha and butylate + atrazine at. 3.24 + 0.80; 3.24 + 1.20 and 3.60 + 0.96 kg, were applied in preplant incorporated; atrazine at 3.00 kg and atrazine + metolachlor at 1.40 + 2.10 kg were applied in preemergence on corn. The weeds were represented by Cyperus rotundus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. Butylate + atrazine, in all rates, atrazine + metolachlor and atrazine gave good control of the weeds in general. Butylate, in the three rates, controlled C. rotundus and E. indica; at 3.60 and 4.32 kg/ha controlled well D. sanguinalis. The herbicides did not cause injuries to the crop.

  19. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  20. Occurrence and Impact of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Yibin%宜宾市烟田杂草的发生及危害调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩宇; 向金友; 谢冰; 张吉亚; 杨懿德; 杨洋; 周小刚

    2014-01-01

    采用倒置“W”九点取样法对四川省宜宾市烟田杂草的种类、分布及危害进行调查。结果表明,宜宾市烟田杂草共有33科94属124种,其中发生频度较高的为马唐、铁苋菜、辣子草、尼泊尔蓼、马兰、艾蒿。根据相对多度和杂草危害级值划分,宜宾市烟田危害最严重杂草为马唐、尼泊尔蓼、空心莲子草、无芒稗和鸭跖草。%Species,distribution and damage of weeds were surveyed by sampling nine plots according to a“W” pattern in tobacco fields in Yibin.A total of 124 weeds belonging to 121 genera of 33 families composed the high frequency flora—Digitaria sanguinalis ( L.) Scop.,Acalypha australis L.,Galinsoga parviflora Cav.,Polygonum nepalense Meisn.,Kalim-eris indica ( L.) Sch.-Bip.and Artemisia argyi Levl.et Vant.The most serious weeds according to their relative abun-dance and level of infestation to crops were D.sanguinalis,P.nepalense,Alternanthera philoxeroides ( Mart.) Griseb, Echinochloa crus-galli ( L.) and Commelina communis L..

  1. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  2. Contribuição para o estudo dos Rhinotragini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae: VIII. Transferências e nova espécie em Clepitoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santos-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro espécies são transferidas para Clepitoides Clarke, 2009: Odontocera crocata Bates, 1873; O. virgata Gounelle, 1911; Eclipta picturata (Gounelle, 1911; E. pallidicornis (Zajciw, 1966. As fêmeas de O. crocata e O. pallidicornis são redescritas e uma nova espécie é descrita do Brasil e da Argentina. As cinco espécies são figuradas. Adicionalmente é fornecida nova chave para as espécies de Clepitoides.

  3. Influence of Cultural and Pest Management Practices on Performance of Runner, Spanish, and Virginia Market Types in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget R. Lassiter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virginia market type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars are grown primarily in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in the US, although growers in these states often plant other market types if marketing opportunities are available. Information on yield potential and management strategies comparing these market types is limited in North Carolina. In separate experiments, research was conducted to determine response of runner, Spanish, and Virginia market types to calcium sulfate and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium at planting, planting and digging dates, planting patterns, and seeding rates. In other experiments, control of thrips (Frankliniella spp. using aldicarb, southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Howardi using chlorpyrifos, eclipta (Eclipta prostrata L. using threshold-based postemergence herbicides, and leaf spot disease (caused by the fungi Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum fungicide programs was compared in these market types. Results showed that management practice and market types interacted for peanut pod yield in only the planting date experiment. Yield of runner and Virginia market types was similar and exceeded yield of the Spanish market type in most experiments.

  4. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  5. The 'Big bang' in the Early Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medović Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Iron Age granaries of Tell Gradina upon Bosut exploded in a fire inferno in the 8th century B.C. The result of this catastrophe is 2-5 cm thick layer with mixed carbonized seeds and fruits. Recently, eight samples were taken from Gradina's profile for archaeobotanical analysis. The goal was to obtain basic information on land use and on major crops and weeds of that period. The most abundant were cereals, followed by millets, pulses and oil/fibre plants. The dominant cereals were einkorn (Triticum monococcum and hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum was also very important. Pulses were represented with six and oil/fibre plants with three species. Among weeds and ruderals, most common are rye brome (Bromus secalinus, fat hen (Chenopodium album, darnel ryegrass (Lolium temulentum, hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis and corncockle (Agrostemma githago.

  6. Isolation and Structural Identiifcation of Herbicidal Active Substance from Root of Flaveria bident (L.) Kuntze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jing-qian; XING Ji-hong; ZHANG Li-hui; KANG Zhan-hai; ZHANG Jin-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and structure of herbicidal active substance from the root of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, the isolation and structural identiifcation were researched in this paper. The crude extract from the root of F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze was extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and water saturation of n-butyl alcohol, respectively, and the extraction lfuid was separated by using the method of TLC, then the main fraction was separated by HPLC, and the structure of the herbicidal active substance was analyzed by LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR. The results showed that the petroleum extraction had the strongest herbicidal activity, and the purple blue stripe separated by TLC had the strongest effect on Digitaria sanguinalis. The herbicidal active substance was identiifed as α-terthienyl according to the data of LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR.

  7. A preliminary study on butterflies of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary, Pathankot, Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of the butterfly diversity of the Kathlaur-Kaushlian Wildlife Sanctuary (Pathankot, Punjab India was conducted from 10–11 November 2011.  A total of 40 species belonging to 31 genera was recorded, including Libythea myrrha sanguinalis Fruhstorfer, a new species added to the butterfly fauna of Punjab.  Species richness was greatest for the family Nymphalidae, with 22 species, followed by Pieridae with 10 species,  Lycaenidae with four, and Papilionidae and Hesperiidae with two each.  An analysis of relative abundances revealed that of the 40 species reported, 19 were classed as common, 15 as less common and the remaining six species as uncommon.  Observations on their occurrence in different habitats revealed 13 species prefer scrubby habitat, 13 scrubby and grassy habitat, seven grassy habitats and the remaining seven scrubby and riverine habitats. 

  8. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activities of Potassium Methyl 1-(Substituted Phenoxyacetoxy)alkylphosphonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; WANG Wei; PENG Hao; HE Hong-wu

    2013-01-01

    A series of potassium methyl 1-(substituted phenoxyacetoxy)alkylphosphonates(9a-9o) was designed and synthesized.The results of preliminary bioassays indicate that most of the title compounds possess excellent pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicidal activities against Brassica napus,Amaranthus mangostanus,Medicago sativa,Echinochloa crusgalli,and Digitaria sanguinalis at a dosage of 1500 g/ha(1 ha=10000 m2).Especially,potassium methyl 1-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetoxy)-1-(4-methylphenyl)methylphosphonate(9g) and potassium methyl 1-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetoxy)-1-(furan-2-yl)methylphosphonate(9j) show the best herbicidal activity against five tested weeds with more than 85% inhibitory rate in pre-emergence.

  9. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species.

  10. Effect of Monument on turf weeds control in gol f course%抹绿对高尔夫球场草坪杂草防治效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳岭; 谢新春; 张巨明; 刘天增

    2013-01-01

    华南地区高尔夫球场中牛筋草(Eleusine indica)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis)、水蜈蚣(Ky-llingabrevifolia)、碎米莎草(Cyperusiria)、日照飘拂草(Fimbristylismiliacea)等恶性杂草危害严重,是该地区高尔夫球场养护管理中最重要的问题之一。在该区高尔夫球场常用的老鹰草(Tifeagle Ber-mudagras)草坪和结缕草(Zoysiajaponica)草坪上分别进行独立试验,通过杂草受害盖度、中毒症状、鲜重防效、草坪景观质量、安全性等几个方面,探究发现药剂抹绿(MONUMENT)对三叶鬼针草(Bi-dens pilosa )、马唐、水蜈蚣、日照飘拂草、夏飘拂草(Fimbristylis aestwalis )、碎米莎草、畦畔莎草(C. haspan)、石胡荽(Centipedaminima)、含羞草(Mimosa pudica)有极佳防效。%Exotic weeds including Eleusine indica,Digitaria sanguinalis,Kyllinga brevifolia,Cyperus iria,Fimbristylis miliacea are seriously damaging the golf course in south China,which is one of significant problems in daily management and maintenance of golf course turf.This study was conducted to test the weed control effect of MONUMENT herbicide on turfgrasses (Cynodon dactylon cv.Tifeagle and Zoysia japonica) in golf course.The weeds coverage,symptoms,control efficiency,turf quality,and safety to turfgrasses were measured after applying the herbicide.The results indicated that MONUMENT have excellent control effect on Bidenspilosa,Digitariasanguinalis,Mimosapudica,Kyllingabrevifolia,Fimbristylismiliacea,Fimbristylis miliacea,Cyperus iria,Centipedaminima.

  11. Bolivian Rhinotragini IV: Paraeclipta gen. nov. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, new species and new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraeclipta gen. nov. is described to allocate five new species, and ten transferred from Eclipta Bates, 1873: P. cabrujai sp. nov.; P. clementecruzi sp. nov.; P. melgarae sp. nov.; P. tomhacketti sp. nov.; P. moscosoi sp. nov.; P. bicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. croceicornis (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. flavipes (Melzer, 1922, comb. nov.; P. jejuna (Gounelle, 1911, comb. nov.; P. kawensis (Peñaherrera-Leiva & Tavakilian, 2004, comb. nov.; P. longipennis (Fisher, 1947, comb. nov.; P. rectipennis (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov.; P. soumourouensis (Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2003, comb. nov.; P. tenuis (Burmeister, 1865, comb. nov.; and P. unicoloripes (Zajciw, 1965, comb. nov. The Bolivian species are illustrated. A key to their identification and host flower records are provided.

  12. Sand Dredging Operations in Lafourche Parish, Near Leeville, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Campis radicans .. .......... 0.93 48.4 4.2 Carex xrus-corvi. .......... 0.03 3.2 0.1 Carya illinoensis .. ......... 0.16 16.1 0.7 Ceitis laevigata... illinoensis ..... 0.05 5.5 0.4 Diodia virginiana .. ......... 0.05 5.5 0.4 Eclipta alba... .......... 0.16 16.6 1.2 Equisetum prealtum. ......... 0.05 5.5...3.2 0.1 A-4 Table A-2 continued. Species Density Frequency Percent Daubentonia texana ....... . 0.03 3.2 0.1 Desmanthus illinoensis ..... . 0.03 3.2 0.1

  13. Germinação de sementes de Asteraceae nativas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Germination of seeds of Asteraceae natives of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gui Ferreira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquênios (sementes recém coletados, de treze espécies nativas de Asteraceae comuns nos ambientes abertos da região sul do Brasil foram testados quanto à germinação em temperaturas alternadas ( 20/10; 25/15; 30/20; 35/25°C e sob temperaturas constantes ( 20; 25 e 30°C com ou sem luz. A temperatura ótima para germinação varia entre as espécies, sendo que as espécies Elephantopus mobilis; Eupatorium laevigatum; Mikania cordifolia; Senecio oxyphyllus; Trixis prastens germinam de forma semelhante em todas temperaturas testadas. Eclipta alba tem sua germinação promovida a 30°C. Tagetes minuta tem a germinação das sementes promovida a 20°C. Em Senecio heterotrichius; S. selloi; Stenachaenium campestre; Symphyopappus casarettoi e Vernonia nudiflora as sementes germinam igualmente a 20 ou 25°C.. A luz promoveu a germinação de todas espécies exceto para Stenachaenium campestre e Tagetes minuta, sendo esta última espécie fotoblástica negativa. Quanto ao tempo médio de germinação, as espécies podem ser divididas em ; rápidas- menos de 5 dias (Baccharis trimera; Eclipta alba; Elephantopus mollis; Stenachaenium campestre e Vernonia nudiflora; intermediárias: entre 5 e 10 dias ( Eupatorium laevigatum; Mikania cordifolia e Tagetes minuta ; lentas: mais de 10 dias (Senecio heterotrichius; S.oxyphyllus; S.selloi; Symphyopappus casarettoi e Trixis praestans.Os resultados mostram que a germinação de sementes de Asteraceas variam com a temperatura e o regime de luz; podendo prover uma base inicial para interpretação de efeitos sazonais sobre a germinação e estabelecimento a campo. Em adição, comentários sobre o substrato ágar ou areia são feitos.Achenes of thirteen native Asteraceae species common to the natural grassland or weeds of the southern region of Brazil were tested for germination over a range of alternating temperatures ( 20/10; 25/15; 30/20 and 35/25°C, and under constant temperatures ( 20; 25 and 30°C with

  14. The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawangjaroen, N; Subhadhirasakul, S; Phongpaichit, S; Siripanth, C; Jamjaroen, K; Sawangjaroen, K

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-giardial activity of chloroform, methanol and water extracts of 12 medicinal plants (39 extracts), commonly used as self medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand. The plant extracts and a standard drug, metronidazole, were incubated with 2x10(5) trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis per millilitre of growth medium in 96-well tissue culture plates under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The cultures were examined with an inverted microscope and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the IC50 value for each extract was determined. The chloroform extracts from Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia pandurata, Eclipta prostrata, Piper betle, Piper chaba, Zingiber zerumbet, and the methanol extracts from B. pandurata and E. prostrata were classified as "active", i.e. with an IC50 of Murraya paniculata was classified as being "moderately active". This study shows that extracts from some medicinal plants have potential for use as therapeutic agents against G. intestinalis infections.

  15. Plant based native therapy for skin problems in Aurangabad district (M.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Naser

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An Ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local and tribal people of some selected areas of Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state. A total of 26 plants have been recorded here which are used for curing 20 types of skin problems (Dermatological problems, such as boils, eruption, cuts, wounds, eczema, syphilis, urticaria etc. The data was collected by using questionnaire approach, group discussion and contact with traditional healers of the villages.The investigated plant taxa have been listed according to their uses in curing the diseases, along with botanical names, families, local names, parts used and routes of administration. Some noteworthy medicinal plants are Hydnocarpus pentandra, Murraya koenigii, Tagetes erecta, Withania somnifera, Sapindus trifoliatus, Rauwolfia serpentine, Centella asiatica, Eclipta alba etc.

  16. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  17. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  18. 重庆市烟田杂草种类、分布与危害程度研究%Investigation on Categories,Distribution and Damage of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金香; 丁伟; 刘元平; 石生探; 何林; 张永强

    2015-01-01

    为明确重庆市烟田杂草的种类、分布和危害情况,采用倒置 W 九点取样法对重庆市烟田杂草进行了调查。结果表明:重庆市烟田杂草共有121种,隶属于35科,其中阔叶杂草93种,占76•86%;禾本科杂草19种,占15•70%;其他杂草9种,占7•44%。一年生杂草68种,占56•20%;多年生杂草53种,占43•80%。根据各杂草相对高度、相对盖度、相对多度的综合值进行评价,藜、紫苏、尼泊尔蓼、马唐、牛膝菊、艾蒿、狗尾草和黄花蒿是重庆市烟田的优势杂草。地区间杂草发生危害情况差异显著,尼泊尔蓼、牛膝菊和雀稗在渝东北植烟区发生危害较为严重,艾蒿、马唐、狗尾草、西来稗、紫苏和藜次之;渝中部植烟区以藜发生危害较为严重,马唐、尼泊尔蓼、牛膝菊、黄花蒿、铁苋菜和春蓼次之;渝东南植烟区以藜、紫苏、黄花蒿和狗尾草的危害占优势。%An investigation was carried out by inverted W nine point sampling method to study the catego ‐ries ,distribution and damage of weeds in tobacco fields in Chongqing Municipality .The results showed that there were 121 weed species belonging to 35 families ,including 93 kinds of broad‐leaved weeds (ac‐counted for 76•86% ) ,19 kinds of gramineous weeds (accounted for 15•70% ) and 9 kinds of the others (accounted for 7•44% ) ;among them ,there were 68 kinds of annual weeds (accounted for 56•20% ) and 53 kinds of perennial weeds (accounted for 43•80% ) .According to comprehensive value of the relative height ,relative coverage and relative abundance of weeds , Chenopodium album L• , Perilla frutescens (L• ) Britt• , Polygonum nepalense Meisn• , Digitaria sanguinalis (L• ) Scop• , Galinsoga p arviflora Cav• ,A rtemisia argyi Levl• et Vant• ,Setaira viridis (L• ) Beauv• and A rtemisia annua L• were domi‐nant weeds in Chongqing .Weed damages in

  19. Sensitivity to glyphosate and dynamics of shikimate accumulation in three weed species following glyphosate application%三种杂草对草甘膦的敏感性及处理后植株体内莽草酸积累量差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景超; 张朝贤; 黄红娟; 魏守辉; 张猛; 郭峰

