WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanguin international limited

  1. Combination of phlebography and sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.

    1988-07-01

    Phlebographic visualisation offers the highest spatial resolution of all imaging methods both in respect of veins of the leg and pelvis and of the abdomen. Phlebography offers optimal conditions for assessing morphological changes at the veins and in their direct neighbourhood. No quantitative information is available via phlebography if haemodynamics are disturbed; qualitative information is yielded merely to a restricted extent (by assessing flow velocity and collaterals). Direct sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure is particularly suitable for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of disturbed haemodynamic conditions; in this respect it stands out among the function tests based on the employment of apparatures. If it is combined with phlebography, it is possible not only to optimise the diagnostic yield in the hands of one investigator, but also to reduce the invasiveness of both methods to one single puncture, since the puncture needle is at the same time also an instrument to measure the pressure. The article points out the possibilities and limitations of combining a) ascending phlebography of the leg and pelvis with peripheral venous pressure measurement (phlebodynamometry) and b) visualisation of the veins of the pelvis and vena cava inferior with central sanguinous venous pressure measurement (CP). Indicatious and technical execution are described.

  2. Internal polarization limits coronagraph contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James Bernard; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of exoplanet imaging coronagraphs is limited by internal polarization. The point spread function (PSF) of these systems is determined by the details of the opto-mechanical layout selected to package the system and by the highly reflective metal thin films needed to maintain high optical system transmittance. To obtain the high contrast levels needed for terrestrial exoplanet science requires a comprehensive understanding of the vector electromagnetic wave from the source through the system. The literature contains many studies of polarization transmissivity of telescopes and instruments for the purpose of photo-polarimetry. Here we report for the first time the effects of polarization on high-performance image quality.We modeled a typical 2.4-meter Cassegrain telescope system with one 90-degree fold mirror and analyzed the system for polarization aberrations.We find: 1. The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: One for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-product polarization terms. 2. The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. 3. The image of the PSF for orthogonal components are shifted across the focal plane with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for astronomical sources (polarized or unpolarized) to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 masec. 4. The orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized sources contain different wavefront aberrations, which are separated by approximately 32 milliwaves. This implies that a wavefront correction system cannot optimally correct the aberrations for all polarizations simultaneously. 5. The polarization aberrations couple small parts (~1E-5) of each polarization component of the light into the orthogonal polarization to create highly distorted secondary, or “ghost” PSF image.. The radius of the spatial extent of the 90

  3. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  4. Organisation de la transfusion Sanguine Thérapeutique : Etude des modalités alternatives de la transfusion sanguine hérapeutique organisable en ambulatoire

    OpenAIRE

    Buthion, Valérie; Denechaud, Clémence; Remonnay, Raphaël

    2009-01-01

    233p; Ce rapport présente les résultats d'une recherche pilote sur l'organisation d'un soin de santé, la transfusion sanguine thérapeutique. Majoritairement organisée au sein des services hospitalier, elle peut être assurer dans des conditions de sécurité satisfaisante dans des centres de santé ou à domicile avec des équipes mobile. Pourtant, les grands centres hospitaliers sont majoritaires dans sa prise en charge, malgré des demandes répétées, notamment de l'Etablissement Français du Sang, ...

  5. RESEARCES REGARDING THE SANGUINE CORTISOL EVOLUTION, AS BIOCHEMICAL INDEX, IN SPORT HORSES IN COMPLETE HORSE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIA ŞOVĂREL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the horse for sport activities needs a good training and an optimization ofphysical and psychical qualities, both contributing to achieve the wantedperformances. Physical effort impose to the horse in different competitions is a stresssituation, fact which induce an endocrine answer, materialised through increasingthe sanguine levels of some hormones and decreasing of others. The purpose of thisstudy was to verify if the training and the effort intensity is reflected in the sanguinecortisol behaviour in sport horses.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRINCEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from łurcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in γ – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic α-amylase both in sheep and goats.

  7. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  8. Sarcopenia With Limited Mobility: An International Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E.; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Argiles, Josep M.; Baracos, Vickie; Bauer, Juergen; Bhasin, Shalender; Cederholm, Tommy; Stewart Coats, Andrew J.; Cummings, Steven R.; Evans, William J.; Fearon, Kenneth; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fielding, Roger A.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Inui, Akio; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Mantovani, Giovanni; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Newman, Anne B.; Rossi-Fanelli, Filippo; Rosano, Giuseppe M. C.; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schambelan, Morris; Sokol, Gerald H.; Storer, Thomas W.; Vellas, Bruno; von Haehling, Stephan; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Anker, Stefan D.

    2016-01-01

    A consensus conference convened by the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders has concluded that “Sarcopenia, ie, reduced muscle mass, with limited mobility” should be considered an important clinical entity and that most older persons should be screened for this condition. “Sarcopenia with limited mobility” is defined as a person with muscle loss whose walking speed is equal to or less than 1 m/s or who walks less than 400 m during a 6-minute walk, and who has a lean appendicular mass corrected for height squared of 2 standard deviations or more below the mean of healthy persons between 20 and 30 years of age of the same ethnic group. The limitation in mobility should not clearly be a result of otherwise defined specific diseases of muscle, peripheral vascular disease with intermittent claudication, central and peripheral nervous system disorders, or cachexia. Clinically significant interventions are defined as an increase in the 6-minute walk of at least 50 meters or an increase of walking speed of at least 0.1 m/s. “A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of a living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and the time when it is used.”—Oliver Wendell Holmes PMID:21640657

  9. Internal limiting membrane peeling in vitreo-retinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Ehab; Lois, Noemi

    2008-01-01

    Peeling the internal limiting membrane of the retina has become a very common procedure performed by vitreo-retinal surgeons. The combination of new microsurgical instrumentation with the availability of different dyes to stain this thin and transparent membrane has facilitated the performance of internal limiting membrane peeling, reducing the time and trauma associated with this maneuver. Internal limiting membrane peeling has been used to treat a variety of retinal pathologies, including full-thickness macular hole, epiretinal membrane, macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and Terson syndrome, among others. Although it appears that peeling the internal limiting membrane in these retinal conditions may be associated with better anatomical and visual outcomes following surgery, further evidence through randomized controlled clinical trials is still needed to guide the vitreo-retinal surgeon on the appropriate use of this surgical maneuver.

  10. Success factors and limitations of efficient internal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tworzydło

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the key issues of internal communication within an organization. It highlights the benefits of implementation of transparent communication principles for a company. It identifies objectives and presents selected communication tools. In the article, also guidelines for carrying out research in the context of development of an internal communication strategy can be found. Selected research areas of the process of planning and implementation of strategic assumptions have been presented. Factors limiting effective implementation of an internal communication strategy have been discussed.

  11. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap For Large Traumatic Macular Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shousha, Mohsen Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of inverted internal limiting membrane flap as a treatment option for large traumatic macular holes.This is a prospective noncomparative study in which 12 eyes with large traumatic macular holes (basal diameter of 1300-2800 μm) since 3 to 6 months were subjected to standard 23-gauge vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid, brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in a circular fashion keeping it attached to the edge of the hole to create a flap. At the end of the surgery, air fluid exchange was done with inversion of the internal limiting membrane flap inside the macular hole using the soft tipped cannula and sulfur hexafluoride 20% as tamponade. The main follow-up measures are the best corrected visual acuity and the optical coherence tomography for 6 to 9 months.All the included eyes had a closed hole from the first week postoperative and along the follow-up period (6-9 months). The best corrected visual acuity improved from 20/2000 to 20/200 with a median of 20/400 preoperatively to 20/400 to 20/50 with a median of 20/100 at the end of follow-up period.Inverted internal limiting membrane flap is a good adjuvant to standard vitrectomy in the management of large traumatic macular holes that led to the 100% closure rate and improvement of best corrected visual acuity.

  12. External and internal limitations in amplitude-modulation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments are presented to explore the relative role of "external" signal variability and "internal" resolution limitations of the auditory system in the detection and discrimination of amplitude modulations (AM). In the first experiment, AM-depth discrimination performance was determined......, 16, 64, and 256 Hz, applied to either a band-limited random-noise carrier or a deterministic ("frozen") noise carrier, as a function of carrier bandwidth (8 to 2048 Hz). In general, detection thresholds were higher for the random- than for the frozen-noise carriers. For both carrier types, thresholds......-filterbank models. The predictions revealed that AM-depth discrimination and AM detection are limited by a combination of the external signal variability and an internal "Weber-fraction" noise process....

  13. Recurrent myopic foveoschisis: resolution after internal limiting membrane removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 66-year-old man with a history of high myopia and who was referred for acute decreased visual acuity of the right eye. Fundus examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a mild epiretinal membrane (ERM and splitting of retinal layers. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed with intravitreous triamcinolone injection, posterior hyaloid and ERM peeling, and 12% perfluoropropane (C3F8 gas tamponade. After remaining asymptomatic for 17 months, the patient reported a new episode of sudden decreased visual acuity in his right eye, and OCT showed recurrent myopic foveoschisis (MF. He underwent vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling. Six months later, the patient’s best corrected visual acuity had improved to 20/25. Optical coherence tomography showed a remarkably improved macular anatomy, with residual traction along the inferotemporal arcade, which was attributed to the vessel stiffness itself. We conclude that removing the internal limiting membrane is a challenging maneuver in myopic foveoschisis, even with staining approaches. Although myopic foveoschisis may be resolved without peeling the internal limiting membrane, its removal should be considered if the condition recurs.

  14. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life.

  15. The methods and limitations of dosimetry after internal contamination; Les methodes et les limites de la dosimetrie apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchardon, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Evaluation de la Dose Interne (DRPH/SDI/LEDI), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Flury-Herard, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Cellule Carmin (DSV/DIR/CAR) et Cab. HC, 92 (France); Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. de RadioTOXicologie Experimentale (DRPH/SRBE/LRTOX), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2007-10-15

    The assessment of absorbed, equivalent and effective doses after internal exposure is based on activity measurement by in vivo counting or bioassay. A dose value is derived from this measurement by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models which describe the behaviour of radionuclides in the body of a reference man and the subsequent deposition of energy. To enforce regulatory dose limits, monitoring programs are designed. The doses can be estimated from the measurement data according to a standard procedure as proposed by the I.D.E.A.S. group. However, a significant uncertainty is associated with the dose estimate, due to the uncertainties of measurement, to the incomplete knowledge of the conditions of exposure and to the imperfect realism of the models. In addition to this uncertainty, the extrapolation to low dose of biological effects observed at higher dose, the chemical toxicity of radionuclides and the heterogeneous energy deposition make the estimation of the risk following an internal exposure very difficult. As a conclusion, it should be reminded that the effective dose is a tool for the management of radiological protection but not a quantitative indicator of the individual risk. (authors)

  16. Retinal Damage Induced by Internal Limiting Membrane Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gelman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal limiting membrane (ILM, the basement membrane of the Müller cells, serves as the interface between the vitreous body and the retinal nerve fiber layer. It has a fundamental role in the development, structure, and function of the retina, although it also is a pathologic component in the various vitreoretinal disorders, most notably in macular holes. It was not until understanding of the evolution of idiopathic macular holes and the advent of idiopathic macular hole surgery that the idea of adjuvant ILM peeling in the treatment of tractional maculopathies was explored. Today intentional ILM peeling is a commonly applied surgical technique among vitreoretinal surgeons as it has been found to increase the rate of successful macular hole closure and improve surgical outcomes in other vitreoretinal diseases. Though ILM peeling has refined surgery for tractional maculopathies, like all surgical procedures it is not immune to perioperative risk. The essential role of the ILM to the integrity of the retina and risk of trauma to retinal tissue spurs suspicion with regard to its routine removal. Several authors have investigated the retinal damage induced by ILM peeling and these complications have been manifested across many different diagnostic studies.

  17. Limiting the objectives of the enforcement of international punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Abels

    2016-01-01

    International criminal justice is an ambitious undertaking. This is due to high expectations on the part of different stakeholders. The international criminal tribunals are generally expected to serve such ‘grand’ goals as promoting or maintaining peace and security, historiography, upholding and ad

  18. Limits to Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta Cordero-Moss

    2014-01-01

    International contracts are often written in a standardised manner and without taking into consideration the applicable law. This may create the illusion that the contract is the only basis for the parties' rights and obligations, especially when the contract contains an arbitration clause. Using two typical contract clauses as an illustration (force majeure clause and entire agreement clause), this article analyses the extent to which an international contract, eventhough it contains an arbi...

  19. At the limit: on realism, materialism and international theory

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Central to Realism’s framing of the international are its conception of the inside/outside\\ud structure of political form and the idea of a state of nature. This thesis provides a\\ud materialist critique of these conceptions. Its starting point is that the Marxist criticism of\\ud Realism has fallen short because Marxism in IR has constructed no theory of the political\\ud and as a result it has been unable to answer Realism’s perception of the ‘tragic’ and\\ud unchanging nature of international...

  20. Etude exploratoire des conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Jean-Marc

    Il existe peu d'etudes sur les conceptions touchant les domaines de la biologie, notamment sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine Nous avons observe egalement l'absence de recherche menee aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial sur cette question. Nous avons voulu combler une lacune en menant une recherche sur les conceptions de la circulation sanguine aupres d'eleves de l'ordre collegial. Pour mener cette recherche nous nous sommes inspires d'une methode developpee par Treagust (1988). Le premier niveau de formulation didactique etablit l'architecture du systeme et la fonction nutritive de la circulation. Le second niveau de formulation didactique decrit et relie les parametres de la dynamique de la circulation et leur relation: Pression, Debit et Resistance. Le troisieme niveau de formulation didactique s'interesse au controle de la circulation du sang dans un contexte d'homeostasie qui implique la regulation de la pression arterielle. Nous avons construit un questionnaire en nous guidant sur les niveaux de formulation didactique et l'analyse des entrevues menees aupres de dix-huit eleves, representatifs de la population cible. Ce questionnaire fut administre a un echantillon de 2300 eleves disperses dans six colleges de la region de Montreal. Notre echantillon comprend des eleves inscrits a des programmes de l'ordre collegial en Sciences de la nature et en Techniques de la sante et qui n'ont pas suivi le cours sur la circulation sanguine. Notre analyse des reponses des eleves de notre echantillon aux questions sur le premier niveau de formulation didactique revele que la majorite des eleves considerent que le systeme circulatoire relie les organes les uns aux autres dans un circuit en serie. Notre analyse revele egalement que la majorite des eleves estiment que les nutriments sont extraits du sang par les organes selon un processus de selection base sur les besoins determines par la fonction de l'organe. Ces besoins sont differents selon les organes qui ne

  1. The limitation of actions in the international sale of goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Woelki, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess whether the arguments advanced by a number of countries of the European Union at the time of the conclusion of the Limitation Convention in 1974 and at the time of the amendment in 1980 for not becoming a party to this important instrument of unification are

  2. International pact limits airline's liability for needle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-18

    [Name removed] sued Mexicana de Aviacion S.A. de C.V. for liability after he was pricked in the leg by a hypodermic needle that was found in the plane's seat cushion. A Federal judge ruled that since liability claims resulting from injuries on international flights are covered by the Warsaw Convention, [name removed] could not recover more than $75,000 for his fear-of-AIDS liability lawsuit. The judge also stated that the Signature Support Corporation, a second defendant named in the case because they are subcontracted to clean Mexicana's planes, may also be covered by the Warsaw Convention.

  3. Globalization and democracy: international immigration and limits of national citizenship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcio Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although democracy has become an endlessly widespread idea around the world in recent decades, is also verified in specialized literature and opinion research that the democratic regime is in crisis. This apparently paradoxical process stems from the fact that the new democracies that emerged at the end of the twentieth century are challenged by two important factors: economic globalization and increasing social complexity. With the decline of the nation- state brought by the restructuring of capitalism at a global scale, political and legal mechanisms of economic intervention, income distribution, national development and protection of the citizens’ rights, undergo a radical weakening. On the other hand, globalization intensifies and facilitates population displacement and international migration.

  4. LIMITS IN APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS TO INNOVATIVE CERAMIC SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gres Porcelain stoneware is a ceramic with a compact, hard, coloured and non-porous body. It is largely used as building materials, for a quality architecture, offering high resistance to impact, stress, wear, scratching, frost, chemical attach and stains. It is produced in flat tiles, billions of tons per year. A very prominent technology, based on a pyroclastic deformation, permits to obtain bended porcelain tiles as innovative solutions for a modern architecture. This technology is grounded on a proper combination of heavy machining by cutting tools and secondary firing in a kiln. This new element, the bended tile, can be used in several innovative applications (as steps, shelves, benches, radiators.... But, new functions require a better and in-depth knowledge of these materials, especially referring to the mechanical proprieties. This paper investigates the limits of applicability of ISO standards for the quality classification of ceramics and experimental measures of their mechanical proprieties.

  5. Systeme microfluidique d'analyse sanguine en temps reel pour l'imagerie moleculaire chez le petit animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convert, Laurence

    De nouveaux radiotraceurs sont continuellement développés pour améliorer l'efficacité diagnostique en imagerie moléculaire, principalement en tomographie d'émission par positrons (TEP) et en tomographie d'émission monophotonique (TEM) dans les domaines de l'oncologie, de la cardiologie et de la neurologie. Avant de pouvoir être utilisés chez les humains, ces radiotraceurs doivent être caractérisés chez les petits animaux, principalement les rats et les souris. Pour cela, de nombreux échantillons sanguins doivent être prélevés et analysés (mesure de radioactivité, séparation de plasma, séparation d'espèces chimiques), ce qui représente un défi majeur chez les rongeurs à cause de leur très faible volume sanguin (˜1,4 ml pour une souris). Des solutions fournissant une analyse partielle sont présentées dans la littérature, mais aucune ne permet d'effectuer toutes les opérations dans un même système. Les présents travaux de recherche s'insèrent dans le contexte global d'un projet visant à développer un système microfluidique d'analyse sanguine complète en temps réel pour la caractérisation des nouveaux radiotraceurs TEP et TEM. Un cahier des charges a tout d'abord été établi et a permis de fixer des critères quantitatifs et qualitatifs à respecter pour chacune des fonctions de la puce. La fonction de détection microfluidique a ensuite été développée. Un état de l'art des travaux ayant déjà combiné la microfluidique et la détection de radioactivité a permis de souligner qu'aucune solution existante ne répondait aux critères du projet. Parmi les différentes technologies disponibles, des microcanaux en résine KMPR fabriqués sur des détecteurs semiconducteurs de type p-i-n ont été identifiés comme une solution technologique pour le projet. Des détecteurs p-i-n ont ensuite été fabriqués en utilisant un procédé standard. Les performances encourageantes obtenues ont mené à initier un projet de ma

  6. The Method of Economic Analysis of International Law: What are its Limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the most recent developments regarding the use of the so-called “economic analysis” approaches to international law. It reviews the main features of this methodology and its potential contribution for promoting critical scholarship in international legal studies, particularly...... in specific contemporary issues such as international security, trade and environment. The article also points out the most important limitations of this approach, which mainly derive from a misunderstanding of the assumptions behind the use of rational choice theories, particularly through a recurrent...... oversimplification of international relations literature...

  7. 77 FR 1549 - Order Limiting Scheduled Operations at Newark Liberty International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... 15, 2012. The construction schedule, which may be adjusted because of weather conditions, is: Nightly..., and the construction schedule, which limits the closures, reflects those discussions. FAA Analysis... Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) due to construction at the airport during the summer 2012...

  8. Macular morphology and visual acuity after macular hole surgery with or without internal limiting membrane peeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U.C.; Kroyer, K.; Sander, B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine postoperative macular morphology and visual outcome after 12 months in relation to internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus no peeling, indocyanine green (ICG) staining and re-operation in eyes that achieved macular hole closure after surgery. Methods: Seventy-four eyes wit...

  9. [Modified technique of autologous transplantation of internal limiting membrane for macular hole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Béjar-Cornejo, Francisco

    Autologous internal limiting membrane transplantation has allowed some cases of macular holes refractory to conventional surgery techniques to be treated. The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modification of this technique in a case series of naïve macular hole patients. A consecutive case series study was performed on patients with naïve macular holes with a diameter greater than 600 μ. Best corrected visual acuity, clinical features of the macular area, and optical coherence tomography were recorded before the operation and at the end of follow-up in all patients studied. All patients underwent 23 Ga core vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid separation, and brilliant-blue assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. A small piece of the internal limiting membrane was peeled off to make a free flap, and this was trasplanted and placed inside the macular hole under perfluorocarbon liquids. Air-fluid exchange was performed and SF6 gas was injected at a non-expansile concentration. The study included 5 eyes of 5 patients who underwent internal limiting membrane autograft. The mean age was 50.6 (SD 12.3) years. Four of the 5 cases had macular hole closure. The case where there was no closure of the macular hole was secondary to trauma. There was an improvement in visual acuity in all patients where the closing of the macular hole was achieved at the end of follow-up. In this cases series of macular hole patients, the autologous internal limiting membrane transplantation was associated with an anatomical closure of the macular hole and functional improvement in most of the patients studied. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating the effect of SFCL on limiting the internal fault of synchronous machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheirizad, I [Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varahram, M H [Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahed-Motlagh, M R [Azad University of Science and Research, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahnema, M; Mohammadi, A [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hadi_varahram@yahoo.com

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we have modelled a synchronous generator with internal one phase to ground fault and then the performance of this machine with internal one phase to ground fault have been analyzed. The results show that if the faults occur in vicinity of machine's terminal, then we would have serious damages. To protect the machine from this kind of faults we have suggested integrating a SFCL (superconducting fault current limiter) into the machine's model. The results show that the fault currents in this case will reduce considerably without influencing the normal operation of the machine.

  11. The benefits of international rotations to resource-limited settings for U.S. surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jaymie A; Groen, Reinou S; Price, Raymond R; Nwomeh, Benedict C; Kingham, T Peter; Hardy, Mark A; Kushner, Adam L

    2013-04-01

    U.S. surgery residents increasingly are interested in international experiences. Recently, the Residency Review Committee approved international surgery rotations for credit toward graduation. Despite this growing interest, few U.S. surgery residency programs offer formal international rotations. We aimed to present the benefits of international surgery rotations and how these rotations contribute to the attainment of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies. An e-mail-based survey was sent in November 2011 to the 188 members of Surgeons OverSeas, a group of surgeons, residents, fellows, and medical students with experience working in resource-limited settings. They were asked to list 5 benefits of international rotations for surgery residents. The frequency of benefits was qualitatively grouped into 4 major categories: educational, personal, benefits to the foreign institution/Global Surgery, and benefits to the home institution. The themes were correlated with the 6 ACGME competencies. The 58 respondents (31% response rate) provided a total of 295 responses. Fifty themes were identified. Top benefits included learning to optimally function with limited resources, exposure to a wide variety of operative pathology, exposure to a foreign culture, and forming relationships with local counterparts. All ACGME competencies were covered by the themes. International surgery rotations to locations in which resources are constrained, operative diseases vary, and patient diversity abound provide unique opportunities for surgery residents to attain the 6 ACGME competencies. General surgery residency programs should be encouraged to establish formal international rotations as part of surgery training to promote resident education and assist with necessary oversight. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. External fixation combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pilon tibia fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intraarticular fractures of the tibial plafond (pilon fractures belong to the group of most severe fractures. They are usually caused by high-energy trauma and frequently associated with a marked soft-tissue damage. Surgical treatment has replaced the traditional nonoperative treatment. The aim of this study was to present the results of the treatment of distal tibial intraarticular fracture by the use of internal fixation, as well as the combination of minimal internal fixation and external fixation. Methods. The study included 47 patients with pilon tibia fractures who went through at the Clinic for Orthopedics and Traumatology, School of Medicine, Niš (1995-2004. Within the analyzed group there were 33 (70.2% males and 14 (29.8% females. The patients mean age was 45.8 years. In the first group, which consisted of 22 patients, open reduction and internal fixation of both the tibia and the fibula was performed in the two separate incisions. The second group consisted of 25 patients managed with external fixation by external fixator "Mitković" with limited internal fixation. Besides external fixation, a minimal internal fixation was performed by the use of Kirschner wires and screws. The patients were followed-up inside a 24-months-period. Results. The obtained was a substantially high number of complications after open reduction and internal fixation in the group of patients. There was no difference in a long-term clinical outcome. Postoperative osteitis, as the most severe complication in the management of closed pilon tibia fractures, was not registered in the second group. Conclusion. Considering the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that external fixation by the "Mitković" external fixator with the minimal internal fixation is a satisfactory method for the treatment of fractures of the tibial plafond causing less complications than internal fixation. .

  13. Intense Internal and External Fluorescence as Solar Cells Approach the Shockley-Queisser Efficiency Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Owen D; Kurtz, Sarah R

    2012-01-01

    Absorbed sunlight in a solar cell produces electrons and holes. But, at the open circuit condition, the carriers have no place to go. They build up in density and, ideally, they emit external fluorescence that exactly balances the incoming sunlight. Any additional non-radiative recombination impairs the carrier density buildup, limiting the open-circuit voltage. At open-circuit, efficient external fluorescence is an indicator of low internal optical losses. Thus efficient external fluorescence is, counter-intuitively, a necessity for approaching the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. A great Solar Cell also needs to be a great Light Emitting Diode. Owing to the narrow escape cone for light, efficient external emission requires repeated attempts, and demands an internal luminescence efficiency >>90%.

  14. Employee Attitude to Management Style : case: International equitable association Nigeria Limited.

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s application o...

  15. Averaging, not internal noise, limits the development of coherent motion processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Manning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of motion processing is a critical part of visual development, allowing children to interact with moving objects and navigate within a dynamic environment. However, global motion processing, which requires pooling motion information across space, develops late, reaching adult-like levels only by mid-to-late childhood. The reasons underlying this protracted development are not yet fully understood. In this study, we sought to determine whether the development of motion coherence sensitivity is limited by internal noise (i.e., imprecision in estimating the directions of individual elements and/or global pooling across local estimates. To this end, we presented equivalent noise direction discrimination tasks and motion coherence tasks at both slow (1.5°/s and fast (6°/s speeds to children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11 years, and adults. We show that, as children get older, their levels of internal noise reduce, and they are able to average across more local motion estimates. Regression analyses indicated, however, that age-related improvements in coherent motion perception are driven solely by improvements in averaging and not by reductions in internal noise. Our results suggest that the development of coherent motion sensitivity is primarily limited by developmental changes within brain regions involved in integrating motion signals (e.g., MT/V5.

  16. Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  17. Pitfalls in Using Limitation Clauses in the International General Conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    The article centers on the rules on the limitation of liability in the general conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000. ECE 188 differ considerably from S 2000, as the provisions in ECE 188 do not give the necessary consideration to the development in industry practices and legal rules, including...... the approximation and harmonization of legal systems that have taken place during the last 50 years. S 2000 reflects an international trend that increasingly recognizes the importance of striking a balance between the interests of the parties. However, in practice the parties often derogate considerably from......-balanced system with the result that the seller may end up being fully liable for any loss suffered. This is clearly reflected in national case law. International general conditions such as ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000 should be applied with great caution, so that the parties avoid the pitfalls illustrated...

  18. Application of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Jia-Sen Wei; Zhao-Yang Hou; Jiong Hu; Yan-Guang Cao; Qi-Xin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect and safety of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in earlyAchilles tendon rupture.Methods:Seventy-six patients respectively with early transected and avulsed types ofAchilles tendon rupture were selected and treated with internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop.The patients began to take exercise for their lower limbs through continous passive motion as early as possible after surgical repair, and the loops were removed after3-5 months.Six months later, the condition of complications includingAchilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis, cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region, time back to preinjury work or learning as well as time to physical activities were observed.One year later, the therapeutic effect was evaluated, and the maximum circumferences of bilateral legs and ruptured plane circumferences ofAchilles tendon were measured.Results:The wound of all patients healed well, no complications likeAchilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis occured, and the cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region was normal.The mean time back to preinjury workor learning as well as to pysical activities of all patients were respectively10 and22 weeks.Seventy out of76 patients(92.1%) achieved an excellent effect, and6(7.9%) good effect.The excellent and good rate came up to100%.The maximum circumference in the affected leg decreased to 2 mm averagely compared with the offside, while the ruptured plane circumferences ofAchilles tendon in the affected side increased to2.2 mm compared with the offside.Conclusions:For earlyAchilles tendon rupture, internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop can recover the ankle function better, return to the preinjury state in the shortest time, and has few complications.

  19. Application of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Jia-Sen; Hou, Zhao-Yang; Hu, Jiong; Cao, Yan-Guang; Chen, Qi-Xin

    2013-11-01

    To explore the clinical effect and safety of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture. Seventy-six patients respectively with early transected and avulsed types of Achilles tendon rupture were selected and treated with internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop. The patients began to take exercise for their lower limbs through continous passive motion as early as possible after surgical repair, and the loops were removed after 3-5 months. Six months later, the condition of complications including Achilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis, cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region, time back to preinjury work or learning as well as time to physical activities were observed. One year later, the therapeutic effect was evaluated, and the maximum circumferences of bilateral legs and ruptured plane circumferences of Achilles tendon were measured. The wound of all patients healed well, no complications like Achilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis occured, and the cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region was normal. The mean time back to preinjury work or learning as well as to pysical activities of all patients were respectively 10 and 22 weeks. Seventy out of 76 patients (92.1%) achieved an excellent effect, and 6 (7.9%) good effect. The excellent and good rate came up to 100%. The maximum circumference in the affected leg decreased to 2 mm averagely compared with the offside, while the ruptured plane circumferences of Achilles tendon in the affected side increased to 2.2 mm compared with the offside. For early Achilles tendon rupture, internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop can recover the ankle function better, return to the preinjury state in the shortest time, and has few complications. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical outcomes of inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for large macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhushanker Mahalingam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the initial results of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM flap technique for large macular hole. Five eyes of five patients with large diameter macular hole (>700 μm were selected. All patients underwent inverted ILM flap technique for macular hole. Anatomical closure and functional success were achieved in all patients. There was no loss of best-corrected visual acuity in any of the patients. Inverted ILM flap technique in macular hole surgery seems to have a better hole closure rates, especially in large diameter macular holes. Larger case series is required to assess the efficacy and safety of this technique.

  1. Use of Internal Limiting Membrane Autograft in Primary Vitrectomy for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Eustolio Hernández-Da Mota

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During a pars plana vitrectomy, an unplanned retinotomy in the raphe was performed in a 55-year-old female patient with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Since diathermy and laser therapy were not available at that moment, it was decided to peel off a small graft of the internal limiting membrane adjacent to the retinotomy site which had been previously stained with Brilliant Blue G. The graft was displaced under perfluorocarbon fluids and placed inside the retinotomy. Three weeks after surgery, the apparent closure of the retinotomy was observed clinically.

  2. Combined epiretinal and internal limiting membrane peeling facilitated by high dilution indocyanine green negative staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Kaehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the utilization of indocyanine green (ICG dye to facilitate combined/en bloc removal of epiretinal membranes (ERM along with internal limiting membranes (ILM. The method utilizes a highly diluted preparation of ICG in dextrose water solvent (D5W. Elimination of fluid air exchange step facilitating staining in the fluid phase and low intensity lighting help minimize potential ICG toxicity. The technique demonstrates how ICG facilitates negative staining of ERMs and how ILM peeling concomitantly can allow complete and efficient ERM removal minimizing surgical time and the necessity for dual or sequential staining.

  3. Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling versus No Peeling for Idiopathic Full-Thickness Macular Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil W

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. DESIGN: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken...... under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. INTERVENTION: Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas...

  4. Treatment of Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fractures by external fixation associated with limited internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-qiang; ZHENG Hong-yu; WANG Bing; HUANG He; HE Fei; ZHAO Xue-ling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical ef-fects of external fixation associated with limited internal fixa-tion on treatment of Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fractures.Methods: From July 2006 to December 2008, 40 cases of Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fiactures were emergently treated in our unit with external fixation frames.Soft tissue injuries were grouped according to the Gustilo classification as ⅢA in 17 cases, ⅢB in 13 cases, and ⅢC in 10 cases.All the patients were debrided within 8 hours, and then fracture reposition was preformed to reestablish the leg alignment.Limited internal fixation with plates and screws were per-formed on all the Gustilo Ilia cases and 10 Gustilo ⅢB cases at the first operation.But all the Gustilo ⅢC cases and 3 Gustilo ⅢB cases who had severe soft tissue injuries and bone loss only received Vacuum-sealing drainage (VSD).Broad-spectrum antibiotics were regularly used and VSD must be especially maintained easy and smooth for one week or more after operation.Limited internal fixation and transplanted free skin flaps or adjacent musculocutaneous flaps were not used to close wounds until the conditions of the wounds had been improved.Results: The first operations were completed within 90-210 minutes (170 minutes on average).The blood trans-fusions were from 400 ml to 1500 ml (those used for anti-shock preoperatively not included).All the 40 patients in this study were followed up for 6-28 months, 20.5 months on average.The lower limb function was evaluated accord-ing to the comprehensive evaluation standards of leg func-tion one year after operation and the results of 28 cases were excellent, 9 were good and 3 were poor.Conclusion: External fixation associated with limited internal fixation to treat Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fractures can get satisfactory early clinical therapeutic effects.

