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Sample records for sandy loam time

  1. Effect of Application of Increasing Concentrations of Contaminated Water on the Different Fractions of Cu and Co in Sandy Loam and Clay Loam Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Volk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the fate of copper (Cu and cobalt (Co in sandy loam and clay loam soils that had been irrigated with increasing concentrations of contaminated water. A sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the fractions of Cu and Co in these soils. The concentration of bioavailable Cu and Co on clay loam was 1.7 times that of sandy loam soil. Cu on sandy loam soil was largely in the organic > residual > exchangeable > water-soluble > carbonate fractions, whereas on clay loam soil the element was largely in organic > exchangeable > residual > carbonate > water-soluble fractions. Co was largely observed in the exchangeable, water-soluble, and carbonate fractions, but with no particular trend observed in both soil types. When crops are grown on sandy soils that have a low capacity to hold heavy metals, the resulting effect would be high uptake of the heavy metals in crop plants. Because the predominant forms of Cu and Co vary in soils, it is expected that the metals will behave differently in the soils.

  2. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE SANDY LOAM ON SULFURIC SOIL ACIDITY AND SULFIDIC SOIL OXIDATION

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    Patrick S. Michael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  In poor soils, addition of alkaline sandy loam containing an adequate proportion of sand, silt and clay would add value by improving the texture, structure and organic matter (OM for general use of the soils. In acid sulfate soils (ASS, addition of alkaline sandy would improve the texture and leach out salts as well as add a sufficient proportion of OM for vegetation establishment. In this study, addition of alkaline sandy loam into sulfuric soil effectively increased the pH, lowered the redox and reduced the sulfate content, the magnitude of the effects dependent on moisture content. Addition of alkaline sandy loam in combination with OM was highly effective than the effects of the lone alkaline sandy loam. When alkaline sandy was added alone or in combination with OM into sulfidic soil, the effects on pH and the redox were similar as in the sulfuric soil but the effect on sulfate content was variable. The effects under aerobic conditions were higher than under anaerobic conditions. The findings of this study have important implications for the general management of ASS where lime availability is a concern and its application is limited.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 42-54

  3. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    for each rotation: mouldboard ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (MP); harrowing to a depth of 8–10 cm (H); and direct drilling (D) at two experimental sites with a sandy loam soil and different water budgets in Denmark. The Muencheberg soil quality rating (M-SQR) method and simpler soil quality indices (i...

  4. [Effects of Different Residue Part Inputs of Corn Straws on CO2 Efflux and Microbial Biomass in Clay Loam and Sandy Loam Black Soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-yi; Liang, Ai-zhen; Yang, Xue-ming; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Jia, Shu-xia; Chen, Xue-wen; Zhang, Shi-xiu; Sun, Bing-jie; Chen, Sheng-long

    2015-07-01

    The decomposed rate of crop residues is a major determinant for carbon balance and nutrient cycling in agroecosystem. In this study, a constant temperature incubation study was conducted to evaluate CO2 emission and microbial biomass based on four different parts of corn straw (roots, lower stem, upper stem and leaves) and two soils with different textures (sandy loam and clay loam) from the black soil region. The relationships between soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass and the ratio of carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) and lignin of corn residues were analyzed by the linear regression. Results showed that the production of CO2 was increased with the addition of different parts of corn straw to soil, with the value of priming effect (PE) ranged from 215. 53 µmol . g-1 to 335. 17 µmol . g -1. Except for corn leaves, the cumulative CO2 production and PE of clay loam soil were significantly higher than those in sandy loam soil. The correlation of PE with lignin/N was obviously more significant than that with lignin concentration, nitrogen concentration and C/N of corn residue. The addition of corn straw to soil increased the contents of MBC and MBN and decreased MBC/MBN, which suggested that more nitrogen rather than carbon was conserved in microbial community. The augmenter of microbial biomass in sandy loam soil was greater than that in clay loam soil, but the total dissolved nitrogen was lower. Our results indicated that the differences in CO2 emission with the addition of residues to soils were primarily ascribe to the different lignin/N ratio in different corn parts; and the corn residues added into the sandy loam soil could enhance carbon sequestration, microbial biomass and nitrogen holding ability relative to clay loam soil.

  5. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FOLSOMIA CANDIDA IN A NATURAL SANDY LOAM SOIL ECBC-TR-1272 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini Jan E...SUBTITLE Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) Folsomia candida octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) 2,6-dinitrotoluene

  6. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Bruun, Esben; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    of wood-based biochar on soil respiration, water contents, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), arylsulfatase activity (ASA), and crop yields at two temperate sandy loam soils under realistic field conditions. In situ soil respiration, PAO, and ASA were not significantly different in quadruplicate field......, it was found that soil pH, rather than biochar rates, was a driving environmental variable. For ASA, the methodological approach was challenged by product sorption, but results did not suggest that biochar significantly stimulated the enzyme activity. Crop yields of maize in field experiments with 10–100 Mg...

  7. Imazaquin degradation and metabolism in a sandy loam soil amended with farm litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Imazaquin applied in legume crops has a long residual time in soil,which often impacts safety of the susceptible crops.To increase safety of imazaquin application,two composted litters,bovine manure (BM) and chicken manure (CM),were used to determine their effects on imazaquin environmental behavior by incorporating each kind of manure into the tested sandy loam soil at 10% (w/w).The degradation of imazaquin in BM- and CM-amended soil was about 2.4 and 1.5 times,respectively,faster than that in unamended soil.The half-lives of imazaquin in BM-amended soil varied between 6.7 and 15.4 d over the temperature range of 20 to 40℃,and the degradation rate constant (k) increased by a factor of about 1.5 for every 10℃ change.Higher mix ratio did not significantly increase the degradation,and the optimal active degradation of imazaquin was observed approximately at the mix ratio of 10:1 of soil to BM.The different moisture levels had negligible effect on imazaquin degradation.In both unamended and BM-amended treatments.two metabolites were observed at 5,10 and 30 d after treatment.One metabolite at retention time (RT) of 8.4 min was identified as 2-(4-hydroxyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-y1) quinoline acid,originating from the loss of isopropyl group and hydroxylation at the 4-position of imidazolinone ring.The other at RT of 12.9 min was identified as quinolinc-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride,resulting from detachment of imidazolinone ring and the forming of dicarboxylic anhydride.This finding suggested that the addition of farm litters into soil might be a good management option since it can not only increase soil fertility but also contribute to increase safety of imazaquin application to the following susceptible crops.