    2011-01-01

    为明确不同杂草对草甘膦的敏感性,以稗Echinochloa crusgalli、马唐Digitaria sanguinalis、藜Chenopodium album为供试材料,采用生物测定法和吸光光度法分别测定了草甘膦对3种杂草的抑制中浓度( GR50),以及不同剂量处理后杂草体内莽草酸积累量的变化.经410 g/hm2(有效成分)的草甘膦处理后,稗体内莽草酸积累量呈上升-下降-上升趋势,而马唐和藜则表现为缓慢上升,根据此剂量处理下莽草酸积累趋势得出,3种杂草对草甘膦的敏感性由高到低依次为稗、藜和马唐,与生测法的结果一致.经820 ~3 280 g/hm2(有效成分)的草甘膦处理后,3种杂草体内莽草酸积累量从第2d开始急剧升高,增长速率随着草甘膦处理剂量的增加而加大;处理后稗、马唐和藜体内莽草酸积累量最高值差异显著,分别为1 137.9、4 989.7和2 084.2 μg/g,为各自对照水平的16.7、23.7和82.9倍.该研究结果可为系统检测杂草对草甘膦的敏感性提供依据.%The GR50 value and shikimate accumulation in three problematic weed species were determined by whole plant bioassay and spectrophotometric assay, respectively, after treated by glyphosate. After treated by glyphosate at 410 g (a. I. )/ha, shikimate accumulation in Echinochloa crusgalli was first increased, then declined, increased slightly finally. However, it kept increasing in Chenopodium album and Digitaria sanguinalis. Based on the accumulation of shikimate by glyphosate treated within this dosage, the order of sensitivity to glyphosate from high to low was E. Crusgalli, C. Album and D. Sanguinalis, which was similar to the result of whole plant bioassay. Shikimate accumulation was increased rapidly in all three weeds after treated 2 days by glyphosate within the dose range of 820 to 3 280 g(a. I. )/ha, and the accumulation rate showed positive relationship to the treatment dosage. The highest shikimate accumulation in E. Crusgalli,D. Sanguinalis and C

  20. Aplicação de misturas de diuron com MSMA, e com paraquat, no controle de plantas daninhas de folhas largas em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Mixture of diuron whit MSMA and with paraquat for broadleaved weeds control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo conduzido em 1975/76 procurou-se avaliar a ação de misturas de MSMA com diuron e de paraquat com diuron, aplicadas em pós-emergência, em jato dirigido, em duas épocas diferentes, no controle de algumas plantas daninhas de folhas largas em algodão: carrapicho- do-campo (Acanthospermum australe (Loef O. Kuntze , falsa-poaia (Borreria ala ta (Aubl DC, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e guanxuma (Sida spp . A vegetação natural da área do ensaio era formada ainda pela gramínea capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop . Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de 2,00 kg e 2,70 kg/ha de MSMA com, respectivamente 0,30 kg e 0,40 kg/ha de diuron, e a mistura de 0.60 kg/ha de paraquat com 0,60 kg/ ha de diuron, foram eficientes no co ntro le daquelas dicotiledôneas, e também no da gramínea. Todos os tratamentos provocaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade nos algodoeiros, mas desapareceram depois e não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, assim como a produção de algodão em caroço.In a field trial carried out in 1975/76, a diuron mixtu re with MSMA and another with paraquat was tested on broadleaved weeds in cotton crops. The applications were done in postemergence, directed-spray, in two different periods. The broadleaved weeds observed in the trial were Acanthospermum australe , Borreria alata, Richardia brasiliensis, and Sida spp, also the grass Digitaria sanguinalis. Best results were obtained with the mixture of 0,60 kg/ha of paraquat with 0,60 kg/ha of diuron, and 2,70 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,40 kg/ ha of diuron, or 2,00 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,30 kg/ha of diuron. All the treatments caused sl ight symptons of toxic ity in cotton, which disappeared later and did not damage the production.

  1. Use of solaria to predict weed density and floristic composition in no-till cropping systems Uso de solaria na predição da densidade de ervas daninhas e da composição florística no sistema de semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Antonio Calviño

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a new method, developed for predicting density and floristic composition of weed communities in field crops. Based on the use of solaria (100 mm transparent plastic tarps lying on the soil to stimulate weed seedlings emergence, the method was tested in Tandil, Argentina, from 1998 to 2001. The system involved corn and sunflower in commercial no-till system. Major weeds in the experiments included Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata and S. viridis, which accounted for 98% of the weed community in the three years of experiments since 1998. Large numbers of Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album and Ammi majus were present in 2001. Comparison of weed communities under solaria with communities in field crops indicated that the method is useful for predicting the presence and density of some major weed species, at both high and low densities, of individuals in areas of 10 ha using only five solaria. Low density of weed species makes the method particularly useful to help deciding the time for herbicide applications to avoid soil contamination.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de novo método, desenvolvido para predizer a densidade e a composição florística das comunidades de plantas daninhas. O método é baseado no uso de solaria (plástico transparente de 100 mm sobre o solo, a fim de estimular o aparecimento de ervas daninhas, e foi testado em Tandil, Argentina, de 1998 a 2001. O sistema envolve milho e girassol, em cultivos comerciais em semeadura direta. As principais espécies experimentadas foram Digitaria sanguinalis, Setaria verticillata e S. viridis, que responderam por 98% da comunidade nos três anos de experiência. Números altos de Tagetes minuta, Chenopodium album e Ammi majus estavam presentes em 2001. A comparação de comunidades de ervas daninhas sob solaria com comunidades fora de solaria indicou que o método é útil para predizer a presença e

  2. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alexandra M; Everman, Wesley J; Jordan, David L; Heiniger, Ronnie W; Smyth, T Jot

    2017-01-01

    Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N) is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and composted poultry litter (CPL) when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield.

  3. Identification of two phytotoxins, blumenol A and grasshopper ketone, in the allelopathic Japanese rice variety Awaakamai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Tamura, Kazuya; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2012-05-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of the traditional rice (Oryza sativa) variety Awaakamai, which is known to have the greatest allelopathic activity among Japanese traditional rice varieties, inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis, Lolium multiflorum and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased the inhibition, suggesting that the extract of Awaakamai contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract of Awaakamai was purified and two main growth inhibitory substances were isolated and determined by spectral data as blumenol A and grasshopper ketone. Blumenol A and grasshopper ketone, respectively, inhibited the growth of cress shoots and roots at concentrations greater than 10 and 30 μmol/L. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition on cress roots and shoots were 84 and 27 μmol/L, respectively, for blumenol A, and 185 and 76 μmol/L, respectively, for grasshopper ketone. These results suggest that blumenol A and grasshopper ketone may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of Awaakamai and may play an important role in the allelopathy of Awaakamai. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. An ABAGS-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 and Its Inhibitory Activity to Seed Germination of Weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at finding out natural compounds to kill weeds, a plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4, was chosen as a source. A significantly polar metabolite, which was different in chromatographic behavior from ABAGE-like metabolite, was isolated from cultural filtrate of the fungus by column chromatography on silica gel, preparative LC, TLC and HPLC. The structure of the metabolite was determined by HPLC-ESI MS, g.l.c, IR, 1H NMR and hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar with ABAGS. The bioassay showed the metabolite had inhibition to seed germination of both broadleaf weeds [Amaranthus retroflerus L. and Chenopodium album L.] and gramineae weeds [Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop and Echinochloa crusgalii L. Beauv]. It also had inhibitory activity to the seedling growth of broadleaf weeds. The bioassay, using Amaranthus retroflexus L. as an indicator, showed that the lowest concentration of the metabolite to inhibit root+sprout growth of A. retroflexus was 0.6 μM, and the concentration for 50%inhibition was 1.3 μM.

  5. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  6. The Arable Weeds of Plešivica Hills (NW Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Dujmović Purgar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The arable weeds (segetal flora were explored on Plešivica hills (NW Croatia during vegetational seasons 2002 and 2003 at 10 locations. The common methods of plant recording, collecting and identification were applied in the research of the arable weeds. Th e nomenclature of plants was according to Tutin et al. (1964-1980, 1993. The total of 107 taxa of arable weeds that classified to 32 families was noted. The most represented families were Poaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Therophytes were dominant in the fields that were the subject of this research. Most of the species were the cosmopolites and the Euroasian origin. 78 weed species were noted in dense crop fi elds (wheat, barley. Some of them (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rausch., Cirsium arvense (L.Scop., Galium aparine L., Papaver rhoeas L., Stellaria media(L.Vill. and Veronica persica Poir. are the most harmful weeds of dense crops. 62 weeds were noted in maize fields. Some of them were typically row crop weeds, as for instance: Amaranthus retrofl exus L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L., Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. PB., Polygonum lapathifolium L. and Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. Very invasive species Abutilon theophrasti Med. was found on the row crop fields. Very dangerous aeroallergenic species Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. was dispersed in many of the researched fields.

  7. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  8. The allelopathy of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, an invasive weed species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao XU; Wenehao XU; Yajun YANG; Bu TAO; Jinlin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To identify the allelopathic effect of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze (F, bMenti) on other plants, the effects of different extracts from F. bidentis on the growth of sev-eral plants were studied by bioassay. Results showed that the water extracts inhibited the growth of corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton (Gassypium Hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine hispida L.), peanut (Arachi shypogaea L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) and rigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), with the most reactive indexes found in root and stem of cotton at -0.85 and -0.88, respectively, at a concentration growth of rice. In addition, the reactive indexes of the extracts of petroleum ether chloroform, ethyl acetate, acet and alcohol were higher than that of the water extracts, and that of the acet extracts was the highest. The melting point of the refined acetone extract ranged from 192.5℃ to 193.5℃, and its maximum absorbing wavelength was 220 nm. This extract was found to be herbicide-active and played an inhibitory role in the growth of crabgrass and

  9. Interactions of Nitrogen Source and Rate and Weed Removal Timing Relative to Nitrogen Content in Corn and Weeds and Corn Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Knight

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate fertility combined with effective weed management is important in maximizing corn (Zea mays L. grain yield. Corn uptake of nitrogen (N is dependent upon many factors including weed species and density and the rate and formulation of applied N fertilizer. Understanding interactions among corn, applied N, and weeds is important in developing management strategies. Field studies were conducted in North Carolina to compare corn and weed responses to urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, sulfur-coated urea (SCU, and composted poultry litter (CPL when a mixture of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L. was removed with herbicides at heights of 8 or 16 cm. These respective removal timings corresponded with 22 and 28 days after corn planting or V2 and V3 stages of growth, respectively. Differences in N content in above-ground biomass of corn were noted early in the season due to weed interference but did not translate into differences in corn grain yield. Interactions of N source and N rate were noted for corn grain yield but these factors did not interact with timing of weed control. These results underscore that timely implementation of control tactics regardless of N fertility management is important to protect corn grain yield.

  10. Investigation on Weed Species in Alfalfa Field in Qingdao%青岛苜蓿田杂草种类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 田净净; 刘志英; 孙娟; 朱华敏; 杨国锋

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on weeds in artificial alfalfa field in Qingdao Animal Husbandry Technology Demonstration Garden was made from the end of March to the end of September in 2012.Twenty-one kinds of weed species (belonging to 12 families) were found.Among them,weeds belonging to Brassicaceae,Convolvulaceae,Asteraceae,Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae were severely harmful.Descuminia Sophia (L.)webb.Ex Prantl,Cirsium setosum (Wild.) MB.and Convolvulus arvensis L.were dominant species in winter-spring.Gramineae weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.,Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.,and Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.were dominant species in summer-autumn.%2012年自3月底苜蓿返青开始至9月底,对青岛畜牧科技示范园牧草试验基地的苜蓿田杂草调查发现:苜蓿田杂草种类有12科21种,其中十字花科、旋花科、菊科、禾本科和藜科的杂草危害较大;冬春季杂草优势种为麦蒿、刺菜和田旋花;夏秋季杂草优势种为马唐、狗尾草、稗草等禾本科植物和葎草.

  11. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  12. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical elements exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical elements exposure of endangered golden takins (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) living in the Qinling Mountains and in a captive breeding center was assessed by analyzing fecal samples. Concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Se were significantly higher in the feces of captive golden takins than the wild. There was no significant difference in the fecal concentrations of Cd, Mn, Hg, Pb or Zn for wild and captive animals. The element concentration of fecal samples collected from captive animals varied seasonally, with concentrations being lowest in spring and highest in winter and/or autumn. The food provided to captive animals varied both in the composition and the concentration of element present. Consumptions of feedstuff and additional foods such as D. sanguinalis and A. mangostanus for the captive golden takins were identified as the possible sources of chemical element exposure. The estimations of dietary intake of most elements by captive takins were below the oral reference dose, except for As and Pb, indicating that As and Pb were the key components which contributed to the potential non-carcinogenic risk for captive golden takins. In conclusion, captive golden takins were exposed to higher concentrations of chemical elements compared with the wild, which were likely due to their dietary difference. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical element exposure and effort should focus on providing uncontaminated food for captive animals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Clinical observation of treating 62 patients with severe aplastic anemia failing in immunosuppressive therapy by integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Er-yun; Fang, Yu-hua; Chen, Hui-shu

    2012-12-01

    To explore treatment methods for patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) failing in immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Totally 62 SAA patients failing in IST were treated by integrative medicine (IM). The treatment course was divided into three stages: the critical emergency stage, the improvement stage, and the recovery stage. In the critical emergency stage, patients were treated with Lingyang Yigui Decoction (LYD, consisting of 1.2 g antelope horn, 6 g coptis chinensis, 12 g stir-baked Fructus Gardeniae, 30 g rehmannia rhizoma, 50 g lalang grass rhizome, 9 g amur corktree bark, 12 g Cortex Moutan, 9 g ass-hide gelatin, 30 g red date, 6 g prepared licorice root, etc.) and Erzhi Busui Decoction (EBD, consisting of 120 g glossy privet fruit, 100 g eclipta prostrata, 24 g prepared Gold Theragran, 12 g fructus lycii, 90 g rehmannia rhizoma, 60 g astragalus, 9 g Angelica sinensis, 9 g ass-hide gelatin, 30 g honeysuckle flower, 12 g lotus plumule, and so on) alternatively, one dose daily, decocted twice, taken in two portions. Meanwhile, 50 mg Testosterone Propionate was intramuscularly injected every other day to the improvement stage. Those with fever were treated with LYD by adding 60 g gypsum, 60 g common anemarrhena, 30 g dandelion, 30 g bittersweet herb, 30 g blackend swallowwort root and rhizome, 15 g hemsley rockvine root tuber, and so on. In the improvement stage patients were treated with Jixueteng Compound (Jixueteng Zhengyang Decoction was administered to those of Shen-yang deficiency syndrome: consisting of 100 g spatholobus suberectus, 60 g astragalus, 3 g red ginseng, 12 g psoralea corylifolia, 18 g dodder seed, 12 g angelica, 18 g Herba Epimedii, 6 g common fenugreek seed, 24 g Gold Theragran, 30 g glossy privet fruit, 30 g eclipta prostrata, 6 g dried human placenta, and so on). Meanwhile, 50 mg Testosterone Propionate was intramuscularly injected every other day. Jixueteng Yijing Decoction was administered to those of Shen-yin deficiency syndrome

  14. [Melanin Synthesis was Affected by Extracts of 22 Kinds Chinese Herbs of Acid Taste: an Experi- mental Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-ping; Liang, Juan; Chen, Bin; Wang, Ying-hao

    2015-05-01

    To confirm the inhibitory effect of Chinese herbs of acid taste on melanin synthesis. Active ingredients of 22 kinds Chinese herbs of acid tastes were extracted by alkali extraction and acid precipitation, alcohol extraction, and water extraction, respectively, which was then dispensed into 25.00, 12.50, and 6.25 g/L suspension. Their effects on activities of tyrosinase were detected using mushroom-tyrosinase-DOPA speed oxidation. Their inhibition rates on activities of tyrosinase were respectively compared with inhibition rates of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mmol/L arbutin. The 22 kinds Chinese herbs of acid taste included Cornus Officinalis, Crataegus pinnatifida, dark plum fruit, Schisandra Chinensis, Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne, Reynoutria japonica Houtt, Achyranthes Bidentata, Sanguisorba officinalis L., Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, Herba Ecliptae, blueberry, immature bitter orange, submature bitter orange, Prunus mume Var, Hovenia acerba Lindl., Fructus Mori, Pomegranate Rind, white paeony root, Rosa laevigata Michx., Portulaca oleracea L, Terminalia chebula Retz, Rhus chinensis Mill. Their alkaline extractions showed inhibition to activities of tyrosinase to different degrees except Herba Ecliptae. Of them, the highest inhibition rate (88.49% ± 9.98%) was got by dark plum fruit at 25 g/L, while the lowest inhibition rate (11.22% ± 3.36%) was got by immature bitter orange at 6.25 g/L. Their alcohol extractions showed inhibition to activities of tyrosinase to different degrees except Herba Ecliptae. Of them, the highest inhibition rate (75.92% ± 5.57%) was got by Hovenia acerba Lindl. at 25 g/L, while the lowest inhibition rate (9.60% ± 1.15%) was got by submature bitter orange at 6.25 g/L. Their water extractions all had inhibition on activities of tyrosinase. Of them, the highest inhibition rate (54.23% ± 3.56%) was got by Fructus Mori at 25 g/L, while the lowest inhibition rate (10.25% ± 1.83%) was got by Semen Ziziphi Spinosae at 6.25 g/L. Compared with 1 mmol

  15. SOME IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF ASTHMA - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Folk (Tribal medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. Unlike many diseases, which can be attributed to the life style of modern man, asthma is an ancient illness. Mast cells play an important role in some type of allergic reaction because the antibody that causes the allergic reaction that is Ig E have the mast cells which contains about a thousand tiny granules. These granules are loaded with dozens of potent chemicals or mediators, the most powerful in which are histamine and a newly discovered group called leukotrienes. From the present laboratory, there are number of medicinal plants have been reported for antihistaminic/anti-asthmatic activities. Some of them are Achyranthes aspera, Tephrosia purpurea,Dolichos lablab, Eclipta alba, Jasminum sambac, Balanites aegyptiaca, Viscum album, Tridex procumbens, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Cassia fistula. Recently, Soni (2009-2011 has reported 100% inhibition ofLeukotrienes (which cause asthma from the EtoAC fraction of Bacopa monnieri extract. It is suggested that formulation and patent of the reported medicinal plants is mandatory for further use against asthma and if possible, clinical trials should be done of these plants for their appropriate use.