  5. Development of mathematical pediatric phantoms for internal dose calculations: designs, limitations, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1980-01-01

    Mathematical phantoms of the human body at various ages are employed with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes for calculation of photon specific absorbed fractions. The author has developed a pediatric phantom series based on the design of the adult phantom, but with explicit equations for each organ so that organ sizes and marrow distributions could be assigned properly. Since the phantoms comprise simple geometric shapes, predictive dose capability is limited when geometry is critical to the calculation. Hence, there is a demand for better phantom design in situations where geometry is critical, such as for external irradiation or for internal emitters with low energy photons. Recent advances in computerized axial tomography (CAT) present the potential for derivation of anatomical information, which is so critical to development of phantoms, and ongoing developmental work on compuer architecture to handle large arrays for Monte Carlo calculations should make complex-geometry dose calculations economically feasible within this decade.

  6. Residual intersegmental spinal mobility following limited pedicle fixation of thoracolumbar spine fractures with the fixateur interne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, R W; Dick, W; Nunchuck, S; Zach, G

    1993-03-15

    The Fixateur Interne has been proposed for limited pedicle fixation of thoracolumbar spine fractures with the assumption that motion in the nontraumatized spinal segments could be maintained. To date, no data exist that both localize and quantitate spinal mobility about the fractured vertebra. Voluntary maximum lateral flexion and extension radiographs were obtained on patients with unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures at a minimum of 2 years after Fixateur Interne instrumentation (implant was removed after 1 year). Residual intersegmental motion was measured at levels adjacent to both the vertebra fracture and the fixation. Fifty-nine patients were reviewed, and the posterior vertebral body angle demonstrated a mean total sagittal motion of 2.98 degrees. Cephalad and caudal to the fractured vertebra, a mean of 1.34 degrees and 3.08 degrees, respectively, of residual motion was noted; cephalad and caudal to the previously instrumented segment a mean of 3.22 degrees and 6.88 degrees, respectively, was measured. The authors conclude that residual mobility is most evident at the caudal end of the instrumented segment, removed from the fractured vertebra. The level with end plate disruption becomes essentially ankylosed, with or without a fusion.

  7. Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an international workshop on nano reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas

    2012-07-01

    This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable.

  8. Updated gravitational-wave upper limits on the internal magnetic field strength of recycled pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrano, Alpha

    2011-01-01

    Recent calculations of the hydromagnetic deformation of a stratified, non-barotropic neutron star are generalized to describe objects with superconducting interiors, whose magnetic permeability \\mu is much smaller than the vacuum value \\mu_0. It is found that the star remains oblate if the poloidal magnetic field energy is \\gtrsim 40% of total magnetic field energy, that the toroidal field is confined to a torus which shrinks as \\mu decreases, and that the deformation is much larger (by a factor \\sim \\mu_0/\\mu) than in a non-superconducting object. The results are applied to the latest direct and indirect upper limits on gravitational-wave emission from Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and radio pulse timing (spin-down) observations of 81 millisecond pulsars, to show how one can use these observations to infer the internal field strength. It is found that the indirect spin-down limits already imply astrophysically interesting constraints on the poloidal-toroidal field ratio and diama...

  9. Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Patients with Myopic Foveoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yuksel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the clinical and surgical outcomes of patients with myopic foveoschisis (MF. Methods: Thirteen eyes in ten symptomatic MF patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and gas tampon­ade with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling were retrospectively identified. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness (CFT were assessed preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Complications during and after surgery were also recorded. Results: The median BCVA significantly improved from 20/160 to 20/100 (p = 0.03. In subgroup analysis, eight eyes (61% demonstrated significant BCVA improvements from 20/80 to 20/50 (p < 0.001, whereas five eyes had similar BCVA with preoperative level after six months of surgery (p=0.32. The mean CFT decreased from 526 microns at base­line to 214 microns at six months of surgery (p < 0.001. Optical coherence tomography scans revealed a complete MF resolution in ten eyes (76% and a partial MF resolution in three eyes. Peripheral retinal tear was developed in one patient during surgery and one patient had cataract after surgery, those were treated accordingly. Conclusion: PPV with ILM peeling followed by gas tamponade is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of eyes with myopic foveoschisis. Larger studies with longer follow-ups will further establish the efficacy and safety of this procedure. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 139-143

  10. Does Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Macular Hole Surgery Improve Reading Vision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Taraprasad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To document the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling in macular hole closure and reading vision. Method: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic and traumatic macular hole underwent standard vitreous surgery and received either ILM peeling (n= 25 or no ILM peeling (n= 29. The hole closure, and Snellen acuity (distant and near were recorded 12 weeks after surgery and statistically analysed. Results: The macular hole closure rate was 96% (24 of 25 and 72.4% (21 of 29 with and without ILM peeling respectively (P = 0.028. Distant vision improvement of two or more lines was recorded in 64% (16 of 25 and 51.7% (15 of 29 eyes (P = 0.417 with and without ILM peeling respectively. Near vision improvement of two or more lines was seen in 68% (17 of 25 and 41.2% (12 of 29 eyes (P = 0.048 with and without ILM peeling respectively. Conclusion: ILM peeling in macular hole surgery improves the macular hole closure rate and reading vision.

  11. Contributions and Limitations of Empirical Research on Independence and Impartiality in International Investment Arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus Van Harten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of investment treaty arbitration to decide public law raises concerns about judicial independence and impartiality. These concerns arise from the absence of institutional safeguards of independence that are otherwise present in public law adjudication at the domestic or international level. In this article, opportunities to use empirical methods to study possible bias in investment arbitration are surveyed. The discussion includes a brief consideration of qualitative methods and a critique of two quantitative studies on outcomes in investment arbitration. The discussion then turns to the methodology of an ongoing project involving legal content analysis of decisions by investment treaty tribunals. The main conclusion reached in the paper is that empirical research, conducted with care, can contribute to scholarly understanding of investment arbitration. On the other hand, empirical research has important limitations in its ability to demonstrate the presence or absence of actual bias, even at a systemic level, thus reinforcing the need for institutional safeguards to allay reasonable perceptions of bias. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1832510

  12. [Internal limiting membrane role in primary surgery of the macular hole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brănişteanu, D; Moraru, Andreea

    2013-01-01

    To assess the anatomical result after primary macular hole surgery with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. To assess the safety and stability results; Prospective, comparative, interventional case study of 47 eyes with stage 3 or 4 macular hole treated by pars-plana vitrectomy between 2006 and 2011. In 19 cases (40.42%) only posterior hyaloid was removed (control group) while in the other 28 cases (59.57%) additional ILM peeling was performed. All cases had gas endotamponade. Postoperatively the cases were followed-up at least 6 months clinically and by OCT. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests. The mean age of patients in the study was 54, 47 +/- 4, 83 years (ranging from 47 to 74 years). In 36 cases (76.59%) the macular hole was idiopathic. After surgery, the macular hole closed in 22 out of 28 cases with ILM peeling (78.57%) as compared to only 13 out of 19 cases from the control group (68.42%). No intraoperative complications were noted. Main postoperative complications were cataract augmentation and macular hole enlargement in 4 out of 12 failed cases (33.33%). No recurrence was noted if macular hole closed after surgery. These results confirm the stability, safety and efficacy of both techniques but with a significant higher success rate if ILM is peeled. The main postoperative complication was macular hole enlargement if surgery failed.

  13. Accidental subretinal brilliant blue G migration during internal limiting membrane peeling surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Felipe P P; De Lucca, Ana Claudia; Scott, Ingrid Ursula; Jorge, Rodrigo; Messias, Andre

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a man who developed retinal changes in his right eye associated with brilliant blue G migration into the subretinal space during 2 years of follow-up. The patient's best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/70 before surgery, and it improved to 20/25 at 1 year after surgery. Fluorescein angiography showed staining during the late phase in the central macula at all follow-up visits after surgery. Multifocal electroretinography demonstrated normal amplitude and implicit times before surgery but decreased amplitudes and increased implicit times in at least 5 contiguous hexagons after surgery on all 3 examinations performed during the 2-year follow-up period. These functional changes were not topographically correlated with the area of fluorescein staining or with the internal limiting membrane peeled area, but were matched to the area where brilliant blue G accidentally entered the subretinal space. Microperimetry demonstrated reduced retinal threshold sensitivity, particularly in areas with decreased multifocal electroretinography amplitude. Despite the visual acuity improvement observed in this case, multifocal electroretinography and microperimetry indicate that subretinal brilliant blue G might cause focal macular damage with a decrease of macular function suggestive of a toxic effect.

  14. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION GUIDELINES ON THE LIMITS OF GENOTOXIC IMPURITIES IN DRUG PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Ajay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An impurity in a drug substance as defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines is any component of the drug substance that is not the chemical entity defined as the drug substance. Similarly, an impurity in a drug product is any component of the drug product that is not the chemical entity defined as the drug substance or an excipient in the drug product. Genotoxic compounds have the potential to damage DNA at any level of exposure and that such damage may lead/contribute to tumour development. Thus for genotoxic carcinogens it is prudent to assume that there is no discernible threshold and that any level of exposure carries a risk. A threshold of toxicological concern (TTC value of 1.5μg/day intake of a genotoxic impurity is considered to be associated with an acceptable risk (excess cancer risk of <1 in 100,000 over a lifetime for most pharmaceuticals. From this threshold value, a permitted level in the active substance can be calculated based on the expected daily dose. Higher limits may be justified under certain conditions such as short-term exposure periods.

  15. Histopathologic and Electron Microscopic Features of Internal Limiting Membranes in Maculopathies of Various Etiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report micro- and ultrastructural features of internal limiting membranes (ILMs in various maculopathies and to evaluate the effects of indocyanine green (ICG and triamcinolone acetonide (TA on epiretinal proliferations associated with ILM and on retinal cleavage plane. Methods: ILMs from various maculopathies were evaluated regarding presence or absence of membrane-associated cells, type of cells and ILM thickness based on routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Results: Thirty ILM specimens were enrolled; 25 of which were evaluated by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and 5 by TEM. ICG only had been used in 17 specimens, TA in 4, and both agents in one specimen. The majority of specimens were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron specific enolase. No significant difference in specimen cellularity and alteration of cleavage plane was noted between ICG-stained and non-ICG-stained ILMs or between TA-assisted and non-TAassisted ones. Excluding central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO cases, acellularity was not observed in any of ILMs from diabetic macular edema (DME, cystoid macular edema (CME, and traumatic macular hole (TMH eyes. TEM disclosed ILM thickening and cellularity in DME as compared to CRVO. Conclusion: Acellular membranes from CRVO maculopathy may be a sequel of acute retinal ischemia. Thickened diabetic ILMs with high cellularity may be related to chronic activation of Muller cells. No obvious influence of ICG or TA on epiretinal cellularity was detected and the dyes seem to have no significant effect on cleavage plane.

  16. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-03-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode Z associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian √{1 -(∂0Z )2 } detecting the speed of light (|∂0Z |=1 ) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli ɛ to all orders in (∂ɛ ). The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: L =g (√{1 +(∂μɛ )2 }). This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on ∂0ɛ , i.e., a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit exists even for solitons in some nonrelativistic field theories, where we find that ɛ is a type I Nambu-Goldstone mode that also obeys a nonlinear dispersion to reach the speed limit. This offers a possibility of detecting the speed limit in condensed matter experiments.

  17. Effect of the 16-hour work limit on general surgery intern operative case volume: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Samuel I; Galante, Joseph; Kaji, Amy; Dolich, Matthew; Easter, David; Melcher, Marc L; Patel, Kevin; Reeves, Mark E; Salim, Ali; Senagore, Anthony J; Takanishi, Danny M; de Virgilio, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The 80-hour work-week limit for all residents was instituted in 2003 and studies looking at its effect have been mixed. Since the advent of the 16-hour mandate for postgraduate year 1 residents in July 2011, no data have been published regarding the effect of this additional work-hour restriction. To determine whether the 16-hour intern work limit, implemented in July 2011, has adversely affected operative experience. A retrospective review of categorical postgraduate year 1 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs from the intern class (N = 52) (with 16-hour work limit) compared with the 4 preceding years (2007-2010; N = 197) (without 16-hour work limit). A total of 249 categorical general surgery interns from 10 general surgery residency programs in the western United States were included. Total, major, first-assistant, and defined-category case totals. As compared with the preceding 4 years, the 2011-2012 interns recorded a 25.8% decrease in total operative cases (65.9 vs 88.8, P = .005), a 31.8% decrease in major cases (54.9 vs 80.5, P intern era, whereas there was no decrease in trauma, vascular, alimentary, endoscopy, liver, and pancreas cases. The 16-hour work limit for interns, implemented in July 2011, is associated with a significant decrease in categorical intern operative experience. If the 16-hour shift were to be extended to all postgraduate year levels, one can anticipate that additional years of training will be needed to maintain the same operative volume.

  18. Photoreceptor Outer Segment on Internal Limiting Membrane after Macular Hole Surgery: Implications for Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Grinton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This report presents a case, which highlights key principles in the pathophysiology of macular holes. It has been hypothesized that anteroposterior (AP and tangential vitreous traction on the fovea are the primary underlying factors causing macular holes [Nischal and Pearson; in Kanski and Bowling: Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systemic Approach, 2011, pp 629-631]. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT has subsequently corroborated this theory in part but shown that AP vitreofoveal traction is the more common scenario [Steel and Lotery: Eye 2013;27:1-21]. Methods: This study was conducted as a single case report. Results: A 63-year old female presented to her optician with blurred and distorted vision in her left eye. OCT showed a macular hole with a minimum linear diameter of 370 µm, with persistent broad vitreofoveal attachment on both sides of the hole edges. The patient underwent combined left phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM peel and gas injection. The ILM was examined by electron microscopy and showed the presence of a cone outer segment on the retinal side. Post-operative OCT at 11 weeks showed a closed hole with recovery of the foveal contour and good vision. Conclusion: Our case shows the presence of a photoreceptor outer segment on the retinal side of the ILM and reinforces the importance of tangential traction in the development of some macula holes. The case highlights the theory of transmission of inner retinal forces to the photoreceptors via Müller cells and how a full thickness macular hole defect can occur in the absence of AP vitreomacular traction.

  19. Photoreceptor Outer Segment on Internal Limiting Membrane after Macular Hole Surgery: Implications for Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinton, Michael E.; Sandinha, Maria T.; Steel, David H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This report presents a case, which highlights key principles in the pathophysiology of macular holes. It has been hypothesized that anteroposterior (AP) and tangential vitreous traction on the fovea are the primary underlying factors causing macular holes [Nischal and Pearson; in Kanski and Bowling: Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systemic Approach, 2011, pp 629–631]. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has subsequently corroborated this theory in part but shown that AP vitreofoveal traction is the more common scenario [Steel and Lotery: Eye 2013;27:1–21]. Methods This study was conducted as a single case report. Results A 63-year old female presented to her optician with blurred and distorted vision in her left eye. OCT showed a macular hole with a minimum linear diameter of 370 µm, with persistent broad vitreofoveal attachment on both sides of the hole edges. The patient underwent combined left phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and gas injection. The ILM was examined by electron microscopy and showed the presence of a cone outer segment on the retinal side. Post-operative OCT at 11 weeks showed a closed hole with recovery of the foveal contour and good vision. Conclusion Our case shows the presence of a photoreceptor outer segment on the retinal side of the ILM and reinforces the importance of tangential traction in the development of some macula holes. The case highlights the theory of transmission of inner retinal forces to the photoreceptors via Müller cells and how a full thickness macular hole defect can occur in the absence of AP vitreomacular traction. PMID:26557083

  20. Indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in macular hole surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The opinion of application of indocyanine green (ICG in the macular hole surgery was contradictory. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of in internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular hole surgery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched electronic databases for comparative studies published before July 2012 of ILM peeling with and without ICG. Twenty-two studies including 1585 eyes were included. Visual acuity (VA improvement, including the postoperative rate of ≥20/40 VA gained (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.97; P = 0.033 and increased LogMAR (WMD, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02; P = 0.011, was less in the ICG group. The risk of visual field defects was greater in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group. There was no significant difference in the rate of anatomical outcomes between ILM peeling procedures performed with and without ICG. RPE changes and other postoperative complications were not significantly different between the ICG and non-ICG groups. An additional analysis showed that the VA improvement of the ICG group was less than the non-ICG group only within the first year of follow up. A subgroup analysis showed that the rate of VA improvement was lower in the ICG group than in other adjuncts group. A higher rate of secondary closure and less VA improvement were observed in a high proportion (>0.1% of the ICG group. A sensitivity analysis after the randomized-controlled trials were excluded from the meta-analysis demonstrated no differences compared with the overall results. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of clinical superiority in outcomes for ICG-assisted ILM peeling procedure over the non-ICG one. The toxicity of ICG should be considered when choosing the various staining methods.

  1. A Thickened Coracohumeral Ligament and Superomedial Capsule Limit Internal Rotation of the Shoulder Joint: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Koide

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (also known as frozen shoulder is a painful and disabling disorder with an estimated prevalence ranging from 2% to 5% in the general population. Although the precise pathogenesis of frozen shoulder is unclear, thickened capsule and coracohumeral ligament (CHL have been documented to be one of the most specific manifestations. The thickened CHL has been understood to limit external rotation of the shoulder, and restriction of internal rotation of the shoulder has been believed to be related to posterior capsular tightness. In this paper, three cases of refractory frozen shoulder treated through arthroscopic release of a contracted capsule including CHL were reported. Two cases in which there is recalcitrant severe restriction of internal rotation after manipulation under anesthesia (MUA were finally treated with arthroscopic surgery. Although MUA could release the posterior capsule, internal rotation did not improve in our cases. After release of the thickened CHL, range of motion of internal rotation was significantly improved. This report demonstrates the role of the thickened CHL in limiting the internal rotation of the shoulder. We highlight the importance of release of thickened CHL in addition to the pancapsular release, in case of severe limitation of internal rotation of shoulder.

  2. Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular folds secondary to hypotony in myopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadal J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jeroni Nadal,1–3 Elisa Carreras,2,3 Maria Isabel Canut,1–3 Rafael I Barraquer1–3 1Centro de Oftalmologia Barraquer, 2Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 3Instituto Barraquer, Barcelona, Spain Background: Hypotony maculopathy (HM changes may persist, and visual acuity remains poor, despite normalization of intraocular pressure (IOP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual and anatomical results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV, internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, and 20% SF6 gas tamponade in five myopic patients with HM.Methods: This retrospective interventional study was conducted at the Barraquer Center of Ophthalmology, a tertiary care center in Barcelona, Spain, and included five eyes from five consecutive patients (aged 55.4±13.1 years with HM caused by different conditions. All the patients were treated with 23-gauge PPV, ILM peeling, and 20% SF6 gas tamponade. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation was performed using anterior and posterior biomicroscopy and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA by logMAR charts.Results: Before surgery, median spherical equivalent was -13.1 (range -7, -19 diopters of myopia. Preoperatively, four cases presented IOP <6.5 mmHg for 3 (range 2–8 weeks. In three of these four cases, IOP >6.5 mmHg was achieved over 16 (range 16–28 weeks, without resolution of HM; increased IOP was not achieved in the remaining case treated 2 weeks after diagnosis of HM. One case presented IOP >6.5 mmHg with HM for 28 weeks before surgery. Preoperative BCVA was 0.7 (range 0.26–2.3 logMAR, and 0.6 (range 0.3–0.7 logMAR and 0.5 (range 0.2–1 logMAR, respectively, at 4 and 12 months after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative BCVA. Hyperpigmentation lines in the macular area were observed in three cases with hypotony. These lines progressed after surgery despite resolution of the retinal folds in the three cases, and BCVA decreased in parallel

  3. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole in high myopia eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the clinical effects between pars plana vitrectomy(PPVand PPV with internal limiting membrane peeling(ILMPfor macular hole in high myopia eyes. METHODS:The clinical data of 33 high myopia with macular hole patients(36 eyeswith or without retinal detachment caused by macular hole were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to different operation methods: 15 eyes in groupⅠhad undergone PPV; 21 eyes in groupⅡhad undergone PPV with ILMPP peeling. According to different conditions of patients,different auxiliary methods were accepted, such as silicone oil tamponade, C3F8 tamponade, photocoagulation, condensation, etc. The follow-up period was 3~12mo. Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, macular hole closure rate and retinal reattachment rate were continuous checked after operation. Then we evaluated the outcome in the two groups by statistical analysis.RESULTS: The postoperative mean BCVA increased by 0.167 in group Ⅰand 0.456 in group Ⅱ than preoperative, the difference was significant(t=2.46,6.753; P=0.027,0.000. And the difference of BCVA improvement was significant between those two groups(t=-2.943, P=0.006. The macular hole closed in 7 eyes(46.67%in group Ⅰ,and 18 eyes(85.71%in group Ⅱ; The difference was significant between those two groups(χ2=6.287,P=0.025.Retinal reattachment was found in 11 eyes(91.67%in group Ⅰ and 19 eyes(94.73%in group Ⅱ. The difference was not significant between the two groups(χ2=0.856, P=0.418. CONCLUSION: PPV with ILMPP peeling for macular hole in high myopia eyes can obviously improve closure of macular hole and postoperative visual acuity. But the difference of retinal reattachment rate was not significant between peeling and unpeeling of ILMP.

  4. Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with different vitreous tamponade for idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare visual outcomes, central foveal thickness(CFT, and postoperative complications after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane(ILMpeeling, with balanced salt solution(BSSor gas tamponade, for the treatment of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane(IMEM. METHODS: Retrospective clinical study. 44 patients with IMEM were included in this study. All patients had undergone vitrectomy and ILM peeling. Eyes were divided into two groups: 20 eyes in group A with BSS tamponade. 24 patients in group B with gas tamponade(11 eyes were injected with filtered air and 13 eyes with perfluoropropane,100mL/L C3F8. The follow-up period was 12-16(mean 13months. The following parameters were collected and compared: best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAand CFT(at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, intraocular pressure(IOP(at baseline and on the 1th,7th day, 1, 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: BCVA significantly improved, and 29 of 44 eyes(65.9%achieved visual recovery≥0.2 logMAR. There were no significant differences between group A and group B in mean baseline logMAR BCVA(0.53±0.18 vs 0.52±0.14; P>0.05and final logMAR BCVA(0.31±0.14 vs 0.28±0.09; P>0.05. With respect to OCT parameters, the mean CFT at 12 months(285.25±70.07μmwas significantly decreased from that of the baseline(407.82±97.00μm,(Z=4.29, Pvs 406.46±88.76μm; P>0.05and final CFT(287.60±66.94μm vs 283.29±73.95μm; P>0.05. With respect to IOP, there were no significant differences between group A and group B at mean baseline and on the 7th day, 1, 3 months postoperatively(P>0.05. The IOP in group A was significant lower at 1th postoperative day compared with group B(Z=3.12, PCONCLUSION: Vitrectomy and ILM peeling can significantly improve the visual acuity and decrease the CFT no matter with gas or with BSS tamponade, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, but it is neither necessary for patients with BSS tamponade to maintain a prone

  5. Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular folds secondary to hypotony in myopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jeroni; Carreras, Elisa; Canut, Maria Isabel; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypotony maculopathy (HM) changes may persist, and visual acuity remains poor, despite normalization of intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual and anatomical results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, and 20% SF6 gas tamponade in five myopic patients with HM. Methods This retrospective interventional study was conducted at the Barraquer Center of Ophthalmology, a tertiary care center in Barcelona, Spain, and included five eyes from five consecutive patients (aged 55.4±13.1 years) with HM caused by different conditions. All the patients were treated with 23-gauge PPV, ILM peeling, and 20% SF6 gas tamponade. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation was performed using anterior and posterior biomicroscopy and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) by logMAR charts. Results Before surgery, median spherical equivalent was −13.1 (range −7, −19) diopters of myopia. Preoperatively, four cases presented IOP 6.5 mmHg was achieved over 16 (range 16–28) weeks, without resolution of HM; increased IOP was not achieved in the remaining case treated 2 weeks after diagnosis of HM. One case presented IOP >6.5 mmHg with HM for 28 weeks before surgery. Preoperative BCVA was 0.7 (range 0.26–2.3) logMAR, and 0.6 (range 0.3–0.7) logMAR and 0.5 (range 0.2–1) logMAR, respectively, at 4 and 12 months after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative BCVA. Hyper-pigmentation lines in the macular area were observed in three cases with hypotony. These lines progressed after surgery despite resolution of the retinal folds in the three cases, and BCVA decreased in parallel in two of these cases. Conclusion PPV with ILM peeling followed by gas tamponade is a good alternative for the treatment of HM in myopic patients. However, persistent choroidal folds may compromise BCVA. We therefore recommend initiating treatment as early as possible. PMID

  6. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice.

  7. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode $Z$ associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian $\\sqrt{1 - (\\partial_0 Z)^2}$ detecting the speed of light ($|\\partial_0 Z|=1$) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli $\\epsilon$ to all order in $(\\partial \\epsilon)$. The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: $L = g(\\sqrt{1 + (\\partial_\\mu \\epsilon)^2})$. This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on $\\partial_0 \\epsilon$, i.e. a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit...

  8. 75 FR 9017 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... CFR Sec. 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 74 FR 51653... Airport, LaGuardia Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan National Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limited waiver of the...

  9. Institutional limits to the internalization of work systems : A comparative study of three Japanese multinational companies in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka, A

    2002-01-01

    This study adopts a multilevel comparative approach to investigating the degree to which Japanese work systems are implemented and internalized in the UK business system. The focus is on the limits to accepting the continuous improvement schemes of Japanese multinational corporations. The article ad

  10. Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U C; Krøyer, K; Sander, B

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on anatomical and functional success rates in stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole surgery (MHS). METHODS: Randomised clinical trial of stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole without visible epiretinal fibrosis and with less...

  11. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Limits on Exoneration from Responsibility in International Law: Amnesties, Selection and Priorization of Cases in National Jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Machado Ramírez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Much has been said about the legal tools that a State has to confront a process of transitional justice. Traditionally, international literature has discussed the content of the “truth, justice and reparation” standards. Notwithstanding, little attention has been paid to the legal sources that may limit or permit the partial preclusion of wrongfulness in transitional justice mechanisms. This preclusion of wrongfulness may be part of a prosecutorial policy of prioritization and selection of cases, which may be in turn linked to partial amnesties or pardons. The objective of this article is to study three regulatory frameworks in international law: 1 international human rights law; 2 international humanitarian law; and 3 international criminal law. A close look reveals that no international instrument requires that a State investigates every case related to the armed conflict. In general terms, international law prohibits the adoption of blanket amnesties, but allows the State to select and prioritize its cases, without punishing the partial preclusion of wrongfulness of some of the perpetrators.

  13. Visual recovery in cortical blindness is limited by high internal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Matthew R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Melnick, Michael D; Das, Anasuya; Roberts, Mariel; Tadin, Duje; Carrasco, Marisa; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the primary visual cortex typically causes cortical blindness (CB) in the hemifield contralateral to the damaged hemisphere. Recent evidence indicates that visual training can partially reverse CB at trained locations. Whereas training induces near-complete recovery of coarse direction and orientation discriminations, deficits in fine motion processing remain. Here, we systematically disentangle components of the perceptual inefficiencies present in CB fields before and after coarse direction discrimination training. In seven human CB subjects, we measured threshold versus noise functions before and after coarse direction discrimination training in the blind field and at corresponding intact field locations. Threshold versus noise functions were analyzed within the framework of the linear amplifier model and the perceptual template model. Linear amplifier model analysis identified internal noise as a key factor differentiating motion processing across the tested areas, with visual training reducing internal noise in the blind field. Differences in internal noise also explained residual perceptual deficits at retrained locations. These findings were confirmed with perceptual template model analysis, which further revealed that the major residual deficits between retrained and intact field locations could be explained by differences in internal additive noise. There were no significant differences in multiplicative noise or the ability to process external noise. Together, these results highlight the critical role of altered internal noise processing in mediating training-induced visual recovery in CB fields, and may explain residual perceptual deficits relative to intact regions of the visual field.

  14. Development and limits of the tractor industry in Argentina (1955-1978 Situation in the context of international competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Bil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on a particular subject: the history of the tractor industry in Argentina from its origins to the late '70s. The objective is to analyze the potential and limits. It is crucial to introduce the auxiliary industry problems, costs, characteristics of the work process, exports and the role of international competition.This work is part of our Ph.D. Thesis. We refer to several sources: interviews with former employees, statistical series, government publications and periodical publications about the subject, reports from international organizations, business sources, and contributions from others researchers

  15. Pitfalls in Using Limitation Clauses in the International General Conditions ECE 188 and Orgalime S 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    the approximation and harmonization of legal systems that have taken place during the last 50 years. S 2000 reflects an international trend that increasingly recognizes the importance of striking a balance between the interests of the parties. However, in practice the parties often derogate considerably from...

  16. 75 FR 32987 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport and Newark Liberty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... for a period of five or more consecutive days. \\1\\ 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct... Airport (JFK) and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR). The FAA will treat as used any Operating Authorization that was scheduled for an operation between JFK or EWR and points in Europe from April 14...

  17. Anticipatory action in self-defence: essence and limits under international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibori Szabó, K.

    2011-01-01

    The legality of preemptive strikes is one of the most controversial questions of contemporary international law. At the core of this controversy stands the temporal dimension of self-defence: when and for how long can a state defend itself against an armed attack? Can it resort to armed force before

  18. Internal modes of discrete solitons near the anti-continuum limit of the dNLS equation

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    Discrete solitons of the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (dNLS) equation become compactly supported in the anti-continuum limit of the zero coupling between lattice sites. Eigenvalues of the linearization of the dNLS equation at the discrete soliton determine its spectral and linearized stability. All unstable eigenvalues of the discrete solitons near the anti-continuum limit were characterized earlier for this model. Here we analyze the resolvent operator and prove that it is uniformly bounded in the neighborhood of the continuous spectrum if the discrete soliton is simply connected in the anti-continuum limit. This result rules out existence of internal modes (neutrally stable eigenvalues of the discrete spectrum) of such discrete solitons near the anti-continuum limit.

  19. Limits to international diversification in oil and gas -domestic vs foreign asset control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We provide evidence that international diversification in the oil and gas sector comes at an important cost; lower control over foreign oilfield assets (and therefore reduced control over oilfield cash-flows). This work examines the factors that drive companies to diversify despite the loss of control over oilfields. Detailed worldwide data for 293 companies owning 6633 field stakes enable us to demonstrate that diversification increases with firm size but results in lower asset control - wit...

  20. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil;

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among...... vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes. ...

  1. Management of intra-articular fracture of the fingers via mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-jun; TIAN Wen; TIAN Guang-lei; CHEN Shan-lin; ZHANG Chang-qing; XUE Yun-hao; LI Zhong-zhe; ZHU Yin

    2009-01-01

    Background Intra-articular fractures of the fingers are common problems to emergency physicians and hand surgeons.Inappropriate management of these injuries may result in chronic pain,stiffness,deformity,or post traumatic arthritis.Ideal treatment necessitates the restoration of a stable and congruent joint that will allow early mobilization.The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of intra-articular fracture of the fingers by mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation.Methods From May 2005 to May 2007,a total of 26 patients with intra-articular fracture of the fingers were treated by mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation.Of the 26 cases,11 involved in metacarpophalangeal joint,and 15 interphalangeal joint in proximal interphalangeal.Kirschner wire,mini wire and absorbable suture were used for limited internal fixation.All patients were followed up and patients were accomplished with total active motion(TAM)of fingers.Results All patients were reviewed by an independent observer.The mean follow up was 13 months(range 9 to 24 months).Subjective,objective and radiographic results were evaluated.X-ray films revealed fracture union and the average radiographic union time was 7 weeks with a range of 5-12 weeks and the phalange shortening or rotation in 2 cases,joint incongruity(less than 1 mm)and joint space narrowing in 3 cases respectively.Phalangeal shortening or rotation was observed in 2 cases and joint incongruity or joint space narrowing was observed in 3 cases.An artificial implant was performed on one case for traumatic arthritis 1.5 years after surgery.Based on TAM the overall good-excellent rate of joint motion function was 80.8%.Conclusion Mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation is a reliable and effective method for treatment of intra-articular fracture of the fingers.

  2. 76 FR 283 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Vessel Capacity Limit in the Purse Seine Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... deliver their catch to U.S. (e.g., American Samoa) or foreign (e.g., Ecuador, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica... IATTC based on historical fishing levels in the EPO. The resolution included provisions that, among... requirements: (1) A vessel capacity limit for the U.S. purse seine fleet fishing for tuna and operating in...

  3. Internal Consistency and Concurrent Validity of the Questionnaire for Limitations and Restrictions Assessment in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca-Duque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common diagnoses in child psychiatry, its early diagnosis is of great importance for intervention at family, school and social environment. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, a questionnaire was designed to assess activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD. The questionnaire was called “CLARP-ADHD Parent and Teacher Version”. Objective: To determine the degree of internal consistency of the CLARP-ADHD questionnaire, and its concurrent validity with the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ parent and teacher version”. Material and Methods: A sample of 203 children aged 6 to 12 with ADHD, currently attending school in five Colombian cities. The questionnaires were applied to parents and teachers. The internal consistency analysis was performed through Cronbach coefficient and concurrent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient utilizing multiple and unique predictors through multiple linear regression as well as simple regression models. Results: A high internal consistency was found for global questionnaires for each of its domains. The CLARP-ADHD for parents gave as result an internal consistency of 0.83, and the CLARP-ADHD for teachers one of 0.93. Concurrent validity was found between the CLARP-ADHD and the SDQ Parent and Teacher version; also, concurrence between the CLARPADHD for Teachers and the SDQ Teachers was found, as well as between CLARP ADHD for Parents and CLARP ADHD Teachers, given by p values of p < 0.001.