  8. Assessment of Fate of Thiodicarb Pesticide in Sandy Clay Loam Soil

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    M. A. Bajeer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study the fate of thiodicarb pesticide in sandy clay loam soil was investigated through its adsorption and leaching using HPLC. Experimental results revealed that thiodicarb follows first order kinetic with rate constant value of 0.711 h-1 and equilibrium study showed that Freundlich model was best fitted with multilayer adsorption capacity 3.749 mol/g and adsorption intensity 1.009. Therefore, adsorption of thiodicarb was multilayer, reversible and non-ideal. Leaching study has indicated intermediate mobility of thiodicarb with water due to its solubility, while field study showed the non-leacher nature. However both adsorption and leaching were heavily affected by soil characteristics. As the soil taken was sandy clay loam hence due to clay texture adsorption was higher because of vacant sites existing and greater surface area. For this the pesticide has remained adsorbed in above 20 cm soil layer as clearly seen from field study, minor amount was recorded in third layer of soil having 21-30 cm depth. The leached amount of thiodicarb in first and last part of water was 1.075 and 0.003 ng/µl. The general trend observed for adsorption in column and field soil was decreased downwards from 2.027 to 0.618 and 5.079 to 0.009 ng/µl.

  9. Effect of Corn Residue Biochar on the Hydraulic Properties of Sandy Loam Soil

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    Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has an ability to alter the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil due to its physicochemical properties such as surface area, porosity, nutrient retention ability, available nutrient contents, aromaticity, etc. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of physical properties and application rate of biochar on the hydraulic properties of a sandy loam soil in the short term. Biochar was produced at 500 °C from dried corn residue (BC500. The BC500 was incorporated at the rates of 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10% (w·w−1 into the sandy loam soil and filled up to a height of 4 cm, in cores having 5 cm diameter and height. Each treatment was performed in triplicate and equilibrated for 30 days. Then saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat, water holding capacity (WHC, and bulk density were determined in each sample after four days of saturation at room temperature in a water bath. The BC500 particle size distribution, pores, and surface functional groups were assessed. The Ksat exhibited a highly significant exponential reduction from 0% to 7.5% of BC500 application and approached an asymptote at 10% BC500. Bulk density showed a significant negative correlation to biochar application rate. The WHC and BC500 application rate illustrated a strong positive relationship. Biochar surface was free from hydrophobic functional groups. The addition of BC500 has a positive influence on soil hydraulic properties, primarily due to the increased soil porosity. The BC500 is composed of a microporous structure and hydrophilic surface that retain water in sandy textured soils. The application of BC500 would be a wise investment to maximize the water use efficiency in soils for agricultural production.

  10. Pore structure characteristics after two years biochar application to a sandy loam field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Arthur, Emmanuel; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2015-01-01

    Soil pore structure comprises the size and shape of soil pores and has a major impact on water retention and gas movement. The porous nature of biochar suggests that its application to soil can potentially alter soil pore structure characteristics, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate...... the effects of birch wood biochar (20, 40, and 100 Mg ha−1) applied to a sandy loam on soil total porosity and pore structure indices. Bulk and intact soil samples were collected for physicochemical analyses and water retention and gas diffusivity measurements between pF 1.0 and pF 3.0. Biochar application...... reduced bulk density and increased total porosity especially for soil with 100 Mg ha−1 biochar (16% and 14% reduction in bulk density and total porosity, respectively). Biochar application of more than 20 Mg ha−1 enhanced water retention, and the trend increased with increasing biochar application rate...

  11. A Bioassay Technique to Study Clomazone Residues in Sandy Loam Soil

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    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay test was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley toclomazone residues in sandy loam soil. Clomazone was applied at different rates from 0.12 to12 mg a.i./kg of soil. The parameters measured 14 days after treatment were: shoot height, freshand dry weight, and content of pigments (carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Theresults showed that the lowest clomazone concentration caused a significant reduction in allmeasured parameters for barley and sunflower shoots. Fresh weight of maize shoots was notsensitive to clomazone residual activity in soil while the other parameters were highly inhibited.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  12. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    properties of soils, especially on water retention at low matric potentials. To overcome this knowledge gap, the effects of combined BC (0 to 100 Mg ha-1) and manure (21 and 42 Mg ha-1) applications on water vapor sorption and specific surface area was investigated for a sandy loam soil. In addition......, potential impacts of BC aging were evaluated. All considered BC-amendment rates led to a distinct increase of water retention, especially for low matric potentials. The observed increases were attributed to a significant increase of soil organic matter contents and specific surface areas in BCamended soils......Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical...

  13. The fate of fresh and stored 15N-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to a sandy and a sandy loam soil using different application strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    .), or it was applied to ryegrass one month after sowing. In a sandy loam soil, 62% of the incorporated urine N and 78% of the incorporated urea N was recovered in three cuts of herbage after 5 months. In a sandy soil, 51-53% of the labelled N was recovered in the herbage and the distribution of labelled N in plant...... and soil was not significantly different for incorporated urine and urea. Almost all the supplied labelled N was accounted for in soil and herbage in the sandy loam soil, whereas 33-34% of the labelled N was unaccounted for in the sandy soil. When the stored urine was applied to the soil surface, 20...... unaccounted for was probably mainly lost by ammonia volatilization. Significantly more urine- than urea-derived N (36 and 19%, respectively) was immobilized in the sandy loam soil, whereas the immobilization of N from urea and urine was similar in the sandy soil (13-16%). The distribution of urine N, whether...

  14. Leaching and ponding of viral contaminants following land application of biosolids on sandy-loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Harrigan, Tim; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-12-15

    Much of the land available for application of biosolids is cropland near urban areas. Biosolids are often applied on hay or grassland during the growing season or on corn ground before planting or after harvest in the fall. In this study, mesophilic anaerobic digested (MAD) biosolids were applied at 56,000 L/ha on a sandy-loam soil over large containment lysimeters seeded to perennial covers of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), or planted annually to maize (Zea mays L.). Portable rainfall simulators were to maintain the lysimeters under a nearly saturated (90%, volumetric basis) conditions. Lysimeter leachate and surface ponded water samples were collected and analyzed for somatic phage, adenoviruses, and anionic (chloride) and microbial (P-22 bacteriophage) tracers. Neither adenovirus nor somatic phage was recovered from the leachate samples. P-22 bacteriophage was found in the leachate of three lysimeters (removal rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.2 log(10)/m). Although the peak of the anionic tracer breakthrough occurred at a similar pore volume in each lysimeter (around 0.3 pore volume) the peak of P-22 breakthrough varied between lysimeters (worm holes or other natural phenomena. The concentration of viral contaminants collected in ponded surface water ranged from 1 to 10% of the initial concentration in the applied biosolids. The die off of somatic phage and P-22 in the surface water was fit to a first order decay model and somatic phage reached background level at about day ten. In conclusion, sandy-loam soils can effectively remove/adsorb the indigenous viruses leached from the land-applied biosolids, but there is a potential of viral pollution from runoff following significant rainfall events when biosolids remain on the soil surface.