  16. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macêdo Maria E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  17. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  18. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Seenthil churanam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajalakshimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyherbal formulation of Seenthil churanam is composition of whole plant extracts of Eclipta prostata, Tinospora cordifolia and the dried powder form of Earthworm used in folk medicine. The study was conducted to evaluate the scientific figures for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Seenthil churanam by acetic acid induced writhing test and eddy’s hot plate method, and carrageenan induced paw edema method. There was significant response in analgesic and inflammatory activity at high dose (400 mg/kg compared to low dose 200 mg/kg against the standards Analgin (500 mg/kg, Aspirin (100 mg/kg and Diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg body weight of mice and rats. The results of this study show that the chronic oral administration of an ethanolic extract of Seenthil churanam at a 400 mg/kg body weight dosage be a good alternative natural medicine for analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug without side effects.

  19. Wedelolactone protects human bronchial epithelial cell injury against cigarette smoke extract-induced oxidant stress and inflammation responses through Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shumin; Hou, Xuefeng; Yuan, Jiarui; Tan, Xiaobin; Chen, Juan; Yang, Nan; Luo, Yi; Jiang, Ziyu; Jin, Ping; Dong, Zibo; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of the development of various lung diseases including lung cancer through triggering oxidant stress and inflammatory responses which contributed to the lesions of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell. Wedelolactone (WEL), a natural compound from Eclipta prostrata L., has been found to possess the inhibitive effects on the proliferation and growth of cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of WEL on NHBE cell injury induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro. It showed that the pretreatment WEL (2.5-20μM) resulted in a significant protective effect on 10% CSE-induced cell death in NHBE cells. The pretreatment with WEL dose-dependently and significantly reversed the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH and the level of MDA to normal level. We also found that the protein expression levels of COX-2 and ICAM-1 which are related to inflammatory response were remarkably reduced by WEL compared with 10% CSE treatment. Additionally, WEL also reduced the expressions of antioxidases including NAD(P)H dehydrogenase:Quinone 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, Nrf2 inhibitor all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) decreased remarkably their expressions. These results suggest that WEL protects NHBE cell against CSE-induced injury through modulating Nrf2 pathway. Our study indicates that WEL may be a new potential protective agent against CSE-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Eclalbasaponin II induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenoids echinocystic acid and its glycosides, isolated from several Eclipta prostrata, have been reported to possess various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic activity. However, the cytotoxicity of the triterpenoids in human cancer cells and their molecular mechanism of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that eclalbasaponin II with one glucose moiety has potent cytotoxicity in three ovarian cancer cells and two endometrial cancer cells compared to an aglycone echinocystic acid and eclalbasaponin I with two glucose moiety. Eclalbasaponin II treatment dose-dependently increased sub G1 population. Annexin V staining revealed that eclalbasaponin II induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, eclalbasaponin II-induced cell death was associated with characteristics of autophagy; an increase in acidic vesicular organelle content and elevation of the levels of LC3-II. Interestingly, autophagy inhibitor BaF1 suppressed the eclalbasaponin II-induced apoptosis. Moreover, eclalbasaponin II activated JNK and p38 signaling and inhibited the mTOR signaling. We further demonstrated that pre-treatment with a JNK and p38 inhibitor and mTOR activator attenuated the eclalbasaponin II-induced autophagy. This suggests that eclalbasaponin II induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death through the regulation of JNK, p38, and mTOR signaling in human ovarian cancer cells.

  1. Mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of botanical extracts against malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan; Rajamohan Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adulticidal and repellent activities of different solvent leaf extracts ofEclipta alba (E. alba) andAndrographis paniculata (A. paniculata)against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts ofE. alba andA. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. The adult mortality was observed after24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined againstAn. stephensimosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions.Results: Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. TheLC50 andLC90 values ofE. alba andA. paniculata against adults ofAn. stephensiwere150.36, 130.19 ppm and285.22, 244.16ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. Thechi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Methanol extract of E. alba andA. paniculata was produce maximum repellency againstAn. stephensi.Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract ofE. alba andA. paniculatawas an excellent potential for controllingAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  2. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  3. Screening of native plants and algae growing on fly-ash affected areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India for accumulation of toxic heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Srivastava, S; Mishra, S; Dixit, B; Kumar, A; Tripathi, R D

    2008-10-30

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly-ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation, Tanda, Uttar Pradesh, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 17 plants (9 aquatic, 6 terrestrial and 2 algal species) were collected and screened for heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Si, Al, Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg and As) accumulation. Differential accumulation of various heavy metals by different species of plants was observed. Hydrilla verticillata was found to be the most efficient metal accumulator among 9 aquatic plants, Eclipta alba among 6 terrestrial plants and Phormedium papyraceum between 2 algal species. In general, the maximum levels of most metals were found in terrestrial plants while the lowest in algal species. However, translocation of the metals from root to shoot was found to be higher in aquatic plants than terrestrial ones. These results suggest that various aquatic, terrestrial and algal species of plants may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated areas.

  4. Phytosociology and morphological characteristics of weeds after corn cropping on conventional till in the savanna of Roraima = Fitossociologia e características morfológicas de plantas daninhas após cultivo de milho em plantio convencional no cerrado de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Anchieta Alves Albuquerque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Phytosociology is the floristic and structural study playing a very important role for the management of Weeds. The objective of this work was to study the phytosociology of weed after growing corn in conventional tillage in the savanna of Roraima. The phytosociological survey of soil management with crop rotation was conducted four months after the corn harvest in the period of May-June, 2010. For sampling was used an iron square with dimensions of 0.50 x 0.50 m, thrown randomly eight times in each corn plot, with area of 45 m2. Weeds were identified and quantified by the sum of two samples per plot. Evaluated variables: frequency, density, abundance, relative frequency, relative density, relative abundance, importance value index, fresh weight and dry weight of the species. Additionally, the botanical classes, families, species, type of propagation, life cycle, growth habit, the total number of species per ha-1, and dry matter were described. Ninetten weed species were found in the area, separated into nine botanical families, being the Poaceae and Fabaceae with higher occurrences. 63.15% of the weed species belonging to the botanical class of Dicotyledons. Sida rhombifolia was the only species found in all sample collections. and C. echinatus was the most abundant species in the sample. The species with the highest importance value in the area were: Cenchrus echinatus, Sida rhombifolia Digitaria sanguinalis and Cyperus rotundus. = A fitossociologia é o estudo florístico e estrutural das espécies vegetais, desempenhando um papel bastante importante para o manejo das Plantas Daninhas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a fitossociologia e características morfológicas de plantas daninhas após cultivo de milho em plantio convencional no cerrado de Roraima. O trabalho foi realizado em área preparada em sistema de cultivo convencional por cinco anos, sendo a avaliação realizada após cultivo com milho. As coletas foram realizadas

  5. Controle de plantas daninhas com herbicidas na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Weed control in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S.P. Cruz

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa em 1970, para se conhecer os efeitos de três herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio incorporado (EPTC a 3,60 kg/ha, nitralin e trifluralin a 0,76 kg/ha e de um em pré-emergência (fluorodifen a 3,00 kg/ha na cultura de feijão comparados com uma testemunha sem herbicida. As duas gramíneas presentes no ensaio, Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. e Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. foram eficientemente controladas por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 87,00%, em contagem de plantas daninhas realizada 29 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas. Dentre as dicotiledóneas presentes, Amaranthus viridis L. também foi eficientemente controlado por todos os herbicidas, com indices de controle superiores a 92,00%. Ageratum conyzoides L. foi eficientemente controlado por fluorodifen (91,60% e regularmente por EPTC (78,99% e por nitralin (79,83%. Trifluralin não foi eficiente contra A. conyzoides L. Nenhum dos herbicidas testados controlou Ipomoea sp e Chenopodium ambrosioides L., também presentes no experimento. EPTC e nitralin apresentaram as menores porcentagens de infestação geral de plantas daninhas, tendo, aos 51 dias da aplicação dos produtos, quando suas parcelas foram capinadas mecanicamente, 8,00 e 17,00% de infestação, respectivamente. Trifluralin e fluorodifen precisaram de limpeza aos 42 dias da aplicação, e a testemunha já aos 29 dias, pois apresentavam parcelas com 25,00%, ou mais, de infestação, naquelas épocas. Os herbicidas experimentados não foram prejudiciais à germinação e ao desenvolvimento vegetativo dos feijoeiros, assim como à sua produção de grãos.The weed control with herbicides in beans crop was studied during 1970 year, in Campinas-SP, on a sandy-loam soil. The treatments employed were EPTC at 3.60 kg/ha, nitralin and trifluralin at 0.76 kg/ha, all applied in preplant i •porated; fluorodifen in preemergence at 3.00 kg/ha and a hoed check. Among the weeds

  6. Composicion y variabilidad espacialdel banco de semillas de malezas en un area agricolade azul (Argentina Composition and spatial variation of a weed seed bank on an agricultural area in Azul, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Requesens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No Distrito Azul, zona central da província de Buenos Aires (Argentina, encontram-se ambientes de planície na parte norte e ambientes serranos na parte sul. Esta última, constituí-se numa área predominantemente agrícola, onde a cultura de trigo, principal atividade agrícola, se alterna com culturas de verão como milho, girassol e soja. Com o objetivo de caracterizar globalmente o banco de sementes da área agrícola, foram analisados o conteúdo de sementes, a composição de espécies, a distribuição e variabilidade espacial das espécies que o compõem. A informação básica foi obtida aplicando-se a técnica da emergência em amostras de solo correspondentes a 20 locais alinhados numa faixa de 14 km. A densidade de sementes nos locais de amostragem variou entre 1.173 e 44.000 sem/m2. Na totalidade, foram detectadas 33 espécies. Digitaria sanguinalis foi claramente a espécie dominante, aportando com quase 43 % do banco, seguida de Polygonum aviculare com um aporte de 15 %. As duas espécies, juntamente com Anagallis arvensis e Setaria viridis completam70 % do banco de sementes. A composição específica completa-se com um grupo de 29 espécies, os quais contribuem, cada um delas, com menos de 5%. A distribuição espacial das espécies ao longo da faixa estudada mostrou um grau de agregação variável, sendo encontrada uma correlação positiva significativa entre o tamanho do banco e a relação variância/média. Demonstrou-se, assim, que as espécies mais abundantes em média, apresentaram grande variabilidade espacial. Nelas, foram observados diferentes padrões de distribuição espacial.Azul, in the center of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina, includes flat environments in the north and hill environments in the south. Last constitutes a predominantly agricultural area where the wheat crop, principal activity, alternates with summer crops as corn, sunflower and soybean. The objetive of the present paper is to

  7. Investigation on Distribution and Damage of Weeds in Tobacco Fields in Liaoning Province%辽宁省烟田杂草种类、分布与危害程度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 吴元华; 贝纳新; 赵秀香; 高萍

    2011-01-01

    为明确辽宁省烟田杂草的分布和危害情况,采用倒置W九点取样法对辽宁省烟田杂草进行了调查.结果表明,辽宁省烟田杂草共有51种,分属20科,其中阔叶杂草40种,占78.43%,禾本科杂草6种,占11.76%,其它杂草5种,占9.80%;一年生杂草占绝对优势,有41种,占80.39%,多年生杂草10种,占19.61%.马唐、铁苋菜、灰藜、反枝苋、莎草、列当、鸭跖草和稗草的相对多度在15%以上,是辽宁省烟田的优势杂草.地区间杂草危害情况差异显著,鹅不食和马唐在丹东地区危害较重,铁岭烟区杂草以铁苋菜和灰藜危害为主,朝阳烟区列当、马齿苋和反枝苋的危害占优势,而阜新烟区则以列当、反枝苋、灰藜和刺藜的危害为重.%An investigation was carried out by inverted W - 9 point sampling to study the distribution and damage of weeds in tobacco fields in Liaoning Province.The results showed that there were 51 weed species belonging to 20 families, including 40 kinds of broad-leaved weeds (accounted for 78.43% ) , 6 kinds of gramineous weeds (accounted for 11.76% ) and 5 kinds of the others (accounted for 9.80% ) ; among them, there were 41 kinds of annual weeds ( accounted for 80.39% ) and 10 kinds of perennial weeds (accounted for 19.61% ).The weeds whose relative abundance was more than 15% were Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Acalypha australis L., Chenopodium album L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Cyperus diffbrmis L., Orobanche caerulescens Stephan, Commelina communis L.and Echinochloa crusgalli ( L.) Beauv., which were dominant weeds in Liaoning.Weed damages in different districts differed significantly, in Dandong area, the major injurious weeds were Centipeda minima ( L.) A.Br.et Ascher.and Digitaria sanguinalis ( L.) Scop.; in Tiding area were Acalypha australis L.and Chenopodium album L.; in Chaoyang area were Orobanche caerulescens Stephan, Portulaca oleracea L.and Amaranthus retroflexus L.; in Fuxin area were

  8. Efeitos de períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade da cultura do amendoim das secas Effects of weed interference periods on the peanut productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Pitelli

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de matocompetição sobre o crescimento e produtividade da cultura do amendoim cultivar Tatu-53, conduziu -se o presente experimento sobre solo Latossol Vermelho escuro fase arenosa na região de Jaboticabal, SP. Constituíram-se os tratamentos de vários períodos de convivência da comunidade infestante na cultura do amendoim, considerados à partir da emergência da cultura até 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 117 dias (colheita. Após o período de convivência, a cultura foi mantida no limpo através de capinas na entre-linha e monda na linha de semeadura, a cada duas semanas. Houve ainda, um tratamento em que a cultura foi mantida no limpo durante todo o ciclo. O espaçamento foi de 0,60 m com densidade de 25 sementes por metro de sulco. As principais espécies de plantas daninhas que ocorreram na área experimental foram Cenchrus echinatus L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop., Alternantera ficoidea (L. R. Br., Emilia sonchifolia DC. e Sida spp. O período em que a competição torna-se crítica para a produtividade do amendoim inicia-se entre 42 e 56 dias do ciclo da cultura. Os parâmetros produtivos afetados pela matocompetição foram produção de vagens e grãos por hectare e por indivíduos, número médio de vagens por planta e por parcela e distribuição de grãos de diferentes tamanhos na massa produzida.The prese nt research was carried out with the objetive to sudy the competition periods effects on peanut growth and productivity. The experiment was conducted in a Latossol Vermelho Escuro sandy phase soil in Jaboticabal region. Differents weed competitions periods where the treatments, from the plant emergence to 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 117 days. After the competition period the crop was weed ed every 14 days periods up to harvest. Included was a treatmentin which weed control was carried out during all development cycle. The row spacing was 0,60 m, the seed ingrate 25

  9. Ecological Niche Relationships of Autumn Weeds in Tea Gardens in Maoshan Hilly Regions of Jiangsu Province%茅山丘陵地区茶园秋季杂草种群生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎琴; 孙国俊; 王哲明; 李粉华; 陈乐; 季忠; 钟霁; 白洁瑞

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted in tea gardens in Maoshan hilly regions of Jiangsu Province to investigate the weed spe-cies present and their density and height in October,2013.Data were transformed into weed relative abundance and im-portance values.The niche breadth and niche overlap values of selected 22 main weeds with 20%frequency were calcu-lated.There were 80 weed species,belonging to 74 genera of 36 families..Among the selected 22 species,four weeds, Digitaria sanguinalis,Conyza canadensis,Echinochloa crus galli var.austro -japonensis,and Eleusine indica had wider niche breadth than other species,ans represent the most important weeds in autumn Maoshan hilly tea gardens.The high-est niche overlap values were found in D.sanguinalis,E.crusgalli var.austro-japonensis,C.canadensis,E.indica, Oxalis corniculata,Hemistepta lyrata,Stellaria media,Aca-lypha australis,Cerastium caespitosum and Sonchus olera-ceus,all of them being highly competitive for resources.%2013年10月对茅山丘陵茶园秋季杂草的发生种类、数量、高度等进行调查,将其转换成相对多度和重要值数据,在此基础上计测了茅山丘陵茶园22种主要杂草的生态位宽度和生态位重叠值。结果表明:茅山丘陵茶园秋季杂草共发现80种,隶属36个科、74个属。其中,发生频率>20%的杂草有22种。22种杂草中,马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis)、小飞蓬(Conyza canadensis)、小旱稗(Echinochloa crusgalli var.austro-japonensis)、牛筋草(Eleusine indica)等4种杂草实际生态位较宽,为茅山丘陵地区茶园秋季优势杂草;马唐、小旱稗小飞蓬、牛筋草、酢浆草(Oxalis corniculata)、泥胡菜(Hemistepta lyrata)、繁缕(Stellaria media)、铁苋菜(Acalypha australis)、族生卷耳(Cerastium caespitosum)、苦苣(Sonchus oleraceus)等杂草生态位重叠值较大,说明它们对资源的竞争较为激烈。

  10. 草坪杂草发生规律及春季阔叶杂草的防除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学维

    2012-01-01

    本研究采取倒置“W”9点取样法并结合踏查的方法,对廊坊地区草坪杂草进行了为期1年的调查,鉴定出草坪杂草20科53种,其中优势杂草有地锦(Euphorbia humifusa Willd.)、山苦荬(Ixeris chinensis Nakai.)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis 'Scop.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea L.)、独行菜(Lepidium apetalum Wild.)、灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)、朝天萎陵菜(Potentilla supina L.)、附地菜(Trigonotis peduncularis Benth.).针对调查结果,选用选择性、触杀型除草剂克草特(10%乙羧酸草醚),对在春季危害草坪草比较严重的阔叶杂草马齿苋和灰菜进行防除试验,结果表明,用药量为100 mL/m2的500~ 4500倍液克草特对马齿苋杂草具有特效而对灰菜防效一般.对新建高羊茅草坪草和已经成坪的碱茅草坪草进行了安全性试验,结果表明,除草剂的最佳防除浓度在1500 ~3500倍;在防除新建植的高羊茅草坪上的杂草时应注意喷药时期最好是在高羊茅的分蘖前期或分蘖期,对于灰菜的防除时期最好选在其出苗期.