  4. Sampling international migrants with origin-based snowballing method:: New evidence on biases and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris Beauchemin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a methodological assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of the origin-based snowballing technique as a reliable method to construct representative samples of international migrants in destination areas. Using data from the MAFE-Senegal Project, our results indicate that this is a very risky method in terms of quantitative success. Besides, it implies some clear selection biases: it over-represents migrants more strongly connected to their home country, and it tends to overestimate both poverty in households at origin and the influence of previous migration experiences of social networks on individuals' out-migration.

  5. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION GUIDELINES ON THE LIMITS OF GENOTOXIC IMPURITIES IN DRUG PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Ajay; Thukral Kapil; Kumar Tarun; Sunil

    2012-01-01

    An impurity in a drug substance as defined by the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines is any component of the drug substance that is not the chemical entity defined as the drug substance. Similarly, an impurity in a drug product is any component of the drug product that is not the chemical entity defined as the drug substance or an excipient in the drug product. Genotoxic compounds have the potential to damage DNA at any level of exposure and that such damage may lead/c...

  6. Innovative strategies for transforming internal medicine residency training in resource-limited settings: the Mozambique experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Carrilho, Carla; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Funzamo, Carlos; Patel, Sam; Preziosi, Michael; Lederer, Philip; Tilghman, Winston; Benson, Constance A; Badaró, Roberto; Nguenha, A; Schooley, Robert T; Noormahomed, Emília V

    2014-08-01

    With approximately 4 physicians per 100,000 inhabitants, Mozambique faces one of the most severe health care provider shortages in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of sufficient well-trained medical school faculty is one of Mozambique's major barrier to producing new physicians annually. A partnership between the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane and the University of California, San Diego, has addressed this challenge with support from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative. After an initial needs assessment involving questionnaires and focus groups of residents, and working with key members from the Ministry of Health, the Medical Council, and Maputo Central Hospital, a set of interventions was designed. The hospital's internal medicine residency program was chosen as the focus for the plan. Interventions included curriculum design, new teaching methodologies, investment in an informatics infrastructure for access to digital references, building capacity to support clinical research, and providing financial incentives to retain junior faculty. The number of candidates entering the internal medicine residency program has increased, and detailed monitoring and evaluation is measuring the impact of these changes on the quality of training. These changes are expected to improve the long-term quality of postgraduate training in general through dissemination to other departments. They also have the potential to facilitate equitable distribution of specialists nationwide by expanding postgraduate training to other hospitals and universities.

  7. Management of mycetoma: major challenge in tropical mycoses with limited international recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdalla A O; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex

    2007-04-01

    The present review highlights an orphan infectious disease in alarming need of international recognition. While money is being invested to develop new broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs to treat infection in general, improvement in the management of complicated infections such as mycetoma receives little support. Many case presentations describe single-center experience in the management of mycetoma. Unfortunately, randomized and blinded clinical studies into the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment are desperately lacking. Response to medical treatment is usually better in actinomycetoma than eumycetoma. Eumycetoma is difficult to treat using current therapies. Surgery in combination with azole treatment is the recommended regimen for small eumycetoma lesions in the extremities. Bone involvement complicates clinical management, leaving surgical amputation as the only treatment option. Although clinical management has not received major attention recently, laboratory technology has improved in areas of molecular diagnosis and epidemiology. Management of mycetoma and laboratory diagnosis of its etiological agents need to be improved and better implemented in endemic regions. Optimized therapeutic approaches and more detailed epidemiological data are urgently needed. It is vital to initiate multicenter collaborations on national and international levels to develop consensus clinical score sheets and state-of-the-art treatment regimens for mycetoma patients.

  8. Effect of the dry matter intake level on the sanguine profile of glucose, insulin, urea, estrogen and progesterone and concentration of IGF-I in the follicular liquid of crossbred heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study effect of the dry matter intake level on the concentrations of glucose, insulin, urea, estrogen and progesterone in the blood and the level of IGF-I in the follicular liquid of heifers. Twenty seven crossbred heifers were used, in three treatments: 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6% of the live weight of dry matter intake (DMI daily. The sanguine concentrations of glucose and estrogen were higher in the animals with 1.6% of DMI and the insulin levels were higher in the animals with 2.6% of DMI. There was an increase in the sanguine levels of urea with the increase of the DMI. There was no effect of the DMI on the progesterone levels in the sanguine plasma collected from the jugular. The progesterone levels in caudal vena were higher in the animals with 2.6% of DMI. There was no effect of the DMI on the follicular levels of IGF-I.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do nível de ingestão de matéria seca (IMS/% do PV sobre as concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, insulina, urea, estrógeno e progesterona e o nível de IGF-I no líquido folicular de novilhas. Vinte e sete novilhas cruzadas foram utilizadas, distribuídas em três tratamentos: 1,2%; 1,6% e 2,6% do peso vivo de ingestão de matéria seca por dia. As concentrações no plasma da veia jugular de glicose e estrógeno foram maiores nos animais com 1,6% de IMS e os níveis de insulina foram maiores nos animais com 2,6% de IMS. Houve um aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de uréia com aumento dos níveis de IMS. Não houve efeito da IMS sobre os níveis de progesterona no plasma sangüíneo coletado da jugular. No plasma sangüíneo coletado da veia cada caudal, os níveis de progesterona foram maiores (P<0,05 nos animais com 2,6% de IMS. Não houve efeito da IMS sobre os níveis foliculares de IGF-I.

  9. Limiting overselling in international emissions trading 1: Costs and environmental impacts of alternative proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2002-07-01

    Emission trading allows a country with an emission limitation commitment, an Annex B Party, to sell parts of its assigned amount (AAUs) to other Annex B Parties. If the seller subsequently does not have sufficient AAUs to cover its actual emissions it will be subject to the penalties for non-compliance. The revenue from the sale of AAUs may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or difficult to enforce. Under these circumstances emission trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. Liability proposals seek to ensure that non-compliance is not rewarded, by limiting sales of AAUs to amounts surplus to the seller's compliance needs. This study develops and applies a model to assess the performance of different liability proposals. A simple model based on the Emissions Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is used for the analysis. (BA)

  10. Exercise in the Heat is Limited by a Critical Internal Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    1987. 2. Caputa M, Feistkorn G, and Jessen C. Effects of brain and trunk temperatures on exercise performance in goats. Pflügers Arch 406: 184–189... exercise in the heat. brain ; electromagnetic fields; hypothalamus; microwaves; thermoregulation; treadmill ONE OUTCOME OF HYPERTHERMIA is a reduction in...candidate for limiting exercise in the heat. Caputa et al. (2) used intravascular heat ex- changers to selectively heat and cool the brain and trunk

  11. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN). Roles & challenges in Africa and other resource-limited communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehally, John

    ISN (the International Society of Nephrology) is a global organization with more than 9,000 members in 130 countries. The ISN's mission is to "advance the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of kidney diseases in the developing and developed world". ISN delivers this mission in low-resource settings through its five education and training programs available exclusively to low- and middle-income countries. These programs are designed to enable sustainable growth in capacity in nephrology and related disciplines to provide the basis for the improvement of care for kidney patients worldwide. ISN also directs its efforts towards advocacy for kidney health and kidney care, seeking to increase understanding of kidney disease among the general population, health professionals, and health policy makers. Such advocacy is challenging because of the complexity of kidney health messages; there is a need to emphasize affordable healthcare solutions for prevention and treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI), as well as the prevention and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the provision of renal replacement therapy (both chronic dialysis and kidney transplantation) that is both affordable and ethically acceptable.

  12. The Impact of Arms Limitation Agreements and Export Control Regulations of International Commercial Launch Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The commercial launch industry is by its very nature a global sector dominated by multinationals that operate across national boundaries. Since the end of the Cold War, new launch operators have become increasingly reliant on existing space and propulsion technology from Russia and other former constituent republics of the Soviet Union. With this in mind, the impact of export controls imposed by various countries under various internationally agreements, especially those of Australia, Russia and the United States, has become an increasingly important factor in the day-to-day operation of commercial launch operators. This is particularly true for launch operators utilising converted ballistic missiles as launch vehicles, as they have to consider also the impact of arms reduction treaties, such as START, on their launch operations. This paper explores the legal and administrative operations of the START and export control regimes operated by Russia and the United States, as well as emerging launching States such as Australia, and how they impact on the logistical operations of domestic or multinational commercial launch operators.

  13. Comparisons of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures: Finite element analysis and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M; Chai, L; Xue, F; Ding, L; Tang, G; Lv, B

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability and clinical outcome of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation (EFLIF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. Two types of fixation systems were selected for finite element analysis and a dual cohort study. Two fixation systems were simulated to fix the fracture in a finite element model. The relative displacement and stress distribution were analysed and compared. A total of 71 consecutive patients with closed Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the treatment to which they chose: the EFLIF group and the ORIF group. The radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared. The relative displacement of the EFLIF was less than that of the plate (0.1363 mm to 0.1808 mm). The highest von Mises stress value on the plate was 33% higher than that on the EFLIF. A normal restoration of the Böhler angle was achieved in both groups. No significant difference was found in the clinical outcome on the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle Hindfoot Scale, or on the Visual Analogue Scale between the two groups (p > 0.05). Wound complications were more common in those who were treated with ORIF (p = 0.028). Both EFLIF and ORIF systems were tested to 160 N without failure, showing the new construct to be mechanically safe to use. Both EFLIF and ORIF could be effective in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. The EFLIF may be superior to ORIF in achieving biomechanical stability and less blood loss, shorter surgical time and hospital stay, and fewer wound complications.Cite this article: M. Pan, L. Chai, F. Xue, L. Ding, G. Tang, B. Lv. Comparisons of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures: Finite element analysis and clinical outcome. Bone Joint Res 2017

  14. Limit analysis of viscoplastic thick-walled cylinder and spherical shell under internal pressure using a strain gradient plasticity theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Plastic limit load of viscoplastic thick-walled cylinder and spherical shell subjected to internal pressure is investigated analytically using a strain gradient plastic-itv theory. As a result, the current solutions can capture the size effect at the micron scale. Numerical results show that the smaller the inner radius of the cylinder or spherical shell, the more significant the scale effects. Results also show that the size effect is more evident with increasing strain or strain-rate sensitivity index. The classical plastic-based solutions of the same problems are shown to be a special case of the present solution.

  15. The International Limits and Population at Risk of Plasmodium vivax Transmission in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Carlos A.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Temperley, William H.; Kabaria, Caroline W.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Manh, Bui H.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Baird, J. Kevin; Snow, Robert W.; Hay, Simon I.

    2010-01-01

    development and control, P. vivax remains more widely distributed than P. falciparum and is a potential cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the 2.85 billion people living at risk of infection, the majority of whom are in the tropical belt of CSE Asia. The probability of infection is reduced massively across Africa by the frequency of the Duffy negative trait, but transmission does occur on the continent and is a concern for Duffy positive locals and travellers. The final map provides the spatial limits on which the endemicity of P. vivax transmission can be mapped to support future cartographic-based burden estimations. PMID:20689816

  16. Factors limiting performance in a multitone intensity-discrimination task: disentangling non-optimal decision weights and increased internal noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oberfeld

    Full Text Available To identify factors limiting performance in multitone intensity discrimination, we presented sequences of five pure tones alternating in level between loud (85 dB SPL and soft (30, 55, or 80 dB SPL. In the "overall-intensity task", listeners detected a level increment on all of the five tones. In the "masking task", the level increment was imposed only on the soft tones, rendering the soft tones targets and loud tones task-irrelevant maskers. Decision weights quantifying the importance of the five tone levels for the decision were estimated using methods of molecular psychophysics. Compatible with previous studies, listeners placed higher weights on the loud tones than on the soft tones in the overall-intensity condition. In the masking task, the decisions were systematically influenced by the to-be-ignored loud tones (maskers. Using a maximum-likelihood technique, we estimated the internal noise variance and tested whether the internal noise was higher in the alternating-level five-tone sequences than in sequences presenting only the soft or only the loud tones. For the overall-intensity task, we found no evidence for increased internal noise, but listeners applied suboptimal decision weights. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the presence of the loud tones does not impair the precision of the representation of the intensity of the soft tones available at the decision stage, but that this information is not used in an optimal fashion due to a difficulty in attending to the soft tones. For the masking task, in some cases our data indicated an increase in internal noise. Additionally, listeners applied suboptimal decision weights. The maximum-likelihood analyses we developed should also be useful for other tasks or other sensory modalities.

  17. The Preliminary Report of Pathological Changes of Epiretinal Membranes and Internal Limiting Membrane Removed during Idiopathic Macular Hole Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqing Li; Shibo Tang; Yan Luo; Jie Zhang; Shaofen Lin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the pathological changes of epiretinal membranes(ERM)and internal limiting membrane (ILM) removed during idiopathic macular hole surgery.Methods:Ten consecutive patients with a unilateral idiopathic macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy(PPV) with the surgical removal of the ERMs overlying the hole and ILM surrounding the hole. The pathological features of the excised tissues were examined under the microscope. Results:According to the morphological changes, four ERMs showed cellular elements which looked like glia cells, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and fibroblast cells. Two of the ILM appeared as transparent membranes without cellular elements. The other eight ILM showed cellular elements on the transparent membranes.Conclusion: Our study supports the hypothesis that the tangential traction of vitreous and proliferative cellular elements on the inner surface of ILM causes idiopathic macular holes. Removal of the posterior cortical vitreous, ILM and proliferative cellular tissue is a valid treatment for IMH.

  18. Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole and the correlation between function and retinal morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulrik Correll

    2009-01-01

    , but during the past decade focus has especially been on internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling as adjuvant therapy for increasing closure rates. With increasing use of ILM peeling and indocyanine green (ICG) staining, which is used for specific visualization of the ILM, concerns about the safety...... rate than surgery without ILM peeling (95% versus 45%). The overall functional results confirm that surgery for macular hole generally leads to favourable visual results, with two-thirds of eyes regaining reading vision (>or=20/40). Macular hole surgery can be considered a safe procedure with a low...... incidence of sight-threatening adverse events; the retinal detachment rate was 2.2%. Visual outcomes in eyes with primary hole closure were not significantly different between the intervention groups; however, for the stage 2 subgroup with primary macular hole closure, there was a trend towards a better...

  19. Role of Tractional Forces and Internal Limiting Membrane in Macular Hole Formation: Insights from Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Moisseiev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 69-year-old patient who underwent vitrectomy for vitreomacular traction (VMT and developed a postoperative macular hole that was observed 1 week after surgery. The hole did not close by in-office fluid-gas exchange alone, but was achieved after repeat surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling. Intraoperative OCT (iOCT images from the first surgery revealed an occult macular hole that formed after VMT release. We discuss how iOCT findings provide insight into the role of the ILM in macular hole formation and emphasize the importance of carefully inspecting iOCT images in real time to avoid missing small but important findings.

  20. Limitations of Condensed Teaching Strategies to Develop Hand-Held Cardiac Ultrasonography Skills in Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeffrey S; Barake, Walid; Smith, Chris; Thakrar, Amar; Johri, Amer M

    2016-08-01

    Advances in ultrasonographic technology have allowed for hand-held cardiac ultrasonography (HHCU) units that fit into a physician's laboratory coat. Recently, studies to educate internal medicine residents have shown promise. The optimal duration and methodology for teaching HHCU skills has not been established. Over a 1-year period, internal medicine residents were recruited during their cardiology ward rotation into a single-centre nonblinded randomized trial. The 2 condensed teaching strategies were (1) a conventional ward-based program and (2) a technology-driven simulation-based strategy. Outcomes were evaluated by (1) an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to evaluate interpretation ability (assessing both type I and type II error rates) and (2) demonstration of HHCU skills graded by 2 level III echocardiographers. Twenty-four internal medicine residents were randomized. After teaching, the conventional teaching group had a significant absolute increase in the ability to make a singular correct diagnosis (20%; P < 0.001). In the technology arm, making a singular correct diagnosis increased 24% from baseline (P = 0.001). Interpretation skill was not significantly different between groups. The false-positive rate increased by an absolute 14% and 17% in the conventional and technology groups, respectively (P = 0.079 and P = 0.008). Our findings suggest that HHCU interpretation skills improve after either a conventional ward-based or a technology-driven approach. However, our study emphasizes the important limitations of both teaching programs, because we detected a trend toward an increase in the false-positive rate after both approaches. This suggests that a short duration of training may not be sufficient for HHCU to be performed in a safe manner.

  1. Internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade for myopic foveoschisis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Zhao, Lu; Yin, Yi; Li, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Xiufen; You, Ran; Wang, Jialin; Zhang, Youjing; Wang, Hui; Du, Ran; Wang, Ningli; Zhan, Siyan; Wang, Yanling

    2017-09-08

    Myopic foveoschisis (MF) is among the leading causes of visual loss in high myopia. However, it remains controversial whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or gas tamponade is necessary treatment option for MF. PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP databases were systematically reviewed. Outcome indicators were myopic foveoschisis resolution rate, visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Nine studies that included 239 eyes were selected. The proportion of resolution of foveoschisis was higher in ILM peeling group than non-ILM peeling group (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.06-4.35; P = 0.03). The proportion of postoperative complications was higher in Tamponade group than non-Tamponade group (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 1.26-93.02; P = 0.03). However, the proportion of visual acuity improvement (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 0.56-4.80; P = 0.37) between ILM peeling group and non-ILM peeling group and the proportion of resolution of foveoschisis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 0.76-4.28; P = 0.18) between Tamponade group and non-Tamponade group were similar. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling could contribute to better resolution of myopic foveoschisis than non-peeling, however it does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Vitrectomy with gas tamponade is associated with more complications than non-tamponade and does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and resolution of myopic foveoschisis.

  2. SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY-BASED MICROSTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RETINAL ARCHITECTURE POST INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING FOR SURGERY OF IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLE REPAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Aditya; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh

    2017-02-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography-based analysis of retinal architecture after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery. Prospective, interventional study. Fifty eyes underwent the surgical procedure with minimum internal limiting membrane peel of 3 mm diameter. Automatic segmentation software was used to assess individual layers preoperatively and postoperatively, 1.5 millimeters medial and lateral to fovea at 3 months postoperative visit. Main outcome measures were final central macular thickness and variation in individual retinal layer thickness. Mean central macular thickness postoperatively was 201 microns. Retinal thickening was observed, 1.5 mm medial to fovea (P Internal limiting membrane peel is associated with significant alteration in inner retinal architecture, especially in ganglion cell layer, which can adversely influence functional outcome of the surgery and makes it imperative to avoid peeling internal limiting membrane over a larger surface area.

  3. Conversion efficiency limits and bandgap designs for multi-junction solar cells with internal radiative efficiencies below unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-16

    We calculated the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc and the optimized subcell bandgap energies of 1 to 5 junction solar cells without and with intermediate reflectors under 1-sun AM1.5G and 1000-sun AM1.5D irradiations, particularly including the impact of internal radiative efficiency (ηint) below unity for realistic subcell materials on the basis of an extended detailed-balance theory. We found that the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc significantly drops when the geometric mean ηint* of all subcell ηint in the stack reduces from 1 to 0.1, and that ηsc degrades linearly to logηint* for ηint* below 0.1. For ηint*<0.1 differences in ηsc due to additional intermediate reflectors became very small if all subcells are optically thick for sun light. We obtained characteristic optimized bandgap energies, which reflect both ηint* decrease and AM1.5 spectral gaps. These results provide realistic efficiency targets and design principles.

  4. Outcomes of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with brilliant blue in macular hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohutcu A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Sanisoglu1, Mehmet Sahin Sevim1, Betul Aktas1, Semra Sevim2, Ahmet Nohutcu11Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, 2Uskudar State Hospital, Eye Clinic, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: The evaluation of anatomic and visual outcomes in macular hole cases treated with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling, brilliant blue (BB, and 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV.Materials and methods: Fifty eyes of 48 patients who presented between July 2007 and December 2009 with the diagnosis of stage 2, 3, or 4 macular holes according to Gass Classification who had undergone PPV and ILM peeling were included in this study. Pre- and postoperative macular examinations were assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. 23 G sutureless PPV and ILM peeling with BB was performed on all patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 63.34 ± 9.6 years. Stage 2 macular hole was determined in 17 eyes (34%, stage 3 in 24 eyes (48%, and stage 4 in 9 eyes (18%. The mean follow-up time was 13.6 ± 1.09 months. Anatomic closure was detected in 46/50 eyes (92%, whereas, in four cases, macular hole persisted and a second operation was not required due to subretinal fluid drainage. At follow-up after 2 months, persistant macular hole was detected in one case and it was closed with reoperation. At 12 months, an increase in visual acuity in 41 eyes was observed, while it remained at the same level in six eyes. In three eyes visual acuity decreased. There was a postoperative statistically significant increase in visual acuity in stage 2 and 3 cases (P < 0.05, however, no increase in visual acuity in stage 4 cases was observed.Conclusion: PPV and ILM peeling in stage 2, 3, and 4 macular hole cases provide successful anatomic outcomes, however, in delayed cases, due to photoreceptor loss, it has no effect on functional recovery. BB, used for clarity of ILM, may be beneficial due to its low retinal toxicity.Keywords: macular

  5. Evolution of glycaemia in the blood of mice in the presence or absence of imidazole; Evolution de la glycemie sanguine chez la souris protegee ou non par l'imidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polverelli, M.; Teoule, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    With respect to the radioprotective properties of the heterocyclic compound, imidazole, the authors followed the action of this product on blood sugar levels of mice X irradiated with a lethal dose. The main results of this work are: probably a hypo-glycemic action of the imidazole; an abolishment of the post-irradiation hyperglycemia by imidazole; an appreciably difference between male and female towards irradiation. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de l'etude des proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole, nous nous sommes attaches a suivre l'action de ce produit sur le taux de glucose sanguin de souris irradiees a dose letale. Les principaux resultats de ce travail sont les suivants: l'action probablement hypoglycemiante de l'imidazole; en tant que radioprotecteur, cet heterocycle azote supprime l'hyperglycemie consecutive a l'irradiation; une difference assez sensible entre males et femelles vis-a-vis de l'irradiation. (auteur)

  6. Bridging Political Expectations and Scientific Limitations in Climate Risk Management. On the Uncertain Effects of International Carbon Sink Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevbrand, E. [Environmental Science Section, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Kalmar University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Despite great advances in carbon cycle research during the past decade the climatic impact of terrestrial ecosystems is still highly uncertain. Although contemporary studies suggest that the terrestrial biosphere has acted as a net sink to atmospheric carbon during the past two decades, the future role of terrestrial carbon pools is most difficult to foresee. When land use change and forestry activities were included into the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, the requirements for scientific precision increased significantly. At the same time the political expectations of carbon sequestration as climate mitigation strategy added uncertainties of a social kind to the study of land-atmosphere carbon exchange that have been difficult to address by conventional scientific methods. In this paper I explore how the failure to take into account the effects of direct human activity in scientific projections of future terrestrial carbon storage has resulted in a simplified appreciation of the risks embedded in a global carbon sequestration scheme. I argue that the social limits to scientific analysis must be addressed in order to accommodate these risks in future climate governance and to enable continued scientific authority in the international climate regime.

  7. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  8. Internal limiting membrane layer visualization and vitreoretinal surgery guidance using a common-path OCT integrated microsurgical tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Meisne, Eric; Han, Jae-Ho; Zhang, Kang; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell; Kang, Jin U.

    2010-02-01

    Contemporary retinal microsurgery is performed by skilled surgeons through operating microscopes, utilizing free hand techniques and manually operated micro-instruments. One technically challenging procedure is the incising and peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) while minimizing damage to the underlying retina. One strategy for minimizing damage is to improve visualization of the ILM layer. Here we present a preliminary evaluation of a prototype tool that integrates an ultra high resolution Fourier domain common path Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) with an intelligent microsurgical instrument. The tool provides OCT guided visualization of the ILM layer at the point of tissue contact by the surgical tool. We have evaluated the imaging properties of the common path OCT system. The common path OCT system used in this study has a maximum imaging depth of 1.3mm and a sensitivity of 91dB. We have achieved an experimental axial resolution of 3μm in air and this appears to be sufficient to both identify the ILM and to perform surgical maneuvers. We scanned the single mode fiber probe using an intelligent microsurgical instrument to form B-Mode images. We imaged a porcine eye with both anterior eye segment and the vitreous removed. The image obtained show distinct functional layers of retina.

  9. Trypan blue selective staining using whole blood for internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole corrective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Chun; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Wang, Nan-Kai; Yeung, Ling; Chen, Yen-Po; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Wu, Wei-Chi

    2009-01-01

    To prevent trypan blue (TB) retention and its potential toxicity by selectively staining the internal limiting membrane (ILM) with the aid of whole blood. Twenty-four consecutive patients with macular holes who underwent TB-assisted ILM peeling were enrolled. In the surgeries, autologous whole blood was applied to cover the macular hole, and only the area selectively used for TB staining was exposed. Trypan blue solution (0.75 mg/mL, after being diluted with 5% glucose) was used to stain the exposed macular area in the fluid-filled vitreous cavity. The stained ILM was then completely removed. Twenty-four macular holes were studied. The ILMs were selectively stained by trypan blue and then removed completely. No visible dye remained on the retina after peeling. The macular holes were closed in 22 eyes (92%) after a single surgery. The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/140 to 20/62 after surgery. In addition, no fundus changes were observed during the follow-up period. Selective staining of ILM during TB-assisted membrane peeling could be achieved with whole blood as the adjuvant. Complete removal of stained membranes can prevent TB retention and may further reduce toxicity on retinal pigment epithelium and retina.

  10. A high-resolution study of surfactant partitioning and kinetic limitations for two-component internally mixed aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, S. R.; Petters, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), altering cloud properties and ultimately affecting climate through their effect on the radiative balance. Aerosol CCN activity depends in part on aerosol composition and surfactant compounds are of particular interest because surfactants are enriched at the water/air interface, resulting in a radial concentration gradient within the aqueous droplet. Accurate treatment of the surfactant concentration gradient complicates the otherwise straightforward predictions of CCN activity for aerosols of known composition. To accurately evaluate predictions made by theory, laboratory studies investigating the relationship between critical supersaturation and dry diameter of particles that include surfactants require significant reduction in measurement uncertainty for both water-uptake and CCN measurements. Furthermore, uncertainties remain regarding kinetic limitations to surfactant partitioning that could result in deviation from predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. This study attempts to address some of these issues through high-resolution analysis of CCN activity of two-component mixed surfactant/non-surfactant aerosols at different internal mixing ratios performed with and without a water-uptake time delay to ascertain whether or not the observed effects are kinetically limited. We present new data for the aerosols consisting of 1) the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with ammonium sulfate, 2) SDS with sodium chloride and 3) the strong non-ionic fluorosurfactant Zonyl with an organic proxy glucose. As a point of reference we also evaluated the mixture of ammonium sulfate with glucose. Aerosol activation diameters were determined using CCN analysis in conjunction with scanning mobility size classification and high sheath-to-aerosol flow ratios. This resulted in CCN-derived kappa values that could be determined within +/-5% relative error. To test whether dynamic surfactant partitioning

  11. Update on worldwide regulations for mycotoxins. The Mercosur harmonization of limits on mycotoxins with the international regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    total population in these countries represents approximately 87 percent of the worlds inhabitants.  In 1995, 23 percent of the world's inhabitants were living in a region where no known mycotoxin regulations were in force. This percentage had decreased to 13 percent in 2003, due to a slight increase in coverage in Latin America and Europe, and more significant increases in Africa and Asia/Oceania. Comparing the situation in 1995 and 2003, it appears that in 2003 more mycotoxins are regulated in more commodities and products, whereas tolerance limits generally remain the same or tend to decrease. Regulations have become more diverse and detailed with newer requirements regarding official procedures for sampling and analytical methodology. At the same time, several regulations have been harmonized between countries belonging to economic communities (Australia/New Zealand, EU, MERCOSUR. In 2003, the number of countries that had specific regulations for mycotoxins in foodstuffs was significantly more than those that had specific regulations for feedstuffs. Chronic toxicity studies carried out under good laboratory practice conditions are time consuming, very expensive and not necessarily bound to certain regions. These studies should be carried out in internationally recognized centres of excellence and their results evaluated by international groups of experts such as JECFA. ( FAO, Food and Nutrition Paper 81, 2004

  12. Clinical and histological evaluation of large macular hole surgery using the inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Satoru; Saito, Wataru; Mori, Shohei; Saito, Michiyuki; Ando, Ryo; Dong, Zhenyu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Noda, Kousuke; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of large macular holes (MHs) treated with inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique and to perform a histological examination of an ILM-like membrane tissue obtained during vitrectomy. Patients and methods This is a retrospective observational case study. Nine patients, comprising of five males and four females, showing large and myopic MHs, underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with inverted ILM flap technique assisted by brilliant blue G (BBG) staining. Ophthalmological findings including visual acuity and OCT were investigated based on medical records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue section of an ILM-like membrane was submitted for immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results ILM was clearly stained with BBG in eight patients, whereas the ILM in one case revealed no staining with BBG during PPV. Visual acuities improved to >0.2 LogMAR in six patients. The complete closure of MH following PPV with inverted ILM technique was eventually achieved in all patients determined by OCT imaging (100%). Only one patient showed recovery of ellipsoid zone and interdigitation zone following the surgery. Elongation of outer nuclear layer was noted in three eyes. The ILM-like membrane not stained with BBG histologically revealed an amorphous structure admixed with GFAP-positive mononuclear cell infiltration. Conclusion PPV with inverted ILM flap technique achieved 100% closure rates with favorable configuration at an initial surgery in large MHs. Our histopathological data also suggest that even BBG staining-negative membrane may be a useful material for autologous transplantation to the hole. PMID:28031697

  13. Outcomes of microincision vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shimpei Sato,1 Maiko Inoue,2 Shin Yamane,2 Akira Arakawa,2 Mikiro Mori,1 Kazuaki Kadonosono2 1Department of Opthalmology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional effect of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Methods: The medical records of 101 eyes of 101 patients who had undergone MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO were studied. Patients were classified into ischemic and non-ischemic BRVO based on angiograph. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness (CFT, determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Preoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR BCVA ± standard deviation (SD was 0.52±0.43 and mean CFT ± SD was 489.4±224.9 µm. Postoperative mean BCVA ± SD values were 0.41±0.35, 0.35±0.41, 0.29±0.36, and 0.25±0.41, and mean CFT values were 370.1±148.9, 327.5±157.5, 310.9±154.9, and 274.4±135.3 µm at 1, 3, 6, 12 months, respectively. The mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (all P<0.05, and the mean CFT was significantly decreased at all postoperative follow-up time points (all P<0.05. At the 12-month postoperative evaluation, BCVA had improved by 0.2 logMAR units in 50 eyes (60.0% with ischemic BRVO and in nine eyes (50.0% with non-ischemic BRVO. Six eyes (6.0% experienced recurrence or persistence of macular edema at 12 months postoperatively.Conclusion: MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO is effective in improving visual acuity and foveal morphology with low recurrence of macular edema. Keywords: MIVS, ILM, BRVO, central foveal thickness, CFT

  14. Summary of the half-day internal review of LHC performance limitations (linked to transverse collective effects) during run II (CERN, 29/11/2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, Elias; Biancacci, Nicolo; Buffat, Xavier; Carver, Lee Robert; Iadarola, Giovanni; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Romano, Annalisa; Schenk, Michael; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this note the half-day internal review of LHC performance limitations (linked to transverse collective effects) during run II (2015-2016), which took place at CERN on 29/11/2016 (https://indico.cern.ch/event/589625/), is summarised and the next steps are discussed.

  15. Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole and the correlation between function and retinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulrik Correll

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic macular hole is characterized by a full thickness anatomic defect in the foveal retina leading to loss of central vision, metamorphopsia and a central scotoma. Classic macular hole surgery consists of vitrectomy, posterior vitreous cortex separation and intraocular gas tamponade, but during the past decade focus has especially been on internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling as adjuvant therapy for increasing closure rates. With increasing use of ILM peeling and indocyanine green (ICG) staining, which is used for specific visualization of the ILM, concerns about the safety of the procedure have arisen. At present, it is not known whether ICG-assisted ILM peeling potentially reduces the functional outcome after macular hole surgery. The purpose of the present PhD thesis was to examine whether ICG-assisted ILM peeling offers surgical and functional benefit in macular hole surgery. We conducted a randomized clinical trial including 78 pseudophakic patients with idiopathic macular hole stages 2 and 3. Patients were randomly assigned to macular hole surgery consisting of (i) vitrectomy alone without instrumental retinal surface contact (non-peeling), (ii) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic ICG-assisted ILM peeling or (iii) vitrectomy plus 0.15% trypan blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Morphologic and functional outcomes were assessed 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. The results show that surgery with ILM peeling, for both stages 2 and 3 macular holes, is associated with a significantly higher closure rate than surgery without ILM peeling (95% versus 45%). The overall functional results confirm that surgery for macular hole generally leads to favourable visual results, with two-thirds of eyes regaining reading vision (>or=20/40). Macular hole surgery can be considered a safe procedure with a low incidence of sight-threatening adverse events; the retinal detachment rate was 2.2%. Visual outcomes in eyes with primary hole closure were not significantly different

  16. Evolution des paramètres lipidiques sanguins chez l’homme, secondaire à l’introduction de lin, riche en acide alpha-linolénique (n-3, dans l’alimentation d’animaux destinés à la consommation humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available L’introduction de graines de lin extrudées dans l’alimentation animale permet de modifier le régime de l’homme et en particulier le profil des acides gras des lipides sanguins dans le sens d’un enrichissement en acides gras n-3 et en acides gras conjugués. Ceci ouvre des perspectives intéressantes en termes de prévention pour se rapprocher des régimes de type crétois, sans changement des habitudes alimentaires.