  15. Response of the microbial community to copper oxychloride in acidic sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, K R; Botha, A; Joubert, L; Bester, R; Conradie, W J; Wolfaardt, G M

    2005-01-01

    Determining the response of different microbial parameters to copper oxychloride in acidic sandy loam soil samples using cultivation-dependent and direct microscopic techniques. Culturable microbial populations were monitored for 245 days in a series of soil microcosms spiked with different copper oxychloride concentrations. Microbial populations responded differently to additional Cu. Protistan numbers and soil metabolic potential decreased. Experiments with more soil samples revealed that metabolic potential was not significantly affected by protista was noted in soil containing only 15 mg kg(-1) EDTA-extractable Cu. The negative impact on protistan numbers was less severe in soils with a higher phosphorous and zinc content. Bacterial populations responded differently, and protista were most sensitive to elevated Cu levels. Protistan numbers in soil from uncultivated land were higher and seemed to be more sensitive to additional Cu than the numbers of these organisms in soil originating from cultivated land. Protistan sensitivity to small increases in Cu levels demonstrates the vulnerability of the soil ecosystem to Cu perturbations, especially when the importance of protista as link in the flow of energy between trophic levels is considered.

  16. Characterisation of phosphate solubilising bacteria in sandy loam soil under chickpea cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Machiavelli; Tejo Prakash, N

    2012-06-01

    With the aim to explore the possible role of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in phosphorus (P) cycling in agricultural soils, we isolated PSB inhabiting naturally in the sandy loam soils under chickpea cropping of Patiala (Punjab State). A total of 31 bacterial isolates showing solubilizing activities were isolated on Pikovskaya agar plates. The potent phosphate solubilizers were selected for further characterization. These isolates were shown to belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Serratia by partial sequencing analysis of their respective 16S rDNA genes. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting was done for tracking the survival of introduced populations of the PSB during mass inoculation of these strains under chickpea plots. The results showed positive correlation (r(2) = 0.853) among soil phosphatase activity and phosphate solubilizers population, which was also positively correlated (r(2) = 0.730) to available phosphorus. Identification and characterization of soil PSB for the effective plant growth-promotion broadens the spectrum of phosphate solubilizers available for field application.

  17. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nitroglycerin in a natural sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Savard, Kathleen; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2011-11-15

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is widely used for the production of explosives and solid propellants, and is a soil contaminant of concern at some military training ranges. NG phytotoxicity data reported in the literature cannot be applied directly to development of ecotoxicological benchmarks for plant exposures in soil because they were determined in studies using hydroponic media, cell cultures, and transgenic plants. Toxicities of NG in the present studies were evaluated for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to NG in Sassafras sandy loam soil. Uptake and degradation of NG were also evaluated in ryegrass. The median effective concentration values for shoot growth ranged from 40 to 231 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG freshly amended in soil, and from 23 to 185 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG weathered-and-aged in soil. Weathering-and-aging NG in soil did not significantly affect the toxicity based on 95% confidence intervals for either seedling emergence or plant growth endpoints. Uptake studies revealed that NG was not accumulated in ryegrass but was transformed into dinitroglycerin in the soil and roots, and was subsequently translocated into the ryegrass shoots. The highest bioconcentration factors for dinitroglycerin of 685 and 40 were determined for roots and shoots, respectively. Results of these studies will improve our understanding of toxicity and bioconcentration of NG in terrestrial plants and will contribute to ecological risk assessment of NG-contaminated sites.

  18. Retention and transport of mecoprop on acid sandy-loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo Núñez, Remigio; Conde Cid, Manuel; Abad, Elodie Martin; Fernández Calviño, David; Nóvoa Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias Estévez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Interaction with soil components is one of the key processes governing the fate of agrochemicals in the environment. In this work, we have studied the adsorption/desorption and transport of mecoprop in four acid sandy-loam soils with different organic matter contents. Kinetics of adsorption and adsorption/desorption at equilibrium have been studied in batch experiments, whereas transport was studied in laboratory columns. Adsorption and desorption are linear or nearly-linear. The kinetics of mecoprop adsorption are relatively fast in all cases (less than 24 h). Adsorption and desorption were adequately described by the linear and Freundlich models, with KF values that ranged from 0.7 to 8.8 Ln µmol1-n kg-1 and KD values from 0.3 to 3.6 L kg-1. High desorption percentages (>50%) were found, indicative of a high reversibility of the adsorption process. The results of the transport experiments showed that the retention of mecoprop by soil was very low (less than 6.2%). The retention of mecoprop by the soils in all experiments increased with organic matter content. Overall, it was observed that mecoprop was weakly adsorbed by the soils, what would result in a high risk of leaching of this compound.

  19. Influence of tebuconazole and copper hydroxide on phosphatase and urease activities in red sandy loam and black clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    B. Anuradha; Rekhapadmini, A.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of two selected fungicides i.e., tebuconazole and coppoer hydroxide, was conducted experiments in laboratory and copper hydroxide on the two specific enzymes phosphatase and urease were determined in two different soil samples (red sandy loam and black clay soils) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from cultivated fields of Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh. The activities of the selected soil enzymes were determined by incubating the selected fungicides-treated (1.0, 2.5, 5....

  20. Studies on amendment of different biopolymers in sandy loam and their effect on germination, seedling growth of Gossypium herbaceum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish Vitthalrao; Salunke, B K; Patil, C D; Salunkhe, R B

    2011-03-01

    Different biopolymers, agar, cellulose, alginate, psyllium gaur gum, and bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) powders were amended to check their efficacy in enhancing maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), permanent wilting point (PWP), and germination and seedling growth of the Gossypium herbaceum in a laboratory scale. The efficacy of all biopolymers for enhancement of MWHC, PWP, and growth was also analyzed by measuring organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, respiration rate, and microflora in amended and control sandy loams. The range of concentrations (0.2-2%) of all biopolymers was incorporated in sandy loam containing pots. The soil without polymer was considered as control. The psyllium (0.6%) and bacterial EPS (1%) amended soil has 242 and 233% increase in MWHC and thus delaying in the permanent wilting point by 108 and 84 h at 37 °C, respectively, as compared to control. All biopolymers found to increase more or less MWHC, organic matter, total nitrogen, microflora, and PWP as compared to control. The psyllium and bacterial EPS show the highest increase organic matter, biomass, and microflora. The highest reduction in MWHC after 12 weeks were observed in cellulose, gaur gum, and alginate; besides, psyllium, bacterial EPS, and agar showed comparatively less reduction MWHC, i.e., 24% and 14.5%, respectively. The toxicity studies of biopolymer were carried out on earthworm (Eisenia foetida). It revealed their nontoxic nature. The biopolymer amendment in sandy loam can be an effective strategy to improved soil texture, fertility, and thereby crop yield.