  11. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of N- [ 2- (4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin -2-yloxy) benzylidene ] substituted amine derivatives%N-[2-(4,6-二甲氧基嘧啶-2-氧基)苯亚甲基]取代胺类衍生物的合成及除草活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元祥

    2011-01-01

    Six title compounds (3a - 3f) were synthesized using 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde as starting material by substitute reaction,addition reaction and elimination reaction. Thereinto,3a -3d were new compounds. All of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay results showed that the inhibition rate of synthesized compounds to the Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Bluegrass ,Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album reached 80% , except 3f to the E. Crus-galli was 55% at the application rate of 150 g a. I. /hm2. The inhibition rate of some of the compounds to E. Crus-galli,Poa annua,A. Retroflexus or C. Album reached 100% at the application rate of 150 g/hm2.%以水杨醛为原料,经取代、加成和消除反应合成了6个标题化合物(3a~3f),其中4个(3a~3d)为新化合物,其结构经核磁共振氢谱、质谱和元素分析确认.初步的除草活性测试结果表明,在有效成分150 g/hm2的剂量下,除化合物3f对稗草Echinochloa crus-galli的抑制率为55%外,其余5个化合物对供试杂草的抑制率均在80%以上,部分化合物对稗草、早熟禾Poa annua、反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus或小藜Chenopodium album的抑制率达100%.

  12. Synthesis and herbicidal activity of 2-(7-fluoro-3-oxo- 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-6-yl)isoindoline-1,3-diones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Ke-Long; Ren, Ye-Guo; Lei, Man-Xiang; Huang, Lu; Hou, Zhong-Ke; Liu, Ai-Ping; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2005-10-05

    The mode of action of 2-(7-fluoro-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-isoindoline-1,3-diones, including the commercial herbicide flumioxazin, had been identified as inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (protox). As part of continuous efforts to search for new herbicides with high efficacy, broad-spectrum activity, and safety to crops, flumioxazin and its iodo analogue (B2055) were used as lead compounds for further optimization. Series of novel compounds were prepared by multistep synthetic procedures starting from 5-fluoro-2-nitrophenol. All of the test compounds were structurally confirmed by 1H NMR, IR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Preliminary bioassay data showed that some of them possess commercial levels of herbicidal activity comparable to those of other protox-inhibiting herbicides. One of the best compounds, 5-fluoro-2-(7-fluoro-3-oxo-4-(prop-2-ynyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-6-yl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (8e), has IC50 values for velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic) and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) comparable to thos of B2055. With respect to crop selectivity, compound 8e is similar to flumioxazin. Compound 8e is safe to cotton and maize at a rate of 150 g of active ingredient (ai)/ha or less when applied at pre-emergent stage, and it has the best safety to wheat among the tested crops, showing no injury after post-emergent application at 7.5-30 g of ai/ha.

  13. Weed Shifts and Management Strategies in Lixiahe Region of Yandu District in Yancheng City%江苏省盐城市盐都区里下河地区草相演变与治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹方元; 仇学平; 成太祥

    2014-01-01

    Since the founding of new China ,weed populations in Lixiahe region of Yandu district have experienced four major shifts,with changes in the most prevalent weed species as expected .Potamogeton distinctus was the dominant weed in waterlogged fields .During the period of manual weeding of continuous transplanted rice and wheat cropping ,Echinoch-loa crusgalli,Bulbostylis barbata and Cyperus difformis were prevalent .With the change to chemical weeding and direct seeding in this cropping system,E.crusgalli,Leptochloa chinensis,Digitaria sanguinalis and weedy rice(Oryza sativa) be-came the most dominant weeds .At present,the main prevention and control strategies include the application of pre -e-mergence,post-emergence herbicides and manual weeding .%新中国成立以来,江苏省盐城市盐都区里下河区域草相发生4次大变更,主要恶性杂草变化明显。沤田以眼子菜为主;稻麦连作移栽田人工除草期有稗草、牛毛草、球花碱草等;稻麦连作移栽田化学除草期以稗草为主;稻麦连作直播田有稗草、千金子、马唐、杂草稻等。目前主要防控策略包括土壤封闭、茎叶处理、人工除草等,针对存在的问题提出对策。

  14. 35%丁噁乳油防除夏花生田间杂草效果研究%Effects of 35% Butachlor+Oxadiazon EC on Weeds Control in Peanut Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管晓志; 路兴涛; 鞠倩; 李晓; 姜晓静; 曲明静

    2015-01-01

    为明确35%丁噁乳油对夏花生田杂草的防除效果及对花生的安全性和增产效应,采用土壤封闭喷雾法进行了田间试验研究。结果表明,35%丁噁乳油850.0~1312.5 g.a.i /hm2对花生田牛筋草、马唐草、稗草、狗尾草等一年生禾本科杂草及阔叶草苋、马齿苋有较好的防除效果。药后40d,总株防效为85.34%~93.51%,鲜重防效为95.93%~97.76%;对花生安全性较好,增产率为2.53%。%A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of 35% Butachlor+Oxadiazon E.C. with soil closed spray application method on weeds control in summer peanut field, peanut security and yield increase.The results showed that 35% Butachlor+Oxadiazon EC had good effect on control of weeds including annual gramineous weeds, such as Eleusine indica , Digitaria sanguinalis , Echinoch-loa crusgalli , Setaria viridis etc.and broadleaf weeds, such as Grass amaranth , Portulaca oleracea , at a dosage of 3000~3750mL/hm2 in peanut field.The plant control effect was between 85.34% and 93.51%, while fresh weight control effect was 95.93%~97.76% after treatment for 40 days.It was safe to peanut growth and could increase yield by 23.06%~26.17%.

  15. Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, S J; Prather, T S; Holt, J S

    2000-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to test several methods for estimating low temperature thresholds for seed germination. Temperature responses of nine weeds common in annual agroecosystems were assessed in temperature gradient experiments. Species included summer annuals (Amaranthus albus, A. palmeri, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Portulaca oleracea, and Setaria glauca), winter annuals (Hirschfeldia incana and Sonchus oleraceus), and Conyza canadensis, which is classified as a summer or winter annual. The temperature below which development ceases (Tbase) was estimated as the x-intercept of four conventional germination rate indices regressed on temperature, by repeated probit analysis, and by a mathematical approach. An overall Tbase estimate for each species was the average across indices weighted by the reciprocal of the variance associated with the estimate. Germination rates increased linearly with temperature between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C for all species. Consistent estimates of Tbase were obtained for most species using several indices. The most statistically robust and biologically relevant method was the reciprocal time to median germination, which can also be used to estimate other biologically meaningful parameters. The mean Tbase for summer annuals (13.8 degrees C) was higher than that for winter annuals (8.3 degrees C). The two germination response characteristics, Tbase and slope (rate), influence a species' germination behaviour in the field since the germination inhibiting effects of a high Tbase may be offset by the germination promoting effects of a rapid germination response to temperature. Estimates of Tbase may be incorporated into predictive thermal time models to assist weed control practitioners in making management decisions.

  16. Efeito in vitro de compostos de plantas sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolado do maracujazeiro In vitro effect of plant compounds on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolated from passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos e óleos essenciais de quatorze plantas medicinais e ou nativas, conhecidas popularmente no Norte de Minas Gerais, sobre a germinação de esporos e crescimento micelial do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram utilizados no teste de inibição do crescimento micelial, os extratos aquosos de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea, joá (Solanum sisymbriifolium, quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus corcovadensis, erva botão (Eclipta alba e açafrão da índia (Curcuma longa obtidos por meio do processo de infusão; óleo essencial de alecrim de vargem (Família Lamiaceae, alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides, alfavaca cravo (Ocimum gratissimum, lippia (Lippia citriodora, goiaba branca (Psidium guajava, capim santo (Cymbopogon citratus; óleo resina de copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffi; hidrolatos de alecrim de vargem, goiaba vermelha (Psidium guajava, lippia, capim santo, goiaba branca, alfavaca cravo; manipueira de (Manihot esculenta. Também foram testados esses mesmos hidrolatos e os óleos essenciais na germinação dos esporos do fungo. Todos os tratamentos foram realizados in vitro, cultivando-se o fungo em meio de cultura BDA acrescido de 100μL dos compostos vegetais. No teste de inibição da germinação, todos os óleos essenciais impediram a germinação do fungo. No entanto, os hidrolatos não tiveram esse efeito. No teste de crescimento micelial, os óleos essenciais de todas as plantas inibiram completamente o crescimento do fungo, exceto o óleo da goiaba branca. Os extratos aquosos, a manipueira, o óleo resina e os hidrolatos, também não foram eficientes sobre o crescimento do patógeno. Esses resultados indicam o potencial antifúngico de alguns óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of extracts and essential oils of fourteen medicinal and or native plants popularly known in the North of Minas

  17. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  18. Assessment of Augmented Immune Surveillance and Tumor Cell Death by Cytoplasmic Stabilization of p53 as a Chemopreventive Strategy of 3 Promising Medicinal Herbs in Murine 2-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Lateef, Md Abdul; Maqbool, Tahir; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Eclipta alba, and Calendula officinalis. All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice.

  19. Integrated plasma and urine metabolomics coupled with HPLC/QTOF-MS and chemometric analysis on potential biomarkers in liver injury and hepatoprotective effects of Er-Zhi-Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weifeng; Gu, Haiwei; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Barding, Gregory; Cheng, Haibo; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei; Li, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Metabolomics techniques are the comprehensive assessment of endogenous metabolites in a biological system and may provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms. Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula, which contains Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) and Herba Ecliptae (HE). EZW is widely used to prevent and treat various liver injuries through the nourishment of the liver. However, the precise molecular mechanism of hepatoprotective effects has not been comprehensively explored. Here, an integrated metabolomics strategy was designed to assess the effects and possible mechanisms of EZW against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, a commonly used model of both acute and chronic liver intoxication. High-performance chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/QTOF-MS) combined with chemometric approaches including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to discover differentiating metabolites in metabolomics data of rat plasma and urine. Results indicate six differentiating metabolites, tryptophan, sphinganine, tetrahydrocorticosterone, pipecolic acid, L-2-amino-3-oxobutanoic acid and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, in the positive mode. Functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations in these metabolites were associated with tryptophan metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, lysine degradation, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and pentose phosphate pathway. Of note, EZW has a potential pharmacological effect, which might be through regulating multiple perturbed pathways to the normal state. Our findings also showed that the robust integrated metabolomics techniques are promising for identifying more biomarkers and pathways and helping to clarify the function mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine.

  20. Jiawei Erzhiwan improves menopausal metabolic syndrome by enhancing insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao-Meng; Zhang, Mu; Zhang, Pei; Xie, Zhi-Shen; Xu, Feng-Guo; Zhou, Ping; Ma, Shi-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Menopausal metabolic syndrome (MMS) is a series of syndrome caused by ovarian function decline and hormone insufficiency, and is a high risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Erzhiwan (EZW), composed of Herba Ecliptae and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, is a traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat menopausal syndrome for many years. We added Herba Epimedii, Radix Rehmanniae, and Fructus Corni into EZW, to prepare a new formula, termed Jiawei Erzhiwan (JE). The present study was designed to determine the anti-MMS effects of JE using ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats that were treated with JE for 4 weeks, and β-tc-6 cells and INS cells were used to detected the protect effectiveness of JE. Our results showed JE could increase insulin sensitivity and ameliorated hyperlipidemia. Metabolomics analysis showed that the serum levels of branched and aromatic amino acids were down-regulated in serum by JE administration. Moreover, JE enhanced the function of islet β cells INS-1 and β-tc-6, through increasing the glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), which was abolished by estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, indicating that JE functions were mediated by ER signaling. Additionally, JE did not induce tumorigenesis in rat mammary tissue or promoted proliferation of MCF-7 and Hela cells. In conclusion, our work demonstrated that JE ameliorated OVX-induced glucose and lipid metabolism disorder through activating estrogen receptor pathway and promoting GSIS in islet β cells, thus indicating that JE could be a safe and effective medication for MMS therapy.

  1. Interference of allelopathic rice with paddy weeds at the root level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Kong, C-H

    2017-02-20

    Despite increasing knowledge of the involvement of allelopathy in negative interactions among plants, relatively little is known about its action at the root level. This study aims to enhance understanding of interactions of roots between a crop and associated weeds via allelopathy. Based on a series of experiments with window rhizoboxes and root segregation methods, we examined root placement patterns and root interactions between allelopathic rice and major paddy weeds Cyperus difformis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eclipta prostrata, Leptochloa chinensis and Oryza sativa (weedy rice). Allelopathic rice inhibited growth of paddy weed roots more than shoots regardless of species. Furthermore, allelopathic rice significantly reduced total root length, total root area, maximum root width and maximum root depth of paddy weeds, while the weeds adjusted horizontal and vertical placement of their roots in response to the presence of allelopathic rice. With the exception of O. sativa (weedy rice), root growth of weeds avoided expanding towards allelopathic rice. Compared with root contact, root segregation significantly increased inhibition of E. crus-galli, E. prostrata and L. chinensis through an increase in rice allelochemicals. In particular, their root exudates induced production of rice allelochemicals. However, similar results were not observed in C. difformis and O. sativa (weedy rice) with either root segregation or root exudate application. The results demonstrate that allelopathic rice interferes with paddy weeds by altering root placement patterns and root interactions. This is the first case of a root behavioural strategy in crop-weed allelopathic interaction.