  17. Exploring the Experiences of International Students in UK Higher Education: Possibilities and Limits of Interculturality in University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Michele; Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a two-year multi-method research project, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council, investigating the experiences of international undergraduate students in UK higher education. In investigating the influences on their experiences and the strategies that students employ, the study has also revealed something…

  18. 76 FR 19517 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ....\\1\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 9017 (Feb. 26, 2010). ATA also stated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...\\ 14 CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 74 FR 51653... Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan...

  19. Denitrification on internal carbon sources in RAS is limited by fibers in fecal waste of rainbow trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Kamstra, A.; Busscher, J.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification on internal carbon sources offers the advantage to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) by using the fecal carbon produced within the husbandry system. However, it is not clear to which extent fecal carbon can be utilized by the microbial community within

  20. 77 FR 68196 - Orders Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 77 FR 30585 (May... Authorizations (slots) at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), LaGuardia Airport (LGA), and Newark... occurred at slot-controlled and non- slot-controlled airports. JFK and EWR were effectively closed...

  1. Limiting efficiencies of solar energy conversion and photo-detection via internal emission of hot electrons and hot holes in gold

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the limiting efficiency of full and partial solar spectrum harvesting via the process of internal photoemission in Au-semiconductor Schottky junctions. Our results based on the ab initio calculations of the electron density of states (e-DOS) reveal that the limiting efficiency of the full-spectrum Au converter based on hot electron injection is below 4%. This value is even lower than previously established limit based on the parabolic approximation of the Au electron energy bands. However, we predict limiting efficiency exceeding 10% for the hot holes collection through the Schottky junction between Au and p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such converters have more potential if used as a part of the hybrid system for harvesting high- and low-energy photons of the solar spectrum.

  2. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SEQUENTIAL INTRAOPERATIVE USE OF WHOLE BLOOD FOLLOWED BY BRILLIANT BLUE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL BRILLIANT BLUE STAINING OF INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE IN MACULAR HOLE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Basudeb; Arora, Supriya; Goel, Neha; Seth, Anisha; Pyare, Richa; Sridharan, Preethi; Thakar, Meenakshi

    2016-08-01

    To compare the structural and functional outcome of use of autologous heparinized whole blood before staining internal limiting membrane with brilliant blue (BB) versus conventional BB-assisted macular hole surgery. Sixty eyes of 60 patients were randomly divided equally in Group A (BB staining using whole blood) and Group B (conventional BB staining). Clinical assessment and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was done at baseline and 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 16 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Group A eyes had a significantly higher best-corrected visual acuity as compared with Group B postoperatively (P blood before staining internal limiting membrane with BB causes earlier and better visual rehabilitation postoperatively, which could be attributed to earlier photoreceptor regeneration as evidenced by inner segment/outer segment junction continuity and increase in outer foveal thickness.

  3. External fixation combined with limited internal fixation for Pilon fractures%外固定支架结合有限内固定治疗Pilon骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周淮; 徐晓军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of Pilon fractures treated with external fixation and limited internal fixation.Methods 24 cases of Pilon fractures of tibia were treated with external fixation combined limited internal fixation.Results 24 cases were followed up for 10 ~ 20 months.No bone nonumon or skin necrosis complication was found.According to Mazur ankle joint scoring system, the results were excellent in 14, good in 7 , and fair in 3.Conclusions External fixation combined with limited internal fixation can immohilize the sections of fracture and achieve excellent ankle joint function,so it is an effective surgical treatment of Pilon fractures.%目的 探讨外固定支架结合有限内固定治疗Pilon骨折的疗效.方法 采用外固定支架结合有限内固定治疗24例Pilon骨折.结果 24例均获得随访,时间10~20个月.无骨不连、皮肤坏死发生.踝关节功能Mazur评分:优14例,良7例,可3例.结论 外固定支架结合有限内固定可以获得术后骨折稳定,取得良好踝关节功能,是治疗Pilon骨折有效的手术方案.

  4. Evaluation of Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness after Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso L. Sabater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL thickness changes after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole repair using a high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. 32 eyes from 32 patients with idiopathic macular holes who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2011 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. GCIPL thickness was measured before surgery, and at one month and at six months after surgery. Values obtained from automated and semimanual SD-OCT segmentation analysis were compared (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA. Results. No significant differences were found between average GCIPL thickness values between preoperative and postoperative analysis. However, statistical significant differences were found in GCIPL thickness at the temporal macular quadrants at six months after surgery. Quality measurement analysis performed by automated segmentation revealed a significant number of segmentation errors. Semimanual segmentation slightly improved the quality of the results. Conclusion. SD-OCT analysis of GCIPL thickness found a significant reduction at the temporal macular quadrants at 6 months after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole.

  5. Evaluation of Macular Retinal Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform Layer Thickness after Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Zapata, Miguel A.; Figueroa, Marta S.; Suárez-Leoz, Marta; Arrevola, Luis; Teijeiro, María-Ángeles; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness changes after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole repair using a high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. 32 eyes from 32 patients with idiopathic macular holes who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling between January 2011 and July 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. GCIPL thickness was measured before surgery, and at one month and at six months after surgery. Values obtained from automated and semimanual SD-OCT segmentation analysis were compared (Cirrus HD-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Results. No significant differences were found between average GCIPL thickness values between preoperative and postoperative analysis. However, statistical significant differences were found in GCIPL thickness at the temporal macular quadrants at six months after surgery. Quality measurement analysis performed by automated segmentation revealed a significant number of segmentation errors. Semimanual segmentation slightly improved the quality of the results. Conclusion. SD-OCT analysis of GCIPL thickness found a significant reduction at the temporal macular quadrants at 6 months after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. PMID:25110679

  6. Séroprévalence des marqueurs viraux sur les dons du sang au Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafidi; Unyendje, Loubet; Hadef, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH), du virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) et C (VHC) sur les dons du sang collectés au Centre de transfusion sanguine(CTS) de l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V entre 2010 et 2012. Etude rétrospective menée auprès des donneurs de sang militaires âgés de 18 à 50 ans avec prédominance masculine (95%). L’entretien médical pré-don constitue la première barrière de sélection des sujets à risque. Le dépistage biologique était réalisé par technique immuno-enzymatique en milieu liquide utilisant des anticorps et/ou des antigènes. L’ELISA (enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay) combiné de quatrième génération pour VHC et VIH a été utilisé. La confirmation a été faite en réalisant la même technique en double au CTS et au laboratoire de virologie. Dans notre série de 25661 échantillons testés, la prévalence du VHB était 3,97‰ (n=102), celle de VHC était 2,45 ‰ (n=63), celle de VIH était 0,15 ‰ (n=4). Un seul cas de coïnfection (0,039 ‰) par le VHB et VHC a été noté, aucune association entre VIH-VHB, VIH-VHC ou VHB, VHC et VIH n’a été enregistrée. Les taux faibles de séroprévalence des marqueurs viraux de notre étude montrent l’amélioration des mesures préventives en ce qui concerne la sélection des donneurs et des tests de dépistage. Cette prévalence constatée incite à maintenir l’utilisation du réactif combiné qui est la seule alternative à la biologie moléculaire pour les pays en voie de développement. PMID:28292147

  7. Marketing Strategy for the International Food Shop Keidas : Marketing Strategy: Keidas Food Shop or Intercultural Corporation Limited Liability Company

    OpenAIRE

    Reh, Plyah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This research for the study of the marketing strategy has been prepared for the Keidas food shop or Intercultural Corporation limited liability Company. This thesis aims to explore the opportunities and possibilities that the company could achieve with an effective and efficient marketing strategy in the future. The oriental food shop has great potential to serve a large Finnish customer base in the Kymenlaakso area, but due to a lack of a marketing strategy, the company has fa...

  8. PERCENTAGE OF SANGUIN GROUP (ABO, RH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Mirdamadi

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The ABO and Rh Blood groups of 9753 pregnant women were determined in the Amin Maternity Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from March 23, 1976 to July 11, 1977. Their ABO blood group frequencies were calculated as follows: 0=38.20%, A=30.67%, B=23.84% and AB=7.26%. Also, 90.02% of the women were Rh positive and the rest, namely, 9.98% were Rh negative.

  9. Bilingualism--A Sanguine Step in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism can be used as a teaching aid in teaching and learning English language in an Indian classroom and to improve the language accuracy, fluency, and clarity of learners. Bilingualism can aid the teaching and learning process productively in the classroom. In India, most of the students consider English as a subject rather than a tool of…

  10. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers.

  11. Morphological study in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint with MRI. The relationships between the state of the articular disc and limitation of motion of the mandibular head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazu, Hiroko; Sakurai, Takashi; Numayama, Sukenao; Furuya, Nobuaki; Kashima, Isamu [Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    In this study, we used MRI to investigate the relationships between these factors in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) patients, especially with regard to the range of condylar movement. Bone configurations and articular disc conditions were analyzed in a total of 367 TMJ of 255 internal derangement patients using MRI. We examined the influence of articular disc condition on functional disorder and identified the tendencies of the pathology of patients with internal derangements. Anterolateral displacement was more frequent than anteromedial displacement, and lateral rotary displacement was more frequent than medial rotary displacement. Therefore, the articular disc displaced more readily laterally, rather than medially. With regard to the relationship between the articular disc configuration and reduction, enlargement of the posterior band and biconvex discs showed a tendency for articular disc displacement that did not reduce, while discs with even thickness showed a tendency of articular disc displacement which would reduce. Folding and biconvexity tended to limit condylar movement while less limitation occurred with discs of even thickness. In cases of disc displacement without reduction, there was a significantly higher percentage of cases with limited condylar movement than in cases of displacement with reduction. (K.H.)

  12. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  13. Limited and time-delayed internal resource allocation generates oscillations and chaos in the dynamics of citrus crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xujun, E-mail: yexujun@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hirosaki University, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Sakai, Kenshi, E-mail: ken@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Environmental and Agricultural Engineering Department, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Alternate bearing or masting is a yield variability phenomenon in perennial crops. The complex dynamics in this phenomenon have stimulated much ecological research. Motivated by data from an eight-year experiment with forty-eight individual trees, we explored the mechanism inherent to these dynamics in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). By integrating high-resolution imaging technology, we found that the canopy structure and reproduction output of individual citrus crops are mutually dependent on each other. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mature leaves in early season contribute their energy to the fruiting of the current growing season, whereas the younger leaves show a delayed contribution to the next growing season. We thus hypothesized that the annual yield variability might be caused by the limited and time-delayed resource allocation in individual plants. A novel lattice model based on this hypothesis demonstrates that this pattern of resource allocation will generate oscillations and chaos in citrus yield.

  14. Internal Governance of Limited Partnership Private Equity Investment Funds%有限合伙制私募股权投资基金的内部治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江曒华

    2015-01-01

    近几年,资本市场的需求使得我国私募股权投资基金呈现良好的发展势头,基于独特的组织形式制度优势,有限合伙制在我国私募股权投资基金领域得到更广泛的应用。但实践中,公司制法人作为有限合伙制私募股权投资基金的普通合伙人的常态化,可能会给其经营管理的运行带来消极影响。对于此类“组织形式有限合伙制、治理结构半公司制”的基金,本文将通过分析其内部构成,内部关系,发现其内部缺陷,从而提出激励和约束机制并存的治理方案。%In recent years, the demand of capital market makes the private equity investment funds in China enjoy a sound development momentum, based on the strengths of unique organization form system, limited partnership is widely used in the field of private equity investment funds in China. But in practice, as the normality of general partner of limited partnership of private equity investment fund, company legal person may bring negative impact on its management and operation. This paper will analyze the internal structure and internal relations to find its internal defect, thus proposing the governance programmes with coexistence of incentive and restraint mechanisms for the fund of"organization form limited partnership and half-company governance structure".

  15. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  16. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Pars Plana Vitrectomy with and without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Retinal Membrane Removal: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanhan; Zuo, Shanru; Ding, Chun; Dai, Xunzhang; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of published retrospective studies and compared the effectiveness of pars plana vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (IERM). The results revealed that patients in the IERM+ILM peeling group had better BCVA after surgery within 12 months than those in IERM peeling group. But patients in the IERM peeling group showed better BCVA in the 18th month. More retrospective studies or randomized controlled trials are required to investigate and compare the long-term effect of IERM removal with and without ILM peeling.

  17. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Pars Plana Vitrectomy with and without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Retinal Membrane Removal: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanhan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a meta-analysis of published retrospective studies and compared the effectiveness of pars plana vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (IERM. The results revealed that patients in the IERM+ILM peeling group had better BCVA after surgery within 12 months than those in IERM peeling group. But patients in the IERM peeling group showed better BCVA in the 18th month. More retrospective studies or randomized controlled trials are required to investigate and compare the long-term effect of IERM removal with and without ILM peeling.

  18. Investigations of Internal Flow Fields of Constant-Area Mixing-Tubes under Starting-Limit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Eijiro; Tomioka, Sadatake; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Watanabe, Syuichi; Masuya, Goro

    Flow fields in the constant-area mixing tubes of ejector jets were investigated under the starting-limit conditions of an aerodynamic choking mode by performing numerical simulations and cold flow experiments. Pressure recovery was almost completed in the shock-train region. The length of the shock-train region (Lst) was measured under various conditions. Lst was proportional to the mass flow rate ratio of the secondary flow to the primary flow when this ratio was less than 0.15. On the other hand, Lst became almost constant when the mass flow rate ratio exceeded 0.15. Numerical studies showed that this change was caused by the difference in the mechanism of the flow fields. In the cases with low air mass flow rates, the primary and secondary flows almost mixed in a region between the inlets of the mixing tubes and the choking points. The pressure was recovered by a pseudo-shock-wave generated downstream of the choking point. On the other hand, when the mass flow rate ratio was higher than 0.15, the primary and secondary flows were clearly separated at the choking point. The pressure recovery was achieved by the mixing between the primary and secondary flows downstream of the choking point.

  19. What are the minimum requirements for ketogenic diet services in resource-limited regions? Recommendations from the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force for Dietary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Al-Macki, Nabil; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Kim, Heung D; Liao, Jianxiang; Megaw, Katherine; Nathan, Janak K; Raimann, Ximena; Rivera, Rocio; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Williams, Emma; Zupec-Kania, Beth A

    2015-09-01

    Despite the increasing use of dietary therapies for children and adults with refractory epilepsy, the availability of these treatments in developing countries with limited resources remains suboptimal. One possible contributory factor may be the costs. There is often reported a significant perceived need for a large ketogenic diet team, supplements, laboratory studies, and follow-up visits to provide this treatment. The 2009 Epilepsia Consensus Statement described ideal requirements for a ketogenic diet center, but in some situations this is not feasible. As a result, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Dietary Therapy was asked to convene and provide practical, cost-effective recommendations for new ketogenic diet centers in resource-limited regions of the world.

  20. Evaluating detection limits of next-generation sequencing for the surveillance and monitoring of international marine pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Bott, Nathan J; Smith, Kirsty F; Wood, Susanna A

    2013-01-01

    Most surveillance programmes for marine invasive species (MIS) require considerable taxonomic expertise, are laborious, and are unable to identify species at larval or juvenile stages. Therefore, marine pests may go undetected at the initial stages of incursions when population densities are low. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the benchtop GS Junior™ 454 pyrosequencing system to detect the presence of MIS in complex sample matrices. An initial in-silico evaluation of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU) genes, found that multiple primer sets (targeting a ca. 400 base pair region) would be required to obtain species level identification within the COI gene. In contrast a single universal primer set was designed to target the V1-V3 region of SSU, allowing simultaneous PCR amplification of a wide taxonomic range of MIS. To evaluate the limits of detection of this method, artificial contrived communities (10 species from 5 taxonomic groups) were created using varying concentrations of known DNA samples and PCR products. Environmental samples (water and sediment) spiked with one or five 160 hr old Asterias amurensis larvae were also examined. Pyrosequencing was able to recover DNA/PCR products of individual species present at greater than 0.64% abundance from all tested contrived communities. Additionally, single A. amurensis larvae were detected from both water and sediment samples despite the co-occurrence of a large array of environmental eukaryotes, indicating an equivalent sensitivity to quantitative PCR. NGS technology has tremendous potential for the early detection of marine invasive species worldwide.

  1. Evaluating detection limits of next-generation sequencing for the surveillance and monitoring of international marine pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Pochon

    Full Text Available Most surveillance programmes for marine invasive species (MIS require considerable taxonomic expertise, are laborious, and are unable to identify species at larval or juvenile stages. Therefore, marine pests may go undetected at the initial stages of incursions when population densities are low. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the benchtop GS Junior™ 454 pyrosequencing system to detect the presence of MIS in complex sample matrices. An initial in-silico evaluation of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and the nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU genes, found that multiple primer sets (targeting a ca. 400 base pair region would be required to obtain species level identification within the COI gene. In contrast a single universal primer set was designed to target the V1-V3 region of SSU, allowing simultaneous PCR amplification of a wide taxonomic range of MIS. To evaluate the limits of detection of this method, artificial contrived communities (10 species from 5 taxonomic groups were created using varying concentrations of known DNA samples and PCR products. Environmental samples (water and sediment spiked with one or five 160 hr old Asterias amurensis larvae were also examined. Pyrosequencing was able to recover DNA/PCR products of individual species present at greater than 0.64% abundance from all tested contrived communities. Additionally, single A. amurensis larvae were detected from both water and sediment samples despite the co-occurrence of a large array of environmental eukaryotes, indicating an equivalent sensitivity to quantitative PCR. NGS technology has tremendous potential for the early detection of marine invasive species worldwide.

  2. International human rights law: a limiting or constituent element of democracy? About the Uruguay an transition to democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rincón-Covelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the will of the people as an expression of sovereignty is typical of the political theory that seeks to explain the origin of the modern liberal state. The compatibility between the individual freedom of subjects considered equal and the exercise of political power needs to think of citizens as free subjects, and this is achieved when the power exercised over them is seen as a power that comes only from the citizens themselves. In the individualist conception of democracy, the rights of individuals are older and have precedence over membership in the society. However, it is not necessary to commit to this conception to defend the primacy of the rights. It can be defended only on the decisions of the society. From this position a potential conflict between popular sovereignty and human rights is conceivable. The Uruguayan political transition exemplifies this possibility. Through both a referendum and a plebiscite called by the civil society, the majority endorsed the Law of Caducity of the Punitive Claim of the State that prevents prosecution of serious crimes committed during the dictatorship. The ichr declared in 2011 that this decision violated the achr and that popular sovereignty is subject to the limits imposed by human rights. The analyses of the decision have focused on the obligation of the State of Uruguay to fulfill it, but not on what it means to the contemporary understanding of democracy. This is what I intend to do in this article, through two theses: i the conflict remains if the concept of democracy is a procedural concept, and ii the ichr offers a concept that opens a path to the resolution of the conflict.

  3. Delivering the goods: viral and non-viral gene therapy systems and the inherent limits on cargo DNA and internal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Helen; Chalmers, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    Viruses have long been considered to be the most promising tools for human gene therapy. However, the initial enthusiasm for the use of viruses has been tarnished in the light of potentially fatal side effects. Transposons have a long history of use with bacteria in the laboratory and are now routinely applied to eukaryotic model organisms. Transposons show promise for applications in human genetic modification and should prove a useful addition to the gene therapy tool kit. Here we review the use of viruses and the limitations of current approaches to gene therapy, followed by a more detailed analysis of transposon length and the physical properties of internal sequences, which both affect transposition efficiency. As transposon length increases, transposition decreases: this phenomenon is known as length-dependence, and has implications for vector cargo capacity. Disruption of internal sequences, either via deletion of native DNA or insertion of exogenous DNA, may reduce or enhance genetic mobility. These effects may be related to host factor binding, essential spacer requirements or other influences yet to be elucidated. Length-dependence is a complex phenomenon driven not simply by the distance between the transposon ends, but by host proteins, the transposase and the properties of the DNA sequences encoded within the transposon.

  4. Managing the technological edge: the UNESCO International Computation Centre and the limits to the transfer of computer technology, 1946-61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofre, David

    2014-07-01

    The spread of the modern computer is assumed to have been a smooth process of technology transfer. This view relies on an assessment of the open circulation of knowledge ensured by the US and British governments in the early post-war years. This article presents new historical evidence that question this view. At the centre of the article lies the ill-fated establishment of the UNESCO International Computation Centre. The project was initially conceived in 1946 to provide advanced computation capabilities to scientists of all nations. It soon became a prize sought by Western European countries like The Netherlands and Italy seeking to speed up their own national research programs. Nonetheless, as the article explains, the US government's limitations on the research function of the future centre resulted in the withdrawal of European support for the project. These limitations illustrate the extent to which US foreign science policy could operate as (stealth) industrial policy to secure a competitive technological advantage and the prospects of US manufacturers in a future European market.

  5. Minimum exposure limits and measured relationships between the vitamin D, erythema and international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio; Butler, Harry; Turner, Joanna; Wainwright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has established guidelines for exposure to ultraviolet radiation in outdoor occupational settings. Spectrally weighted ICNIRP ultraviolet exposures received by the skin or eye in an 8 h period are limited to 30 J m(-2). In this study, the time required to reach the ICNIRP exposure limit was measured daily in 10 min intervals upon a horizontal plane at a subtropical Australian latitude over a full year and compared with the effective Vitamin D dose received to one-quarter of the available skin surface area for all six Fitzpatrick skin types. The comparison of measured solar ultraviolet exposures for the full range of sky conditions in the 2009 measurement period, including a major September continental dust event, show a clear relationship between the weighted ICNIRP and the effective vitamin D dose. Our results show that the horizontal plane ICNIRP ultraviolet exposure may be used under these conditions to provide minimum guidelines for the healthy moderation of vitamin D, scalable to each of the six Fitzpatrick skin types.

  6. Exploring the relationships between International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF constructs of Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in people with osteoarthritis prior to joint replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Marie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF proposes three main constructs, impairment (I, activity limitation (A and participation restriction (P. The ICF model allows for all paths between the constructs to be explored, with significant paths likely to vary for different conditions. The relationships between I, A and P have been explored in some conditions but not previously in people with osteoarthritis prior to joint replacement. The aim of this paper is to examine these relationships using separate measures of each construct and structural equation modelling. Methods A geographical cohort of 413 patients with osteoarthritis about to undergo hip and knee joint replacement completed the Aberdeen measures of Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction (Ab-IAP. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the three factor (I, A, P measurement model. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the I, A and P pathways in the ICF model. Results There was support from confirmatory factor analysis for the three factor I, A, P measurement model. The structural equation model had good fit [S-B Chi-square = 439.45, df = 149, CFI robust = 0.91, RMSEA robust = 0.07] and indicated significant pathways between I and A (standardised coefficient = 0.76 p Conclusion The significant pathways suggest that treatments and interventions aimed at reducing impairment, such as joint replacement, may only affect P indirectly, through A, however, longitudinal data would be needed to establish this.

  7. Clinical efficacy and safety of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation for Pilon fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Bo; Zhang, Yi-Bao; Wang, Sheng-Hong; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Jing-Lin; Wang, Jing

    2017-04-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and complications of limited internal fixation combined with external fixation (LIFEF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of Pilon fracture. We searched databases including Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, Cochrane Library and China Biology Medicine disc for the studies comparing clinical efficacy and complications of LIFEF and ORIF in the treatment of Pilon fracture. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by the rate of nonunion, malunion/delayed union and the excellent/good rate assessed by Mazur ankle score. The complications including infections and arthritis symptoms after surgery were also investigated. Nine trials including 498 pilon fractures of 494 patients were identified. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in nonunion rate (RR = 1.60, 95% CI: 0.66 to 3.86, p = 0.30), and the excellent/good rate (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.04, p = 0.28) between LIFEF group and ORIF group. For assessment of infections, there were significant differences in the rate of deep infection (RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.34 to 3.55, p = 0.002), and the rate of arthritis (RR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.53, p = 0.02) between LIFEF group and ORIF group. LIFEF has similar effect as ORIF in the treatment of pilon fractures, however, LIFEF group has significantly higher risk of complications than ORIF group does. So LIFEF is not recommended in the treatment of pilon fracture. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Techniques for the Repair of Large Macular Holes: a Short-Term Follow-up of Anatomical and Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, J; Lang, C; Valmaggia, C

    2017-02-01

    Background To evaluate the technique of inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flaps for the management of large macular holes and autologous ILM free flaps for non-closing macular holes. Patients and methods All macular holes were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and dual blue assisted ILM flap technique. The inverted ILM flap was created as a primary procedure for large macular holes (diameter > 400 µm). On the other hand, the free ILM flap technique was used as a secondary procedure for non-closing macular holes after failed initial standard procedure. SD-OCT images were taken to assess the anatomical outcome of surgery, while best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was used to evaluate the functional outcome during a 2-month follow-up. Results All patients underwent successful planned manipulation of the ILM flap. In seven patients/eyes, an inverted ILM flap was created, in three patients/eyes a free ILM flap translocation was performed. All patients achieved complete anatomical closure. Partial microstructural reconstruction, demonstrated on SD-OCT as restoration of the external limiting membrane and the ellipsoid zone, was observed in some cases as early as one month after surgery. Functionally, in comparison to baseline, most of the patients showed improvements in BCVA of 1 to 2 lines at the first postoperative follow-up visit. Conclusions Inverted ILM flaps for large macular holes and free flaps for non-closing macular holes appear to be a safe and effective approach, with favourable short-term anatomical and functional results.

  9. Visual outcome and electron microscopic features of indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling from macular hole of various aetiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Atul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the visual outcome of internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular hole of various aetiologies and ultrastructural features of the ILM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 40 eyes of 38 patients. Thirty eyes with full thickness macular hole were treated with vitrectomy and removal of ILM. Ten eyes with retinal detachment served as negative controls and these patients underwent vitrectomy and ILM removal. The surgical specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The anatomical success rate of the first operation was 90% in idiopathic and myopic groups, whereas it was 100% in traumatic macular hole group. Visual improvement of ³ two lines was noted in 80% of the cases. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of ILM in all surgical specimens. Proliferation of astrocytes and synthesis of new collagen along the inner surface of ILM was noted in the surgical specimens. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the ILM removal helps in closure of the macular hole and retinal reattachment. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling is a reasonable surgical approach to treat macular holes of idiopathic, myopic and traumatic aetiology.

  10. Evaluation of secondary surgery to enlarge the peeling of the internal limiting membrane following the failed surgery of idiopathic macular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xin; He, Fanglin; Lu, Linna; Zhu, Dongqing; Xu, Xiaofang; Song, Xin; Fan, Xianqun; Wang, Zhiliang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with the surgical enlargement of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in patients who had previously undergone failed idiopathic macular hole (IMH) surgery. In the study, 134 eyes from 130 IMH patients who had received PPV combined with ILM peeling surgery (2 disk diameters) were analyzed. Within this cohort, 14 eyes had IMHs that were not closed, of which 13 eyes underwent a second surgery involving enlargement of the ILM peeling. The extent of the ILM peeling was increased to the vascular arcades of the posterior fundus in the secondary surgery. Of the 13 eyes that underwent secondary surgery, five were in stage III and nine were in stage IV. The second surgery successfully achieved IMH closure in 61.5% (8/13) of the eyes. The IMH was completely closed following surgery and the logMAR vision increased from 0.98 to 0.84 (P=0.013) in the 8 successfully treated cases. The surgical enlargement of ILM peeling closed the IMHs and improved vision in the majority of patients. In addition, the procedures were safe. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that enlargement of ILM peeling may be an effective therapy for patients who have previously undergone the failed surgical correction of an IMH.

  11. Macular Hole Surgery with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling Facilitated by Membrane-Blue® versus Membrane-Blue-Dual®: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Daniel; Loewenstein, Anat

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aims to compare the outcome of macular hole (MH) surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling facilitated by two different vital dyes. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review. The group designated “group-MB” underwent pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling facilitated by Membrane-Blue (MB), whereas in “group-MBD,” the vital dye used was Membrane-Blue-Dual (MBD). Results. Seventy-four eyes comprised the study population: 53 in group-MB and 21 in group-MBD. There was no difference in the rate of macular hole closure in group-MB or group-MBD: 71.2% closed MHs compared to 66.7%, respectively (p = 0.7). Postoperative visual improvement was of a higher magnitude in the MBD group compared to the MB group: −0.34 ± 0.81 logMAR versus 0.01 ± 0.06 logMAR, respectively (p = 0.003). Conclusions. In this study, MBD led to better visual results that may be related to better staining characteristics or lesser toxicity compared to MB. PMID:28050275

  12. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  13. Successful closure of treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II, full-thickness macular hole using inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazimul Hussain,1 Anjli Hussain2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Al Zahra Hospital, 2Al Zahra Medical Center, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Objective: The objective of this study was to present the outcome of the internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling flap technique for a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II, full-thickness macular hole (MH. Methods: A 52-year-old man presented with complaints of decreased vision and seeing black spot. He was diagnosed to have a flat edge, full-thickness MH, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT. He underwent 23G vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted inverted ILM peeling with an inverted flap over the hole followed by fluid gas exchange. Results: Postoperative follow-up until 3 months showed successful closure of the MH, which was confirmed by OCT. The best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 6/60 to 6/12 at the final follow-up. Conclusion: Using the inverted ILM flap technique, a treatment-naïve, flat edge (Type II, full thickness MH achieved successful anatomical and functional outcomes. Keywords: macular hole, inverted ILM, optical coherence tomography

  14. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Repair of Large Macular Holes: A Short-term Follow-up of Anatomical and Functional Outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chan Zhao; Jun-Jie Ye; Xu-Qian Wang; Rui-Fang Sui

    2016-01-01

    Background:Inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique has recently been reported in a limited number of studies as an effective surgical technique for the management of large macular holes (MHs) with fair MH closure rates as well as gains in visual acuity.In the current study,longitudinal changes in multi-focal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses,best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were evaluated in eyes with large MHs managed by this technique.Methods:A prospective noncontrolled interventional study of eight patients (eight eyes) with large MHs (minimum diameter >400 μm) was conducted.All MHs were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and indocyanine green-assisted inverted ILM flap technique.SD-OCT images were used to assess the anatomical outcomes of surgery while BCVA and mfERG were used to evaluate the functional outcomes during a 3-month follow-up.Results:All patients underwent successful intended manipulation and translocation of the ILM flap without flap dislocation and achieved complete anatomical closure.Partial microstructural reconstruction,demonstrated on SD-OCT as restoration of the external limiting membrane and the ellipsoid zone,was observed in all cases as early as 1 month after surgery.Functionally,as compared to baseline,all patients showed improvements in BCVA and all but one in mfERG response during follow-up.However,Pearson's test revealed no significant correlations between BCVA and mfERG responses of the fovea and of the macular area at each evaluation time point.Conclusions:Inverted ILM flap technique appeares to be a safe and effective approach for the management of large idiopathic MHs with favorable short-term anatomical and functional results.Postoperative reconstruction of the microstructure generally shows good consistency with improvements in both BCVA and mfERG response,of which the latter might be a supplement for the former in postoperative functional follow-up.

  15. Revisiting the Humanisation of International Law: Limits and Potential : Obligations Erga Omnes, Hierarchy of Rules and the Principle of Due Diligence as the Basis for Further Humanisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.P. Tzevelekos (Vassilis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe article critically evaluates the theory of the humanisation of international law. First, it argues that despite human rights having impact on (other areas of) international law, this trend has in the past been somewhat inflated. A number of examples are given where human rights have

  16. Advisory speed limits : should they be expanded or not? Contribution XVth International Study Week Traffic Engineering and safety: Traffic engineering & the Driver, Theme 2: Speed limits and the driver, Venice, 23-28 September 1985.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Advisory speed limits are meant to be used intermittently in situations which are recognised by the road user, while at the same time, not giving a clear suggestion as to the speed which should be sustained. At present advisory speed limits are almost exclusively applied in narrow road curves. Th

  17. Speed limits in The Netherlands : a detailed consideration of the situation inside and outside built-up areas. Contribution to the International OECD symposium "The Effects of Speed Limits on Traffic Accidents and Transport Energy Use", Dublin, 6-8 October, 1981.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the international OECD symposium "the effect of speed limits on traffic accidents and transport energy use", held in Dublin on 6-8 October 1981. Outlined are the problems of actual speeds, how speed is influenced, speed restrictions etc. in the Netherlands. In additio

  18. Current limits and future challenges in the management of renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis: report from the International Club of Ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angeli, Paolo; Sanyal, Arun; Møller, Søren

    2013-01-01

    is based either on the more recent knowledge on renal dysfunction in advanced cirrhosis or current opinions among the members of the International Club of Ascites (ICA) on the management of this complication, obtained through a survey and discussed during the EASL-ICA Joint Meeting in Berlin in March 2011....... It reviews critically our current knowledge and it outlines future perspectives, on the management of renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis....