  1. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  2. Transport and Retention of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Loamy Sand and Sandy Loam Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, E. N.; Korte, C.; L'Ollivier, C.; Dubey, J. P.; Aurélien, D.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasites affecting warm-blooded animals and humans. It has a complex life cycle that involves a wide variety of intermediate hosts with felids as a definitive host. Humans may contract it through consumption of infected, undercooked meat or by water or food sources contaminated with the oocyst form of the parasite. Infection of pregnant women can cause stillbirth, neurological effects or blindness. Because of the prevalence of cats, including on farms where oocyst-contaminated cat feces, animal feed, soil and water have been found, T. gondii is spread almost throughout the entire globe. It has been implicated or suspected in waterborne infections since the 1990s. This study aims to characterize the transport and retention of T. gondii oocysts in field soils. The four soils used were collected from fallow and cultivated fields in Illinois and Utah, USA. They are classified as loamy sands and sandy loams. Soil columns were subjected to continuous artificial rainfall until they reached steady state at which point pulses that included 2.5 million T. gondii oocysts (Me49 strain) and KBr as a tracer were added. After the pulse infiltrated, continuous rainfall was resumed. Rain applied all columns was a 1 mM KCl solution. Leachate samples were collected, analyzed using qPCR for T. gondii and bromide ions and breakthrough curves were produced. Soil was sliced into 1 to 2 cm sections, for which water content and T. gondii concentration were measured to access degree of saturation and oocyst retention.

  3. Biochar effects on wet and dry regions of the soil water retention curve of a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Moldrup, Per; Sun, Zhencai;

    2014-01-01

    Reported beneficial effects of biochar on soil physical properties and processes include decreased soil density, and increased soil water transport, water holding capacity and retention (mainly for the wet region). Research is limited on biochar effects on the full soil water retention curve (wet...... and dry regions) for a given soil and biochar amendment scenarios. This study evaluates how biochar applied to a sandy loam field at rates from 0 to 50 Mg ha−1 yr–1 in 2011, 2012, or both years (2011+2012) influences the full water retention curve. Inorganic fertilizer and pig slurry were added to all...... region-water retention curve increased with increasing biochar rates....

  4. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: I. Soil physical properties and topsoil carbon content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    experiments were conducted in 11- to 12-yr-old experiments on two Danish sandy loams at Foulum and Flakkebjerg. Three crop rotations/residue management treatments were compared and tillage was included as a splitplot factor. The tillage systems were moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm (MP), direct drilling...... their important role in soil structure formation and stabilization. Our study showed benefits of combining key CA elements, although longer-term studies are most likely needed to reveal the full potential....

  5. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY-SODICITY AND GLYPHOSATE FORMULATIONS – AVANS PREMIUM 360 SL ON PHOSPHOMONOESTERASE ACTIVITIES IN SANDY LOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the influence of NaCl and glyphosate-based herbicide Avans Premium 360 SL on acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities in sandy loam. The experiment was carried out in laboratory conditions on sandy loam with Corg content 10.90 g/kg. Soil was divided into half kilogram samples and adjusted to 60% of maximum water holding capacity. In the experiment dependent variables were: I – dosages of Avans Premium 360 SL (0, a recommended field dosage – FD, a tenfold higher dosage – 10 FD and hundredfold higher dosage – 100 FD, II – amount of NaCl (0, 3% and 6%, III – day of experiment (1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. On days of experiment the activity of alkaline and acid phosphomonoesterase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. The obtained result showed that the application of Avans Premium 360 SL decreased in acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activity in clay soil. Significant interaction effect between the dosage of Avans Premium 360 SL, NaCl amount and day of experiment was reported in the experiment. The inhibitory effect of Avans Premium 360 SL was the highest in soil with NaCl at the amount of 6%.

  6. Seasonal fluctuations in water repellency and infiltration in a sandy loam soil after a forest fire in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Alleres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze, after a wildfire of moderate severity, the temporal fluctuations in water repellency and infiltration in a sandy loam soil under a mixed plantation of pine and eucalyptus and the comparison with an adjacent area not affected by the fire. In the burnt area and in a neighboring area not affected by the fire were collected during one year (1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 months after the fire 10 soil samples along a transect of 18 m at four depths: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. Soil water repellency was determined using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT test and the infiltration was measured with a mini-disc infiltrometer (pressure head h0 = -2 cm.The results show a temporal pattern of soil water repellency in the burnt and unburnt areas. Significant correlations between water repellency and soil moisture were observed, with higher correlation coefficients in the unburned area and in the surface soil layer.Soil water infiltration was significantly lower than would be expected by the coarse texture of the soil in both burnt and unburnt areas. Temporal fluctuations in unburnt soil infiltration seem to be clearly related to the transient nature of the soil water repellency, with no infiltration in samples extremely repellent. In the burned area, the soil infiltration showed much more variability and temporal fluctuations appear to be less dependent on the persistence of water repellency and more dependent on environmental conditions.The unburnt area show significant and negative correlations of soil water repellency with hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity and positive of these two parameters with soil moisture. These relationships were not observed in the burnt area. The temporal fluctuations of soil water repellency have an evident impact on soil infiltration and seem to be more influent than the effects of fire.

  7. Direct and Indirect Short-term Effects of Biochar on Physical Characteristics of an Arable Sandy Loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Moldrup, Per; Elsgaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil is reported in several studies to reduce climate gas emissions, boost carbon storage, and improve soil fertility and crop productivity. These effects may be partly related to soil physical changes resulting from biochar amendment, but knowledge of how biochar...... application mechanistically affects soil physical characteristics is limited. This study investigated the effect of biochar application on soil structural and functional properties, including specific surface area, water retention, and gas transport parameters. Intact soil cores were taken from a field...... experiment on an arable sandy loam that included four reference plots without biochar and four plots with 20 tons ha(-1) biochar incorporated into the upper 20 cm 7 months before sampling. Water retention was measured at matric potentials ranging from wet (pF 1.0) to extremely dry conditions (pF similar to 6...

  8. Soil water retention, air flow and pore structure characteristics after corn cob biochar application to a tropical sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Frimpong, Kwame Agyei; Okae-Anti, D

    2017-01-01

    Soil structure is a key soil physical property that affects soil water balance, gas transport, plant growth and development, and ultimately plant yield. Biochar has received global recognition as a soil amendment with the potential to ameliorate the structure of degraded soils. We investigated how...... corn cob biochar contributed to changes in soil water retention, air flow by convection and diffusion, and derived soil structure indices in a tropical sandy loam. Intact soil cores were taken from a field experiment that had plots without biochar (CT), and plots each with 10 t ha− 1 (BC-10), 20 t ha...... to significant increase in soil water retention compared to the CT and BC-10 as a result of increased microporosity (pores biochar had minimal impact. No significant influence of biochar was observed for ka and Dp/D0 for the BC treatments compared to the CT despite...

  9. Biochar effects on wet and dry regions of the soil water retention curve of a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Moldrup, Per; Sun, Zhencai

    2014-01-01

    Reported beneficial effects of biochar on soil physical properties and processes include decreased soil density, and increased soil water transport, water holding capacity and retention (mainly for the wet region). Research is limited on biochar effects on the full soil water retention curve (wet...... and dry regions) for a given soil and biochar amendment scenarios. This study evaluates how biochar applied to a sandy loam field at rates from 0 to 50 Mg ha−1 yr–1 in 2011, 2012, or both years (2011+2012) influences the full water retention curve. Inorganic fertilizer and pig slurry were added to all...... treatments. Six months after the last biochar application, intact and disturbed soil samples were collected for analyses. Soil water retention was measured from −1 kPa to −100 kPa using tension tables and ceramic plates and from −10 MPa to −480 MPa using a Vapor Sorption Analyzer. Soil specific area...