  2. Diversity of root associated microorganisms of selected medicinal plants and influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasi, S; Nanthakumar, K; Karthikeyan, K; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2008-01-01

    The total heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were enumerated from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of 50 selected locally available medicinal plants in and around Bharathiar University. In all the plants, population of microorganism were higher in the rhizosphere soil than in the non rhizosphere soil. Among the microorganisms, bacterial population was higher in number followed by fungus and actinomycetes. Of the medicinal plants, the maximum rhizosphere effect was observed in Annona squamosa and the minimum effect was seen in Eclipta alba and Cassia auriculata. Among the bacteria the dominant species was Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus and Serratia. The Streptomyces species was found to be dominant followed by Deuteromycetes and Frankia among the actinomycetes. Among the fungal isolates Rhizopus was found to be higher in number followed by Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor and Fusarium. About 70.96% of the bacterial isolates were found to be nitrate reducers and 90.60% of the bacteria solubilised phosphate. The rhizosphere bacterial isolates were also capable of hydrolyzing starch, cellulose, casein, urea and gelatin. The isolates of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were also able to produce phytohormone Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum IAA production was recorded by Fusarium sp (5.8 mg/l). The rhizosphere bacterial isolates showed resistance to 14 commercially used antibiotics. In an attempt to check the influence of these plant growth promoting microorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum against Escherichia coli MTCC-443 and Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC-646, the results observed was not encouraging since the inoculants did not influence the antibacterial property. However extensive and in depth study is required to find out the influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antibacterial property of medicinal plants. The other results clearly indicated that the rhizosphere

  3. Thiophenes, polyacetylenes and terpenes from the aerial parts of Eclipata prostrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-Min; Li, Chun-Tong; Han, Jun; Yu, Shi-Shan; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2014-11-15

    One new bithiophenes, 5-(but-3-yne-1,2-diol)-50-hydroxy-methyl-2,20-bithiophene (2), two new polyacetylenic glucosides, 3-O-b-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxy-4E,6E-tetradecene-8,10,12-triyne (8), (5E)-trideca-1,5-dien-7,9,11-triyne-3,4-diol-4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (9), six new terpenoid glycosides, rel-(1S,2S,3S,4R,6R)-1,6-epoxy-menthane-2,3-diol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (10), rel-(1S,2S,3S,4R,6R)-3-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-b-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-epoxy menthane-2,3-diol (11), (2E,6E)-2,6,10-trimethyl-2,6,11-dodecatriene-1,10-diol-1-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (12), 3b,16b,29-trihydroxy oleanane-12-ene-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (13), 3,28-di-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-3b,16b-dihydroxy oleanane-12-ene-28-oleanlic acid (14), 3-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanlic-18-ene acid-28-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (15), along with fifteen known compounds (1, 3–7, and 16–24), were isolated from the aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata. Their structures were established by analysis of the spectroscopic data. The isolated compounds 1–9 were tested for activities against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), compound 7 showed significant antihyperglycemic activities by inhibitory effects on DPP-IV in human plasma in vitro, with IC50 value of 0.51 lM. Compounds 10–24 were tested in vitro against NF-jB-luc 293 cell line induced by LPS. Compounds 12, 15, 16, 19, 21, and 23 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of heterocyclic analogues of bromoxynil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Brosnan, James T; Best, Michael D; Kopsell, Dean A; Bruce, Barry D; Bostic, Heidi E; Layton, Donovan S

    2014-01-15

    One attractive strategy to discover more active and/or crop-selective herbicides is to make structural changes to currently registered compounds. This strategy is especially appealing for those compounds with limited herbicide resistance and whose chemistry is accompanied with transgenic tools to enable herbicide tolerance in crop plants. Bromoxynil is a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor registered for control of broadleaf weeds in several agronomic and specialty crops. Recently at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville several analogues of bromoxynil were synthesized including a previously synthesized pyridine (2,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyridine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), a novel pyrimidine (4,6-dibromo-5-hydroxypyrimidine-2-carbonitrile sodium salt), and a novel pyridine N-oxide (2,6-dibromo-1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-4-carbonitrile). These new analogues of bromoxynil were also evaluated for their herbicidal activity on soybean (Glycine max), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), and pitted morningglory ( Ipomoea lacunose ) when applied at 0.28 kg ha(-1). A second study was conducted on a glyphosate-resistant weed (Amaranthus palmeri) with the compounds being applied at 0.56 kg ha(-1). Although all compounds were believed to inhibit PSII by binding in the quinone binding pocket of D1, the pyridine and pyridine-N-oxide analogues were clearly more potent than bromoxynil on Amaranthus retroflexus. However, application of the pyrimidine herbicide resulted in the least injury to all species tested. These variations in efficacy were investigated using molecular docking simulations, which indicate that the pyridine analogue may form a stronger hydrogen bond in the pocket of the D1 protein than the original bromoxynil. A pyridine analogue was able to control the glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri with >80% efficacy. The pyridine analogues of bromoxynil showed potential

  5. 草坪杂草发生规律及春季阔叶杂草的防除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学维

    2012-01-01

    本研究采取倒置“W”9点取样法并结合踏查的方法,对廊坊地区草坪杂草进行了为期1年的调查,鉴定出草坪杂草20科53种,其中优势杂草有地锦(Euphorbia humifusa Willd.)、山苦荬(Ixeris chinensis Nakai.)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis Scop.)、马齿苋(Portulaca oleracca L.)、独行菜(Lcpidium apetalum Wild.)、灰菜(Chenopodium album L.)、朝天萎陵菜(Potentilla supinaL.)、附地菜(Trigonotis peduncularis Benth.)。针对调查结果,选用选择性、触杀型除草剂克草特(10%乙羧酸草醚),对在春季危害草坪草比较严重的阔叶杂草马齿苋和灰菜进行防除试验,结果表明,用药量为100mL/m2的500~4500倍液克草特对马齿苋杂草具有特效而对灰菜防效一般。对新建高羊茅草坪草和已经成坪的碱茅草坪草进行了安全性试验,结果表明,除草剂的最佳防除浓度在1500~3500倍;在防除新建植的高羊茅草坪上的杂草时应注意喷药时期最好是在高羊茅的分蘖前期或分蘖期,对于灰菜的防除时期最好选在其出苗期。

  6. 氟磺唑草胺防除甘蔗田杂草效果及其对作物的安全性%Weed-control and Safety of Flumetsulam SC Application on Sugarcane Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 胡进锋; 王长方; 游泳; 王俊

    2011-01-01

    为评估氟磺唑草胺对甘蔗田杂草防除效果及对后茬作物的安全性,采用农药田间药效试验法,测定480g·L-1氟磺唑草胺悬浮剂播后芽前土壤处理对甘蔗田杂草的防除效果,并分析其对甘蔗和后茬作物水稻、玉米、上海青生长的影响,结果表明,各处理浓度对马唐、旱稗、牛筋草、石胡荽、裸柱菊、通泉草、胜红蓟、飘拂草、香附子等杂草15 d防效均达86%以上,30 d防效均达88%以上;而各处理浓度30 d鲜重防效达95%以上,各项防治指标均优于对照药莠去津.药后约14个月种植后茬作物,对水稻、玉米和上海青3种后茬作物生长安全,对各后茬作物产量也没有影响.%This study aimed to evaluate the weed-control efficiency of Flumetsulam for sugarcane plantation and effect of its application on succession crops in the field. The rate of 480 g · L-1 Flumetsulam SC was applied in accordance to the pesticide-guidelines for the experimentation. Effects of the application on sugarcane and the succession crops of rice, corn and Shanghaiqing cabbage were determined. The results showed that the controlling efficiencies on major weeds,such as Digitaria sanguinalis (Linn. ) Scop, Echinochloa crusgalli (L. ) Beauv. Var. Hispidula (retz. ) Hack, Eleusine indica (Linn. ) Gaertn, Centipeda minima (Linn. ) A. Br. Et Aschers, Solva anthemifolia (Juss. ) R. Br. · Mazus japonicus (Thumb. ) O. Kuntze, Ageratum conzoides L. , Cardamine hirsute Linn, Polygonum aviculare L. , Fimbristylis aestuvalis (Retz) Vahlhirdute, Portulaca oleracea Linn, and Cyperus rotundus Linn. , were greater than 88% after a 15-day treatment, and 95% after a 30-day treatment. Furthermore, the fresh weight control efficency was more than 95% after a 30-day treatment. The three succession crops, I. E. , rice, corn and cabbage, grew normally in 14 months after the treatment. No significant difference on the crops' production was observed as compared to the control.

  7. Differences in photosynthetic responses of NADP-ME type C4 species to high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowska, Elżbieta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Krupnik, Tomasz; Drożak, Anna; Rogowski, Paweł; Parys, Eugeniusz; Zienkiewicz, Maksymilian

    2017-03-01

    Three species chosen as representatives of NADP-ME C4 subtype exhibit different sensitivity toward photoinhibition, and great photochemical differences were found to exist between the species. These characteristics might be due to the imbalance in the excitation energy between the photosystems present in M and BS cells, and also due to that between species caused by the penetration of light inside the leaves. Such regulation in the distribution of light intensity between M and BS cells shows that co-operation between both the metabolic systems determines effective photosynthesis and reduces the harmful effects of high light on the degradation of PSII through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have investigated several physiological parameters of NADP-ME-type C4 species (e.g., Zea mays, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Digitaria sanguinalis) grown under moderate light intensity (200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and, subsequently, exposed to excess light intensity (HL, 1600 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Our main interest was to understand why these species, grown under identical conditions, differ in their responses toward high light, and what is the physiological significance of these differences. Among the investigated species, Echinochloa crus-galli is best adapted to HL treatment. High resistance of the photosynthetic apparatus of E. crus-galli to HL was accompanied by an elevated level of phosphorylation of PSII proteins, and higher values of photochemical quenching, ATP/ADP ratio, activity of PSI and PSII complexes, as well as integrity of the thylakoid membranes. It was also shown that the non-radiative dissipation of energy in the studied plants was not dependent on carotenoid contents and, thus, other photoprotective mechanisms might have been engaged under HL stress conditions. The activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase as well as the content of malondialdehyde and H2O2 suggests that antioxidant defense is not

  8. 草甘膦水剂在抗草甘膦转基因大豆田除草效果及安全性研究%Study on Controlling Efficiency and Safety of Glyphosate 41% AS in Transgenic Glyphosate- Resistant Soybean Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹洪玉; 李香菊; 刘士阳; 崔海兰; 牛宏波

    2011-01-01

    Weeds controlling efficiency and safety of glyphosate 41% AS were studied in transgenic glyphosate - resistant soybean field. The results show that controlling efficiency of glyphosate 41% AS on main weeds such as Amaranthus ret-roflexus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Acalypha australis is high significantly. The rate of controlling weeds reaches to more than 90% when the glyphosate 41% AS is applied at the dosage of 922.5 g a. I. /hm2 in 30 days. And the safety of glyphosate 41 % AS to the four herbicide - resistant soybean cultivars ( 356043, 87701RR2 Y, 06 - 698 and 07 -1568) is better as well. There is no injuries occurred for the four transgenic herbicide -resistant soybean cultivars when glyphosate 41% AS is applied at the dosage of 922.5~2 460.0 g a. I. /hm2. The plant height, number of compound leaves, number of seeds per pod and 100 - seeds weight of the four cultivars do not trend to decline. Yield of the four soybean cultivars under herbicide treatment at the dosage of 922.5 ~ 2 460.0 g a. I. /hm2 is increased significantly than that of control.%采用田间试验,研究了41%草甘膦水剂在抗草甘膦转基因大豆田使用的除草效果和抗草甘膦大豆的安全性.结果表明,41%草甘膦水剂对大豆田主要杂草马唐、反枝苋和铁苋菜等均有理想防效,药后30 d,41%草甘膦水剂1537.5 ga.i./hm2剂量下对大豆田杂草防效达90%以上.41%草甘膦水剂对41种抗除草剂大豆材料(356043、87701RR2Y、06 - 698和07 - 1568)安全性较好,在922.5~2 460.0 g a.i./hm2剂量范围内,上述大豆材料无药害症状,其株高、复叶数、每荚粒数及百粒重均没有降低.与不用药对照相比,上述材料施用41%草甘膦水剂后增产显著.

  9. 南美蟛蜞菊毛状根乙醇提取液对种子萌发的影响%The Influence of Ethanol Extracts from Wedelia trilobata (L.) A.S.Hitche Hairy Roots on Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧少云

    2013-01-01

    In this test, in order to lay the experimental and technological foundation for the production and application of making bio-chemicals with in vitro cultured hairy roots derived from Wedelia trilobata, seeds of several plants (Bidens pilosa L.) were soaked with ethanol extracts from Wedelia trilobata (L.) A.S.Hitche hairy roots with different concentrations, and study the allelopathic effect. The seeds (Bidens pilosa L. etc.) were immersed individually in ethanol extracts from Wedelia trilobata hairy roots of two concentrations, 0.5 g/mL and 1.0 g/mL, for 3 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours to do germination experiments. And as a contrast, another set of seeds were soaked with water. The higher the concentration of the ethanol extract was, or the longer the seeds were soaked, the lower the seeds germination rate would be. And it’s found that having been immersed in the 0.5 g/mL (fresh weight) low concentration extract for over 12 hours, the seeds of Bidens pilosa L., Digitaria ischaemum, D.sanguinalis and Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. could not germinate properly; while the inhibition effect on the seeds was more obvious when the seeds were soaked in the extract of 1.0 g/mL (fresh weight) high concentration for over 12 hours-seed of Bidens pilosa L., Digitaria ischaemum, D.sanguinalis, Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. and Herba taraxaci could not germinate under this condition. What’s more, the test showed that when the soaking time was over 24 hours, no matter the concentration was 0.5 g/mL or 1.0 g/mL, the inhibition effect of the ethanol extracts would be much stronger. Wedelia trilobata hairy roots have strong allelopathic effect.%拟通过用不同浓度的蟛蜞菊毛状根的乙醇提取液浸泡三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)等种子研究其化感作用,为今后开展通过南美蟛蜞菊离体培养毛状根来生产高效低毒的“生物农药”及其应用奠定实验和技术基础。用0.5 g/mL、1.0 g/mL 的蟛蜞

  10. Sistemas de control de malezas en maiz (Zea mays L.: efecto de metodos de control, densidad y distribucion del cultivo Weed control systems in corn: effects of control methods, density and plant distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martinez

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de integrar diferentes prácticas culturales en un sistema de control de malezas en maíz, se instaló un ensayo en el Campo Experimental de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (México (2250 msnm, precipitación media anual 550 mm, suelo franco, 1.7% M.O. bajo condiciones de secano, en donde se evaluaron dos densidades (44.400 y 66.600 pl/ha, dos distribuciones (normal y equidistante y siete métodos de control de malezas (cyanazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,92 kg/ha, atrazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,44 kg/ha, un escarda, dos escardas, testigo siempre desmalezado, testigo siempre desmalezado + dos escardas y testigo siempre enmalezado. Las principales malezas presentes fueron: quelite (Amaranthus sp., perlilla (Lopezia mexicana Jacq., rosilla chita (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., acahual (Encelia mexicana Mart., Sporobulus poiretti (Roem, et Sch. Hichc. y fresadilla (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop.. El aumento de la densidad de siembra no se reflejó en el control de malezas, incidencia de enfermedades, crescimiento vegetativo y reproductivo del cultivo. La distribución equidistante aparejó un mejor control de malezas, en relación a la distribución normal, pero la incidencia de enfermedades fue mayor, lo que quizá pudo haber determinado la ausencia de diferencias en crecimiento vegetativo, un menor número de mazorcas/ha y consecuentemente la ausencia de respuesta en rendimiento de grano. De los tratamientos químicos, atrazine + alachlor tuvo un comportamiento superior a cyanazine + alachlor, en control de malezas, aunque sólo fue detectable estadisticamente en las evaluaciones. No hubo diferencia entre ambos en la incidencia de enfermedades, ni en su efecto sobre el cultivo. aunque el rendimiento de cyanazine + alachlor fue ligeramente inferior. Los métodos químicos fueron superiores a los mecánicos en control de malezas, pero no difirie -ron en la incidencia de enfermedades ni en los parámetros de desarrollo del cultivo. La

  11. The soil seed bank characteristics in cropland under different conservation tillage and fertilization regimes in Loess Hill and Gully Region%陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区水土保持耕作及施肥下农田土壤种子库特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄茂林; 梁银丽; 周茂娟; 韦泽秀; 吴燕

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism of weed occurrence and suppression effect of crops on weeds, we conducted a 4-year field experiment in 4 crops under different tillage and fertilization regimes in Ansai, Shaanxi, China. The species composition, seed density, diversity and the similarity were measured in soil seed bank of soybean (Glycine max), corn (Zea mays), Red Bean (Semen Phaseoli ) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). The tillage and fertilization treatments in each crop included till-chemical fertilizer (CF), till-organic manure (CM), till no fertilizer (CN), no-till chemical fertilizer (NF), no-till-organic manure (NM), and no-till-no fertilizer (NN). The results showed that: (1) There were 12 weed species in 1965 seedlings from 24 soil samples in 4 crops. These species belonged to 7 families and 12 genuses and 94% of them were annual weeds. Bangtou grass (fugax nees ex steud), amaranth (Acalypha australis), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and Poa(Poa sphondylodes)were the dominant species and accounted for 87%;(2) In 0-20cm soil of different treatments, weed density ranged from (282.9 ± 63) to (7482.5 ±1078.3) seeds · m-2. There were significant differences (P potato plot > soybean plot > corn plot among 4 crops, tillage plot > no-tillage plot between 2 tillage treatments, and organic fertilizer plot > Fertilizer plot > no fertilizer plot among fertilization treatments;(3) Soil seed bank had the highest weed density in NM Red Bean and the lowest density in NN corn. The rich index was the highest (2.30) in CF soybean and the lowest (0.29) in NN Red Bean. The diversity index was the highest in NN soybean (5.56) and the lowest in CF Red bean (0.45). The ecological advantage of NF corn was the highest (1.35) and that of CF soybean was the lowest (0.17). Among the fertilization treatments, the similar coefficient of soil seed bank ranged from 0 to 0.63 in tilled system and from 0.67 to 0.92 in no-till system. As a result, corn and soybean were optimal

  12. Clinical Observation of Treating 62 Patients with Severe Aplastic Anemia Failing in Immunosuppressive Therapy by Integrative Medicine%中西医结合治疗62例免疫抑制治疗无效的重型再生障碍性贫血临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏尔云; 方玉华; 陈辉树