  19. Activation de l'aire motrice supplémentaire au cours des mouvements volontaires chez l'homme. Etudes par le débit sanguin cérébral focal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orgogozo, J M; Larsen, B; Roland, P E

    1979-01-01

    premotor activation previously noted in certain types of movement, corresponds to supplementary motor area (SMA). A retrospective study of 157 maps of fCBF recorded during motor or verbal behaviour, compared to 90 recordings in subjects at rest, showed that SMA is involved in most voluntary movements......, either verbal or non-verbal. An analysis of the results suggests that SMA acts during the establishment of new motor programs, and in the control of pre-established automatic activities, in response to internal and external stimuli....

  20. Validity and limitations of the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 Validade e limitações da versão brasileira do Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Quintana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the concurrent validity of the Brazilian Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 using as gold standard the clinical diagnoses based on the ICD-10 criteria and the Longitudinal, Expert, All Data (LEAD procedure. METHOD: The sample was composed of 185 subjects selected at psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric outpatient units, the community, and primary care services. These individuals were intentionally selected according to 9 diagnostic groups. Instruments: Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-core version 2.1 (paper-and-pencil administered by 16 trained interviewers. Analysis: concurrent validity of diagnoses of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 12-month. RESULTS: Values found for sensitivity and specificity in each diagnosis were: alcohol-related disorders (79.5%/97.2%; psychoactive substance-related disorders (77.3%/100%; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (28.6%/93.9%; manic episode and bipolar affective disorder (38.9%/96.4%; depressive disorder (82.5%/ 93.8%; phobic-anxiety disorder (80.6%/93.5%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (18.2%/98.9%; somatoform disorder (41.7%/90.8%; eating disorder (45.5%/100.0%. CONCLUSION: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview proved to be valid for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, psychoactive substance-related disorders, depressive disorder and phobic-anxiety disorder. The probable explanations for the poor performance for the other diagnoses were: necessity of some clinical judgement by the lay interviewer; difficulty to use the Probe Flow Chart; interviewees' difficulty of understanding; and lack of mechanisms to certify the veracity of the information.OBJETIVO: Validação concorrente da versão brasileira do Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, utilizando como padrão ouro o diagnóstico médico baseado nos critérios diagnósticos da CID-10 e critérios Longitudinal, Experts Clinicians, All Data (LEAD. M

  1. High-gradient near-quench-limit operation of superconducting Tesla-type cavities in scope of the International Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Omet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful demonstration of an ILC-like high-gradient near-quench-limit operation at the Superconducting RF Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK in Japan. Preparation procedures necessary for the accelerator operation were conducted, such as rf phase calibration, beam-based gradient calibration, and automated beam compensation. Test runs were performed successfully for nominal operation, high-loaded Q (Q_{L} operation, and automated P_{k}Q_{L} operation. The results are described in terms of the achieved precision and stabilities of gradients and phases.

  2. Potentials and limits of the internal engine reduction of NO{sub x} for great diesel engines; Potentiale und Grenzen der innermotorischen NOx-Reduktion bei Grossdieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Jochen; Sankhla, Harsh; Ruhkamp, Ludger; Maassen, Franz [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Rajamani, Vinod [RWTH Aachen (Germany). VKA

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of stringent emissions legislations in large bore engine sector, the reduction of NOx emissions are particularly gaining significance. New concepts are necessary in this engine class to achieve the low NOx targets. Exhaust gas recirculation and Miller valve timing are engine measures that come into consideration. Based on the 1-D engine process simulations using GT-Power, the potential and limits of both approaches shall be discussed and compared in this article. The emissions, system efficiency and the mechanical limits of the engine shall be brought under the purview of the analysis. After selection of the best approach or combination of approaches from a viewpoint of NOx reduction, an engine system layout will be determined with the aid of GT-Power simulations. Next, 3-D CFD simulations (KIVA 3V) shall be employed to gain a phenomenological understanding of the in-cylinder processes. The engine system shall be optimised in a further step using DoE (Design of Experiments). The optimisation of the chosen parameters will be performed through a coupling of 3-D CFD with the model-based optimisation tool, Pro-Cal. The simulations shall be validated at the engine test bench after the optimisation step. (orig.)

  3. A limited 4 Å radial displacement of the S4-S5 linker is sufficient for internal gate closing in Kv channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Élise; Starek, Greg; McGuire, Hugo; Bernèche, Simon; Blunck, Rikard

    2012-11-16

    Voltage-gated ion channels are responsible for the generation of action potentials in our nervous system. Conformational rearrangements in their voltage sensor domains in response to changes of the membrane potential control pore opening and thus ion conduction. Crystal structures of the open channel in combination with a wealth of biophysical data and molecular dynamics simulations led to a consensus on the voltage sensor movement. However, the coupling between voltage sensor movement and pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, occurs at the cytosolic face of the channel, from where no structural information is available yet. In particular, the question how far the cytosolic pore gate has to close to prevent ion conduction remains controversial. In cells, spectroscopic methods are hindered because labeling of internal sites remains difficult, whereas liposomes or detergent solutions containing purified ion channels lack voltage control. Here, to overcome these problems, we controlled the state of the channel by varying the lipid environment. This way, we directly measured the position of the S4-S5 linker in both the open and the closed state of a prokaryotic Kv channel (KvAP) in a lipid environment using Lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer. We were able to reconstruct the movement of the covalent link between the voltage sensor and the pore domain and used this information as restraints for molecular dynamics simulations of the closed state structure. We found that a small decrease of the pore radius of about 3-4 Å is sufficient to prevent ion permeation through the pore.

  4. Improved Neuropsychological and Neurological Functioning Across Three Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Resource-Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5199, the International Neurological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K.; Jiang, H.; Kumwenda, J.; Supparatpinyo, K.; Evans, S.; Campbell, T. B.; Price, R.; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N.; La Rosa, A.; Santos, B.; Silva, M. T.; Montano, S.; Kanyama, C.; Faesen, S.; Murphy, R.; Hall, C.; Marra, C. M.; Marcus, C.; Berzins, B.; Allen, R.; Housseinipour, M.; Amod, F.; Sanne, I.; Hakim, J.; Walawander, A.; Nair, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. Methods. Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Results. The median weeks on study was 168 (Q1 = 96, Q3 = 192) for the 860 participants. NP test scores improved (P  .10). Significant country effects were noted on all NP tests and neurological outcomes (P < .01). Conclusions. The study detected no significant differences in neuropsychological and neurological outcomes between randomized ART regimens. Significant improvement occurred in neurocognitive and neurological functioning over time after initiation of ARTs. The etiology of these improvements is likely multifactorial, reflecting reduced central nervous system HIV infection, better general health, and practice effects. This study suggests that treatment with either of the World Health Organization –recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings will improve neuropsychological functioning and reduce neurological dysfunction. Clinical trials registration.  NCT00096824. PMID:22661489

  5. Limited internal fixation combined external fixation in the treatment of distal radius comminuted fractures%有限内固定加外固定支架治疗桡骨远端粉碎性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向乾彬; 范海泉; 黄海讯; 俞阳; 江洋; 刘江川; 陈铭

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨有限内固定加外固定支架治疗桡骨远端粉碎性骨折的临床疗效.方法 采用有限内固定加外固定支架治疗桡骨远端粉碎性骨折45例.结果 42例患者获得随访,时间3~36个月.按Lidstrom评分系统行影像学评价:优30例,良7例,中5例,优良率为88.09%;依据Dienst标准评价腕关节功能:优30例,良8 例,中4 例,优良率为90.47%.无严重并发症发生.结论 有限内固定结合外固定支架治疗桡骨远端粉碎性骨折,复位满意,操作简单,固定牢固,疗效满意.%Objective To study the effect of limited internal fixation and external fixation for the treatment of comminuted fracture of distal radius. Methods Limited internal fixation combined with external fixation were used in the treatment of 45 cases of comminuted fracture of distal radius. Results 42 cases were followed up for 3 ~ 36 months. With Lidstrom scoring system image evaluation, excellent 30 cases,7 good,5 fair,and the excellent and good rate was 88. 09% ; According to Dienst functional evaluation standard, the wrist joint function evaluation was excellent in 30 cases, good in 8, and fair in 4 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 90. 47%. No serious complications were found. Conclusions Limited internal fixation combined external fixation for distal radius comminuted fractures provide good reduction and satisfactory effect.

  6. The capacity of absorption of the international technology transfer, its limits and the analysis of the possibilities of production of knowledge in developing countries: The case of Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Pisaniuc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based indirectly on the analysis of the interdependencies between economic development of world states and the technological potential. In this article we set the objective to analyse the interdependence between the capacity of production and generation of modern technologies and the absorption capacity. The appreciation of the possibilities of developing countries to create and disseminate technologies, in which form of organization and financing could that, be done. Determining the obstacles that limit the degree of absorption of technologies, and which are the measures that could open new possibilities in the international technology transfer.

  7. Model-based online optimisation of modern internal combustion engines. Part 2: Limits of the feasible search space; Modellbasierte Online-Optimierung moderner Verbrennungsmotoren. Teil 2: Grenzen des fahrbaren Suchraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, K.; Poland, J.; Zell, A. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Rechnerarchitektur; Fleischhauer, T.; Mitterer, A.; Ullmann, S. [BMW Group (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The first part of this two-part article introduced the basis of the mbminimize algorithm, which was developed by the University of Tuebingen in cooperation with the BMW Group for the model-based online optimisation of internal combustion engines. This second part describes it extensions regarding the handling of engine limits such as knocking. The main focus is on the construction of special mathematical models for these limits that make it possible to successively and controllably restrict the search space. (orig.) [German] Der erste Teil dieses zweiteiligen Beitrags stellte die Basis des mbminimize-Algorithmus vor, der von der Universitaet Tuebingen in Zusammenarbeit mit der BMW Group zur modellbasierten Online-Optimierung von Verbrennungsmotoren entwickelt wurde. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt die Erweiterungen hinsichtlich der Behandlung von Motorlimits wie zum Beispiel Motorklopfen. Den Schwerpunkt stellen Modelle fuer Motorlimits dar, die es erlauben, den Suchraum sukzessive und kontrollierbar einzuschraenken. (orig.)

  8. Validación de técnicas para detección de sangre, sangre humana y grupo sanguíneo ABO en diferentes soportes y condiciones con fines forenses Validation of techniques for detection of blood, human blood and sanguineous group ABO under different supports and conditions with forensic purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR. Villegas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Las manchas encontradas en la escena del crimen se han constituido como elemento esencial en la resolución de investigaciones judiciales. Establecer su origen y grupo sanguíneo aporta información útil en el proceso de inclusión o exclusión de sospechosos o víctimas. En este estudio se evaluaron pruebas presuntivas de Piramidón, Luminol y Fenolftaleina con el fin de determinar su sensibilidad e interferencia frente a diferentes condiciones de soporte, temperatura, tiempo y ambiente. Además se evaluaron las mismas condiciones para los test de Takayama, Inhibición de la aglutinación y Absorción-elución que determinan el origen de la sangre y tipifican su grupo sanguíneo. Tanto las pruebas presuntivas como las confirmatorias no se ven afectadas en su mayoría al variar los soportes, la temperatura o las condiciones ambientales bajo las cuales fueron almacenadas. Respecto a la sensibilidad se encontró que en las pruebas presuntivas es alta en contraposición a las confirmatorias que requieren de muestras que no hayan sido sometidas a diluciones o lavados.Blood stains found at the scene of the crime have become an essential element when solving judicial investigations. To establish its origin and sanguineous group contributes to useful information in the inclusion process or exclusion of suspects or victims. In our study, we examined the Pyramidone, Luminol, and Phenolphthalein presumptive tests in order to establish their sensitivity (with different degrees of interference and in different support, temperature, time, and storage conditions. The same was carried out to evaluate the agglutination inhibition, absorption-elution and Takayama tests, also used to establish blood origin and type group. In general terms, both the presumptive and the confirmatory tests were not affected in the different supports, temperature, time, and storage conditions we used. As far as sensitivity is concerned, we found that the presumptive tests remained

  9. CFO of CNOOC Limited Changed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ CNOOC Limited announced on December 24 that Yang Hua, Senior Vice President of CNOOC Limited and President of CNOOC International Limied will succeed Dr.Mark Qiu as Chief Financial Officer effective on January 1,2005.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness After Conventional Brilliant Blue Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling Versus Brilliant Blue Selective Staining Using Whole Blood in Macular Hole Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Supriya; Goel, Neha; Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Prateeksha; Raina, Usha Kaul; Thakar, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness after conventional brilliant blue (BB) assisted macular hole (MH) surgery versus BB selective staining using whole blood (WB) in MH surgery. Sixty eyes with stage 4 idiopathic MH with a clear media were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group A eyes underwent sequential intraoperative use of autologous heparinized WB followed by BB dye for staining internal limiting membrane, whereas eyes in group B were subjected to conventional BB staining. Clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was done preoperatively and postoperatively up to 6 months. Mean global RNFL thickness and mean temporal RNFL thickness decreased in both groups postoperatively, but the reduction in RNFL thickness in group B was greater than group A at all postoperative visits (P < .05). BB toxicity may be responsible for reduction of RNFL thickness and WB appears to protect RNFL against dye toxicity. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:436-442.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  12. Limits of Software Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, L.

    2006-01-01

    Software reuse is considered one of the main techniques to increasesoftware productivity. We present two simple mathematical argumentsthat show some theoretical limits of reuse. It turns out that the increase of productivity due to internal reuse is at most linear, farfrom the needed exponential gr

  13. External Fixation Combined with Limited Internal Fixation for the Treatment of Tile C Type Pelvic Fracture%外固定联合有限内固定治疗Tile C型骨盆骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effects of the external fixation combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of Tile C type pelvic fracture. Methods 27 patients of Tile C type pelvic fracture were administrated with external fixation combined with limited internal fixation. 25 of the 27 patients were followed up. There were 17 patients of Tile C1pelvic fracture;8 patients of Tile C2 pelvic fracture. Results 25 patient were followed up for 6 months to 2 year( average,1. 5 years). According to Tornetta standard evaluation score after reduction of fracture,the results were excellent in 12 cases,good in 9 cases,fair in 3 cases and bad in 1 cases. The total excellent and good rate was 84%. According to Majeed score system af-ter the postoperative functional recovery,the results were excellent in 11 cases,good in 11 cases,fair in 2 cases and bad in 1 cases,the total excellent and good rate was 88%. Conclusion External fixation combined with limited internal fixation can not only restore pelvic ring continuity and overall stability of structure but also have mang advantages,such as practical,effective operation,small trauma,less bleeding,convenient adjustment and disassemble. The methods is worthy of wide application.%目的:探究外固定联合有限内固定治疗Tile C型骨盆骨折的临床疗效。方法对27例Tile C型骨盆骨折采用外固定支架联合有限内固定进行治疗,本组27例,25例获得随访,根据Tile分型,C1型17例,C2型8例。结果本组随访时间为6个月~2年,平均1.5年。骨盆骨折复位后根据Tornetta评分标准评价,优12例,良9例,可3例,差1例,总体优良率为84%;术后功能恢复情况采用MaJeed评分系统评价,优11例,良11例,中2例,差1例,总体优良率为88%。结论对于Tile C型骨盆骨折,采用外固定联合有限内固定双重固定不仅可以恢复骨盆环解剖序列的连续性和整体结构的稳定性,而且该方法具有实

  14. International Comparative Analysis of Standards for Tea Pesticide Residue Limits%国内外茶叶农药残留限量标准的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠民; 王永强; 钱和

    2012-01-01

    本文系统分析了美国、日本、欧盟等发达国家或地区以及联合国食品法典农药残留委员会(CODEX)的茶叶农药残留限量标准,并与我国最新茶叶农药残留限量标准进行了比较,在此基础上提出了较为具体的应对措施:借鉴国际经验,完善茶叶农残标准;合理选用农药,研发替代农药,推广病虫害综合防治技术;加强与国际信息交流,建立茶叶出口预警机制;源头控制,提高茶叶安全性。%The paper provided a comparative analysis of standards for maximum residue limits in tea among China, main developed countries or regions such as the USA, EU, Japan, and Codex Alimentarius Commission. Based on the analysis, some measures should be taken in such areas as revising standards with international experiences, selecting suitable pesticides, researching and development of alternative pesticides, promoting comprehensive prevention and control technology on plant diseases and insect pests, strengthening international information exchange, creating tea exports early warning mechanism, upgrading Chinese tea brands. Improving the tea security from the source.

  15. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  16. Limiting Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John

    2011-01-01

    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...

  17. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  18. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  19. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  20. Comparison and Suggestion of Public Exposure Limits of Power Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in International Standards%国际标准工频电磁场公众曝露限值比较及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妮; 邬雄; 刘兴发; 路遥

    2013-01-01

    为了促进我国电磁场控制限值国家标准的出台,针对输变电工程的工频电场和磁场,介绍了世界卫生组织推荐的国际非电离辐射防护委员会(ICNIRP)导则和电气与电子工程师学会(IEEE)标准在电磁场基本限值、参考水平以及最大允许曝露等方面的规定和变化,比较分析曝露限值的应用原则、制定依据及防护措施,由此提出对我国电磁场控制限值的具体建议,得到结论:IEEE标准较ICNIRP导则更多地考虑了具体工程环境下的限值处理问题;用参考水平或最大允许曝露来确定是否符合或者超过基本限值;建议国家标准同时采用4kV/m和10kV/m两个电场控制限值,保留100μT作为磁场控制限值.%For the issuance of national standard on control limits of electric and magnetic fields,the regulations and their variations on such aspects as basic restrictions,reference levels and maximum permissible exposure of electric and magnetic fields in the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)standard recommended by World Health Organization are introduced as regard to power frequency electric and magnetic fields produced by power transmission and transformation engineering in the paper.Then,application principles,development basis and the corresponding protective measures of these exposure limits are compared,and the detailed suggestions for developing national standard on control limits of electric and magnetic fields are put forward.The conclusions are drawn that the limits under the specific project environment are more considered in IEEE standard than that in ICNIRP guidelines,the reference levels or maximum permissible exposure could be applied to determine whether the basis restrictions are satisfied or not,and the control limits are suggested with both of 4 kV/m and 10 kV/m for electric field,and 100 μT for magnetic

  1. 滑槽钉生长棒内固定系统的极限加载实验研究%Study of the Limit Loading Test of Growing Rod Internal Fixation System of Sliding Pedicle Sc rew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王程; 王文军; 侯翰涛; 晏怡果; 王麓山

    2014-01-01

    【目的】采用极限加载实验对滑槽钉生长棒内固定系统与通用脊柱内固定系统的进行比较,为该系统的进一步改进及将来的临床应用提供理论依据。【方法】将新鲜猪脊柱标本12具,共3个胸椎功能单位,随机分成两组,滑槽组(固定螺钉固定标本第3椎体,滑槽螺钉固定标本第1椎体),固定组(固定螺钉固定标本1、3椎体),分别应用通用脊柱内固定系统和滑槽钉生长棒内固定系统测试标本在前屈状态及旋转状态的极限加载。所得数据采用SPSS 18.0软件进行统计学分析。【结果】前屈状态时滑槽组在400 N左右出现钉道松动,固定组在1800 N左右出现钉道松动,两组相比较差异有显著性( P<0.05);旋转状态时滑槽组在5度左右出现钉道松动,固定组在10度左右出现钉道松动,两组相比较差异有显著性( P <0.05)。【结论】滑槽钉生长棒内固定系统的极限加载要小于通用脊柱内固定系统,说明滑槽钉生长棒内固定系统的研究存在一定不足,需进一步优化,增加固定强度。%To compare between the growing rod internal fixation system of sliding pedicle screw and the universal spine system(USS) by the limit loading test in order to provide the basis for further improvement and clinical application of the system in the future .[Methods] A total of 12 spine specimens of fresh porcine(3 thoracic vertebra functional units ) were randomly divided into the sliding group (attachment screws in the 3rd vertebra and sliding pedicle screws in 1st vertebra) and fixation group (attachment screws in 1st and 3rd vertebra) .The limit loading of antexion and rotation state of USS and the growing rod internal fix-ation system of sliding pedicle screw was tested .All data were analyzed by SPSS 18 .0 software .[Results]At antexion state ,screw loosening occurred in the sliding group at about 400N ,while screw loosening

  2. INTERNATIONAL LAW: HINDRANCE OR HELP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    As international Remote Sensing/Geographic Information Systems (RS/GIS) organizations develop, legal issues are becoming an important factor in promoting or limiting international cooperation. We must keep legal considerations in mind during the creation, implementation, and ...

  3. [Internal migration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  4. Influence of the heat-treatment conditions, microchemistry, and microstructure on the irreversible strain limit of a selection of Ti-doped internal-tin Nb3Sn ITER wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheggour, N.; Lee, P. J.; Goodrich, L. F.; Sung, Z.-H.; Stauffer, T. C.; Splett, J. D.; Jewell, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Systematic studies of the intrinsic irreversible strain limit ɛirr,0, microstructure, and microchemistry were made on several internal-tin Nb3Sn pre-production wires, fabricated for the domestic agencies of the USA and China participating in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. These wires were produced by Luvata, Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST), and Western Superconducting Technologies (WST), and were intended for the tokamak’s toroidal-field coils. The results of this study show that, for a final heat-treatment at 650 °C to form the A15 phase, both ɛirr,0 and the de-pinning field Bc2* improved by increasing heat-treatment duration beyond 100 h for the Luvata wires. On the other hand, we saw no improvement in these two parameters as a function of heat-treatment duration in the OST wires. Furthermore, micro-chemical analysis of OST wires revealed that some Nb3Sn filaments have a Sn- and Ti-rich phase at the interface between Cu(Sn) matrix and Nb3Sn in the form of a shell around individual filaments. This phase is far less prominent in the Luvata and WST conductors, and could inhibit diffusion of Sn and Ti into Nb3Sn filaments during the reaction and may potentially be the reason for the lack of noticeable change in Bc2* with heat-treatment duration in the OST wires. The increase of ɛirr,0 and Bc2* with heat-treatment duration in the Luvata wires and the lack of increase in the OST wires may suggest a possible correlation between ɛirr,0 and the stoichiometry of the A15 composition. Investigation of the samples’ microstructure revealed only a small number of cracked Nb3Sn filaments despite the significant and permanent degradation of their critical current Ic when subjected to longitudinal tensile strain ɛ beyond ɛirr,0. The scarcity of cracks indicate that Ic(ɛ) measurements are highly sensitive to crack formation in Nb3Sn filaments, especially at low electric-field criteria ≦̸0.1 μV cm-1, even when the sizes of the

  5. Limits on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Perego, D L

    2002-01-01

    A limit on the tau neutrino mass is obtained using all the $Z^{0} \\to \\tau^{+} \\tau^{-}$ data collected at LEP by the DELPHI detector between 1992 and 1995. In this analysis events in which one of the taus decays into one charged particle, while the second $\\tau$ decays into f{}ive charged pions (1-5 topology) have been used. The neutrino mass is determined from a bidimensional \\fit ~on the invariant mass $m^{*}_{5 \\pi}$ and on the energy $E_{5 \\pi}$ of the f{}ive $\\pi^{\\pm}$ system. The result found is $m_{\

  6. Limited internal fixation combined with external fixation for comminuted humerus shaft fractures%有限内固定结合外固定支架治疗肱骨干粉碎性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊武; 周玉龙; 周一飞; 李振兴; 石成弟; 郭晓山

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcome in the treatment of humerus shaft comminuted fractures using limited open reduction and internal fixation combined with an external fixator.Methods Data of 80 patients with comminuted humerus shaft fractures treated from January 2005 to January 2013 were analysed retrospectively.All the patients underwent limited open reduction and internal fixation combined with an external fixator (treatment group) and open reduction and plate fixation (control group) according to the random number table.In the treatment group,there were 40 patients (28 males,12 females),at mean age of 33.5 years (range,21-54 years),with causes of injury including traffic accidents in five patients,falls in nine,crashes in seven and others in six.There were seven patients with open fractures and 33 with closed fractures.In the control group,there were 40 patients (25 males,15 females),at mean age of 32.9 years (range,19-55 years),with causes of injury including traffic accidents in 16 patients,tumbling in seven,crush in seven and others in ten.There were eight patients with open fractures and 32 with closed fractures.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss,bone union time and complications in both groups were recorded.Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the Stewart and Hundley standard.Results Mean follow-up was 19 months (range,15-24 months).Treatment and control groups showed significant differences in operation time [(55.5 ± 10.3) minutes vs.(120.5 ± 15.3) minutes],intraoperative blood loss [(120.4 ± 20.7) ml vs.(245.4 ± 26.7) ml] and bone union time [(11.6 ± 1.3) weeks vs.(14.9 ± 2.3) weeks] (P < 0.05).Rate of incision infection was 8% (3/40) in treatment group and 10% (4/40) in control group (P > 0.05).In treatment group the results were excellent in 31 patients and good in nine.In control group the results were excellent in 27 patients,good in nine,fair in one and poor in three.One patient with radial nerve injury after a

  7. Age Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  8. 78 FR 57790 - Extension of Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-AA94 Extension of Time Limits AGENCY: Import... Department of Commerce (the Department) is modifying its regulation concerning the extension of time limits... clarifies that parties may request an extension of time limits before any time limit established under...

  9. Internal and International Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of availability of investments on young talents, new generations, both in the entrepreneurial and in the professional fields. In most Member States, anticorruption policies have gained an increased prominence in government agendas and the financial crisis has drawn attention to the integrity and accountability of policy-makers. Most Member States that are currently in serious financial difficulties have acknowledged the seriousness of issues related to corruption and have created (or are planning anticorruption programs in order to deal with the risks deriving from this issue and with the diversion of public funds. In some Member States, the economic adjustment programs provide for explicit obligations related to anti-corruption policies. Even when not formally connected to adjustment programs, anticorruption policies complement the adjustment measures, especially in those countries in which corruption is a serious issue.  During the European Semester of economic policy coordination, recommendations for efficiently fighting corruption have been laid out; Among the most vulnerable sectors, urban development and building projects are certainly very exposed to corruption risks and to infiltration of internal and transnational organized crime.

  10. Drinking to the Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse social status differences in alcohol norms and practices seen from the perspective of ‘health governance’. Survey data on 1442 employees in a middle-sized, Danish firm are used to construct a Bourdieu-inspired social space, tied to four forms of capital: econ...... by the Danish National Health Board. Rather, this article identifies a relatively large group of high-positioned respondents balancing at the limits of risky drinking – or transgressing them, if measured by international standards....

  11. International arbejdsdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour.......Article dealing with the implications of informátion and communication technologies on the international division of labour....

  12. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Paralyzed Monkeys Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Wounds Soft-Tissue Injuries Severed or Constricted Limbs ...

  13. Temperature profile data from fixed platforms from the Gulf of Mexico and the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 15 April 1977 to 25 November 1980 (NODC Accession 8200122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and tide data were collected from fixed platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and the NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 15 April 1977 to 25 November 1980....

  14. Internal Audit and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Nicolae Vasile; Alexandru Georgiana

    2011-01-01

    Internal audit and risk management have the same goal: the control of risk. There are various roles for the internal audit in respect of risk management. The main limitations of internal audit in respect of risk management regards assuming risk management tasks. One of the main issues regarding risk management is to make sure that the key risks are taken into consideration and that the management and the board of the organization take action as needed. Internal audit could give advice to mana...

  15. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...

  16. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Personas have become a well-known method for IT-designers when developing new products. However, the vast majority of personas constructed are created from a mono-cultural (Western) perspective, representing users from a single national culture at a time. Due to the growing global market......, international companies show an increasing interest in creating international personas, but research on personas in a global context is still limited. To address this gap, this paper first offers a review on articles addressing international personas, and second it presents an empirical Danish study...

  17. Limits of Kansei - Kansei unlimited

    OpenAIRE

    BONGARD-BLANCHY, Kerstin; Bouchard, Carole; AOUSSAT, Améziane

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article discusses momentary limitations of the Kansei Engineering methods. There are for example the focus on the evaluation of colour and form factors, as well as the highly time consuming creation of the questionnaires. To overcome these limits we firstly suggest the integration of word lists from related research fields, like sociology and cognitive psychology on product emotions in the Kansei questionnaires. Thereafter we present a study on the wide range of K...

  18. Sovereignty in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MAFTEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  19. Temperature profile and sound velocity data collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (IDOE/MODE) project from 19 March 1973 to 03 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7600779)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and sound velocity data were collected using XSV, bottle, and CTD casts in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and Northwest Atlantic...

  20. Limiting Impact Force Due to Yielding and Buckling of the Plates and Internal Structural Frame at the Bow of a Barge during Its Head-on Impact with a Bullnose or Cellular Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Crushing damage of barge headlog ................................................................................. 37 Tables Table 3.1. Three design load...types of structures as the geometry of the contact area is the same for both.) The photograph on the cover of this report shows a badly damaged barge...structural concept can be explained as follows. Because of the elastoplastic and limiting strain material characteristics of steel combined with the

  1. International skatteret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Wittendorff, Jens

    1996-01-01

    De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret.......De seneste 6 måneders udvikling indenfor international skatteret beskrives. NW-S har skrevet artiklens afsnit om udvalgte afgørelser og om EU-skatteret....

  2. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  3. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  4. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  5. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  6. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  7. Developing international personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Hautopp, Heidi; Nielsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    when using the persona method to collect and present insights about their international users. A key finding in both the literature review and the empirical study was the ambiguity concerning the concept of culture. Therefore, the paper draws on theories about culture, and especially practice theory......, to discuss how challenges related to perceptions of culture and intercultural communication might be overcome when working with international personas. In particular, it is suggested that the persona method could benefit from creating narratives that focus more on the similar practices enacted...... as they show an increasing interest in international personas. However, research on personas in a global context is limited. To address this gap, this paper provides an overview of extant research on international personas. Secondly, it presents an empirical study on challenges Danish IT companies experience...

  8. Is the benefit of postmastectomy irradiation limited to patients with four or more positive nodes, as recommended in international consensus reports? A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 b & c randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    to evaluate the loco-regional recurrence rate and survival in relation to number of positive nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the DBCG 82 b&c trials 3083 pre- and postmenopausal high-risk women were randomized to postoperative RT in addition to adjuvant systemic therapy. Since many patients had relatively few...... lymph nodes removed (median 7), the present analysis was limited to 1152 node positive patients with 8 or more nodes removed. RESULTS: The overall 15-year survival rate in the subgroup was 39% and 29% (p=0.015) after RT and no RT, respectively. RT reduced the 15-year loco-regional failure rate from 51......=0.03). CONCLUSION: The survival benefit after postmastectomy RT was substantial and similar in patients with 1-3 and 4+ positive lymph nodes. Furthermore, it was not strictly associated with the risk of loco-regional recurrence, which was most pronounced in patients with 4+ positive nodes...

  9. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  10. International Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valauskas, Edward J.; Stowe, Jennifer L.; Haycock, Ken; Dodd, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Presents three reports: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; Special Libraries Association; and Canadian library trends, focusing on information technology and access to information and rights and examining provincial libraries and library education. (PEN)

  11. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  12. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  13. Internal education

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-01-01

    Research Question (RQ): The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organi...

  14. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the ROBERT D. CONRAD from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 06 January 1974 to 06 March 1975 (NODC Accession 7900291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from CTD casts in the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from the ROBERT D. CONRAD from 06 January 1974 to 06 March 1975. Data...

  15. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts from the EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 14 July 1967 to 04 May 1979 (NODC Accession 8700063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts from the EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from 14 July 1967 to 04 May 1979....

  16. Current and other data from fixed platforms from the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 16 February 1976 to 23 January 1977 (NODC Accession 7800683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current and other data were collected from fixed platforms in the SW Atlantic (limit-20 W) from 16 February 1976 to 23 January 1977. Data were collected by Oregon...

  17. International negotiation methods on climatic risks, the limits of global incentives: Natural gas example. Procedures de negociation internationale sur les risques climatiques, les limites de la globalisation: etude autour d'un cas d'ecole, le gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourcade, J.C.; Journe, V. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France))

    The discussion on economic instruments for coordinating an international strategy for climatic risks prevention does not take sufficiently into account the importance of the relevant scientific controversies. These ones determine strongly the negotiation process for the settlement of such a system. We illustrate this point with the simple case of the natural gas whose superiority in terms of emission contents compared to the other fossil fuels, could be contested in case of too important CH[sub 4] releases. We show that the negotiation process cannot come to a positive end if the incentive system relies only on the price signal. This process can converge only if one thinks about the combination of various tools, namely technological norms and ad hoc funds for the renewal of transmission and distribution networks combined with tax systems. 17 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Constructivism and International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This new book unites in one volume some of the most prominent critiques of Alexander Wendt's constructivist theory of international relations and includes the first comprehensive reply by Wendt. Partly reprints of benchmark articles, partly new original critiques, the critical chapters are informed...... critique of the realist school, the conceptualism of identity, and his teleological theory of history. Wendt's reply is not limited to rebuttal only. For the first time, he develops his recent idea of quantum social science, as well as its implications for theorising international relations. This unique...... by a wide array of contending theories ranging from realism to poststructuralism. The collected leading theorists critique Wendt's seminal book Social Theory of International Politics and his subsequent revisions. They take issue with the full panoply of Wendt's approach, such as his alleged positivism, his...