  10. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system.

  11. Seasonal differences in tillage draught on a sandy loam soil with long-term additions of animal manure and mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nyord, T.; Christensen, B.T.;

    2016-01-01

    Energy requirements for soil tillage are closely linked to soil properties, such as clay, water and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. Long-term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments affects SOC content but little is known about seasonal differences in tillage draught...... requirements of soils subject to contrasting nutrient management regimes. We assessed autumn and spring tillage draught following harvest of early-sown and timely sown winter wheat grown on a sandy loam in the Askov Long-Term Experiment on Animal Manure and Mineral Fertilizers. Draught force was related...... to soil texture, soil water and SOC content, shear strength and bulk density, nutrient management, and yield of the preceding winter wheat. Contents of clay and SOC ranged from 8.9 to 10.6% and from 0.98 to 1.36%, respectively. In the autumn and spring, SOC normalized by clay content explained 38 and 5...

  12. Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandyk Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers (the upper and the lower, as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

  13. Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of biochar on the soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on physicochemical properties and CO2 emissions of a sandy loam soil. For this purpose, soil was amended with three different biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt% and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results show a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related to different biochar properties such as carbon content, carbon aromaticity, volatile matter, fixed carbon, easily oxidized organic carbon or metal and phenolic substance content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  14. Field performance of nine soil water content sensors on a sandy loam soil in new brunswick, maritime region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r(2) of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r(2) of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  15. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Stevens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917, and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  16. Influence of tebuconazole and copper hydroxide on phosphatase and urease activities in red sandy loam and black clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, B; Rekhapadmini, A; Rangaswamy, V

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of two selected fungicides i.e., tebuconazole and coppoer hydroxide, was conducted experiments in laboratory and copper hydroxide on the two specific enzymes phosphatase and urease were determined in two different soil samples (red sandy loam and black clay soils) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from cultivated fields of Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh. The activities of the selected soil enzymes were determined by incubating the selected fungicides-treated (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg ha(-1)) and -untreated groundnut soil samples at 10 day intervals. By determining the effective concentration, the rate of selected enzyme activity was estimated by adding the suitable substrate at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of soil incubation. Both the enzyme activities were increased up to 5.0 kg ha(-1) level of fungicide in both soil samples significantly at 10 days of soil incubation and further enhanced up to 20 days of incubation. The activity of the phosphatase and urease decreased progressively at 30 and 40 days of incubation. From overall studies, higher concentrations (7.5 and 10.0 kg ha(-1)) of both tebuconazole and copper hydroxide were toxic to phosphatase and urease activities, respectively, in both soil samples.

  17. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lu

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant straw in absence (BC0 and presence (BCN of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05, and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than DOC in biochar (1.75% and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05 increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+ bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G- bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

  18. Evaluation of Soil Quality Indicators in Sugarcane Management in Sandy Loam Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A.C.SANT'ANNA; M.F.FERNANDES; W.M.P.M.IVO; J.L.S.COSTA

    2009-01-01

    An important factor for the sustainability of soils highly susceptible to degradation is the use of monitoring tools that promptly and realistically reflect changes imposed on soil by different cropping systems.To select soil quality indicator variables in sugarcane (Saccharum offcinarum L.) production areas that fulfill the criteria of sensitivity to management practices and between-season consistency in the management discrimination,ten composite soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in July 2005 (rainy season) and again in March 2006 (dry season) from areas under cultivation of organic sugarcane (OS),green sugarcane (GS),burned sugarcane (BS) and from an adjacent native forest (NF) area at Usina Triunfo,Boca da Mata,Alagoas,Brazil.Microbial biomass-C (MBC),total organic C (TOC),soil enzyme activity expressed as the rate of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis,mean weight diameter of water-stable soil aggregates (MWD),and percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (PWSA) were analyzed.Although MBC and TOC were higher in NF than in the cultivated areas,no differences were observed in these C pools between the three sugarcane systems.The response of FDA to the site management was dependent on the sampling time.In the rainy period,the activity followed the order:NF > OS > GS > BS,whereas in the dry season,only NF differed from the other treatments.Irrespective of the sampling time,MWD and PWSA decreased in the order NF > OS = GS > BS.The variables MWD and PWSA are quite sensitive for discriminating between site management histories regardless the sampling season.

  19. Effect of silver nano-particles on soil microbial growth, activity and community diversity in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, A D; Velicogna, J R; Princz, J I; Subasinghe, R M; Scroggins, R P; Beaudette, L A

    2017-01-01

    Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are widely used in a range of consumer products as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Given the broad spectrum of uses, AgNPs have the potential for being released to the environment. As a result, environmental risks associated with AgNPs need to be assessed to aid in the development of regulatory guidelines. Research was performed to assess the effects of AgNPs on soil microbial activity and diversity in a sandy loam soil with an emphasis on using a battery of microbial tests involving multiple endpoints. The test soil was spiked with PVP coated (0.3%) AgNPs at the following concentrations of 49, 124, 287, 723 and 1815 mg Ag kg(-1) dry soil. Test controls included an un-amended soil; soil amended with PVP equivalent to the highest PVP concentration of the coated AgNP; and soil amended with humic acid, as 1.8% humic acid was used as a suspension agent for the AgNPs. The impact on soil microbial community was assessed using an array of tests including heterotrophic plate counting, microbial respiration, organic matter decomposition, soil enzyme activity, biological nitrification, community level physiological profiling (CLPP), Ion Torrent™ DNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). An impact on microbial growth, activity and community diversity was evident from 49 to 1815 mg kg(-1) with the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) as low as 20-31 mg kg(-1) depending on the test. AgNP showed a notable impact on microbial functional and genomic diversity. Emergence of a silver tolerant bacterium was observed at AgNP concentrations of 49-287 mg kg(-1) after 14-28 days of incubation, but not detectable at 723 and 1815 mg kg(-1). The bacterium was identified as Rhodanobacter sp. The study highlighted the effectiveness of using multiple microbial endpoints for inclusion to the environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  20. Effect of rainfall and tillage direction on the evolution of surface crusts, soil hydraulic properties and runoff generation for a sandy loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Babacar; Esteves, Michel; Vandervaere, Jean-Pierre; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Vauclin, Michel

    2005-06-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of rainfall and tillage-induced soil surface characteristics on infiltration and runoff on a 2.8 ha catchment located in the central region of Senegal. This was done by simulating 30 min rain storms applied at a constant rate of about 70 mm h -1, on 10 runoff micro-plots of 1 m 2, five being freshly harrowed perpendicularly to the slope and five along the slope (1%) of the catchment. Runoff was automatically recorded at the outlet of each plot. Hydraulic properties such as capillary sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity of the sandy loam soil close to saturation were determined by running 48 infiltration tests with a tension disc infiltrometer. That allowed the calculation of a mean characteristic pore size hydraulically active and a time to ponding. Superficial water storage capacity was estimated using data collected with an electronic relief meter. Because the soil was subject to surface crusting, crust-types as well as their spatial distribution within micro-plots and their evolution with time were identified and monitored by taking photographs at different times after tillage. The results showed that the surface crust-types as well as their tillage dependent dynamics greatly explain the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity as the cumulative rainfall since tillage increases. The exponential decaying rates were found to be significantly greater for the soil harrowed along the slope (where the runoff crust-type covers more than 60% of the surface after 140 mm of rain) than across to the slope (where crusts are mainly of structural (60%) and erosion (40%) types). That makes ponding time smaller and runoff more important. Also it was shown that soil hydraulic properties after about 160 mm of rain were close to those of untilled plot not submitted to any rain. That indicates that the effects of tillage are short lived.