    2012-01-01

    patients failing in IST were treated by integrative medicine (IM). The treatment course was divided into three stages: the critical emergency stage, the improvement stage, and the recovery stage. In the critical emergency stage, patients were treated with Lingyang Yigui Decoction (LYD, consisting of 1. 2 g antelope horn, 6 g coptis chinensis, 12 g stir-baked Fructus Gar-deniae, 30 g rehmannia rhizoma, 50 g lalang grass rhizome, 9 g amur corktree bark, 12 g Cortex Moutan, 9 g ass-hide gelatin, 30 g red date, 6 g prepared licorice root, etc.) and Erzhi Busui Decoction (EBD, consisting of 120 g glossy privet fruit, 100 g eclipta prostrata, 24 g prepared Gold Theragran, 12 g fructus lycii, 90 g rehmannia rhizoma, 60 g astragalus, 9 g Angelica sinensis, 9 g ass-hide gelatin, 30 g honeysuckle flower, 12 g lotus plumule, and so on) alternatively, one dose daily, decocted twice, taken in two portions. Meanwhile, 50 mg Testosterone Propionate was intramuscularly injected every other day to the improvement stage. Those with fever were treated with LYD by adding 60 g gypsum, 60 g common anemarrhena, 30 g dandelion, 30 g bittersweet herb, 30 g blackend swallowwort root and rhizome, 15 g hemsley rockvine root tuber, and so on. In the improve-ment stage patients were treated with Jixueteng Compound (Jixueteng Zhengyang Decoction was administered to those of Shen-yang deficiency syndrome: consisting of 100 g spatholobus suberectus, 60 g astragalus, 3 g red ginseng, 12 g psoralea corylifolia, 18 g dodder seed, 12 g angelica, 18 g Herba Epimedii, 6 g common fenugreek seed, 24 g Gold Theragran, 30 g glossy privet fruit, 30 g eclipta prostrata, 6 g dried human placenta, and so on). Meanwhile, 50 mg Testosterone Propionate was intramuscularly injected every other day. Jixueteng Yi-jing Decoction was administered to those of Shen-yin deficiency syndrome: consisting of 100 g glossy privet fruit, 100 g eclipta prostrata, 90 g rehmannia rhizoma, 30 g spatholobus suberectus, 12 g dodder seed, 6 g

  13. Effects of Er-Zhi-Wan on microarchitecture and regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Yuan-qin; Yan, Qi; Lu, Rui; Shi, Bin

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW), a traditional Chinese medicine consisting of Herba Ecliptae (HE) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), had a definite antiosteoporotic effect on osteoporotic femur, but its effect on osteoporosis of alveolar bone remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW) on the microarchitecture and the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the alveolar bone of ovariectomized rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (sham, n=10), ovariectomy (OVX) group (n=10), and OVX with EZW treatment group (EZW group, n=10). From one week after ovariectomy, EZW (100 mg/mL) or vehicle (distilled water) was fed (1 mL/100 g) once per day for 12 weeks until the sacrifice of the rats. The body weights were measured weekly. After sacrifice, the sera and mandible were collected and routinely prepared for the measurement of alveolar trabecular microarchitecture, serum levels of E2, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), as well as mandibular mRNA expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway molecules wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), β-catenin and dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1). The results showed that EZW treatment significantly prevented the body weight gain, degradation of alveolar trabecular microarchitecture and alveolar bone loss in the OVX rats. Furthermore, we observed that EZW could increase the serum levels of E2 and BALP, and decrease levels of serum TRAP5b in EZW group compared with vehicle group. In addition, RT-PCR results revealed that EZW upregulated the expression levels of wnt3a, LRP5 and β-catenin, and reduced the expression of DKK1 in OVX rats. Taken together, our results suggested that EZW may have potential anti-osteoporotic effects on osteoporotic alveolar bone by stimulating Wnt/LRP5/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  14. Seed dispersal into wetlands: Techniques and results for a restored tidal freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, K.P.; Baldwin, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Although seed dispersal is assumed to be a major factor determining plant community development in restored wetlands, little research exists on density and species richness of seed available through dispersal in these systems. We measured composition and seed dispersal rates at a restored tidal freshwater marsh in Washington, DC, USA by collecting seed dispersing through water and wind. Seed dispersal by water was measured using two methods of seed collection: (1) stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat along an elevation gradient bracketing the tidal range and (2) a floating surface trawl net attached to a boat. To estimate wind dispersal rates, we collected seed from stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat positioned above marsh vegetation. We also collected a small number of samples of debris deposited along high tide lines (drift lines) and feces of Canada Goose to explore their seed content. We used the seedling emergence method to determine seed density in all samples, which involved placing the fiber mats or sample material on top of potting soil in a greenhouse misting room and enumerating emerging seedlings. Seedlings from a total of 125 plant species emerged during this study (including 82 in river trawls, 89 in stationary water traps, 21 in drift lines, 39 in wind traps, and 10 in goose feces). The most abundant taxa included Bidens frondosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Cyperus spp., Eclipta prostrata, and Ludwigia palustris. Total seedling density was significantly greater for the stationary water traps (212 + 30.6 seeds/m2/month) than the equal-sized stationary wind traps (18 + 6.0 seeds/m(2)/month). Lower-bound estimates of total species richness based on the non-parametric Chao 2 asymptotic estimators were greater for seeds in water (106 + 1.4 for stationary water traps and 104 + 5.5 for trawl samples) than for wind (54 + 6.4). Our results indicate that water is the primary source of seeds dispersing to the site and that a species-rich pool

  15. Ação de extratos de plantas medicinais sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Beserra Martins

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os fitonematoides são parasitas que afetam seriamente as culturas em todo o mundo comprometendo a produção agrícola e, por vezes, inviabilizando a utilização de numerosas áreas de cultivo. A busca por medidas alternativas de controle em substituição aos nematicidas convencionais é uma preocupação mundial, justificando pesquisas com substâncias naturais por serem eficientes e ecologicamente corretos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito de extratos vegetais de agrião-do-brejo (Eclipta alba L., alfavaca (Ocimum basilicum, artemísia (Artemísia vulgaris, capim citronela (Cymbopogon winteranus, chambá (Justicia pectoralis, confrei (Symphytum officinalle, hortelã (Mentha x vilosa, lombrigueira (Spigelia anthelmia, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides e menta (Mentha arvensis na motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis de Meloidogyneincognita raça 2. Os extratos, obtidos a partir de folhas secas sob infusão ou sob maceração em água, foram diluídos e distribuídos em placas de Petri às quais foram adicionados 50 juvenis de segundo estádio (J2. Após permanecerem por 48 horas nos extratos, todos os J2 móveis ou imóveis foram contados e, em seguida, transferidos para água determinando-se, após 24 horas, a porcentagem de J2 mortos. Os J2 ainda ativos foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro ‘Santa Clara’ em casa de vegetação para avaliar a sua infectividade. Os extratos macerados das plantas medicinais, excetuando-se capim citronela, hortelã e menta, apresentaram alta atividade nematicida com mais de 70% de J2 mortos. Mortalidade total ocorreu em extratos de lombrigueira, agrião-do-brejo e mastruz. A ausência de galhas nas raízes de tomateiros inoculados confirmou o efeito tóxico desses extratos.

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Vivek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%, Escherichia coli (15.62%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%, Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%, Proteus mirabilis (3.6%, Proteus vulgaris (4.2% and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%, Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%. Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5% were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R

  17. 新型吡唑双酰肼类化合物的合成及除草活性%Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel diacylhydrazine derivatives containing pyrazolyl moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海琴; 戴志猛; 谢旭峰; 刘幸海; 谭成侠

    2016-01-01

    为了寻找具有较高除草活性的农药先导化合物,将吡唑环与双酰肼结构进行拼接,设计合成了13个未见报道的含吡唑环的双酰肼类目标化合物6a~6m,其结构均通过核磁共振氢谱及高分辨质谱确认。培养皿法测定结果表明:在200 mg/L下,化合物N'-(2-(2,4-二氯苯氧基)乙酰基)-3-(二氟甲基)-1-甲基-1H-吡唑-4-甲酰肼(6i)对小麦Triticumaestivum、油菜Brassica campestris、高粱Sorghum bicolor、萝卜Raphanus sativus和黄瓜Cucumis sativus根、茎的抑制率均达80%以上。盆栽试验表明:在有效成分150 g/hm2剂量下,采用苗后茎叶喷雾处理,化合物6i对反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus和鳢肠Eclipta prostrata的抑制率均达80%;相同剂量下采用苗前土壤喷雾处理,6i对反枝苋A. retroflexus的抑制率也达80%。%In order to discover pesticide lead compounds with high herbicidal activity, 13 novel diacylhydrazine derivatives containing pyrazolyl pharmacophore were designed and synthesized by introducing the pyrazolyl pharmacophore into the diacylhydrazine scaffold. Their structures were confirmed by1H NMR and HRMS. The herbicidal activity of these compounds was evaluated. The dish test results indicated that the growth inhibition rates of the roots and stems of Triticum aestivum, Brassica campestris,Sorghum bicolor and Cucumi sativus were up to 80% for N'-(2-(2,4-dich-lorophenoxy) acetyl)-3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbohydrazide (6i) at the dosage of 200 mg/L. The pot test results showed that the growth inhibition rate of Amaranthus retroflexus and Ecliptaprostrate for compound6i were 80% by postemergence foliar spray processing at the dose of 150 g/hm2; and compound 6i also demonstrated inhibition rate of 80% againstA. retroflexus by pre-emergence soil spray processing at the same dose.

  18. Serine proteinase inhibitors in the Compositae: distribution, polymorphism and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Alexander V; Anisimova, Irina N; Gavrilova, V A; Vachrusheva, T E; Konechnaya, G Yu; Lewis, Mervyn; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-02-01

    Multiple molecular forms of inhibitors of trypsin (TI) and chymotrypsin (CI), which are typical digestive enzymes of insects, mammals and micro-organisms, and subtilisin (SI), a proteinase of many bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi, were identified in seeds and vegetative organs of the majority of 128 wild and cultivated species representing 65 genera of three of the subfamilies of the Compositae. Inhibitors with M(r) ranging from 7450 to 7800 and combining activities towards subtilisin and trypsin and/or chymotrypsin (T/C/SI) had the widest distribution and may be involved in plant defense mechanisms. They were found in many species of the subfamilies Carduoideae (genera Carthamus, Centaurea, Cirsium), Cichorioideae (Lactuca, Taraxacum) and Asteroideae (Helianthus, Cosmos, Bidens). Partial amino acid sequencing showed that the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) T/C/SI and Cosmos bipinnatus T/C/SI, T/SI and C/SI belonged to the potato I inhibitor family. The most active, variable and heterogeneous inhibitors were found in species of the tribe Heliantheae, which is placed in the evolutionary advanced subfamily Asteroideae. Seeds of Helianthus species, Eclipta prostrata, Gailardia aristata, Zinnia elegans and Silphium perfoliatum contained various TI with M(r) ranging from 1500 to 14,750, with some also containing SI. H. annuus seeds contain a unique cyclic TI of M(r) 1514 and similar TI were also present in other Helianthus spp. and the related species Tithonia diversifolia. Zinnia elegans contained a TI with M(r) 11,350 which appeared to represent a novel type of inhibitor distantly related to the cereal subgroup of Bowman-Birk inhibitors. TI and T/SI varied widely in H. annuus lines and wild Helianthus species in their presence or absence and composition. Similar T/SI components were found in the cultivated diploid H. annuus and annual diploid species with the B genome but not in perennials with the A genome. Some T/SI, SI and TI were detected in vegetative organs

  19. Leishmania donovani: assessment of leishmanicidal effects of herbal extracts obtained from plants in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubhankar K; Bimal, Sanjiva; Narayan, Shyam; Jee, Chandrawati; Bimal, Devla; Das, P; Bimal, Raageeva

    2011-02-01

    One obstacle faced in the effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the limited number of available treatment options. Furthermore, control efforts have been hindered further by the emergence of Leishmania resistance to many of the available drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-leishmanial properties of 30 medicinally important plants from the VL endemic area of Bihar, India and compared them to two available anti-leishmanial drugs (sodium antimony gluconate and amphotericin B) and two plant lectins (phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A) on Leishmania donovani promastigotes in vitro at 24 and 48 h after initiation of culture. We identified eight plant extracts in addition to phytohemagglutinin and amphotericin B that significantly inhibited the growth of promastigotes (p Agave americana, Azadirachta indica, Eclipta alba and Piper longum) of the eight plant extracts that induced significant promastigotes killing (p = 0.00098). Effect-based dose finding analysis revealed that the threshold concentration of A. americana required to eliminate L. donovani after 24h was 0.05 mg/ml. A. indica and P. longum plant extracts eliminated L. donovani promastigotes after 48 h at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5mg/ml, respectively. E. alba eliminated the promastigotes at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml within 24h. The axenic amastigote killing response was 1.90-, 2.52- and 1.3-fold higher than the promastigote killing response with A. indica, A. americana and E. alba plant extracts, respectively. A. americana and A. indica, respectively, led to approximate 2.5- and 1.3-fold declines in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity compared with control. E. alba stimulation resulted in an up-regulation of dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.00329). The CSA from P. longum was found to be least cytotoxic; the observed difference in mitochondrial activity was insignificant (p = 0.16314). Further studies may reveal the pharmacological significance of many of the plants with anti

  20. Levantamento fitossociológico das comunidades de plantas infestantes em áreas de produção de arroz irrigado cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo Phyto-sociological survey of weed communities in flooded rice areas cultivated under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.L. Erasmo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a composição florística de comunidades de plantas daninhas presentes em áreas agrícolas de várzea, manejadas em diferentes sistemas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em áreas de produção de arroz irrigado das cooperativas: Cooperativas Mista Rural Vale do Javaés e Cooperativa Agroindustrial Rio Formoso, em Formoso do Araguaia-TO. Foram separadas três áreas de 1 ha, sendo: 1 - área sem rotação de culturas (arroz/pousio há mais de cinco anos; 2 - área com rotação de culturas (arroz/soja há mais de cinco anos; 3 - área com rotação de culturas (arroz/melancia há mais de dois anos. Para caracterização e estudo fitossociológico da comunidade infestante foi utilizado, como unidade amostral, um quadro (1,0 x 1,0 m, lançado aleatoriamente dentro da área de estudo (método do quadrado inventário, por meio de um caminhamento em ziguezague. Na área sem rotação, foram identificadas 8 famílias e 16 espécies, destacando-se a família Poaceae com maior número espécies; Fimbristylis miliacea (Cyperaceae foi a espécie com o maior índice de importância relativa (84,46%. Na área com rotação arroz/soja, foram identificadas 8 famílias e 12 espécies, destacando-se as famílias Poaceae e Cyperaceae com maior número espécies; Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae foi a espécie com o maior índice de importância relativa (91,4%. Na área com rotação arroz/melancia foram identificadas seis famílias e oito espécies, destacando-se as famílias Euphorbiaceae e Lamiaceae com maior número espécies; Physalis angulata (Solanaceae foi a espécie com o maior índice de importância relativa (153,1%, seguida por Eclipta alba (Compositae e Hyptis lophanta (Lamiaceae, com 40,45 e 37,6%, respectivamente.This research aimed to identify the floristic composition of weed communities present in lowland agricultural areas under different management systems. The trial was carried out in

  1. Influence of Different Weed Communities on Cotton Growth and Yield%棉田不同杂草群落对棉花生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美; 高兴祥; 高宗军; 梁帝允; 刘家魁; 刘士国; 房锋

    2013-01-01

    The influences of different weed communities on cotton growth and yield were studied by setting weed free plots, gramineous weeds plots, sedge plots, broadleaf weeds plots and mixed weeds plots in field of Chiping County in the years of 2011 ~2012. The results showed that the gramineous weeds plots were mainly constituted of Eleusine indica at the density of 338. 75~505. 13 stems per square meter, and the cotton yield loss was 69. 7%~69. 8%. The sedge plots were mainly constituted of Cyperus difformis at the density of 260. 75 stems per square meter, and the cotton loss was 57. 7%~59. 4%. Chenopodium album and Eclipta prostrata were the main species in broadleaf weeds plots at the density of 208. 25~316. 0 stems per square meter, and the cotton yield loss was 87. 5%~88. 9%. The mixed weeds plots were mainly constituted of C. Album, E. Prostrata and E. Indica in 2011, but E. Indica and C. Difformis in 2012 at the density of 366. 00~ 410. 00 stems per square meter with the cotton yield loss as 90. 5%~90.1%. The damage rate per stem caused by broadleaf weeds was the largest, followed by sedge and gramineous weeds. Weeds Influenced cotton yield mainly in number of cotton bolls. In weed plots, the number of bolls, boll branches and single boll weight decreased by 45. 2% ~ 87. 3% , 21% ~ 64% and 6. 7% ~ 24. 5% , respectively. In addition, weeds also threatened the cotton seedling protection effect.%于2011 ~2012年在山东省茌平县棉田中人为设置无草区和禾本科杂草、莎草科杂草、阔叶类杂草、混合杂草自然发生区,研究了不同杂草群落对棉花生长和产量的影响.结果表明,禾本科杂草区以牛筋草[Eleusine indica(L.)Gaertn.]为主,总密度为338.75 ~505.13茎/m2,棉花产量损失为69.7% ~69.8%;莎草科杂草区以异型莎草(Cyperus difformis L.)为主,杂草密度为260.75茎/m2,产量损失为57.7%~59.4%;阔叶类杂草区以藜(Chenopodium album L.)、醴肠[Eclipta prostrata(L.)L