  19. Limited Internal Fixation Combined External Fixator in the Treatment of Open Fractures of Tibia and Fibula%有限内固定结合组合式外固定架治疗胫腓骨开放性骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明友; 江深河

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize the experience of limited internal fixation combined external fixation in open fractures of tibia and fibula in the treatment of clinical ef icacy. Methods I Division in 2009 September~2013 year in December the use of limited internal fixation combined external fixation for the treatment of open fractures of tibia and fibula in 53 cases. Results 53 cases of fracture healing. Conclusion The fixation is reliable, simple operation, less injury, wound infection risk reduction advantages, has high clinical application value.%目的:总结有限内固定结合组合式外固定在胫腓骨开放性骨折治疗过程中的临床疗效。方法我科于2009年9月~2013年12月使用有限内固定结合组合式外固定治疗胫腓骨开放性骨折53例。结果53例骨折均愈合。结论固定可靠,操作简单、手术损伤较小,伤口感染风险降低等优点,具有较高的临床运用价值。

  20. Interne evalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    Det er en gennemgående tese i denne undersøgelse af interne evalueringer, at en af de vigtigste kendetegn ved den New Public Management -dominerede udvikling af den offentlige sektors reguleringspolitik, som Danmark såvel som en række andre OECD lande har gennemlevet, er en omfattende brug af alle...

  1. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the wo

  2. International Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van Delft

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking

  3. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  4. International Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Winston; Bender, David R.; Haycock, Ken; Horodyski, John

    2001-01-01

    Includes three annual reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Special Libraries Association, and a report on innovations in Canadian libraries that discusses electronic initiatives, partnerships, books and publishing, school libraries, national issues, local challenges, and funding. (LRW)

  5. Ascott International

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    "Heart-to-Heart" Charity Event for Hearing-Impaired Children in Beijing On June 12, Ascott International North China held a "heart-to-heart" charity event for hearing-impaired children in the Heritage Room at the Ascott Beijing.

  6. 有限内固定结合铰链式超关节外固定架治疗肱骨远端复杂骨折%Limited internal fixation combined with super-articular external fixator for complex distal humeral fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚洲; 徐辉; 郑均华; 万昌涛; 钱苏林; 曾舸

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of limited internal fixation combined with hinged super - articular external fixator for complex distal humeral fractures( CDHF ). Methods Twelve cases of CDHF were treated with limited internal fixation combined with hinged super - articular externnal fixator, and the results were analyzed. Results All 12 patients were followed up for a mean duration of 7 months( range 4 ~ 15 months ). According to the Morrey scoring system,results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 3 , fair in 2, and the effective rate was 83. 3% . All cases of fracture healed without severe complication such as infection,limited flection or extension of elbow joint,cubitus varus and nerve injury. Conclusion Limited internal fixation combined with hinged super - articular external fixator in treatment of complex distal humeral fractures can promote early rehabilitation and improve the recovery of elbow function, which is an effective treatment for CDHF.%目的 总结有限内固定结合铰链式超关节外固定架治疗肱骨远端复杂骨折的效果.方法 对12例肱骨远端复杂骨折采用有限内固定结合铰链式超关节外固定架固定进行治疗.结果 12 例全部获得随访,随访时间平均7个月(4~15个月),根据Morrey指定评估指数评价,优7例,良3例,可2例.优良率83.3%.无感染、关节僵硬、肘内翻畸形、神经损伤等严重并发症发生.结论 有限内固定结合铰链式超关节外固定架治疗能早期进行关节活动,可明显恢复关节功能,是一种良好的治疗肱骨远端复杂骨折的方法.

  7. 19 CFR 357.106 - Time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limits. 357.106 Section 357.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SHORT SUPPLY PROCEDURES § 357.106 Time limits. (a) The Secretary will determine, no later than the day specified in paragraph (b) of...

  8. Liver International

    OpenAIRE

    Quarantini, Lucas de Castro [UNIFESP; Rodrigo A Bressan; Galvão, Amanda; Neves, Susana Batista; Raymundo PARANÁ

    2007-01-01

    p. 1098-1102 Objective: Evaluate the incidence of mental disorders using pegylated interferon plus ribavirin retreatment in nonresponder hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Method: The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to evaluate 30 hepatitis C virus-infected interferon-nonresponder patients at baseline and following 4, 12 and 24 weeks of pegylated interferon retreatment. Results: During the pegylated interferon/ribavirin retreatment, 5(16.6%) patient...

  9. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  10. 有限内固定结合外固定架治疗Rüedi-Allg(o)wer Ⅲ型Pilon骨折%Limited internal fixation combining with external fixation for the treatment of Rüedi-Allg wer Ⅲ Pilon fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖伟; 王玉龙; 姬彦辉; 滕宇; 郑启新; 兰生辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨有限内固定结合外固定支架治疗Rüedi-Allg werⅢ型Pilon 骨折的临床疗效.方法 2006 年3月~2010 年7月采用克氏针或螺钉内固定结合外固定支架固定治疗Rüedi-Allg werⅢ型pi1on 骨折18 例,术后2~3 个月拆除外固定支架.结果 术后18 例均获得随访.随访时间4~26 个月,平均15 个月,临床疗效满意,无切口、伤口感染,无皮肤坏死等严重并发症.参照Mazur 踝关节评分分级系统来评价,结果显示优6例,良9例,可3 例,总体优良率达约83.3%.结论 有限内固定结合外固定支架能有效固定骨折端,避免软组织感染和骨不连,是治疗严重粉碎Pilon骨折理想的方法之一.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of treatment of Riiedi-Allgo2er IllPilon' s fractures with limited internal fixations and external fixators. Methods 18 cases of Riiedi-AllgowerlllPilon' s fractures with limited internal fixations and external fixators were treated during 2006 to 2010. They were all treated by Kirss-chnerwires or screws together with external fixations. External fixator were removed at 2 to 3 monks after operation. Results All cases were followed up after operation. The following observation time was 4 to 26 months, average 15 months. No infections of wound and incision, no skin necrosis complication was found. According to Mazur ankle joint scoring system, The results demonstrated 6 excellent, 9 good, 3 fair, the excellent and good rate was 83.3%. Conclusion Limited internal fixation and external fixator is one of the effective way of treatment of Pilon III fracture because it can immobilize the sections of fracture and avoid infection of soft tissue and nonunion of fracture.

  11. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  12. Internal position and limit sensor for free piston machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor); Wood, James Gary (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A sensor for sensing the position of a reciprocating free piston in a free piston Stirling machine. The sensor has a disk mounted to an end face of the power piston coaxially with its cylinder and reciprocating with the piston The disk includes a rim around its outer perimeter formed of an electrically conductive material A coil is wound coaxially with the cylinder, spaced outwardly from the outer perimeter of the disk and mounted in fixed position relative to the pressure vessel, preferably on the exterior of the pressure vessel wall.

  13. Limits to Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuditta Cordero-Moss

    2014-01-01

    ... of the legal relationship between the parties, the contract aims at making national law dispensable. If national law is not relevant, and the only basis for regulating the parties’ legal relationship is the contract, it becomes possible and meaningful to standardise contract terms even when contracts are intended to be implemented in a vari...

  14. International Exchanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  15. Passive immitance limiters

    OpenAIRE

    Filinyuk N. A.; Lischinskaya L. B.; Chekhmestruk R. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents quadripole R, L, C immittance limiters, in which output immittance to the certain value depends on the input immittance. A classification of immittance limiters is given. Basic parameters are considered: low and high levels of output immittance limiters; low and high values of input immittance, corresponding to low and high levels of limitation, accordingly; range of possible values of output immittance; steepness of immittance limiters; time of wearing-out (or delay); high...

  16. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  17. Limited Regulation of Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Ontario,, Cedar Point in Ohio, Presque Isle in Pennsylvania and Hamlin in New York. Recreational boating is a significant activity on Lake Erie . Along...RD-Al47 936 LIMITED REGULATION OF LAKE ERIE (U) INTERNATIONAL LAKE i/i ERIE REGULATION STUDY BOARD NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 13/2 N lhhhhh..hEmhhI...o lake Erie ’Governmen of 4,- % * L CTE " 84100400 .- Canad Unite Stte INTRNAIONL OIN COMISIO 4WD’ This document hais been ow for public rleoe and so

  18. Clinical experience of the treatment of comminuted fracture of tibia and fibula with limited internal fixation and external fixation%克氏针有限内固定加外固定支架治疗胫腓骨远端粉碎性骨折的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严海兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of Ke pin limited fixed and external fixation bracket in the treatment of comminuted fracture of distal tibia and fibula.Methods:140 patients with comminuted fracture of distal tibia and fibula were divided into the observation group and the control group.They used the Ke pin limited fixed+external fixation bracket treatment and the open reduction and locking plate internal fixation treatment respectively.Results:The two groups had no differents in operation time,hospitalization time and complications (P<0.05).Conclusion:Ke pin limited fixed and external fixation bracket in the treatment of comminuted fracture of distal tibia and fibula has small trauma,good recovery,less cost,easy to operate,safe and effective.%目的:探讨采用克氏针有限固定加外固定支架治疗胫腓骨远端粉碎性骨折的疗效。方法:将140例胫腓骨远端粉碎性骨折患者分为观察组和对照组,分别采用克氏针有限固定加外固定支架和切开复位锁定钢板内固定。结果:两组在手术时间、住院时间和并发症方面比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用克氏针有限固定加+外固定支架治疗胫腓骨远端粉碎性骨折,创伤小、恢复好、花费少,操作简便,安全,有效。

  19. International, intersectoral, or unobservable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Naveed, Amjad; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    for these methodical advances when estimating sectoral knowledge production functions for OECD countries under weak and strong cross-sectional dependence. By doing so, we are able to uncover technology- and trade-related R&D spillover channels associated with social returns to R&D, while effectively controlling...... for other types of productivity spillovers and latent macroeconomic shocks. Our results highlight the role played by international-intersectoral R&D spillovers for the social rate of return to R&D, while we get limited evidence for private returns to R&D once cross-sectional dependence is properly accounted...

  20. 两种手术方法治疗儿童不可复性肱骨髁上骨折的疗效比较%Limited open reduction with internal fixation versus closed reduction with external fixation in the treatment of irreducible supracondylar humerus fractures in children: an outcome comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凡; 李明静; 刘郁东; 徐剑; 胡涛

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较有限切开复位克氏针经皮内固定与闭合复位外固定支架外固定治疗儿童不可复性肱骨髁上骨折的疗效.方法 自2012年1月至2014年1月,我们共收治34例儿童不可复性Gartland Ⅲ型肱骨髁上骨折患儿,其中18例行有限切开复位克氏针经皮内固定(内固定组),16例行闭合复位外固定支架外固定(外固定组).比较两组患儿的手术时间、术中透视次数、骨折愈合时间、术后3d与2个月时Baumann角的变化及肘关节功能.结果 术后所有患儿均获得随访,时间为12~24个月,平均16.5个月.内固定组手术时间(49.1±6.6)min较外固定组(72.3±12.6)min短,术中透视次数(3.6±0.9)次较外固定组(10.1±2.0)次少,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患儿均在术后4周获骨折临床愈合,术后2个月获骨性愈合.内固定组术后3d与2个月时Baumann角变化(2.4±1.3)°与外固定组(6.1±2.1)°比较,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.0001).按照Flynn肘关节评分标准评定疗效:术后3个月内固定组优良率为27.8%(5/18),外固定组为25.0%(4/16);术后1年内固定组优良率为99.4%(17/18)、外固定组为81.3%(13/16).两组患儿均无骨折延迟愈合、骨筋膜室综合征及医源性血管神经损伤等并发症.结论 有限切开复位克氏针经皮内固定与闭合复位外固定支架外固定治疗儿童不可复性Gartland Ⅲ型肱骨髁上骨折,骨折愈合时间相同,但前者可获得更满意的复位、更稳定的固定、更好的肘关节功能,而且手术时间短,术中透视次数少.%Objective To compare the clinical results of treating irreducible supracondylar humerus fractures (Gartland type Ⅲ) in children with limited open reduction and internal fixation versus closed reduction with external fixator.Methods The clinical data of 34 pediatric patients who had been treated for supracondylar humerus fractures (Gartland type Ⅲ) from January 2012 to January 2014 were

  1. VT Limited Access Highways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a...

  2. Robust test limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  3. Comparison of clinical effects between external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and plates for treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures%外固定架结合有限内固定与钢板内固定治疗跟骨关节内骨折比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴雷子; 薛锋; 丁亮; 沈玉春; 赵勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of the external fixator combined with the limited internal fixation for the treatment of intrarticular calcaneal fractures.Methods According to different ways of treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures,78 patients(86 feet) were divided into two groups:42 patients(48 feet) were treated with the external fixator combined with the limited internal fixation as group A; 36 patients (38 feet) were treated with plates as group B.Fracture healing time,recovery of the calcaneal,clinical outcomes and the rate of incision complications were compared.Results A total of 78 cases were followed up for 8~34 months (average 16.8 months).Both group A and B all had acceptable reduction in calcaneal length,height,width,Bohler angle,and Gissane angle,there was significant difference between preoperative and postoperative results(P <0.05),and there was no signicant difference in postoperative results between group A and group B(P >0.05).Based on the Maryland grading system,excellent rate was 89.6% in the group A,excellent rate was 86.8% in the group B,there were no significant difference between them(P >0.05).The rate of incision complications in the group A was lower than in the group B,there was significant difference between them (4.2% vs 21.1%,P <0.05).Conclusion External fixator combined with limited internal fixation for intraarticular calcaneal fractures is satisfactory and minimally invasive.%目的 探讨外固定架结合有限内固定治疗跟骨关节内骨折的临床疗效.方法 78例(86足)跟骨关节内骨折分为2组:A组42例(48足)采用外固定架结合有限内固定治疗;B组36例(38足)采用钢板内固定治疗.对两组骨折愈合时间、跟骨恢复情况、临床疗效、切口并发症发生率等指标进行比较.结果 78例均获得平均16.8(8~34)个月随访.两组术后跟骨的长度、宽度、高度、Bohler角及Gissane角均得到了良好的恢复,与术前比较

  4. Resultado funcional e índice macular em portadores de buraco macular submetidos à cirurgia com remoção da membrana limitante interna Functional outcome and macular index in macular hole patients who underwent surgery with internal limiting membrane removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o resultado funcional e o índice macular dos portadores de buraco macular submetidos à cirurgia com remoção da membrana limitante interna. MÉTODOS: Quinze olhos de 15 pacientes com buraco macular estágios 2, 3 e 4 foram incluídos no estudo. Todos foram submetidos à cirurgia de buraco macular convencional com remoção da membrana limitante interna corada pelo azul de tripan. Melhor acuidade visual com correção e cortes transversais medidos por tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT foram avaliados no pré- e pós-operatório. O índice macular (razão entre a altura e base do buraco macular foi calculado e correlacionado com o diâmetro mínimo do buraco macular e o ganho de acuidade visual pós-operatória. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se fechamento do buraco macular em todos pacientes operados. Em 86,7%, houve ganho de pelo menos três linhas de visão. O índice macular demonstrou correlação negativa significante com o diâmetro mínimo (r=0,811. Não foi observada correlação significante entre o índice macular e o ganho de acuidade visual pós-operatória (r=0,351. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados funcionais na cirurgia do buraco macular com remoção da membrana limitante interna foram bons neste grupo de pacientes. O índice macular demonstrou ser compatível com a configuração espacial do buraco macular, porém não foi preditor de resultados visuais.PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional outcome and macular index in patients with macular hole who underwent surgery with internal limiting membrane removal. METHODS: Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with idiopathic macular hole stages 2, 3 or 4 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent conventional macular hole surgery with trypan blue staining to remove the internal limiting membrane. The best-corrected visual acuity and cross-sectional images of macular hole measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The macular hole index

  5. Passive immitance limiters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filinyuk N. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents quadripole R, L, C immittance limiters, in which output immittance to the certain value depends on the input immittance. A classification of immittance limiters is given. Basic parameters are considered: low and high levels of output immittance limiters; low and high values of input immittance, corresponding to low and high levels of limitation, accordingly; range of possible values of output immittance; steepness of immittance limiters; time of wearing-out (or delay; high and low cutoff frequencies; central working frequency; frequency band; relative range of working frequencies; non-linearity coefficient. The authors have designed passive R-, L-, C-limiters with possibility of limitation from above and from below. The influence of the input parasitic immittances on the immittance transfer characteristic is evaluated. In most cases parasite immittance does not influence the considered devices, including R-limiters «from above» with the input quality factor of QR(Linp=0,1…0,2 and L-limiters «from above» with high-quality input circuits with QL(Rinp>2. The analysis also shows that high-qualitiy circuits with QN(RinpN>3 should be used in C-limiters with input parasitic immittances, while at parasitic immittance of the limiting element low-quality circuits with QN(RiN>0,2 should be selected.

  6. «A sanguine bunch». Regional identification in Habsburg Bukovina, 1774-1919

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the small and easternmost crownland of Bukovina was exceptional in many ways. It was a new addition to the Imperial territory and very much a Habsburg creation: never before had the area been a separate entity. Colonisation efforts added a large number of immigrants t

  7. Les effets de l'Arnica Montana sur la coagulation sanguine. Essai clinique randomisé.

    OpenAIRE

    Baillargeon, L.; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L.; Leroux, D.; Audet, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  8. Articular external fixator and limited internal fixation for comminuted fracture of the distal humerus%超关节外固定架有限内固定治疗肱骨远端粉碎骨折疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马灿泽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical treatment of distal humerus fractures and efficacy.Methods From February 2009 to August 2011 in 22 cases of distal humerus fractures in patients with hinge-type-articular external fixation combined with limited internal fixation.Including 16 males and 6 females; aged 26 to 55 years,mean 36 years old.According to AO classification,C1 type 2 cases,C2 in 10 cases,C3 in 10 cases.Results All patients were followed up for 6 months,the average healing time was 2.8 months,forearm rotation exceeds 100° ,elbow flexion and extension activities exceeds 90° ,and no nerve damage and postoperative infection.Based on the improved Glssebaum scoring system evaluate the efficacy of treatment was 81.8% excellent and good.Conclusion hinge-type-articular external fixation combined with limited internal fixation for distal humerus fracture efficacy of good,worthy of promotion.%目的 探讨治疗肱骨远端粉碎性骨折的手术及疗效.方法 自2009年2月至2011年8月对22例肱骨远端粉碎性骨折患者进行绞链式超关节外固定支架结合有限内固定治疗.其中男16例,女6例;年龄26~55岁,平均36岁.根据AO分型,C1型2例,C2型10例,C3型10例.结果 所有病例均随访6个月,平均骨折愈合时间为2.8个月,前臂旋转活动度超过100°,肘关节屈伸活动度超过90°,且无神经损伤及术后感染.根据改良Glssebaum评分系统评定疗效,治疗的总优良率为81.8%.结论 使用绞链式超关节外固定支架结合有限内固定治疗肱骨远端粉碎性骨折疗效较好,值得临床推广.

  9. 有限内固定结合外固定架治疗开放性不稳定胫腓骨骨折临床研究%Clinical Research on Limited Internal Fixation Combined with External Fixation for the Treatment of Opening Unstable Fracture of Tibia and Fibula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦双安; 张建福

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察有限内固定结合外固定架治疗开放性不稳定胫腓骨骨折的临床疗效。方法:2002年2月至2008年10月收治开放性不稳定胫腓骨骨折30例,其中男18例,女12例;胫骨中上段骨折12例,中下段骨折10例,下段骨折8例;单纯胫骨骨折23例,合并腓骨骨折7例,均采用单侧三维多功能外固定器治疗。结果:开放伤口一期愈合25例,植皮愈合3例,转移皮瓣2例;骨折愈合时间6~12个月,平均10个月;随访时间6个月~1.5年,优良率为93.3%。结论:开放性不稳定胫腓骨骨折早期清创,良好复位,配合有限内固定及外固定架治疗,效果良好。%Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of limited internal fixation combined with open external fixation for the treat-ment of unstable fractures of tibia and fibula. Methods:30 cases of patients with opening unstable fracture of tibia and fibula from Febru-ary 2002 to October 2008,including male 18 cases,female 12 cases;12 cases with fracture of middle and upside tibia,10 cases with middle and distal fracture,8 cases with distal fracture;23 cases with simple tibial fractures,7 cases with combined with fibula fracture, they all were treated with unilateral three-dimensional multi functional fixation device. Results:The open wound primary healing in 25 cases,skin grafting healing in 3 cases,rotation flap in 2 cases;Fracture healing time 6 to 12 months,an average of 10 months,the excel-lent and good rate was 93. 3% . Conclusion:The opening unstable fracture of tibia and fibula treated with early debridement,good reduc-tion,combined with limited internal fixation and external fixation has good effect.

  10. Factors associated with intern fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lindsay D; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Baron, Robert B; Katz, Patricia P

    2008-12-01

    Prior data suggest that fatigue adversely affects patient safety and resident well-being. ACGME duty hour limitations were intended, in part, to reduce resident fatigue, but the factors that affect intern fatigue are unknown. To identify factors associated with intern fatigue following implementation of duty hour limitations. Cross-sectional confidential survey of validated questions related to fatigue, sleep, and stress, as well as author-developed teamwork questions. Interns in cognitive specialties at the University of California, San Francisco. Univariate statistics characterized the distribution of responses. Pearson correlations elucidated bivariate relationships between fatigue and other variables. Multivariate linear regression models identified factors independently associated with fatigue, sleep, and stress. Of 111 eligible interns, 66 responded (59%). In a regression analysis including gender, hours worked in the previous week, sleep quality, perceived stress, and teamwork, only poorer quality of sleep and greater perceived stress were significantly associated with fatigue (p 80 h was not significantly associated with perceived stress, quality of sleep, or fatigue. Simply decreasing the number of duty hours may be insufficient to reduce intern fatigue. Residency programs may need to incorporate programmatic changes to reduce stress, improve sleep quality, and foster teamwork in order to decrease intern fatigue and its deleterious consequences.

  11. Limited open reduction and internal fixation with anterolateral L-shape locking compression plate for treatment of distal metaphyseal tibial fractures%有限切开复位结合前外侧 L 形锁定加压接骨板内固定治疗胫骨远端干骺端骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炎; 杨越; 刘世清; 余铃; 廖琦; 赵奇; 张春; 黄涛; 张锐; 夏韶强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨胫骨远端干骺端骨折应用有限切开复位结合前外侧L形锁定加压接骨板( locking compression plate, LCP)内固定治疗的临床疗效。方法2011年6月~2013年1月共收治15例胫骨远端干骺端骨折患者。骨折按照国际内固定研究协会( AO/ASIF)分型:43A2型3例,43A3型10例,43B1型2例,均合并腓骨下端骨折;胫骨远端干骺端骨折线距踝关节面1.6~4.5cm,平均2.8cm;闭合性骨折8例,开放性骨折7例( GustiloⅠ型2例,Ⅱ型3例,ⅢA型2例)。 GustiloⅢA型2例急诊行清创、腓骨内固定及外固定支架固定,余患者术前行跟骨骨牵引。运用有限切开复位结合前外侧L形LCP内固定治疗,术中酌情植骨,术后早期功能锻炼。结果所有患者术后获12~18个月(平均16个月)随访,术后2例切口表皮坏死,经换药处理后愈合,余切口均一期愈合。骨折于术后16~24周(平均20周)获骨性愈合。末次随访时根据美国骨科协会足踝外科分会( American Orthopedic Foot Ankle Society,AOFAS)评分标准:评分为73~95分,平均89.5分,其中优10例,良3例,可2例,优良率86.7%。随访期间无感染、骨不连及内固定松动断裂等并发症发生。结论采用有限切开复位结合前外侧L形LCP内固定治疗胫骨远端干骺端骨折,术中利用微创置板技术,并酌情植骨,术后早期功能锻炼,可获得良好疗效。%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of limited open reduction and internal fixation with anterolateral L-shape locking compression plate for treatment of distal metaphyseal tibial fractures.Methods Fifteen patients with distal metaphyseal tibial fractures were treated in our department between Jun.2011 and Jan.2013.According to AO/ASIF classification,3 patients were with Type 43A2 fracture,10 patients with Type 43A3 fracture, 2 patients with Type 43B1 fracture and all were combined

  12. Limitations to sharing entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong San; Sanders, Barry C

    2011-01-01

    We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits.

  13. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  14. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  15. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...

  16. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  17. Provincialism within limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2015-01-01

    of nationalist political propaganda, in effect – is analysed, and it is suggested that while it is certainly suffused with patriotic rhetoric (such as the occasion demanded), Rung nevertheless at the same time took the opportunity to incorporate a number of significant international musical influences, notably...... from Felicien David’s symphonic ode, Le désert, Meyerbeer’s Les huguenots and from the vocal music of the Italian renaissance. These influences are interpreted as indicative of an international outlook, differing quite markedly from that of his internationally renowned contemporary, Niels W. Gade...... of cosmopolitanism and provincialism in relation to music is developed with reference to Franz Liszt, who in the context of this article comes to function as a sort of ‘cosmopolitan’ mirror image of the ‘provincial’ Danish composer, Henrik Rung (1807-1871). Rung’s work Slaget ved Fredericia (1850) – a piece...

  18. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  19. 26 CFR 1.415(j)-1 - Limitation year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation year. 1.415(j)-1 Section 1.415(j)-1...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(j)-1 Limitation year. (a) In general. Unless the terms of a plan provide otherwise, the limitation year, with respect to any qualified...

  20. The Hugoniot Elastic Limit Decay Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, J. P.

    1997-07-01

    The Hugoniot Elastic Limit(HEL) precursor decay in shock loaded solids has been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. Comparative evidence is presented to show that the elastic precursor wave particle velocity, UPHEL, for certain materials decays asymptotically with propagation distance to the DeBroglie velocity, V1, level. This is demonstrated for the following materials: iron, aluminum alloy 6061-T6, plexiglas(PMMA), nickel alloy(MAR-M200), and lithium flouride(LiF). The DeBroglie velocity, V1, equals h/2md, where h is Planck's Constant, m is the mass of one atom, and d is the closest distance between atoms. Thus a relationship has been established between a microscopically derived velocity, V1, and a macroscopically observed velocity, UPHEL.

  1. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  2. Community College Internal Auditors: Internal Audit Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronna; And Others

    This guidebook includes information compiled by the "Audit Manual" committee of Community College Internal Auditors (CCIA) from several California community college districts regarding their internal auditing practices. The first section of the guidebook discusses the purpose of internal audits, indicating that audits assist members of…

  3. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  4. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  5. Analysing international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    the different purposes of theory, how theory can be used to shape your analytical strategy and some of the pitfalls you need to be aware of. Throughout I refer to theories and concepts from across the module that you will be fairly familiar with by now. But I will also make some new distinctions to give...... a better understanding of what theories are, a clearer sense of what they can be used for, and a greater awareness of their differences, strengths and limitations. The chapter proceeds as follows: In Section 1 I look at what theories are and how they work – either by simplifying reality or complicating...... matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...

  6. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  7. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  8. Limit experiments of GARCH

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmann, Boris; 10.3150/10-BEJ328

    2012-01-01

    GARCH is one of the most prominent nonlinear time series models, both widely applied and thoroughly studied. Recently, it has been shown that the COGARCH model (which was introduced a few years ago by Kl\\"{u}ppelberg, Lindner and Maller) and Nelson's diffusion limit are the only functional continuous-time limits of GARCH in distribution. In contrast to Nelson's diffusion limit, COGARCH reproduces most of the stylized facts of financial time series. Since it has been proven that Nelson's diffusion is not asymptotically equivalent to GARCH in deficiency, in the present paper, we investigate the relation between GARCH and COGARCH in Le Cam's framework of statistical equivalence. We show that GARCH converges generically to COGARCH, even in deficiency, provided that the volatility processes are observed. Hence, from a theoretical point of view, COGARCH can indeed be considered as a continuous-time equivalent to GARCH. Otherwise, when the observations are incomplete, GARCH still has a limiting experiment, which we ...

  9. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  10. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  11. PLT rotating pumped limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.

    1984-07-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.

  12. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  13. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  14. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  15. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  16. Lü Shengrong Competes Internationally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Little-known by her Chinese compatriots but wellknown in the international sports world, L(?) Shengrong,president of the International Badminton Federation (IBF) and member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), has had a legendary career.

  17. Surveying your internal customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, V L

    1998-06-01

    Internal customers often are overlooked when business techniques are applied. By applying common external customer satisfaction survey techniques to internal business functions, one hospital identified areas for improvement.

  18. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  19. The quantum geometric limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This letter analyzes the limits that quantum mechanics imposes on the accuracy to which spacetime geometry can be measured. By applying the fundamental physical bounds to measurement accuracy to ensembles of clocks and signals moving in curved spacetime -- e.g., the global positioning system -- I derive a covariant version of the quantum geometric limit: the total number of ticks of clocks and clicks of detectors that can be contained in a four volume of spacetime of radius r and temporal extent t is less than or equal to rt/\\pi x_P t_P, where x_P, t_P are the Planck length and time. The quantum geometric limit bounds the number of events or `ops' that can take place in a four-volume of spacetime: each event is associated with a Planck-scale area. Conversely, I show that if each quantum event is associated with such an area, then Einstein's equations must hold. The quantum geometric limit is consistent with and complementary to the holographic bound which limits the number of bits that can exist within a spat...

  20. Limits to the growth debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.

    The first two major studies sponsored by the club of Rome were the report of the Meadows team at MIT, The Limits to Growth, published in 1972, and the Mesarovic and Pestel report, Mankind at the Turning Point, published in 1974. When the Club of Rome met in Philadelphia in April of 1976, its pronouncements reflected a frame of mind quite different from that of 1972. Recently, Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Hudson Institute have published The Next 200 Years, a book evidently inspired as much by antagonism to the limits-to-growth school of thought as by affirmative faith in its own vision of technological optimism. The author discusses the content of the studies and summarizes his own position in four areas. (1) While no trend of growth of anything can continue indefinitely in the real world, there are not global physical limits to economic growth within a time frame susceptible to plausible foresight or relevant to policy making. (2) In some world regions, notably South Asia and tropical Africa, population growth rates do indeed threaten to create a kind of Malthusian trap, and the rapid reduction of fertility is critically important to their development prospects and urgent in time. (3) For other parts of the world, both rates and directions of growth will be more influenced by changes in preferences for consumption and in attitudes toward production than by physical constraints, although higher energy costs and environmental pressures will also be important influences in generating such changes in growth patterns. (4) Probable changes in directions of growth will generate new and important issues in international economic and political relations, with both dangers and opportunities for the evolving world order. (MCW)

  1. Limited open reduction and internal fixation with anatomical locking compression plate for treatment of tibial Pilon fractures%有限切开复位结合锁定加压接骨板内固定治疗胫骨Pilon骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏世隽; 蔡贤华; 刘曦明; 江新; 付强; 钱胜龙

    2013-01-01

    -24 months (average 14 months).According to Burwell-Chamley' s radiological evaluation system,17 patients obtained anatomical reduction of articular surface and two patients obtained moderate reduction,but they all had bony healing.Ankle function evaluated by Mazur' s criterion were excellent in seven patients,good in 10 and fair in two,with excellence rate of 89%.Conclusion Limited open reduction combined with LCP internal fixation can successfully construct articular anatomic relationship,decrease soft tissue dissection and attain solid fixation in treatment of Pilon fractures and further facilitate functional recovery of the affected extremity in coordination with early functional exercise.

  2. FANCM limits meiotic crossovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismani, Wayne; Girard, Chloé; Froger, Nicole; Pradillo, Mónica; Santos, Juan Luis; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Horlow, Christine; Mercier, Raphaël

    2012-06-22

    The number of meiotic crossovers (COs) is tightly regulated within a narrow range, despite a large excess of molecular precursors. The factors that limit COs remain largely unknown. Here, using a genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified the highly conserved FANCM helicase, which is required for genome stability in humans and yeasts, as a major factor limiting meiotic CO formation. The fancm mutant has a threefold-increased CO frequency as compared to the wild type. These extra COs arise not from the pathway that accounts for most of the COs in wild type, but from an alternate, normally minor pathway. Thus, FANCM is a key factor imposing an upper limit on the number of meiotic COs, and its manipulation holds much promise for plant breeding.

  3. Quantum-Limited Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Truong, Gar-Wing; May, Eric F; Stace, Thomas M; Luiten, Andre N

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a ten-fold improvement in the accuracy of the excited-state (6P$_{1/2}$) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity-dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35ppm within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzm...

  4. Quantum-limit spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the main ideas, methods, and recent developments of quantum-limit optical spectroscopy and applications to quantum information, resolution spectroscopy, measurements beyond quantum limits, measurement of decoherence, and entanglement. Quantum-limit spectroscopy lies at the frontier of current experimental and theoretical techniques, and is one of the areas of atomic spectroscopy where the quantization of the field is essential to predict and interpret the existing experimental results. Currently, there is an increasing interest in quantum and precision spectroscopy both theoretically and experimentally, due to significant progress in trapping and cooling of single atoms and ions. This progress allows one to explore in the most intimate detail the ways in which light interacts with atoms and to measure spectral properties and quantum effects with high precision. Moreover, it allows one to perform subtle tests of quantum mechanics on the single atom and single photon scale which were hardly eve...