  1. Sorption/desorption of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(4,4'-DDT) on a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Ziya; Cutright, Teresa J

    2015-02-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(4,4'-DDT) is a pesticide well-known for its negative health and environmental effects. Despite being banned by a majority of world countries more than 30 years ago, its persistence in the environment is a continuing problem even today. The objective of the study was the investigation of sorption/desorption behavior of 4,4'-DDT in sandy loam soil. The impact of contaminant concentration and age was observed with three different experiments. The sorption percentages at the end of the short time step (8 h) were 50 and 92 %, for initial concentrations 2.26 and 5.28 mg/L, respectively. When freshly spiked soil was subjected to a conventional sorption study, 82 to 99.6 % of the initial aqueous DDT concentrations were sorbed within 24 h. When modeled with a Freundlich isotherm, the log K f was found to be 3.62. After six consecutive 24 h desorption steps, 33 to 96.6 % still remained in the soil. This was more pronounced for soils that had been aged for 60 days. After seven consecutive 24 h desorption steps of aged soil, the percent remaining sorbed to the soil were 44, 64, and 77 %, for 25, 250, and 500 mg/kg, respectively. All results show that 4,4-DDT has a tendency of sorbing to the soil rapidly and showing resistance to desorption. When comparing desorption values, aged soils were seen to desorb less than non-aged soils. This result was attributed to stronger binding to soil with increased contact time.

  2. Effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission in a sandy loam soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-xin; MENG Lei; CAI Zu-cong; HAN Feng-xiang

    2007-01-01

    To understand the effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and N fertilizer on N2O emission in the North China Plain,a laboratory incubation at different temperatures and soil moistures were carried out using soils treated with organic manure (OM),half organic manure plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), fertilizer PK (NK) and control (CK) since 1989. Cumulative N2O emission in OM soil during the 17 d incubation period was slightly higher than in NPK soil under optimum nitrification conditions (25C and 60% water-filled pore space, WFPS), but more than twice under the optimum denitrification conditions (35C and 90% WFPS). N2O produced by denitrification was 2.1-2.3 times greater than that by nitrification in OM and HOM soils, but only 1.5 times greater in NPK and NP soils. These results implied that the long-term amendment of organic manure could significantly increase the N2O emission via denitrification in OM soil as compared to NPK soil. This is quite different from field measurement between OM soil and NPK soil. Substantial inhibition of the formation of anaerobic environment for denitrification in field might result in no marked difference in N2O emission between OM and NPK soils. This is due in part to more rapid oxygen diffusion in coarse textured soils than consumption by aerobic microbes until WFPS was 75% and to low easily decomposed organic C of organic manure. This finding suggested that addition of organic manure in the tested sandy loam might be a good management option since it seldom caused a burst of N2O emission but sequestered atmospheric C and maintained efficiently applied N in soil.

  3. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  4. The influence of clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    2016-01-01

    was sampled at the 0–10, 10–20 and 25–30 cm depths of a sandy loam soil at Flakkebjerg, Denmark in 2013. We used the experimental plots of a long-term field experiment with mouldboard ploughing (MP) and direct drilling (DD) treatments. The residue management included straw removal (−S) and straw retention (+S...... decreased clay dispersibility (p = 0.09) and increased soil friability (p b 0.05) compared with the MP soil. Direct drilling with straw removal (DD − S) resulted in higher workability compared with mouldboard ploughing with straw removal (MP − S) (p b 0.05). We defined non-complexed clay as NCC = clay −10...

  5. Effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils of Cauvery new delta zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulse productivity is very low in some of the sandy soil areas where, soils are having poor water and nutrient holding capacity. To improve the pulse productivity, field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu for two consecutive years to study the effect of phosphorus sources (mono- and diammonium phosphate with brassinolide and salicylic acid on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif season. The treatments include 100% recommended dose of NPK along with foliar application of monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, brassinolide (0.25 ppm, and salicylic acid (100 ppm along with the combination of these treatments. TNAU pulse wonder at 5.0 kg ha−1 and TNAU micronutrient mixture (MN at 5 kg ha−1 were also tried. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended dose of NPK + DAP 2% + TNAU pulse wonder 5.0 kg ha−1 was statistically significant and recorded higher plant growth (37.62 cm, number of pods / plant (37.15, yield of black gram (1162 kg ha−1, and benefit cost ratio (2.98 over the other treatments. The lowest black gram yield (730 kg ha−1 was recorded for control.

  6. The impacts of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type on biochar properties and the effects of biochar application on the properties of a sandy loam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Steve; Doerr, Stefan; Street-Perrott, Alayne

    2013-04-01

    The production of biochar and its application to soil has the potential to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation whilst simultaneously improving soil fertility, crop yield and soil water-holding capacity. Biochar is produced from various biomass feedstock materials at varying pyrolysis temperatures, but relatively little is known about how these parameters affect the properties of the resultant biochars and their impact on the properties of the soils to which they are subsequently applied. Salix viminalis, M. giganteus and Picea sitchensis feedstocks were chipped then sieved to 2 - 5 mm, oven dried to constant weight, then pyrolyzed at 350, 500, 600 and 800° C in a nitrogen-purged tube furnace. Biochar yields were measured by weighing the mass of each sample before and after pyrolysis. Biochar hydrophobicity was assessed by using a goniometer to measure water-droplet contact-angles. Cation-exchange-capacity (CEC) was measured using the ammonium acetate method. Biochars were also produced in a rotary kiln from softwood pellets at 400, 500, 600 and 700° C then ground to 0.4 - 1 mm and applied to a sandy loam at a rate of 50 g kg-1. Bulk densities of these soil-biochar mixtures were measured on a tapped, dry, basis. The water-holding-capacity (WHC) of each mixture was measured gravimetrically following saturation and free-draining. The filter paper method was used to assess how pyrolysis temperature influences the effect of biochar application on matric suction. For all feedstocks, large decreases in biochar yield were observed between the pyrolysis temperatures of 350° C and 500° C. For Salix viminalis and M. giganteus feedstocks, subsequent reductions in the yield with increasing pyrolysis temperature were much lower. There were significant differences in hydrophobicity between biochars produced from different biomass and mean biochar hydrophobicity decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for all feedstocks. Results for CEC and WHC