  2. 小麦秸秆水浸提液对五种植物化感作用的研究%Allelopathy of wheat straw aqueous extract on five kinds of plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑曦; 杨茜茜; 李小花

    2016-01-01

    该文研究了不同浓度的小麦秸秆水浸提液对徐州地区2种玉米(郑单958和农大108)和3种常见玉米田间杂草(马唐、稗草和反枝苋)种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度分别大于75、50和25 g•L-1时,马唐、稗草和反枝苋种子的萌发受到显著的抑制;当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度分别大于50和37.5 g•L-1时,玉米郑单958和农大108种子的萌发受到显著的抑制;但当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度大于37.5 g•L-1时,马唐、稗草和反枝苋幼苗根和芽的生长均受到明显的抑制;当小麦秸秆浸提液浓度小于75 g•L-1时,玉米郑单958和农大108幼苗根与芽的生长受到明显的促进,且郑单958幼苗叶片中叶绿素的含量以及郑单958的POD酶活性均得到提高。该研究结果表明较高浓度的小麦秸秆浸提液(50 g•L-1)会抑制杂草的生长,有利于玉米郑单958的生长,为小麦秸秆还田和玉米田杂草的生态防治提供了理论基础。%An experiment was carried out to explore effects of wheat straw aqueous extract on the seed germination and seedling growth of two kinds of maize ( Zhengdan 958 and Nongda 108) , large crabgrass ( Digitaria sanguinalis) , barn-yard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) and redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus). The results showed that when the concentration of wheat straw aqueous extract was respective over 75, 50 and 37.5 g•L-1 , the seed germination rates of large crabgrass, barnyard grass and redroot amaranth were inhabited, while the concentration was over 50 and 37.5 g•L-1 , the seed germination rates of Zhengdan 958 and Nongda 108 were inhabited;but the root and shoot length of large crabgrass, barnyard grass and redroot amaranth decreased obviously when the extract concentration was over 37. 5 g•L-1;while the concentration of wheat straw aqueous extract was under 75 g•L-1 , the root and shoot length of these two kinds of maize

  3. 广东中部地区高温季节蔬菜田杂草群落特征%Characteristics of hot season weed communities in vegetable fields in middle Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国奇; 冯莉; 田兴山

    2015-01-01

    当前我国农业生产方式和农田生境呈现深刻的变革,农田草害不断加剧,及时掌握农田杂草群落特征,积累相关数据资料迫在眉睫.于2013年夏季对广东典型蔬菜种植区的90块典型菜田杂草群落进行了样地调查,在90块菜田记录了82种杂草,包括16种外来入侵杂草;82种杂草共涉及27科54属,其中超过5种的科包括:禾本科(14种)、菊科(12种)、莎草科(8种)、玄参科(7种)、蓼科和苋科(5种).杂草中频度最高的为碎米莎草(Cyperus iria,88.9%);马齿苋(Portulaca oleracea)、马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis)、水虱草(Fimbristylis miliacea)、牛筋草(Eleusine indica)、通泉草(Mazus japonicus)、石胡荽(Centipeda minima)、草龙(Ludwigia hyssopifolia)等均超过60%;频度在10%以上的杂草共26种,其中禾草类5种、莎草类3种、阔叶类18种.在所调查田间,阔叶草种类较多,且平均发生盖度显著高于禾草和莎草(P<0.05),菜心田间禾草类杂草相对盖度显著低于其它作物田,莎草类杂草显著高于其它作物田;水旱轮作田间莎草类杂草的盖度显著高于旱连作田(P<0.05).对26种常见杂草与耕作因子间进行RDA排序,结果表明,水旱轮作、种植甜玉米(Zeamays)、种植豇豆(Vigna unguiculata)、种植丝瓜(Luffa cylindrica)等因子均对田间杂草群落具有显著影响(P<0.05).结果和原始数据可为研究华南地区菜田杂草群落及其演替趋势积累第一手资料.

  4. Systematic revision and review of the extant and fossil snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libytheinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y

    2013-01-01

    . Synonyms of Libythea geoffroyi philippina Staudinger 1889 include: Libythea geoffroyi var. celebensis Staudinger 1889 syn. nov.; and Libythea geoffroyi bardas Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. Libythea labdaca subintegra Aurivillius 1921 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea labdaca ancoata Grose-Smith 1891. Synonyms of Libythea lepita lepita Moore [1858] include: Libythea celtis celtoides Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov.; Libythea celtis chinensis Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov.; and Libythea celtis sophene Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. Libythea celtis yayeyamana Fujioka, 1975 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea lepita amamiana Shirôzu 1956. Libythea myrrha myrrhina Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov. and Libythea myrrha yawa Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. are synonyms of Libythea myrrha myrrha Godart 1819. Libythea myrrha borneensis Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. and Libythea myrrha iwanagai Hayashi 1976 syn. nov. are synonyms of Libythea myrrha hecura Fruhstorfer 1914. Libythea myrrha carma Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea myrrha rama Moore 1872. Libythea myrrha thira Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. is a synonym of Libythea myrrha sanguinalis Fruhstorfer 1898. Subspecies of L. narina Godart 1819 have been synonymized with the nominal species as there are no diagnostic characters that can be used to separate subspecies. Synonyms of Libythea narina include: Libythea rohini Marshall 1880 syn. nov. Libythea luzonica Moore 1901 syn. nov. Libythea narina canuleia Fruhstorfer, 1909 syn. nov.; Libythea narina neratia Fruhstorfer 1909 syn. nov.; Libythea narina sangha Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov.; Libythea narina sumbawana Fruhstorfer 1914 syn. nov. The status of the North American taxon has been confused in the literature, and it is here treated as Libytheana carinenta bachmanii (Kirtland 1851) revised status. The fossil Oligodonta florissantensis Brown, 1976 (Pieridae) is a new synonym of Libytheana florissanti (Scudder 1892). Keys to genera, species, and subspecies are included along with a discussion of

  5. 东北地区四种常见禾本科杂草病原真菌资源调查及其致病性测定%A survey of pathogenic fungi on four common gramineous weeds in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 邓晖; 牛永春; 赵杏利; 高洁

    2011-01-01

    为了解我国东北地区常见禾本科杂草病原真菌资源状况,于禾草生长季节对东北三省19个县市的稗草、狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草的发病情况进行了调查和采样.对病害样品用组织分离法分离获得186个真菌菌株,经形态学观察和rDNA ITS序列比对分析,鉴定到10个属的真菌.对其中分离率较高具代表性的或来自发病严重样品的31个菌株用人工接种法进行了致病性测定,明确了新月弯孢(Curvularia lunata)对稗草、狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草均有较强致病性,梭形凸脐蠕孢(Exserohilum fusiforme)和尖角凸脐蠕孢(E.monocera5)对稗草具有较强致病性,麦根腐平脐蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、狗尾草平脐蠕孢(B.setariae)、嘴突凸脐蠕孢(E.rostratum)和链格孢(Alter-naria spp.)对狗尾草具有较强致病性.不同菌株致病性有差异,一般来讲,对原寄主的致病性强于对其他寄主的致病性.研究结果丰富了禾草的病菌资源和信息,为真菌除草剂的研发奠定了基础.%In order to understand the resources of pathogenic fungi on common gramineous weeds in northeastern China, field survey and sample collection of diseases of the barnyard grass Echinochloa crusgalli, the green bristlegrass Setaria viridis, the crabgrass Digitaria sanguinalis and the fingergrass Chloris virgata were carried out in grass growing seasons. With the tissue isolation method, 186 fungal strains were obtained. Out of them 10 genera were identified by means of morphological observation and alignment of rDNA ITS sequences. Pathogenicity of 31 strains, with high isolating frequency or from severely diseased samples, was tested with artificial inoculation.Curvularia lunata showed stronger pathogenicity on barnyard grass, green bristlegrass, crabgrass and fingergrass.Exserohilum fusiforme and E. monoceras showed stronger pathogenicity on barnyard grass. Bipolaris sorokiniana ,B. setariae, E. rostratum and Alternaria spp. showed

  6. 一株银杏内生真菌的鉴定及其活性代谢产物研究%Identification of an Endophytic Fungus of Ginkgo biloba TMSF169 and Its Antifungal Metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国平; 王丽薇; 张亚磊; 王佳莹; 徐旭辉; 章初龙

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic fungi in medicinal plants are important sources for microorganisms which can produce a variety of bioactive compounds.In this study,an endophytic fungus TMSF169 with antifungal activity was isolated from Ginkgo biloba in Tianmushan Nature Reserve,Zhejiang province.TMSF169 was identified as Penicillium commune based on morphology and ITS rDNA sequence analysis.An antifungal and herbicidal compound TMSF169A was isolated and purified from the fermentation broth of TMSF169 through normal-phase silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography,traced by ultraviolet light or iodine vapor with bioassay-guided fractionation.TMSF169A was elucidated as cyclopaldic acid based on mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Antifungal activity assays showed that the compound had inhibitory to a series of plant pathogenic fungi.The metabolite was also pathogenic to Commelina communis,Digitaria sanguinalis,Amaranthus retroflexus,Alternanthera philoxeroides and Oryza sativa,but not sensitive to Sesamum indicum and Glycine max.All the results demonstrated that the strain TMSF169 deserves to develop further.%药用植物内生真菌是一类重要的微生物资源,能代谢产生多种生物活性物质,本研究从浙江天目山自然保护区银杏Ginkgo biloba中分离获得1株活性菌株TMSF169。通过形态学和ITS rDNA序列分析,鉴定该菌株为团青霉Penicillium commune。发酵粗提物采用正相硅胶柱层析和Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析,以紫外光或碘蒸汽显迹,配合活性追踪,从菌株TMSF169发酵液中分离获得1个具抗真菌及除草活性的化合物TMSF169A,通过质谱和核磁共振波谱等技术将其结构鉴定为圆弧菌醛酸(cyclopaldic acid)。活性测试表明,该化合物具有抗菌活性,对鸭跖草Commelina communis,反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus,马唐Digitaria sanguinalis、空心莲子草Alternanthera philoxeroides、水稻Oryza sativa等植物均

  7. Controle de mono e dicotiledôneas na cultura de soja em pós-emergência, através da combinação de mefluidide e bentazon Control of grasses and broadleaves in soybean crop with mefluidide and bentazon tankmix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Paulo

    1982-06-01

    experiment. At spraying time soybean were at the leaves stage and the predominant weeds were Amaranthus sp., Acanthospermum hispidum, Sida sp., Chenopodium album, Brachiaria plantaginea, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica. The tankmixed spray showed a wide herbicide activity, more effective than the control of any of the herbicides applied alone due to a sinergistic action.

  8. Species Composition and Diversity Differences of Weed Communities in Tea Gardens of Different Ages%不同树龄茶园杂草群落物种组成及多样性差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季敏; 孙国俊; 朱叶芹; 张海艳; 李粉华; 韩敏; 袁方

    2014-01-01

    patterns of weeds can provide fundamental information for establishment of effective control measures . To reveal the effects of plantation age on weeds growth in tea gardens ,we investigated the species ,density and height of weeds in different age tea gardens in Jintan City of Jiangsu Province during April and October in 2011 and 2012 ,and ana-lysed the effect of growing years of tea trees on species composition and biodiversity of weeds .With the extension of cult-ivation years ,habitat and artificial management affect-ed family,genera and species composition of weeds in tea gardens;the community structure also exhibited evident differentiation .The weeds species in adult tea gardens was plentiful , and the proportion of perennial weeds was significantly higher than in young tea gar-dens.In the spring,the weed community of adult teagardens was composed by Erigeron annuus+Beckmannia syzigachne+Galium aparine+Veronica didyma+Stellaria media+Xanthium sibiricum,and that of young tea gardens consisted of Beckmannia syzigachne +Erigeron annuus+Capsella bursa-pastoris+Conyza canadnsis+Galium aparine.Abundance of spring weed species ,evenness index and diversity in-dex in adult tea gardens were higher than in young tea gardens ,while the community superiority index in adult tea gardens was obviously lower than in young tea gardens .Main species of spring weeds in adult gardens were abundant ,community structure was stable and complicated ,and buffer effect on environmental change or population fluctuation in species com -munity was strong .Although spring weed species were not abundant in young tea gardens , the dominant weeds species were outstanding ,so serious damage easily occur .The weeds community of adult tea gardens in autumn were Digitaria sanguinalis+Eleusine indica+Erigeron annuus+Echinochloa crusgalli var.austro -japonensis+Acalypha australis +Conyza canadensis+Rostellularia procumbens,and the corresponding community of young tea gardens was composed by Digitaria

  9. Efeitos de herbicidas nos teores de macronutrientes e nas características tecnológicas da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.. I - Misturas de herbicidas em pós-emergência Effect of herbicides on the macronutrient levels and on the tecnologic characteristics of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. I - Mixtures of postemergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Victoria Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida em um Latossol Roxo, com 3,9% de matéria orgânica, na Usina São Carlos, município de Jaboticabal - SP com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento das principais misturas de herbicidas aplicadas em pós-emergência e suas possíveis interferências nos teores de macronutrientes, e no desenvolvimento da variedade CB 41-14. Os tratamentos utilizados com as respectivas doses do ingrediente ativo em kg/ha foram: ametryne + 2,4 - D (formulação comercial a 1,47 - 2,03, diuron + 2,4 -D a 1,60 + 2,16; ametryne + 2,4-D a 1,60 + 2,16; alachlor + 2,4-D a 1,09 + 1,80; asulam + ioxynil - 2,4-D a 2,80 + 1,75; MCPA + 2,4-D a 0,83 + 0,83; oxadiazon + 2,4 -D a 0,50 + 2,16; ametryne + simazine + 2,4-D a 1,25 + 1,25 + 2,16; ametryne + secbumetone + 2,4-D a 2,00 + 2,00 + 2,16; diuron + hexazinone + surfatante a 0,80 + 0,45 + 0,5% e MCPA + 2,3,6-TBA + pendimethalin + surfatante a 1,50 + 0,48 + 0,66 + 0,5%. O controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliado através de contagens por espécie botânica e por avaliações visuais . Sobre a cultura os efeitos foram constatados pela contagem da brotação inicial, avaliações visuais dos efeitos fitotóxicos, análise dos teores de macronutrientes aos 5 e 8 meses, medidas do comprimento dos colmos, análise dos teores de fibra, pol, brix, % de cana e pureza, assim como valores de pol/ha, e peso de colmos por hectare. Não houve interferência das diferentes misturas de herbicidas na brotação inicial, no comprimento médio dos colmos, e nos teores de fibra, pol, brix e pureza por ocasião da colheita. Em relação às principais plantas daninhas presentes na área, que eram capim-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. capim-coloniâo (Panicum maximum Jacq, beldroega (Portulacca oleracea L. e caruru (Amaranthus spp, as melhores porcentagens de controle foram obtidas com as misturas de ametryne + 2,4-D, MCPA + 2,4-D, oxadiazon + 2,4-D, ametryne + secbumetone, diuron + hexazinone e MCPA

  10. Biodiversity variability and metal accumulation strategies in plants spontaneously inhibiting fly ash lagoon, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Suchita; Rana, Vivek; Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2017-08-18

    Out of 29 plant species taken into consideration for biodiversity investigations, the present study screened out Cyperus rotundus L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, Croton bonplandianus Baill., Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., and Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. as the most suitable metal-tolerant plant species (high relative density and frequency) which can grow on metal-laden fly ash (FA) lagoon. Total (aqua-regia), residual (HNO3) and plant available (CaCl2) metal concentrations were assessed for the clean-up of metal-contaminated FA disposal site using naturally colonized plants. The total metal concentration (in mg kg(-1)) in FA followed an order of Mn (229.8) > Ni (228.4) > Zn (89.4) > Cr (61.2) > Pb (56.6) > Cu (51.5) > Co (41.9) > Cd (9.7). The HNO3- and CaCl2-extracted metals were 0.57-15.68% and 0.03-7.82% of the total metal concentration, respectively. The concentration of Ni and Cr in FA in the present study was highest among the previously studied Indian and average world power plants and Cd, Ni, and Cr were above soil toxicity limit. The variation in total, residual, and plant-available metal (single extraction) concentration indicated the presence of different proportions of metals in FA lagoon which affects the metal uptake potential of the vegetation growing on it. It has been reported that plant-available metal extractant (CaCl2) is the most suitable extractant for assessment of metal transfer from soil to plant. However in the present study, Spearman's correlation showed best significant correlation between total metal concentration in FA and shoot metal concentration (r = 0.840; p metal, and in calculation of BCF for moderately contaminated site. It can be stated that plant-available extractant is not always suitable for understanding the availability of metal, but total metal concentration can provide a better insight especially for moderate or low metal-contaminated sites. Principle component analysis revealed that all the

  11. 缙云山自然保护区常见菊科植物花粉形态特征分析%Study on Pollen Morphology of Compositae in Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德怀; 韩晓丽; 孙爱芝; 代然然; 郭洪亮