  5. Limits of Lubrication in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    by strategic surfaces in comparison to normal stainless steel surfaces implying a larger extent of bi-axial stretching. Numerical simulations have been applied in order to evaluate limits of lubrication in the simulative strip reduction based on predictions of critical parameters appearing in terms...... of temperature and contact pressure. The numerical models have been calibrated regarding friction and thermal contact resistance based on experimental results from actual testing conditions. It has been found that predictions of limits of lubrication are possible by numerical means and that the FE...

  6. Strategic Defense and International Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    exchange, see Sidney Drell and Frank Von Hippel, "Limited Nuclear War," Scientific American Vol. 235. No. 5 (November 1976), pp. 22, 27-37. 6. Carl ... Sagan , "Nuclear War and Climatic Catastrophe," Foreign Affairs Vol. 62, No. 2 (Winter 1983— 1984), pp. 257-292. 7. The inconsistencies and varieties...or blindnesses, see Scott D. Sagan , 񓞚 Revisited: Allies, Offense, and Instability," International Security Vol. 11, No. 2 (Fall 1986), pp. 151

  7. Limits to responsible innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, E.; Pols, Auke; Romijn, Henny

    2016-01-01

    Responsible Innovation (RI) is a young field of research that has nevertheless had remarkable successes in dissemination within academic and political circles. However, there is relatively little awareness of its limits, blind spots and situations in which it cannot be used for actual innovation tra

  8. The Limits of Laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindess, Harvey

    1983-01-01

    Three incidents which elucidate the limits of laughter are described. Most persons enjoy humor as comic relief, but when humor strikes a blow at something they hold dear, they find it very hard to laugh. People are upset by an irreverent attitude toward things they hold in esteem. (RM)

  9. Pushing the Photon Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Renger, Jan; Cogdell, Richard; Hulst, van Niek F.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3-4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especi

  10. Tightening Home Purchase Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    More Chinese cities will limit home purchase to cool the red-hot real estate market In June 2011,the average house price in 100 Chinese cities was 8,856 yuan ($1,373)per square meter.Of these cities,house prices in 75 of them increased

  11. Limitation of Auditors' Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...

  12. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  13. International Engagement Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT OF PURPOSE The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T... International Engagement Strategy is intended to establish clear goals and objectives to guide S&T’s international cooperative research, development... International Engagement Strategy, the 2015 White House National Security Strategy, the 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review, and the DHS Fiscal

  14. The Internal Audit Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores an issue of the internal audit outsourcing. It indicates the differences between internal audit, outsourcing and cosourcing of this service as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Drawing from the research on internal audit outsourcing the recent market trends were identified as well as motivations for choosing different forms of internal auditing.

  15. ARE THERE LIMITS TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ?

    OpenAIRE

    Firdaus Firdaus; Soejono Tjitro

    2000-01-01

    Although TQM could solve every problems but it does not mean that TQM is unlimited. There are several limitations on TQM application, some examples from international cases is taken to show the failure of TQM implementation. The understanding of TQM philosophy is really necessary. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Meskipun TQM dapat menyelesaikan semua masalah tetapi bukan berarti bahwa TQM tanpa batas. Ada beberapa keterbatasan penerapan TQM yang berujung pada beberapa kasus dunia yang dapat di...

  16. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Limitations Of Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, John R.

    1983-03-01

    The state of the art of quantitative infrared thermography is addressed. We are asking more and more of thermography in the field of energy conservation. An energy and dollar conscious public wants to know how much heat is being lost and how much money can be saved by retrofit. Many mission oriented approaches have been developed to address these questions. However, many fundamental questions about how thermography works and how far its capabilities can be pushed have not been addressed. In addition, the theoretical and practical limits of doing benefit cost studies with thermography have not been seriously addressed. This paper discusses the limitations of the current technology and describes many unanswered but important questions facing the future use of thermography for quantitative heat loss analysis.

  18. Telescopic limiting magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.

  19. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  20. Limiting Temperatures in Multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, W

    2008-01-01

    The systematic data set on isotopic effects in spectator fragmentation collected recently at the GSI laboratory permits the investigation of the N/Z dependence of the nuclear caloric curve which is of interest in several respects. In particular, new light is shed on the proposed interpretation of chemical breakup temperatures as a manifestation of the limiting temperatures predicted by the Hartree-Fock model. The obtained results are discussed within the general context of temperature measurements in multifragmentation reactions.

  1. Limits of Nuclear Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B; Kleban, M

    2003-01-01

    The modern version of the liquid-drop model (LSD) is compared with the macroscopic part of the binding energy evaluated within the Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov procedure with the Gogny force and the relativistic mean field theory. The parameters of a liquid-drop like mass formula which approximate on the average the self-consistent results are compared with other models. The limits of nuclear stability predicted by these models are discussed.

  2. Limits of proton conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Wohlfarth, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Parasitic current seems to be the cause for the "highest proton conductivity" of a material reported to date. Kreuer and Wohlfarth verify this hypothesis by measuring the conductivity of the same materials after preparing them in a different way. They further explain the limits of proton conductivity and comment on the problems of determining the conductivity of small objects (e.g., whiskers, see picture).

  3. Elastic limit of silicane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu

    2014-10-21

    Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers.

  4. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  5. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    ). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3...

  6. Challenges Facing Chinese International Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yuerong; Renes, Susan L.; McMurrow, Samantha; Simpson, Joni; Strange, Anthony T.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese international students often find it challenging to adjust to attending college in the United States (US). There is limited research addressing Chinese international college students' adjustment in the US. Drawing on what literature exists combined with research addressing Chinese immigrants' transition and international students'…

  7. Internal septorhinoplasty technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  8. Limits to growth reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, E E

    1972-01-01

    In their book, ''The Limits of Growth,'' the authors conclude that through pollution, exhaustion of natural resources, and limits to the food supply, the world faces a catastrophic fall in population and in living standards by the middle of the 21st century. The authors fail to state, however, 1 centrally important assumption underlying their results, but which is present through their omission of the contrary assumption. In their model the continuing technical progress that has been a primary feature of the material world for the past 200 years suddenly ceases. The assumptions of the model presented in ''Limits of Growth'' are not the assumptions other analysts make - these are strangely unrealistic. These assumptions require closer examination. The assumption concerning population assumes that the sole determinants of birthrates are the level of industrialization and the food supply. This is not good demography, for demographers have long recognized that it may have been the decrease in death rates, not industrialization or the rise in income, that caused the decrease in birthrates. Furthermore, their theory that many of the natural resources are irreplacable is like the belief that the sun revolves around the earth. It is obvious and false. It neglects that part of technical process which includes invention of new natural resources. Technical advance is needed and the following are some of the problems that technical advance must overcome: 1) a need to discover how to increase food production progressively while preventing the runoff of chemical fertilizers from the soil into waterways, 2) the ''natural'' minerals on which until recently all have depended are ''biodegradable,'' 3) there is a similar problem with radioactive nuclear wastes; 4) energy must dissipate into heat; and 5) there is a need to hasten the decline in birthrates throughout the world. In conclusion, indefinitely continuing growth is not regarded as desirable only as possible.

  9. The Corona Limit of Penrose Tilings Is a Regular Decagon

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Imai, Katsunobu

    2016-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Papers; International audience; We define and study the corona limit of a tiling, by investigating the signal propagations on cellular automata (CA) on tilings employing the simple growth CA. In particular, the corona limit of Penrose tilings is the regular decagon.

  10. Orind Refractories Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mr R. Mishra; Group Manging Director

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Sight can be acquired, Vision cannot". Orind Refractories Limited (ORIND), China was formed with this rare vision. At a time when the world was testing the tepid waters of China; Mr. Ravin Jhunjhunwala, Chairman of ORIND and the management of ORIND India had looked over the Great Wall to begin a journey of success. Incorported on 18th August 1994 with an initial investment of USD 5 million, ORL caters to the ever-demanding needs of the steel industry and beyond. Incidentally ORIND was the first wholly owned India company to set up base in China. Pesently, ORIND China has a 616 strong work force including 23 expatriates.

  11. Limitations in forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kavitha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using dental evidence in forensic investigation has kindled so much interest in the recent past that forensic odontology is even suggested as the single positive identification method to solve certain forensic cases. In this process, the shortcomings in forensic odontology though few are overlooked. These discrepancies associated with various methods are to be weighed cautiously to make forensic odontology a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible investigatory science. In this paper, we present our understanding of the limitations in various methods employed in forensic odontology.

  12. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  13. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  14. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benedictus Margaux

    2015-05-01

    Let be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimensional split torus $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ on a smooth affine -scheme $\\mathfrak{X}$. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor $\\mathfrak{X}_{}$ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action `admits a limit at 0’. We show that $\\mathfrak{X}_{}$ is representable by a smooth closed subscheme of $\\mathfrak{X}$. This result generalizes a theorem of Conrad et al. (Pseudo-reductive groups (2010) Cambridge Univ. Press) where the case when $\\mathfrak{X}$ is an affine smooth group and $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ acts as a group automorphisms of $\\mathfrak{X}$ is considered. It also occurs as a special case of a recent result by Drinfeld on the action of $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ on algebraic spaces (Proposition 1.4.20 of Drinfeld V, On algebraic spaces with an action of $\\mathfrak{G}_{m}$, preprint 2013) in case is of finite type over a field.

  15. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  16. International diversification and Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Rients; Lensink, Robert; Spierdijk, Laura

    2011-01-01

    International commercial banks, institutional investors, and private investors have become increasingly interested in financing microfinance institutions (MFIs). This paper investigates whether adding microfinance funds to a portfolio of risky international assets yields diversification gains. By us

  17. Training for International Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Judy

    1980-01-01

    As many corporations widen their scope to international markets, there arises a need for specialized management development. To be effective in an international environment, a manager requires linguistic, social, and communication skills, functional expertise, and familiarity with cultural differences. (SK)

  18. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Mission of ITNS The International Transplant Nurses Society is committed to the promotion of excellence in ... 20-1589538 Copyright © 2006 - 2014 International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS). No materials, including graphics, may be reused, ...

  19. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  20. National and International Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Canadian government policy dealing with internal matters of party politics and international questions of human rights. Describes the political situation in Burma as an oppressive military regime. Urges the Canadian government to take a firmer stand to influence the international community against tolerating regimes that are guilty of…

  1. Improving Internal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  2. CHINA INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The China International Publishing Group (CIPG) specializes in international communications. Its operationsencompass reporting, editing, translation, publishing, printing, distribution, and the Internet. It incorporates sevenpublishing companies, five magazines and 19 periodicals, published in over 20 languages. The ChinaInternational Book Trading Corporation, another group facet, distributes all of these to over 180 countries and

  3. THE FUTURE OF INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN DUMITRU MATIȘ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the purpose of internal audit has continued to evolve and expand, managing to successfully transition from its traditional function of monitoring financial statements to the strategic and operational efforts of checking the organization’s compliance at all levels. Regarding the future, it is assumed that the internal audit will play an important advisory role, becoming an important catalyst of business development, focusing organizations on emerging risks. This transformation of the whole internal system, consisting in both control and audit, which seeks to promote a risk-centered organizational culture, is in the process of evolution, but it complexity, the conflicts of interest, the little understanding of most companies when it comes to implementing such a system as well as various issues of credibility, limit the pace of development for now. Our belief, however, is that this slow evolution is favorable for the alternative purpose of building the functions of the new internal control and audit on a more credible and relevant foundation for the organizational management.

  4. Internal anal sphincter: Clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Emmanuel, Anton

    2017-08-01

    To summarise current knowledge of Internal anal sphincter. The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is the involuntary ring of smooth muscle in the anal canal and is the major contributor to the resting pressure in the anus. Structural injury or functional weakness of the muscle results in passive incontinence of faeces and flatus. With advent of new assessment and treatment modalities IAS has become an important topic for surgeons. This review was undertaken to summarise our current knowledge of internal anal sphincter and highlight the areas that need further research. The PubMed database was used to identify relevant studies relating to internal anal sphincter. The available evidence has been summarised and advantages and limitations highlighted for the different diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Our understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of IAS has increased greatly in the last three decades. Additionally, there has been a rise in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques specifically targeting the IAS. Although these are promising, future research is required before these can be incorporated into the management algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Array Antenna Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, B L G; Hussain, N

    2013-01-01

    This letter defines a physical bound based array figure of merit that provides a tool to compare the performance of both single and multi-band array antennas with respect to return-loss, thickness of the array over the ground-plane, and scan-range. The result is based on a sum-rule result of Rozanov-type for linear polarization. For single-band antennas it extends an existing limit for a given fixed scan-angle to include the whole scan-range of the array, as well as the unit-cell structure in the bound. The letter ends with an investigation of the array figure of merit for some wideband and/or wide-scan antennas with linear polarization. We find arrays with a figure of merit >0.6 that empirically defines high-performance antennas with respect to this measure.

  6. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  7. Universal Limit on Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    I derive a universal upper bound on the capacity of any communication channel between two distant systems. The Holevo quantity, and hence the mutual information, is at most of order $E \\Delta t / \\hbar$, where $E$ the average energy of the signal, and $\\Delta t$ is the amount of time for which detectors operate. The bound does not depend on the size or mass of the emitting and receiving systems, nor on the nature of the signal. No restrictions on preparing and processing the signal are imposed. As an example, I consider the encoding of information in the transverse or angular position of a signal emitted and received by systems of arbitrarily large cross-section. In the limit of a large message space, quantum effects become important even if individual signals are classical, and the bound is upheld.

  8. Clinical limitations of Invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xiem; Ling, Paul H

    2007-04-01

    Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations. The majority of these patients reject wearing labial fixed appliances and are looking instead to more esthetic treatment options, including lingual orthodontics and Invisalign appliances. Since Align Technology introduced the Invisalign appliance in 1999 in an extensive public campaign, the appliance has gained tremendous attention from adult patients and dental professionals. The transparency of the Invisalign appliance enhances its esthetic appeal for those adult patients who are averse to wearing conventional labial fixed orthodontic appliances. Although guidelines about the types of malocclusions that this technique can treat exist, few clinical studies have assessed the effectiveness of the appliance. A few recent studies have outlined some of the limitations associated with this technique that clinicians should recognize early before choosing treatment options.

  9. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  10. Evaluasi Pengendalian Internal Siklus Pendapatan Pada PT X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Wicaksono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of internal control in revenue cycle, to identify weaknesses and limitations of internal control, and to suggest improvements as needed. Research was carried out by using several methods. First, the method of data collection was conducted with internal control questionnaires of revenue cycle, interview, and observation. Second, the method of analysis was performed by using COSO internal control framework. Results obtained are internal control in the revenue cycle applied to the company in general is quite good; and there are ineffective implementation of internal control which can lead to the emergence of risks that could harm the company.

  11. The development of internationally managed information systems and their prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, H

    1978-12-01

    This paper reviews a selection of international collaborative efforts in the production of information services and attempts to characterize modes of cooperation. Information systems specifically discussed include: international nuclear information system (INIS); Nuclear Science Abstract (NSA); EURATOM; AGRIS; AGRINDEX; Information Retrieval Limited (IRL); IFIS (International Food Information Service); Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS); MEDLARS; and TITUS. 3 methods of international information transfer are discussed: commercial transactions; negotiated (bilateral) barter arrangements; and contribution to internationally managed systems. Technical, economic, and professional objectives support the rationale for international cooperation. It is argued that economic and political considerations, as much as improved technology or information transfer, will determine the nature of collaboration in the future.

  12. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  13. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  14. The Trends of the International Arbitration Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Peizhong; Zhou Yanbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The international arbitration, as a kind of the methods to resolve the disputes in the international society,is flourished in recent years. On the basis of the international arbitration's features, the jurisdiction to relevant to the political issues is omission in the session of the disputes. Increasing of the disputes express to the globalization of the economy in the world. Not only do the position of the arbitration and the parties of the cases come from the region, but also the Europe as the traditional arbitration center,replaced by the Pacific/Asia region. The reason of the trend developing for the international arbitration results from the international arbitration's feature--- the forum is neutral, treaty ensures enforcement abroad and no appeal, limited discover. Less time consuming, greater degree of the voluntary compli-ance, procedure is less costly and the result are more predictable.

  15. 75 FR 39207 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for... 30, 2010. See Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland: Extension of Time Limit for...

  16. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Shirakawa, Masaki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Valentini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and down mass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab, the Physical Science Informatics System, and different Earth data systems. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments

  17. USA aborts international family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1996-03-02

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  18. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from the MELVILLE and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 04 March 1977 to 22 May 1977 (NODC Accession 7900209)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from CTD casts in the SE Pacific (limit 140 W) from the MELVILLE and other platforms from 04 March 1977 to 22 May...

  19. Primary productivity data from the ATLANTIS II from the NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 08 March 1974 to 25 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7700054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary productivity data were collected in the NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from the ATLANTIS II from 08 March 1974 to 25 May 1974. Data were collected by the...

  20. Oceanographic Station and CTD data from the EASTWARD from the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 23 July 1976 to 16 August 1976 (NODC Accession 7800803)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station and CTD data were collected from the EASTWARD from the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from 23 July 1976 to 16 August 1976. Data were collected by...

  1. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from the SE Pacific (limit-140 W) from the COLUMBUS ISELIN and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 17 March 1977 to 30 March 1977 (NODC Accession 7900205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from CTD casts in the SE Pacific (limit 140 W) from the COLUMBUS ISELIN and other platforms from 17 March 1977 to 30...

  2. Hydrographic, current profile, and other data from STD and other instruments from the NW Pacific (limit-180) from the YAQUINA and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Cooperative Investigations of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IDOE/CICAR) and related projects from 31 July 1972 to 25 August 1972 (NODC Accession 7500531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic, current profiles, and other data were collected from STD and other instruments in the NW Pacific (limit-180) from the YAQUINA from 31 July 1972 to 25...

  3. Diffraction of limit periodic point sets

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Limit periodic point sets are aperiodic structures with pure point diffraction supported on a countably, but not finitely generated Fourier module that is based on a lattice and certain integer multiples of it. Examples are cut and project sets with p-adic internal spaces. We illustrate this by explicit results for the diffraction measures of two examples with 2-adic internal spaces. The first and well-known example is the period doubling sequence in one dimension, which is based on the period doubling substitution rule. The second example is a weighted planar point set that is derived from the classic chair tiling in the plane. It can be described as a fixed point of a block substitution rule.

  4. Internal auditing in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Don; Kusel, Jim; Oxner, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyzed two national surveys to determine answers for two basic questions: How do the roles of internal auditors compare with those of their counterparts in other industries and to what extent over the past 6 years have the activities of internal auditors changed? Internal auditors in hospitals allocate their time primarily to financial/compliance and operational types of audits, as do their counterparts. The current trend is toward more operational types of audits. In the early years of employment, staff turnover in hospitals is significantly higher than in all combined industries, often leading to internal auditors' filling other positions in the organization. Hospital staff salaries are higher than are salaries in other industries combined. Staff composition continues to reflect the growing presence of women in the field. The majority of internal auditing directors believe that their salaries are fair, would recommend internal auditing as a career position, and are treated as valued consultants in the organization.

  5. 78 FR 3367 - Modification of Regulation Regarding the Extension of Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Extension of Time Limits AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of...) proposes to modify its regulation concerning the extension of time limits for submissions in antidumping... parties may request an extension of time limits before any time limit established under this part...

  6. The International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different ...

  7. International safeguards data authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  8. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  9. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  10. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger......The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...

  11. ARE THERE LIMITS TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although TQM could solve every problems but it does not mean that TQM is unlimited. There are several limitations on TQM application, some examples from international cases is taken to show the failure of TQM implementation. The understanding of TQM philosophy is really necessary. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Meskipun TQM dapat menyelesaikan semua masalah tetapi bukan berarti bahwa TQM tanpa batas. Ada beberapa keterbatasan penerapan TQM yang berujung pada beberapa kasus dunia yang dapat diambil sebagai contoh dari kegagalan penerapan TQM secara baik dan benar. Untuk itu diperlukan pemahaman filosophi TQM secara tepat. Kata kunci: total quality management, keterbatasan TQM

  12. Is Science Nearing Its Limits ? Summarizing Dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Luminet, J -P

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 an international conference engaged a reflection on the present conditions for sciences and scientific practice, to initiate a dialogue between science, philosophy, epistemology and sociology. Starting from many examples taken from the history of sciences and the present status of astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics, I analyze various issues such as the possible limits of theoretical and technological advances, the paradox of non-verifiability in string theory, incompleteness, the role of imagination in scientific research along with educational aspects, the epistemological value of the Ockham's razor principle for constraining theories, and our undersanding of man's place in Creation.

  13. 26 CFR 1.132-4T - Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line of business limitation-1985 through 1988 (temporary). 1.132-4T Section 1.132-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY....132-4T Line of business limitation—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general—(1)...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4217-2 - Limitation on amount of tax applicable to certain leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on amount of tax applicable to certain leases. 48.4217-2 Section 48.4217-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... in arm's length transactions the same type and model of article. In case of a lease to which...

  15. 26 CFR 1.362-4 - Limitations on built-in loss duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on built-in loss duplication. 1.362-4 Section 1.362-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... duplication. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) In general. (2) Intercompany transactions. For rules relating to...

  16. Limitations in global information on species occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Meyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on species distributions is crucial for answering central questions in biogeography, ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation. Millions of species occurrence records have been mobilized via international data-sharing networks, but inherent biases, gaps and uncertainties hamper broader application. In my PhD thesis, I presented the first comprehensive analyses of global patterns and drivers of these limitations across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. Integrating 300 million occurrence records for terrestrial vertebrates and plants with comprehensive taxonomic databases, expert range maps and regional checklists, I demonstrated extensive taxonomic, geographical and temporal biases, gaps and uncertainties. I identified key socio-economic drivers of data bias across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. The results of my dissertation provide an empirical baseline for effectively accounting for data limitations in distribution models, as well as for prioritizing and monitoring efforts to collate additional occurrence information.

  17. Slavery Prosecutions in International Criminal Jurisdictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Wilt

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how the findings of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) in respect of enslavement as a form of system criminality can be translated for a proper assessment of slavery outside (armed) conflict. The author has found that, while ICTs are jurisdictionally limited to addressing

  18. Page THE PROBLEM WITH INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    a code governing the game of war, but for humanitarian reasons to reduce or limit the suffering .... 15 J Picket, Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (Nijoff Publishers: Geneva 1985) 7-. 8. 16 S Tzu ..... Indiscriminate launch of computer attacks is the norm ... Solution for this problem lies heavily with.

  19. The changing face of international power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I. [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  20. 26 CFR 1.904(j)-1 - Certain individuals exempt from foreign tax credit limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... credit limitation. 1.904(j)-1 Section 1.904(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(j)-1 Certain individuals exempt from foreign tax credit limitation. (a) Election available only if all foreign taxes are creditable foreign taxes. A taxpayer may elect to apply section...

  1. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-0 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals, table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., table of contents. 1.402(g)-0 Section 1.402(g)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Plans, Etc. § 1.402(g)-0 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals, table of contents. This section contains the captions that appear in § 1.402(g)-1. § 1.402(g)-1Limitation on exclusion for...

  2. Limiting amplitudes of fully nonlinear interfacial tides and solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Gerkema, Theo

    2016-08-01

    A new two-fluid layer model consisting of forced rotation-modified Boussinesq equations is derived for studying tidally generated fully nonlinear, weakly nonhydrostatic dispersive interfacial waves. This set is a generalization of the Choi-Camassa equations, extended here with forcing terms and Coriolis effects. The forcing is represented by a horizontally oscillating sill, mimicking a barotropic tidal flow over topography. Solitons are generated by a disintegration of the interfacial tide. Because of strong nonlinearity, solitons may attain a limiting table-shaped form, in accordance with soliton theory. In addition, we use a quasi-linear version of the model (i.e. including barotropic advection but linear in the baroclinic fields) to investigate the role of the initial stages of the internal tide prior to its nonlinear disintegration. Numerical solutions reveal that the internal tide then reaches a limiting amplitude under increasing barotropic forcing. In the fully nonlinear regime, numerical experiments suggest that this limiting amplitude in the underlying internal tide extends to the nonlinear case in that internal solitons formed by a disintegration of the internal tide may not reach their table-shaped form with increased forcing, but appear limited well below that state.

  3. Interne eller eksterne ledere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed...

  4. International Entrepreneurship and Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Zucchella, Antonella; Palamera, Giada

    2006-01-01

    This contribution focuses on international sourcing as an entrepreneurial act and aims at demonstrating that it is actually at the core of internationalization processes of small firms, both established and international new ventures. Another issue of this research is to understand how these firm...

  5. International Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  6. International mercury conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg) affects human health and the environment, it calls for immediate action. Action is needed at local, regional and international level to reduce the risk associated with mercury, which is a global international problem, as it is a...

  7. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  8. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  9. Embracing an International Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new international stock board will soon be established in Shanghai,allowing foreign companies to list their businesses and tap into the China market China is moving closer to launching its own international stock board,a market for foreign companies to list their stocks in China,said Shang Fulin,

  10. Unilateralism in International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    international law. This note considers when and how a State or a regional organisation may legitimately take unilateral measures to protect the environment. The note will does not consider the legality of including foreign aircraft within the ETS, which has been dealt with elsewhere. Instead, it will focus...... on the legality and importance of unilateral acts for the development of international law....

  11. Intern kommunikation under forandring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Helle; Asmuss, Birte; Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove;

    , organisation og ledelse, som er relevante for arbejdet med den interne kommunikation. Bogen beskæftiger sig med intern kommunikation i bred forstand, dvs. med tekster og genrer, der ikke kun produceres af kommunikationsafdelingen, men også af ledelse, medarbejdere og HR-afdeling. Blandt bogens emner kan nævnes......, men kan læses med stort udbytte af alle, der arbejder med eller interesserer sig for, hvordan organisationer kommunikerer med sig selv, og hvordan den interne kommunikation forandrer sig. Bogen udfylder et hul i den danske faglitteratur om strategisk kommunikation, hvor der i mange år har manglet en......Intern kommunikation under forandring giver en teoretisk og praktisk indføring i de tekster, genrer og kommunikationsformer, som den interne kommunikation i private og offentlige virksomheder eller organisationer typisk omfatter. Dertil kommer en indføring i opfattelser af kommunikation...

  12. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...

  13. Attracting International Hotels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe

    2015-01-01

    With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....

  14. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  15. Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair is a new starting point. In the face of the main development trend of international and domes tic convention and exhibition industry, the fierce competition among the domestic exhibition industry, Dalian International Garment Fair sizes up the situation and the golden opportunity that China will revitalize the Northeast old industrial base and turn Dalian into the international shipping center in Northeast Asia; it takes the new Dalian Convention and Exhibition Center as a turning point. Under the leadership of Dalian Mu-nicipal Party Committee and Dalian municipal government, and under the support and assistance of the sponsors, Dalian International Garment Fair emancipates the mind and plans the future with the viewpoint of scientific development, innovative thinking and practical operation.

  16. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  17. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a charter...

  18. Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania : a View from Internal Migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Erka; Bailey, Ajay; Van Wissen, Leo J. G.

    Over the last 20years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously

  19. Development of international criteria for a front of package food labelling system: the International Choices Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Roodenburg, A J C; Popkin, B M; Seidell, J C

    2011-01-01

    Background: A global push to reduce the amount of saturated and trans-fatty acids, added salt and sugar in processed food, and to enhance fruit, vegetable and whole grain intake, while limiting energy intake, exists for most populations. Objectives: To redesign the International Choices Program (note: this is unrelated to the US Smart Choices Program), initially Netherlands focused, by an international board of scientists to create a generic, global front-of-pack nutrition logo system that he...

  20. International marine environmental governance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Many of these organizations operate within international legal frameworks ranging from comprehensive global conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to regional agreements aiming at protection and development of regional seas. Characteristic for the management of these seas, both at the national and international level, is that sectoral approaches predominate. Over time, several initiatives have been taken to improve cooperation, coordination and integration to achieve greater coherence of policies and strategies between different organizations dealing with marine and maritime management, within and outside the United Nation system. However, the success has been limited. The weaknesses of international organizations depend fundamentally on problems at the national level. The international organizations are no stronger than their Contracting Parties allow them to be.

  1. Guidelines for setting speed limits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wium, DJW

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for setting the speed limit for a particular road section. Several speed limits based on different criteria are described for each of nine traffic and road factors. The most appropriate speed limit for each relevant factor...

  2. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...

  3. 78 FR 19356 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... International Airport, 73 FR 3510 (Jan. 18, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18620 (Apr. 4, 2011); Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport, 73 FR 29550 (May 21, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18618 (Apr. 4...'s John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR)...

  4. An upper limit for macromolecular crowding effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solutions containing high macromolecule concentrations are predicted to affect a number of protein properties compared to those properties in dilute solution. In cells, these macromolecular crowders have a large range of sizes and can occupy 30% or more of the available volume. We chose to study the stability and ps-ns internal dynamics of a globular protein whose radius is ~2 nm when crowded by a synthetic microgel composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid with particle radii of ~300 nm. Results Our studies revealed no change in protein rotational or ps-ns backbone dynamics and only mild (~0.5 kcal/mol at 37°C, pH 5.4 stabilization at a volume occupancy of 70%, which approaches the occupancy of closely packing spheres. The lack of change in rotational dynamics indicates the absence of strong crowder-protein interactions. Conclusions Our observations are explained by the large size discrepancy between the protein and crowders and by the internal structure of the microgels, which provide interstitial spaces and internal pores where the protein can exist in a dilute solution-like environment. In summary, microgels that interact weakly with proteins do not strongly influence protein dynamics or stability because these large microgels constitute an upper size limit on crowding effects.

  5. On Integration of Core Competitiveness of Private Corporation--A Case Study of Tiangong International Company Limited in Jiangsu Province%民营企业核心竞争力集成的个案研究——以江苏天工国际有限公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国英

    2012-01-01

    江苏天工国际有限公司的成功,在于其具有强大的核心竞争力,可以作为我国民营企业发展的一个参照。其核心竞争力体现在:定位明确,注重研发;重视文化建设,以人为本;一切从诚信做起。这对我国中小民营企业的成长与发展有所启迪和借鉴。%At the beginning of the "12th Five-Year Plan", when Europe and the United States are deeply in debt crisis, enterprises in China are also facing enormous challenges to survive. More and more small and medium-sized private enterprises have collapsed. However, Tiangong international,which was born a collectively owned enterprise, was promoted to be the world top three special steel enterprises in June of 2011. It has created a legend that a Chinese private enterprise can successfully become the world leading special steel enterprise. This article analyzes the case of Tiangong international and tries to supply some lessons that might be helpful for the small and medium private enterprises which are in trouble at the moment.

  6. Internal tide oceanic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-09-01

    A concept of internal tide oceanic tomography (ITOT) is proposed to monitor ocean warming on a global scale. ITOT is similar to acoustic tomography, but that work waves are internal tides. ITOT detects ocean temperature changes by precisely measuring travel time changes of long-range propagating internal tides. The underlying principle is that upper ocean warming strengthens ocean stratification and thus increases the propagation speed of internal tides. This concept is inspired by recent advances in observing internal tides by satellite altimetry. In particular, a plane wave fit method can separately resolve multiple internal tidal waves and thus accurately determines the phase of each wave. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of ITOT. In the eastern tropical Pacific, the yearly time series of travel time changes of the M2 internal tide is closely correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. In the North Atlantic, significant interannual variations and bidecadal trends are observed and consistent with the changes in ocean heat content measured by Argo floats. ITOT offers a long-term, cost-effective, environmentally friendly technique for monitoring global ocean warming. Future work is needed to quantify the accuracy of this technique.

  7. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro S; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η, with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.

  10. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; 10.3390/s91108382

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min{Dn} > eta with n+i*eta being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because silicon absorbs strongly.

  11. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Asger Mortensen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.

  12. Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro; Xiao, Sanshui

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors...... and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon...... the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly....

  13. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  14. International Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are over three million international students worldwide, and in recent years higher education institutions compete with each other in order to receive these students to their institutions. International students are now one of the most important indicator of the internationalization of the higher education systems and institutions. In this context, the detection of the status of this indicator in our higher education system and institutions is of great importance as our higher education system shows a large expansion. This study, discusses the status of international students in our country.

  15. International Institutions and GHG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is pushing public health crises beyond traditional national boundaries. It has also transformed international health governance into global health governance. Health security is one aspect of global public welfare. International institutions, such as the WHO, the WTO, the World Bank, and the BWC, are main providers of global public welfare for health. However, those institutions' role in global health governance is not optimized. An analysis of the shortcomings of the international institutions concerned with global heath can contribute to better global health governance. Some tentative solutions to such problems are put forward in this paper.

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  17. Veterinary practice internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, T E

    1996-02-01

    This chapter explores the responsive management requirements critical for effective internal controls. Internal control techniques offered include the application of segregation of function, goal-orientation, performance planning, and training objectives in five veterinary practice areas. These areas are client controls, cash controls, inventory controls, purchase controls, and stock controls. Because only trusted staff members are given access to practice assets, the veterinary leadership must have a responsive management plan to protect the life of the practice while building the practice team. Methods are shared for controlling opportunities that can lead to employee fraud while concurrently building a team approach to internal controls.