  7. Fate of carbosulfan and monocrotophos in sandy loam soils of Pakistan under field conditions at different watertable depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Shahzad, Farina

    2010-05-01

    Information regarding pesticide mobility is critical for the evaluation of pesticide management practices. For this purpose, lysimetric studies were conducted to develop assessment schemes to protect groundwater from unacceptable effects caused by pesticide use. By using these studies, specific monitoring actions and prevention measures for the protection of waters can be studied, and the results thus obtained can provide the local authorities and the decision makers with an identification tool for demarcating risk areas. Pesticide residues were found at the bottom of lysimeters in the following pattern i.e., 1.52 > 2.1 > 2.74 m which could represent an "index of risk" for groundwater pollution. Regressions built for carbofuran and monocrotophos against watertable depths showed a decreasing trend of pesticide in higher watertable treatments. These findings support the existence of a significant role for chromatographic flow in sandy texture soil. Moreover, the higher values of pesticide residue at the bottom of lysimeters reflect that chromatographic flow as well as preferential flow pattern prevails during higher precipitation events. The precipitation received during the study was higher than the 10 year average and can be considered relatively as a worst case scenario. Finally, the authors have recommended a standardized pesticide monitoring scheme for groundwater in accordance with the already validated generic schemes in developed countries.

  8. Study on Development of Leaf Tissue Structure of Flue-cured Tobacco Produced in Sandy Loam and Clay Loam in Wannan%皖南砂壤土和水稻土烤烟叶片组织结构发育规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国; 时向东; 季学军; 沈思灯; 马称心

    2011-01-01

    为了弄清烤烟叶片组织结构与皖南焦甜香特色风格的关系,对皖南砂壤土和水稻土烤烟叶片组织结构发育规律进行了研究.结果表明,土壤质地影响栅栏组织细胞快速分裂时期,对细胞总数的影响不明显.土壤质地间烟叶各组织厚度指标在叶肉细胞分裂期差异不大;叶肉细胞伸长前期,砂壤土烟叶栅栏组织细胞快速伸长较早,栅栏组织厚度与叶厚的比值和栅栏组织厚度与海绵组织厚度的比值也较大,而土壤质地引起的叶厚和海绵组织厚度发育差异规律在叶位间表现不一;但水稻土烟叶栅栏组织厚度、海绵组织厚度和叶厚均在叶长定长和成熟期达到或超过砂壤土水平.随着叶长的增加,皖南烤烟栅栏组织与海绵组织厚度比值和栅栏组织厚度与叶厚的比值均大体呈上升趋势.%The study results of development of leaf tissue structure of flue-cured tobacco produced in sandy loam soil and paddy soil in wannan area showed that: soil types could affect the time to cell rapid divisional of tobacco leaf palisade tissue, but not the total cell numbers. There were not obvious difference about leaf tissue thickness caused by soil types when the mesophyll cell divided; At the early stage of mesophyll cell elongation period, palisade tissue of tobacco leaf produced in sandy loam soil rapid elongated earlier, thus the thickness ratios of both palisade tissue to leaf and palisade tissue to sponge tissue were higher in this period, and the development changes in both palisade tissue thickness and leaf thickness caused by soil types were different between stalk positions; But palisade tissue thickness of the tobacco leaf produced in paddy soil reached or surpassed the levels of which produced in sandy loam soil, and so did the leaf thickness and the sponge tissue thickness. With the leaf growing, the thickness ratios of both palisade tissue to sponge tissue and palisade tissue to leaf

  9. Peanut plant growth and yield as influenced by co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and some rhizo-microorganisms under sandy loam soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sh.F. Badawi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of tested rhizomicrobial isolates (Serratia marcescens and Trichoderma harzianum along with a strain of root nodule bacteria (Bradyrhizobium spp. to exhibit some PGP-properties was evaluated in vitro conditions. The main PGP-properties, namely the ability to solubilize-P and production of IAA, as well as production of siderophores and HCN were examined. Additionally, field trials were conducted on sandy loam soil at El-Tahrir Province during two successive summer seasons to study the effect of co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium either individually or together with S. marcescens and/or T. harzianum on nodulation, some plant growth characters, peanut yield and its yield components. The in vitro experiment revealed that all of the tested microorganisms were apparently able to trigger PGP-properties. Phosphate solubilization was the common feature of the employed microorganisms. However, T. harzianum appeared to be superior to other microorganisms, and Bradyrhizobium displayed the lowest capacity. The ability of the microorganisms to produce indole compounds showed that S. marcescens was more effective in IAA production and followed by Bradyrhizobium. Capacity of S. marcescens and T. harzianum to excrete ferric-specific ligands (siderophores and HCN was detected, while Bradyrhizobium failed to produce such compounds. Results of field trials showed that the uninoculated peanut had the least nodulation status, N2-ase activity and all vegetative growth characters in both studied seasons. Bacterization of peanut seeds with bradyrhizobia exerted considerable improvement in number and mass of root nodules, increased the rate of acetylene reduction and all growth characters in comparison to the uninoculated control. The synergy inoculation between bradyrhizobia and any of the tested microorganisms led to further increases of all mentioned characters and strengthened the stimulating effect of the bacterial inoculation. However, the promotive

  10. The Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-Shavings Mulch on the Properties of a Sandy Loam Soil in Northeast Nigeria. 2. Changes in Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiroma, AM.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulching and ridge tillage are proven technologies for improving soil productivity in semi-arid regions. Yet data quantifying the combined influences of these practices are limited. Our objectives were to determine the changes in selected physical properties of a sandy loam after 4-years of annual tillage and wood-shavings mulching. The tillage and wood-shavings treatments consisted of: Flat bed (FB, Open ridge (OR, Tiedridge (TR, FBM, ORM and TRM were same as FB, OR and TR, respectively except that wood-shavings at a rate of 10 t/ha were surface applied ≈ 2 weeks after sowing each year to serve as both a mulch and an organic amendment. At the end of the trial in 2002, bulk density, penetration resistance, total porosity and soil water content from each of 0-0.075, 0.075-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m depths were determined. Composite samples from the surface (0.075 and 0.075-0.15 m layers from 3 replicates of each treatment were also collected for the determination of wet aggregate stability and from 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m layers for determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. After 4 years of annual tillage and addition of woodshavings, soil bulk density and penetration resistance were consistently lower and total porosity higher in the FBM, ORM and TRM treatments than in the FB, OR and TR treatments. Penetration resistance in all treatments was strongly related to soil water content. A 'hoe pan' was established below 0.15 m depth beneath the furrows of the ridged treatments. This could be attributed to human traffic during field operations and ponding of water, which occurred in the furrows following heavy rains. Wet aggregate stability estimated as the proportion of aggregates of size > 0.25 mm (macro-aggregates in the 0-0.15 m layer were significantly (P< 0.05 higher under FBM, ORM and TRM than under FB, OR or TR treatments. Ksat was not influenced by either tillage or wood-shavings treatments but were higher for the mulched plots