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 17 compositae plants from Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve in Chongqing Municipality are observed and analyzed under light microscope (LM). The results show that the pollen grains are radially symmetrical, spherical or subsphaeroidal in shape, and the polar view is 3-labed-rounded. They all have 3 colporates. By their pollen morphological features, the 17 species are divided into 4 types. (1) The pollen has big reticulation veins. The representative plants are in three genera: Yoμngia japonica ( L. ) DC, Ixeris polycephala Cass, Paraprenanthes heptantha Shih et D. J. Liou and P. sororia (Miq. ) Shih. (2) The pollen is characterized by sharp, dense and long spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Bidens Pilosa L. , Galinsoga parviflora Cav. , Siegesbeckia orientaiis L. and Bidens tripartite L. (3) Its main characteristics are that the base of spine is swelling and the spine is blunt. The representative plants are in four genera: Sinosenecio oldhamiaus (Maxim.) B. Nord, Senecio scandens Buch. -Ham, Blumea megacephala (Randeria)Chang et Tseng and Kalimeris indica (L. ) Sch. -Bip. (4)This type is characterized by sparse, short, and uniform spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Vernonia cumingiana Diels, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. ) S. Moore (Gynura crepidioides Benth) , Eclip-ta prostrate L. and Gnaphaliμm of fine D. Don. Pollen morphology is different between different plants, but plants with similar pollen morphology can come from different tribes-genera.%应用光学显微镜对缙云山自然保护区17种常见菊科植物的花粉形态进行了观察和分析,结果显示花粉粒均为辐射对称,大多为近球形-长球形,萌发孔均为三孔沟,极面观为三裂圆形.根据花粉形态特征分析,17种菊科植物花粉类型可分为4大类:①花粉形态以粗大网状纹饰为主要特征,以黄鹤菜、苦荬菜、雷山假福王草、假福王草植物为代表;②花粉形态以刺

  12. Mixed Weeds and Competition with Directly Seeded Cotton, North Henan Province,China%豫北露地直播棉田杂草的发生及其与棉花的竞争作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小艳; 马艳; 奚建平; 姜伟丽; 马亚杰; 李希风

    2012-01-01

    为了明确棉田自然混生杂草对棉花的危害程度及其关键防除时期,通过田间杂草共生期试验,研究了豫北露地直播棉田杂草的发生及其与棉花的竞争临界期.结果表明,豫北地区露地直播棉田的优势杂草为牛筋草、马齿苋、藜和鳢肠,杂草出土高峰期集中在棉花苗期和花蕾期,且存在3个出土高峰,分别在5月中旬、6月上中旬和7月中下旬.当杂草与棉花竞争持续时间少于4周时,由于杂草与棉花植株均较小,且土壤中养分相对充足,因此杂草对棉花生长和产量的影响不大;当杂草与棉花竞争期达8周以上时,杂草对棉花的竞争作用明显增强,棉花的株数减少,茎秆变细,形成瘦高植株,且单株结铃数、铃重等产量指标明显降低.因此,豫北棉田自然混生杂草群落与棉花的竞争临界期为棉花出苗后4~8周,在此期间应采取相应措施,保证田间无草害.%In order to understand the degree of damage caused by mixed weeds, and the critical control period, a field experiment was conducted to investigate weed occurrence and the critical period of competition in a directly seeded cotton field in North Henan Province. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaerth, Portulaca oleracea L., Chenopodium aldum L., and Eclipta prostrata L. Were dominant weed species in the cotton field over the whole growing season. Weeds germinated mainly between the seedling stage and the budding stage of the cotton, with three peaks in weed seedling emergence in mid-May, early to mid-June, and mid to late July. Duration of weed competition less than four weeks did not significantly affect cotton growth and yield because soil nutrients were sufficient for both weed and cotton seedlings. However, the number of cotton plants, stem diameter, and yield component factors including boll number per plant and boll weight, were reduced when weed competition lasted up to 8 weeks. Therefore, the critical period for weed control in cotton

  13. Study on Allelopathic Activities of Different Organs of 20 Species of Compositae Plants%20种菊科植物不同器官的化感活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小勇; 孙启涛; 周世军

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to determine the allelopathic activities of different organs of 20 species composite plants on lettuce seedlings. [Method]Methodof grinded plant tissue powder mixed with agar (PPA) was used. [Result] The growth of lettuce seedlings were remarkably inhibited by the powers of all plant organs, the inhibitory rates on growth of radicles were higher than that on hypocotyls at 10 g/ L concentration. Among all the plant organs, the leaves, flowers, roots and shoots of Erigeron annuus (L. ) Pers. and Cirsium segetum Bge. , the leaves of Helianthus annum, Ixeris sonchifolia Hance, Xanthium sibiricum Patrin. and Eclipta prostrata L. , the flowers of Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant. , Sonchus brachyotus DC. , Conyza bonariensis (L. ) Cronq. , Hemistepta lyrata Bge. , Sonckus oleraceus L. and Tagetes erecta, the roots, leaves and flowers of Scorzonera albicaulis Bge. , the shoots of Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant. and Sonchus brachyotus DC. , and the leaves, shoots and flowers of Ixeris chinensis (Thunb. ) Nakai on the radicles gorwth, and the leaves and flowers of Erigeron annuus (L. ) Pers. , the flowers of Conyza canadensis ( L. ) Cronq. and Hemistepta lyrata Bge. , the leaves of Helianthus annuus, the roots of Cirsium segetum Bge. , and the shoots and flowers of Artemisia argyi Levl. et Vant. on the hypocotyls growth showed more obvious inhibition. [Conclusion] TheResults showed that some organs in 20 species of plants had high allelopathic activities.%[目的]测定20种菊科植物不同器官对受体植物生菜的化感活性.[方法]采用琼脂混粉法.[结果]在10 g/L的粉末添加浓度下,所有的供试植物器官粉末均对受体植物生菜幼苗的生长产生了不同程度的抑制作用,且对胚根生长的抑制明显高于对胚轴生长的抑制.其中,1年蓬和小刺儿菜的叶、花、根和茎,向日葵、抱茎苦荬莱、苍耳和醴肠的叶,艾蒿、苣荬莱、野塘蒿、泥胡菜、苦苣菜和万寿菊的

  14. 1%(噁)嗪草酮悬浮剂及与其他除草剂混用对机插稻田杂草的防效%Effects of 1% Oxaziclomefone SC and Mixture with Other Herbicide on Weeds Control in Mechanized Transplanting Paddy filed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婷; 王红春; 唐为爱; 李万梅; 姜小翠; 娄远来

    2012-01-01

    Control effects of oxaziclomefone 1% SC (45g a. i. /hm2) against Echinochloa spp. and Leptochloa chinensis (L. ) Nees. are over 90%. Control effects of oxaziclomefone 1 % SC (37.5 g a. i. /hm2) mixed with bensulfuron methyl 10% WP (22.5 g a. i. /hm2) against Echinochloa spp. ,L. chinensis ( L. ) Nees. ,Eclipta prostrate L. ,Lindernia proc-umbens ( Krock. ) Philcox, Ludwigia prostrate Roxb. , Ludwigia hyssopifolia ( C. Don ) Exell, Sesbania cannabina (Retz. ) Pers. ,Cyperus difformis L. are over 80%. Control effect of oxaziclomefone 1% SC (37.5 g a. i./hm2) mixed with bispyribac - sodium 10% WP(30 g a. i./hm2) against Echinochloa spp. ,L. chinensis ( L. ) Nees. ,E. prostrate L. ,L procumbent (Krock. ) Philcox,L. prostrate Roxb. ,L. hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell,S. cannabina (Retz. ) Pers, Heleocharis plantagineiformis Tang et Wang,Cyperus difformis L. are 88%~100%. Oxaziclomefone 1% SC at the dose of 45 g a. i. /hm2 and oxaziclomefone 1% SC at the dose of 37.5 g a. i. /hm2 mixed with bensulfuron methyl 10% WP (22.5 g a. i. /hm2 ) or mixed with bispyribac - sodium 10% WP(30 g a. i. /hm2) are safe to rice in the mechanized transplanting paddy field.%1%(噁)嗪草酮悬浮剂45 g a.i./hm2处理对稗属杂草、千金子的防效均为90%以上.1%(噁)嗪草酮悬浮剂37.5 g a.i./hm2剂量与10%苄嘧磺隆可湿性粉剂22.5 ga.i./hm2混用,对稗属杂草、千金子、鳢肠、陌上菜、丁香蓼、草龙、田菁及异型莎草的防效均达到80%以上.1%(噁)嗪草酮悬浮剂37.5 g a.i./hm2剂量与10%双草醚可湿性粉剂30 g a.i./hm2混用对稗属杂草、千金子、鳢肠、陌上菜、丁香蓼、草龙、田菁、野荸荠、异型莎草的防效为88%~ 100%.1%(噁)嗪草酮45 g a.i./hm2剂量及37.5 g a.i./hm2剂量与10%苄嘧磺隆可湿性粉剂22.5 g a.i./hm2混用或与10%双草醚可湿性粉剂30 g a.i./hm2混用,对机插秧水稻安全.

  15. 三峡水库运行对汉丰湖湿地植物群落及生境的影响%Impact of Operating Three Gorges Reservoir on the Habitat and Plant Community in Hanfeng Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志永; 潘晓洁; 郑志伟; 胡红青; 程丽; 李春辉; 丁庆秋; 万成炎

    2014-01-01

    above ground,height and cover of the plant community were measured and soil samples were collected in three 1 m ×1 m plots along the elevation gradients (160-165 m,166-170 m and 171 -175 m)of each transect. The soil bulk density was measured by the cutting-ring method,and the physio-chemical parameters and the avail-able nutrient content of 90 soil samples at 0-20cm depth were determined and compared with the data from an ear-lier study carried out in 2010.A total of 59 species of vascular plants belonging to 20 genera were recorded,with rich species diversity among Asteraceae,Gramineae and Polygonaceae.Vegetation was dominated by herbaceous plants with percentages of annual and perennial herbs accounting,respectively,for 54.2% and 37.3% of total species.The range of fresh weight in the plant community was 488.3-6586.1 g/m2,the height range was 19.6-102.2 cm and the cover range was 23%-201%,with mean values of2031.5 g/m2,59.2 cm and 109%,respec-tively.The ranges of soil density,pH,organic matter,available nitrogen,available phosphorus and potassium were 1.00-1.60 g/cm3,6.83-8.59,1.40 -22.5 g/kg,6.00 -94.38 mg/kg,1.33 -59.37 mg/kg and 2.50 -219.00 mg/kg,with mean values of 1.32 g/cm3,8.15,10.03 g/kg,29.37 mg/kg,12.18 mg/kg and 46.13 mg/kg,respectively.Plant species with high importance values were Cynodon dactylon (22.84 ±5.78), Hemarthria altissima (16.38 ±13.27,Digitaria sanguinalis (11.10 ±12.27),Echinochloa mitis (10.83 ±3.64) and Setaria viridis (9.56 ±5.38).Monte Carlo testing revealed that pH and concentration of available potassium are the primary environmental variables affecting the importance value of species.Results indicate that variations in the plant community in Hanfeng Lake can be attributed primarily to changes in habitat due to operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  16. Ecological Interspecific Relationship and Clustering of Autumn -Occurring Weed Communities in Tea Gardens of Yixing City,Jiangsu Province%江苏省宜兴市茶园秋季杂草种间生态关系及群落分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    A survey of weed species,density and height was conducted in Yixing tea gardens to estimate the weed relative abundance and importance values in October of 201 3.The niche breadth and niche overlap values of selected 28 main weeds with 20% frequency were calculated from the obtained data,and a two -dimensional scatter plot of DCA ordination was drawn based on relevant values.There were 80 weed species,belonging to 71 genera of 40 families.Among them,the occurrence frequency of 28 weed species was over 20%.Among these 28 species,Rubus hirsutus,Vicia sativa,Oxalis corniculata,Paederia scandens var.to-mentosa,and Geranium carolinianum had wider niche breadth than those of other species,being the important weeds in Yixing tea gardens.The highest niche overlap values were found between R.hirsutus,P.scandens var.tomentosa,Sonchus oleraceus,Conyza canadensis, Digitaria sanguinalis,Crassocephalum crepidioides,Emilia sonchifolia,Cayratia japonica,Trigonotis peduncularis,Eleusine indica,Rostellularia procumbens and Setaira viridis that were highly competitive for available resources.Therefore they are the species posing the greatest harm to tea plants.All sampling sites were quantitatively clustered into five groups inclu-ding basalt soil tea garden,non plowed and general -managed tea garden,plowed and well -managed tea garden,plowed and fine -managed tea garden,non plowed non chemical weeding,and well -managed old tea garden based on the simi-larity coefficient.Dominant weeds were different among five groups and formed relatively different weed communities in the tea gardens.%2013年10月对江苏省宜兴市丘陵茶园秋季杂草发生种类、数量、高度等进行调查,将其转换成相对多度和重要值数据,在此基础上计测了宜兴丘陵茶园28种主要杂草的生态位宽度和生态位重叠值,用 DCA 排序法作出反映杂草生态学相似程度的 DCA 排序图,并对不同样地杂草类群进行聚类分析。结果表明:宜兴

  17. Effects of Applying Accumulator Straw in Soil on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora%土施富集植物秸秆对牛膝菊生长及镉积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤福义; 林立金; 廖进秋; 廖明安; 何静; 杨代宇; 张潇

    2015-01-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of accumulator straw on hyperaccumulator,a pot experiment was con-ducted to study the effects of applying accumulators (Conyza canadensis,Cardamine hirsuta,Eclipta prostrata and Nasturtium officinale)straws in soil on growth and cadmium accumulation of Galinsoga parviflora under cadmium pollution.The results were as follows:Compared with non-application (control),the application of C.canadensis and C.hirsute straws improved the roots,stems,leaves,shoots and whole plants biomasses of G.parviflora,and the plant height and antioxidant enzymes (SOD,POD and CAT)activity of G.parviflora also increased.The straws of E.pros-trate and N.officinale reduced the biomass,plant height and antioxidant enzyme activity of G.parviflora.The straws of C.canadensis,C.hirsuta,E.prostrata and N.officinale improved cadmium content in shoots of G.parviflora,which improved 1 2.01 %,9.55%,22.03% and 5.39% respectively compared with control,but only C.canadensis and C.hirsuta straws improved the cadmium accumulation in shoots of G.parviflora (which improved by 35.78% and 1 1 .77% respectively compared with control).C.canadensis and C.hirsuta straws increased soil catalase activity, soil urease activity and soil invertase activity,and the straws of E.prostrata and N.officinale reduced soil activity. Therefore,the applying C.canadensis and C.hirsuta straws in soil could improve cadmium contaminated soil remedy ability of G.parviflora,and C.canadensis straw was the best one.%为研究富集植物秸秆对超富集植物的化感作用,通过盆栽试验,研究了镉污染条件下,土施4种镉富集植物(小飞蓬、碎米荠、旱莲草和豆瓣菜)秸秆对牛膝菊生长及镉积累的影响。结果表明:与未施用相比,施用小飞蓬和碎米荠秸秆提高了牛膝菊根系、茎秆、叶片、地上部分及整株生物量,也提高了牛膝菊株高和抗氧化酶(SOD、POD 和CAT)活性,但施用旱莲草和豆瓣菜秸秆

  18. Comunidades microbianas, atividade enzimática e fungos micorrízicos em solo rizosférico de "Landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos Microbial communities, enzymatic activity and mycorrhizal fungi in rhizospheric soil used for Landfarming of Petrochemical Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Shigueyoshi Nakatani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As raízes das plantas podem estimular a microbiota do solo, a qual pode contribuir para o aumento da eficiência do processo de remediação. Assim, avaliar a magnitude dos efeitos das raízes sobre a microbiota do solo é de grande interesse e de relevância prática e ecológica. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se a densidade microbiana, a atividade enzimática, a estrutura da comunidade bacteriana e a presença de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na rizosfera de plantas de ocorrência espontânea em solo de sistema de "landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos. Avaliaram-se também solos rizosféricos de cinco plantas e solo-controle sem planta por meio de contagens de microrganismos em placas, eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE de fragmentos do gene rRNA 16S, seqüenciamento genético, atividades enzimáticas, percentagem de colonização radicular e contagem e identificação de esporos de FMAs. As plantas estimularam a densidade microbiana total e da população de degradadores de antraceno, com contagens médias de 1,5 x 10(6 e 2,2 x 10(6 UFC g-1 no solo seco, respectivamente, enquanto, no solo sem planta, essas contagens foram de 5,7 x 10(5 e 2,9 x 10(5 UFC g-1 no solo seco para os respectivos grupos microbianos. As espécies de maior efeito foram Bidens pilosa e Eclipta alba. Entretanto, esses efeitos estimulantes não foram verificados para a atividade enzimática do solo. A colonização micorrízica das raízes (em torno de 40 % e a densidade de esporos nos solos rizosféricos foram elevadas (entre 900 e 4.800 esporos por 50 cm³ de solo, sendo maior na Brachiaria decumbens. Foram identificadas quatro espécies de FMAs: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus intraradices, Paraglomus occultum e Archaeospora trappei. Com exceção de G. intraradices, essas espécies não foram observadas em áreas contaminadas por hidrocarbonetos de petróleo. A análise por DGGE revelou que os solos rizosféricos apresentaram comunidades