  18. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Asger Mortensen; Sanshui Xiao; Peder Skafte-Pedersen; Nunes, Pedro S.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η, with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in ...

  19. National narcissism: Internal dimensions and international correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huajian; Gries, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In studies conducted in the United States and China, we explored the impact of national narcissism, grandiosity, and entitlement, demonstrating that: (a) national narcissism was distinct from both individual narcissism and collective self-esteem (patriotism); (b) national entitlement and national grandiosity constituted two distinct dimensions of national narcissism; and (c) national narcissism, national grandiosity, and national entitlement, but not individual narcissism, were uniquely predictive of political attitudes, foreign policy preferences, and purchase intentions. Together, these findings provided convergent evidence for the utility of national narcissism and its two internal dimensions, national entitlement and national grandiosity.

  20. Determination of the Limiting Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Aaron; Blaauw, Rhiannon

    2017-01-01

    The limiting magnitude of an optical camera system is an important property to understand since it is used to find the completeness limit of observations. Limiting magnitude depends on the hardware and software of the system, current weather conditions, and the angular speed of the objects observed. If an object exhibits a substantial angular rate during the exposure, its light spreads out over more pixels than the stationary stars. This spreading causes the limiting magnitude to be brighter when compared to the stellar limiting magnitude. The effect, which begins to become important when the object moves a full width at half max during a single exposure or video frame. For targets with high angular speeds or camera systems with narrow field of view or long exposures, this correction can be significant, up to several magnitudes. The stars in an image are often used to measure the limiting magnitude since they are stationary, have known brightness, and are present in large numbers, making the determination of the limiting magnitude fairly simple. In order to transform stellar limiting magnitude to object limiting magnitude, a correction must be applied accounting for the angular velocity. This technique is adopted in meteor and other fast-moving object observations, as the lack of a statistically significant sample of targets makes it virtually impossible to determine the limiting magnitude before the weather conditions change. While the weather is the dominant factor in observing satellites, the limiting magnitude for meteors also changes throughout the night due to the motion of a meteor shower or sporadic source radiant across the sky. This paper presents methods for determining the limiting stellar magnitude and the conversion to the target limiting magnitude.

  1. The Internal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  2. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  3. Globalisation of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  4. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  5. ASKME Enterprise Portal (internal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASKME Enterprise Portal Internal (AEPi) is envisioned to be an integrated, single-point-of-entry solution that contains modular components. The AEPi will provide...

  6. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    .... Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization...

  9. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  10. International Physiotherapy Eduication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brownb

    KEY WORDS: Physiotherapy education, future direction, international education, transnational education ... didactic and clinical teaching practices and options, and also provides .... delivery modes especially in distance education in all fields.

  11. Galaxy International Mall Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An agreement between Galaxy International Mall (hereinafter referred to as Galaxy) and its three main partners was signed on January 12, 2011, in the city of Tianjin. The partners are Lotte Department

  12. International standards in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fomina; O.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The existence of incompatible standards in many technical fields represents a technical barrier to international cooperation between enterprises in different countries in the manufacture of high technology products.……

  13. The Internal Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Internal control comprises the plan of organization and all the coordinate methods and measures adopted within a school system to safeguard its assets, check the reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency, and encourage adherence to prescribed policies. (Author)

  14. Evolutionary internalized regularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R

    2001-08-01

    Roger Shepard's proposals and supporting experiments concerning evolutionary internalized regularities have been very influential in the study of vision and in other areas of psychology and cognitive science. This paper examines issues concerning the need, nature, explanatory role, and justification for postulating such internalized constraints. In particular, I seek further clarification from Shepard on how best to understand his claim that principles of kinematic geometry underlie phenomena of motion perception. My primary focus is on the ecological validity of Shepard's kinematic constraint in the context of ordinary motion perception. First, I explore the analogy Shepard draws between internalized circadian rhythms and the supposed internalization of kinematic geometry. Next, questions are raised about how to interpret and justify applying results from his own and others' experimental studies of apparent motion to more everyday cases of motion perception in richer environments. Finally, some difficulties with Shepard's account of the evolutionary development of his kinematic constraint are considered.

  15. Using spaced education to teach interns about teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Corso, Katherine; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Breen, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Despite limited preparation and knowledge base, surgical interns have important teaching responsibilities. Nevertheless, few faculty development programs are aimed at interns. Succinct teaching skill content was electronically distributed over time (spaced education) to interns in academic year 2010/2011. The interns in the previous year served as historic controls. Electronic surveys were distributed for program evaluation. Fifteen of 24 (62.5%) interns and 35 of 49 (71.4%) students responded to the surveys in academic year 2009/2010 and 16 of 27 (59.3%) interns and 38 of 52 (73%) students responded in academic year 2010/2011. Surveys showed improved attitudes toward teaching by interns as well as a higher estimation of interns' teaching skills as rated by students for those interns who received the spaced education program. Using spaced education to improve interns' teaching skills is a potentially powerful intervention that improves interns' enthusiasm for teaching and teaching effectiveness. The changes are mirrored in students' ratings of interns' teaching skills and interns' attitudes toward teaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  17. International Cometary Explorer (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    NASA spacecraft, originally known as ISEE-3 (International Sun-Earth Explorer). First spacecraft to encounter a comet. Launched in August 1978. After completing its original mission, it was reactivated and diverted to pass through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner on 11 September 1985. It also observed Halley's Comet from a distance of 28 million km in March 1986. (See also INTERNATIONAL SUN-EAR...

  18. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    167092 JPRS-UIA-87-014 7 APRIL 1987 USSR Report INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DTSTPIBÜTTON HT^TFM’oKT Ä Approved fox ou’-K- ’c<£x;se; Distribution... USSR REPORT INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CONTENTS EAST-WEST RELATIONS Ambassador, Correspondents View CSCE Process, Progress (NEPSZABADSAG, 13 Feb 87...Range Program (Boris Remizov, Valdimir Proskuryakov ; EKONOMICHESKOYE SOTRUDNICHESTVO STRAN-CHLENOV SEV, No 10, 1986) 21 - a - Measures for

  19. Criteria for internal auditing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, W W; Clay, R J

    1979-01-01

    An effective, inclusive internal auditing endeavor should help assure hospital managements that (1) an adequate system of internal control exists to assure the safeguarding of assets and the reliability of data produced by the financial information system, (2) uneconomic operating practices are detected promptly so they can be remedied, and (3) program results and effectiveness levels are of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate managerial competence.

  20. Internalization and Participation as Metaphors of Strategic Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of comprehension strategies instruction rely on an internalization metaphor of strategy learning. In this view, strategies eventually enter students' heads after repeated interactions with teachers who introduce strategies and control how they are used. In this article, the author discusses the limitations of the internalization view…

  1. Arab International Students' Experiences in a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Rabia, Hazza M.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…

  2. Arab International Students' Experiences in a U.S. University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Rabia, Hazza M.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study described the experiences of Arab international students in a U.S. postsecondary institution. This research identified those factors that Arab international students reported as facilitating or obstructing their academic success, promoting or limiting their socialization within the context of their postsecondary…

  3. International NGOs and their contribution to overcoming poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Hrachevska

    2014-04-01

    The article also characterizes existing strategies of combating poverty. It is argued that international non­governmental organizations, limited in their financial resources, cant be widely involved in them. Main challenges, facing international NGO in addressing problems of poverty, are also outlined.

  4. Remedial secession in international law: theory and (lack of) practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidmar, J.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted in international legal scholarship that the right of self-determination is limited by the principle of territorial integrity of states. Yet the inverted reading of the elaboration of this principle in the Declaration on Principles of International Law suggests that a state

  5. DISCUSSION ON DECISION LIMIT AND DETECTION LIMIT IN SPECTROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仁圻; 余君岳; 等

    1995-01-01

    Based on fundamental arguments,the expressions for the decision limit and the detection limit both in the count domain and in the cout rate domain are derive4d.These expressions are found to be different from those shown in the existing literature.

  6. Welfare Dynamics under Time Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

    2003-01-01

    Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model reveals that time limits provide an incentive for the consumer to conserve, or bank, her benefits. More inte...

  7. Optimum shapes for pump limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.

    1982-05-01

    The design of a pump limiter depends strongly on the details of the plasma scrapeoff zone. A model has been developed which allows the transport coefficients in the scrapeoff to be functions of n and t. This model has been used to predict scrapeoff profiles for FED/INTOR. The profiles are used to find and analyze limiter profiles. The results suggest the use of limiter shapes which curve toward the plasma.

  8. Editorial: Contemporary Issues in International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr STANEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International dimension is at the core of modern business activity and globalization processes tighten interconnectedness also at the macroeconomic level to unprecedented levels. This is clearly demonstrated by the first two issues of our review and expressed in editorial introductions (Wach, 2013; Klich, 2013. Thus, the third issue is explicitly devoted to contemporary issues in international economics. Obviously, tackling them in the way as complete as for example in Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy (Dicken, 2011 is impossible, taken into consideration limits of a journal issue.

  9. Flux-profile relationships over a fetch limited beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensib...

  10. Emission pathways consitent with 2C global temperature limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogeli, J.; Hare, W.; Lowe, J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Riahi, K.; Matthews, B.; Hanaoka, T.; Jiang, K.; Meinshausen, M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, international climate policy has increasingly focused on limiting temperature rise, as opposed to achieving greenhouse-gas-concentration-related objectives. The agreements reached at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change conference in Cancun in 2010 recognize tha

  11. Arms Limitation and Disarmament: Seventeenth Strategy for Peace Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to arms limitation and disarmament. Leaders in U. S. government, professionals from a wide spectrum of disciplines, and other international statesmen participated in the conference in an attempt to define a more enlightened foreign policy. Six major topics were discussed. The first report considered five…

  12. Role of Scientific Societies in International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2007-12-01

    Geophysical research increasingly requires global multidisciplinary approaches. Understanding how deeply interrelated are Earth components and processes, population growth, increased needs of mineral and energy resources, global impact of human activities, and view of our planet as an interconnected system emphasizes the need of international cooperation. International research collaboration has an immense potential and is needed for further development of Earth science research and education. The Union Session is planned to provide a forum for analysis and discussion of the status of research and education of geosciences in developing countries, international collaboration programs and new initiatives for promoting and strengthening scientific cooperation. A theme of particular relevance in the analyses and discussions is the role of scientific societies in international collaboration. Societies organize meetings, publish journals and books and promote cooperation through academic exchange activities. They may further assist communities in developing countries in providing and facilitating access to scientific literature, attendance to international meetings, short and long-term stays and student and young researcher mobility. What else can be done? This is a complex subject and scientific societies may not be seen independently from the many factors involved in research and education. Developing countries present additional challenges resulting from limited economic resources and social and political problems, while urgently requiring improved educational and research programs. Needed are in-depth analyses of infrastructure and human resources, and identification of major problems and needs. What are the major limitations and needs in research and postgraduate education in developing countries? What and how should international collaboration do? What are the roles of individuals, academic institutions, funding agencies, scientific societies? Here we attempt to

  13. Dose limits to the eye lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sion, N.

    2016-09-15

    Protecting the human body from the effects of ionizing radiation is essential to forestall stochastic effects and require placing limits on the effective dose. Dose limits on specific organs are also necessary to reduce the deterministic effects and tissue reactions. The standard for radiation protection was ISO 15382 (2002) which mainly dealt with beta radiation for nuclear power plant workers. Clearly an update is required to allow for new technology and the proliferative use of radiation in medical practices. There is a need for more explicit radiation monitoring to operators and staff. ICRP118 (International Commission on Radiological Protection), Ref. 1, evolved their recommendations to include eye lens doses as a follow on to their publication 103 and to focus on radiation exposures. It provides updated estimates of 'practical' threshold doses for tissue injury at the level of 1% incidence. This paper discusses the current status and the recommendation for a drastic reduction of the dose limit to the eye lens. (author)

  14. International Conference Approximation Theory XV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...

  15. International Conference on Robot Ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira, Joao; Tokhi, Mohammad; Kadar, Endre; Virk, Gurvinder

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close ...

  16. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  17. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  18. Dosage du Zinc Sanguin et Plasmatique chez les Sujets Iraniens par Spectrophotometrie d'Absorption Atomique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. MOHTAT

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of zinc in whole blood and plasma was determined in ? 16 Iranian subjects (121 women, and 95 men by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In women, the mean value in whole blood was 71 8•+ ?12 p.g ' -L 100ml and in plasma was 91 --'- 37 ugfl OOml. In men, the mean va lue in whole blood was 775 ..:t 26? I'giiOOml and in plasma was 100 + 30 J1g!"OOml

  19. Legal Personality of Inter-Governmental International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the incorporation of an inter-governmental international organization, the states assign to such entities some of their powers, based on which the organization will promote the collective interests of its members. Thus, the international organizations perform some public functions based on which they enter in contact with other entities of international order, such as different states or other organizations. Manifesting as such, they acquire their own legal personality, distinct from that of the states forming it, and which it is opposable erga omnes. The scope of such article is to examine the legal personality of inter-governmental international organizations providing one apprehends the limits of their juridical personality. In the achievement of such objective, I have developed both the internal juridical personality and the international juridical personality of international organizations, recording the manner of manifestation of such legal personality.

  20. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Cowan, Chen, & Rouder, 2004), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975). We investigated this question by teaching new paired associations between words to create two-word chunks. The results suggest that both chunk capacity limits and length limits come into play. For the free recall of 12-word lists, 6 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 6 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a chunk limit. However, for the serially-ordered recall of 8-word lists, 4 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 8 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a length limit. Other conditions yielded intermediate results suggesting that sometimes both limits may operate together. PMID:16393043

  1. Stroke rehabilitation: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasell, Robert; Meyer, Matthew J; McClure, Andrew; Pan, Cheng; Murie-Fernandez, Manuel; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    There is a revolution underway in stroke rehabilitation. International comparative studies coupled with an impressive evidence base have provided a platform from which an ideal system for stroke rehabilitation can be envisioned. Using the concepts of structure and process of care, different systems of stroke rehabilitation can be compared and evaluated against best evidence. Two structures of care are examined: specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units and outpatient programs. Although specialized interdisciplinary stroke rehabilitation units remain the "gold standard" of care, access to them is often limited. Outpatient programs are essential to stroke rehabilitation systems of care; however, while some countries are investing in outpatient programs, others are scaling back. Even though structures of care have been shown to affect processes of care, it is the processes of care that have proven to be more influential in altering patient outcomes. Four key processes of care are examined: time to admission, intensity of therapy, task-specific therapy, and discharge planning. Within international stroke rehabilitation systems, differences in these processes have resulted in significant differences in outcomes. This allows for "real-world" comparisons of how differing processes affect patient outcomes. Those systems whose structures and processes of care best reflect current best evidence appear to achieve better outcomes.

  2. International New Venture Legitimation: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo V. Turcan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK, and had internationalized and struggled for survival during the dotcom era. Grounded in data, this study corroborates a number of legitimation strategies yielded by prior research and refutes others. It further contributes to our understanding of international new venture legitimation by suggesting new types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory.

  3. LimitS - A system for limit state analysis and optimal material layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Krenk, Steen

    1997-01-01

    A system LimitS for limit state analysis and material optimization has been developed and implemented in a PC environment. The program is formulated in a general finite element format with stress-based elements. The solution method is based on the lower-bound theorem, where an optimal stress...... the statics and kinematics of the collapse mode are determined via the dual variables of the LP-problem. In LimitS the following element types are implemented: two- and three-dimensional beam elements; truss elements; triangular slab elements; and shear and stringer elements for plates with in-plane loading....... Examples of all three problem types are given including both limit state analysis and material optimization....

  4. LimitS - A system for limit state analysis and optimal material layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Krenk, Steen

    1997-01-01

    A system LimitS for limit state analysis and material optimization has been developed and implemented in a PC environment. The program is formulated in a general finite element format with stress-based elements. The solution method is based on the lower-bound theorem, where an optimal stress...... the statics and kinematics of the collapse mode are determined via the dual variables of the LP-problem. In LimitS the following element types are implemented: two- and three-dimensional beam elements; truss elements; triangular slab elements; and shear and stringer elements for plates with in-plane loading....... Examples of all three problem types are given including both limit state analysis and material optimization....

  5. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  6. Delving into Limits of Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Beth; Smith, Ken W.

    2011-01-01

    Limits are foundational to the central concepts of calculus. However, the authors' experiences with students and educational research abound with examples of students' misconceptions about limits and infinity. The authors wanted calculus students to understand, appreciate, and enjoy their first introduction to advanced mathematical thought. Thus,…

  7. Delving into Limits of Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Beth; Smith, Ken W.

    2011-01-01

    Limits are foundational to the central concepts of calculus. However, the authors' experiences with students and educational research abound with examples of students' misconceptions about limits and infinity. The authors wanted calculus students to understand, appreciate, and enjoy their first introduction to advanced mathematical thought. Thus,…

  8. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  9. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.

  10. The art of internalizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1993-10-01

    Generally speaking, there is economical and political support for the idea that road users should pay the full share of their costs, including environmental costs. The Dutch government has also made pricing a key element of its traffic policy. However, between this general aspiration and concrete policy measures there is a yawning gap. The Dutch government`s main recommendations for increasing the price of road traffic, road pricing and toll collections were voted down in parliament. Real fuel taxes in Europe probably decreased rather than increased over the years. Even the recent EC agreement on the minimum vehicle tax level for trucks and the so-called Euro vignet mean only a slight improvement in cost allocation. What is behind the described gap between general aspiration and concrete policy? This is the key question addressed in this report, that, after setting out a largely economic analysis, provides suggestions for achieving true internalization of all traffic costs. The problem of cost internalization is virtually congruent to that of abolishing or reducing subsidies. An essential step towards reducing subsidies or allocating costs is an independent analysis of the major consequences involved. In this report, first the main background and impact of internalizing transport costs are reviewed. Topics covered included economic and social effects and the need for international harmonization. Next, the policy instruments that are available for the internalization of traffic costs are discussed, partly based on the above-mentioned analysis. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs.

  11. Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1997-01-01

    The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.

  12. 26 CFR 301.6872-1 - Suspension of running of period of limitations on assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of running of period of limitations..., Bankruptcy, and Receiverships Jeopardy § 301.6872-1 Suspension of running of period of limitations on... as such, then the running of the period of limitations on assessment shall be suspended from the...

  13. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  14. Internal Markets for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of R&D to affiliated companies in the same business group. The challenges are analysed for affiliates in order to engage themselves in group-internal markets, for instance to avoid bottlenecks in the product development or to improve their technological knowledge. To research this phenomenon, a case...... study is accomplished by investigating a Multinational company whose affiliates are self-reliant and horizontally diversified. Mixed methods are applied by having structured depth interviews with the responsible R&D managers as well as by sending a survey out to associated project managers. The study...... indicates that the organizational complexity, infrastructures within the business group and the impact of external market structures play an essential role for the usage and effectiveness of group-internal markets. Hence, the insights offer valuable clues why internal markets have advantages...

  15. Determinants of International Competiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix”. Data is collected from two areas:  competitiveness and culture. After describing two sets of data, the researcher tests two hypotheses: (1 long-term economic growth is a function of government policies and (2 culture plays an insignificant role in gaining competitiveness and economic growth. In conclusion, the paper makes recommendations as how a country can improve its economic competitiveness.

  16. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...... a company’s general attitude and approach to (1) international markets and (2) user studies. Lastly, we present the theoretical ideas and concepts about culture that has informed the research....... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...

  17. International energy annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  18. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  19. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all....../region. The preferred data collection method is field studies. If possible, user researchers choose to go to the field themselves to gain rich insights and to control the data collection process. The main insights companies gain from international user studies are (1) that there are many similarities among end users...... across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However, so far...

  20. Sport and International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yimeng

    2008-01-01

    As China takes center stage for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in August, enthusiasm for the Games extends far beyond the capital city. For Chinese, the Olympics is about national pride and cultural legacy. The Chinese government hopes to make this event a morale booster for the development of the whole country. And for the world, the Olympics is not just a global sporting event, but also an important platform for promoting world harmony and communication between cultures. As editor of Contemporary International Relations, I am mindful of the connection between sport and international relations. Sport today plays a highly significant role in the world, and the impact of this global phenomenon on international relations is often underestimated.

  1. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on meaning constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning......The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  2. Assessment of internal doses

    CERN Document Server

    Rahola, T; Falk, R; Isaksson, M; Skuterud, L

    2002-01-01

    There is a definite need for training in dose calculation. Our first course was successful and was followed by a second, both courses were fully booked. An example of new tools for software products for bioassay analysis and internal dose assessment is the Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) were demonstrated at the second course. This suite of quality assured code modules have been adopted in the UK as the standard for regulatory assessment purposes. The intercomparison measurements are an important part of the Quality Assurance work. In what is known as the sup O utside workers ' directive it is stated that the internal dose measurements shall be included in the European Unions supervision system for radiation protection. The emergency preparedness regarding internal contamination was much improved by the training with and calibration of handheld instruments from participants' laboratories. More improvement will be gained with the handbook giving practical instructions on what to do in case of e...

  3. International Data & Economic Analysis (IDEA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — International Data UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Price Index; IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics; Millennium Challenge Corporation; and World Bank,...

  4. Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…

  5. ILO - International Migration Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  6. International Energy Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongtu

    2007-01-01

    The international energy situation has entered a new phase of change and readjustment. On the one hand, while imbalances in petroleum market supply-demand have been alleviated , the consuming states are now focusing on demand side management and development of new and renewable energy. There has been great progress in international energy security dialogue and cooperation. On the other hand , supply-demand market balance remains fragile , and restrictions due to insufficient energy investment are more evident. The concerned states have taken a stronger grip over their own resources. Implementation of energy diplomacy has also further complicated the relationship between energy and geo-politics, causing an upsurge of competition.

  7. Internal polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.; Holt, R.J.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Mishnev, S.I.; Nikolenko, D.M.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.A.; Temnykh, A.B.; Toporkov, D.K.; Tsentalovich, E.P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.B. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1989-01-01

    Internal polarized targets offer a number of advantages over external targets. After a brief review of the basic motivation and principles behind internal polarized targets, the technical aspects of the atomic storage cell will be discussed in particular. Sources of depolarization and the means by which their effects can be ameliorated will be described, especially depolarization by the intense magnetic fields arising from the circulating particle beam. The experience of the Argonne Novosibirsk collaboration with the use of a storage cell in a 2 GeV electron storage ring will be the focus of this technical discussion. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  8. The international RESPO network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Winrock International, with sponsorship from the Center for Environment of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), is building a global network of non-governmental organizations to help catalyze the use of renewable energy technologies for rural energy supply in developing countries. Known as the Renewable Energy Project Support Offices (REPSOs), these in-country facilities are managed by local institutions in coordination with Winrock. REPSOs provide an array of technical and financial support services to help developers identify and evaluate opportunities for renewable energy projects.

  9. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  10. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  11. Beredskab eller intern sikkerhed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2012-01-01

    Skal Danmark have en beredskabspolitik eller en politik for intern sikkerhed? Det er et af de spørgsmål, den internationale institutionsudvikling inden for det robuste og sikre samfund stiller til det danske beredskabspolitiske univers. På baggrund af en ekspertpraktikerworkshop beskriver denne...... at anvende den nye robusthedstænkning som basis for en intern sikkerhedsstrategi. Den klassiske helhedsorienterede beredskabsplanlægning som traditionelt har fokuseret på beredskab som noget lokalt forankret gives dermed en ny ramme på europæisk plan. Det har politisk betydning fordi et forøget sagsområde...

  12. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  13. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  14. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  15. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  16. PLASTIC LIMIT LOAD ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE PIPELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenGang; LiuYinghua; XuBingye

    2003-01-01

    The integrity assessment of defective pipelines represents a practically important task of structural analysis and design in various technological areas, such as oil and gas industry, power plant engineering and chemical factories. An iterative algorithm is presented for the kinematic limit analysis of 3-D rigid-perfectly plastic bodies. A numerical path scheme for radial loading is adopted to deal with complex multi-loading systems. The numerical procedure has been applied to carry out the plastic collapse analysis of pipelines with part-through slot under internal pressure, bending moment and axial force. The effects of various shapes and sizes of part-through slots on the collapse loads of pipelines are systematically investigated and evaluated. Some typical failure modes corresponding to different configurations of slots and loading forms are studied.

  17. Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    The usual assumption that vertically propagating internal gravity waves will cease growing with height once their amplitudes are such as to permit convective instability anywhere within the wave is reexamined. Two factors lead to amplitude limitation: (1) wave clipping associated with convective mixing, and (2) energetic constraints associated with the rate at which the wave can supply energy to the convection. It is found that these two factors limit supersaturation to about 50 percent for waves with short horizontal wavelengths and high relative phase speeds. Usually the degree of supersaturation will be much less. These factors also lead to a gradual, rather than sudden, cessation of wave growth with height.

  18. 78 FR 37930 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... the transaction and the potential future exposure (PFE) of the transaction. Under Sec. 32.9(b)(1)(i)(C) of the interim final rule, a bank or savings association must calculate its PFE by using an internal... Conversion Factor Matrix Method, the credit exposure is equal to, and remains fixed at, the PFE of the...

  19. Complications of rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris A; Lin, Kant Y

    2009-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there have been many advances in the development of bone fixation systems used in the practice of craniomaxillofacial surgery. As surgical practices have evolved, the complications of each technologic advance have changed accordingly. Interfragmentary instability of interosseous wiring has been replaced by the risk of exposure, infection, and palpability of plate and screw fixation systems. The improved rigidity of plate fixation requires anatomic alignment of fracture fragments. Failure to obtain proper alignment has led to the phenomenon known as "open internal fixation" of fracture fragments without proper reduction. The size of the plates has decreased to minimize palpability and exposure. However limitations in their application have been encountered due to the physiologic forces of the muscles of mastication and bone healing. In the pediatric population, the long-standing presence of plates in the cranial vault resulted in reports of transcranial migration and growth restriction. These findings led to the development of resorbable plating systems, which are associated with self-limited plate palpability and soft tissue inflammatory reactions. Any rigid system including these produces growth restriction in varying amounts. In this discussion, we review the reported complication rates of miniplating and microplating systems as well as absorptive plating systems in elective and traumatic craniofacial surgery.

  20. International Legislation of Shallow Geothermal Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnlein, S.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change, energy savings and energy autonomy are frequently discussed topics. Hence, renewable energy resources are currently promoted worldwide. One of these is geothermal energy. Worldwide the number of shallow geothermal installations (review the current international legal status of thermal use of groundwater. We present the results of an international survey, which offers comprehensive insight in the worldwide legal situation of closed and open systems of shallow geothermal installations. The focus is on minimum distances of these systems and limits for groundwater temperature changes. We can conclude that there are only few regulations and recommendations for minimum distances of these installations and groundwater temperature changes. Some countries have no regulations and in addition if recommendations are given, these are not legally binding. However, to promote shallow geothermal energy as an economically attractive and sustainable energy source, an international homogeneous legislation is necessary.

  1. Attenuated partial internal reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Ewing, George E

    2002-06-01

    A new method for the spectroscopic study of absorbing films is proposed. In contrast to the well-established methods that take advantage of the attenuation of total internal reflection (ATR) to obtain spectra, we intentionally arrange the optics to permit partial internal reflection from the sampling prism face. Attenuated partial internal reflection (APR) spectroscopy is introduced through theoretical calculations and experimental demonstrations. The calculated APR spectra in the infrared region were generated from the Fresnel and Airy equations. Experimentally, APR spectra of water films on a NaCl prism were obtained. APR is more sensitive than ATR, and can easily distinguish water films at the monolayer level (310 pm). The determination of film thickness from interference fringes in APR spectra is also illustrated. It is shown that APR can be used for film thickness measurements that can span 6 orders of magnitude. The limitations of APR are also discussed.

  2. Perceived Creativity in an International Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Gerd; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Based on the influence of personal, cultural and gender differences, this article deals with the perception of creative images in light of their increasing importance for successful advertising campaigns. The authors conduct a literature review of relevant material on advertising creativity...... with an international perspective. The study will present results of a survey given to international students and young professionals with a cultural background from more than 35 countries. Results indicate that culture has an influence on the perception of advertising creativity, while cultures with a high level...... of power distance are found to be negatively correlated. A methodological contribution is made by applying multiple regression analysis combining research about creativity, personality and international culture. Limitations as well as further research suggestions are discussed....

  3. Perceived Creativity in an International Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Gerd; Hammer, Jens; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Based on the influence of personal, cultural and gender differences, this article deals with the perception of creative images in light of their increasing importance for successful advertising campaigns. The authors conduct a literature review of relevant material on advertising creativity...... with an international perspective. The study will present results of a survey given to international students and young professionals with a cultural background from more than 35 countries. Results indicate that culture has an influence on the perception of advertising creativity, while cultures with a high level...... of power distance are found to be negatively correlated. A methodological contribution is made by applying multiple regression analysis combining research about creativity, personality and international culture. Limitations as well as further research suggestions are discussed....

  4. Technical basis document for internal dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, D P

    1991-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the Chem-Nuclear Geotech (Geotech) internal dosimetry program. Geotech policy describes the intentions of the company in complying with radiation protection standards and the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program. It uses this policy and applicable protection standards to derive acceptable methods and levels of bioassay to assure compliance. The models and computational methods used are described in detail within this document. FR-om these models, dose- conversion factors and derived limits are computed. These computations are then verified using existing documentation and verification information or by demonstration of the calculations used to obtain the dose-conversion factors and derived limits. Recommendations for methods of optimizing the internal dosimetry program to provide effective monitoring and dose assessment for workers are provided in the last section of this document. This document is intended to be used in establishing an accredited dosi...

  5. Physical limits in semiconductor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, R W

    1977-03-18

    Although the limitations of the methods of lithography in use at a particular time are easily recognized and attract substantial attention, experience shows that technological ingenuity keeps pushing them to ever-smaller dimensions. There seems to be no fundamental reason to expect that lithographic limits will not continue to recede. The limits to the advance of miniaturization are to be found in the ability of materials to withstand high electric fields and in the ability of packaging technology to remove heat from active components and provide for power distribution, signal interconnection, and flexible mechanical assembly.

  6. Fundamental Limits of Ultrathin Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    We present universal theoretical limits on the operation and performance of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. In particular, we prove that their local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients are confined to limited regions of the complex plane. As a result, full control over the phase of the light transmitted through such metasurfaces cannot be achieved if the polarization of the light is not to be affected at the same time. We also establish fundamental limits on the maximum polarization conversion efficiency of these metasurfaces, and show that they cannot achieve more than 25% polarization conversion efficiency in transmission.

  7. INTERNATIONAL DATA ARCHIVE AND ANALYSIS CENTER. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ARCHIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Relations Archive undertakes as its primary goal the acquisition, management and dissemination of international affairs data. This...goal necessitates direct interaction between the International Relations Archive staff and the academic community to ensure more adequate standards...contains two documents. The first document is the latest version of the memorandum, ’Data Holdings and Servicing Policies, International Relations Archive

  8. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  9. Shadow Banking – International and Domestic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Manalo; Kate McLoughlin; Carl Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    One of the lessons from the global financial crisis is that systemic risk to the financial system can arise from outside the regular banking system, in so-called ‘shadow banking’. This article reviews post-crisis international and domestic trends in shadow banking, and regulatory efforts to better understand and address potential risks that may arise. In Australia, systemic risks arising from shadow banking appear limited given its relatively small size and minimal links to the banking system...

  10. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  11. Internal displacement in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjouw, S; Mortimer, G; Bamforth, V

    2000-09-01

    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced.

  12. International Outreach from Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, John

    1980-01-01

    Programs at Western Kentucky University including undergraduate curricula in Latin-American and Asian studies, technical assistance projects overseas, student and faculty exchange programs, seminars and workshops, and community activities are described. "Friendship teams" (a faculty advisor, four international students, and an American…

  13. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  14. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  15. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  16. When managerialism meets internationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dykmann, Klaas; Lewis, Jenny; Bentzen, Sune Raahede

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether reform ideas that gained influence in national-level bureaucracies in the 1970s were also on the United Nations’ internal agenda. The Joint Inspection Unit (Bertrand) Report of 1971 is the focus of this analysis, as it addressed personnel problems in the UN Secretariat...

  17. Introducing International Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Geneva is variously known as the city of peace, the world’s smallest metropolis and a place where great ideas have taken form. It has been the home to philosophers such as Rousseau and Voltaire. It was the centre of the Calvinist reformation and birthplace of the Red Cross.   I hardly need to tell you that it is also a city of great international collaboration in science. Little wonder, then, that over the years, Geneva has developed into the world’s capital of internationalism in the broadest sense of the word. Yet while we all know of the existence of modern day International Geneva, how many of us really know what it does? Here at CERN, we’re about to find out. Next week sees the first in a series of talks at the Laboratory from the heads of some of the institutions that make up International Geneva. On Friday, 20 February, it will be my pleasure to introduce you to Michael Møller, Acting Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNO...

  18. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  19. International Foundry Forum 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Foundry Forum is a "Summit"of the Foundry World. It is the convention of the CEO world wide, of important casting users, ferrous and non-ferrous foundries as well as foundry equipment and consumable suppliers. Their overall goal is to increase the market opportunities for metal castings in competition with other processes and products in a global business environment.

  20. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.