  11. Improvement in the water retention characteristics of sandy loam soil using a newly synthesized poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaukat Ali; Qidwai, Ansar Ahmad; Anwar, Farooq; Ullah, Inam; Rashid, Umer

    2012-08-03

    The use of some novel and efficient crop nutrient-based superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposites (SHNCs), is currently becoming increasingly important to improve the crop yield and productivity, due to their water retention properties. In the present study a poly(Acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/AlZnFe2O4 superabsorbent hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized and its physical properties characterized using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), FE-SEM and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of different levels of SHNC were studied to evaluate the moisture retention properties of sandy loam soil (sand 59%, silt 21%, clay 19%, pH 7.4, EC 1.92 dS/m). The soil amendment with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 w/w% of SHNC enhanced the moisture retention significantly at field capacity compared to the untreated soil. Besides, in a separate experiment, seed germination and seedling growth of wheat was found to be notably improved with the application of SHNC. A delay in wilting of seedlings by 5-8 days was observed for SHNC-amended soil, thereby improving wheat plant growth and establishment.

  12. Removal of non aqueous phase liquid liquid (NAPL) from a loam soil monitored by time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    comegna, alessandro; coppola, Antonio; dragonetti, giovanna; ajeel, ali; saeed, ali; sommella, angelo

    2016-04-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are compounds with low or no solubility with water. These compounds, due to the several human activities, can be accidentally introduced in the soil system and thus constitute a serious geo-environmental problem, given the toxicity level and the high mobility. The remediation of contaminated soil sites requires knowledge of the contaminant distribution in the soil profile and groundwater. Methods commonly used to characterize contaminated sites are coring, soil sampling and the installation of monitoring wells for the collection of groundwater samples. The main objective of the present research is to explore the potential application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in order to evaluate the effect of contaminant removal in a loam soil, initially contaminated with NAPL and then flushed with different washing solutions. The experimental setup consist of: i) a Techtronix cable tester; ii) a three-wire TDR probe with wave guides 14.5 cm long inserted vertically into the soil samples; iii) a testing cell of 8 cm in diameter and 15 cm high; iv) a peristaltic pump for upward injection of washing solution. In laboratory, soil samples were oven dried at 105°C and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Known quantities of soil and NAPL (corn oil, a non-volatile and non-toxic organic compound) were mixed in order to obtain soil samples with different degrees of contamination. Once a soil sample was prepared, it was repacked into a plastic cylinder and then placed into the testing cell. An upward injection of washing solution was supplied to the contaminated sample with a rate q=1.5 cm3/min, which corresponds to a darcian velocity v=6.0 cm/h. The out coming fluid, from the soil column was collected, then the washing solution and oil was separated. Finally both the amount of oil that was remediated and the dielectric permittivity (measured via TDR) of the contaminated soil sample were recorded. Data collected were employed to implement a

  13. Hidráulica do escoamento e transporte de sedimentos em sulcos em solo franco-argilo-arenoso Flow hydraulics and sediment transport in rills of a sandy clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramon Barros Cantalice

    2005-07-01

    capacity to deform the rill and alter flow hydraulics, responsible for rill formation dynamics. The objective of this study was to evaluate flow hydraulic conditions that can provide important information on erosion relationships, soil erodibility and sediment transport in furrows of a recently-tilled Palleudult. Rills were pre-formed in a sandy clay loam soil with an average slope of 0.067 m m-1. Simulated rainfall with an intensity of 74 mm h-1 was applied during 80 min, while rainfall and extra inflows of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 L min-1 were jointly applied for the last 20 min of each run in the rill. Results indicated that the rill flow regime varied from transitional subcritical to turbulent subcritical. The rill erosion detachment rates were linear to shear stress. Rill erodibility (Kr was 0.0024 kg-1 s-1 N and critical shear stress (tauc was 2.75 Pa. Two functions to predict sediment transport based on stream power explained 53% of data variability, which indicates the inherent difficulty of predicting solid transport through shallow flows on eroding agricultural lands, and the physical and mineralogical diversity of particles and aggregates of the studied soil.

  14. Irrigation initiation timing in soybean grown on sandy soils in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation initiation timing was evaluated in furrow-irrigated soybean field with sandy soils in Mississippi County, AR. A major objective of this 2015 study was to validate and expand irrigation timing recommendations that pair plant growth measures with weather cues including use of local weather ...

  15. Near-real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis: experiences from hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Mühr, Bernhard; Schröter, Kai; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Vannieuwenhuyse, Marjorie; Comes, Tina; Münzberg, Thomas; Elmer, Florian; Fohringer, Joachim; Lucas, Christian; Trieselmann, Werner; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the last tropical cyclone of the 2012 Northern Atlantic Hurricane season that made landfall. It moved on an unusual track from the Caribbean to the East Coast of the United States from 24 to 30 October as a Category 1 and 2 Hurricane according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Along its path, the severe storm event caused widespread damage including almost 200 fatalities. In the early hours of 30 October, Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. Sandy was an extraordinary event due to its multihazard nature and several cascading effects in the aftermath. From the hydro-meteorological perspective, most unusual was the very large spatial extent of up to 1,700 km. High wind speeds were associated with record breaking storm surges at the U.S. Mid- Atlantic and New England Coast during high (astronomical) tide, leading to widespread flooding. Though Sandy was not the most severe storm event in terms of wind speed and precipitation, the impact in the U.S. was enormous with total damage estimates of up to 90 billion US (own estimate from Dec. 2012). Although much better data emerge weeks after such an event, the Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) Task Force of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) made an effort to obtain a comprehensive and holistic overview of the causes, hazardous effects and consequences associated with Sandy immediately after landfall at the U.S. coast on 30 October 2012. This was done in an interdisciplinary way by collecting and compiling scattered and distributed information from available databases and sources via the Internet, by applying own methodologies and models for near-real time analyses developed in recent years, and by expert knowledge. This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM-FDA analyses' results. It describes the situation that led to the extraordinary event, highlights the interaction of the tropical cyclone with other hydro-meteorological events, and examines the

  16. Leaching behaviour of azoxystrobin in sandy loam soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr HMM Mzimela

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... harmful pesticide residues on the crops and in the soil. Recent studies have ... roots and translocate to stems and leaves via xylem, or through leaf ... Analysis of azoxystrobin was carried out on gas liquid chromatograph (GLC) ...

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Application Patterns on Ammonia Volatilization, Summer Maize Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Sandy Loam Fluvo-aquic Soil%施氮模式对砂质潮土氨挥发、夏玉米产量及氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎新; 刘园; 靳海洋; 王晨阳; 朱云集; 郭天财; 贺德先

    2015-01-01

    采用连续多年田间小区定位试验,在氮肥施用量200 kg/hm2下,观测夏玉米季不同施氮模式对夏玉米季土壤氨挥发、子粒产量及氮肥利用率的影响。结果表明,夏玉米季不同施氮处理土壤氨挥发损失量不同,当地常规施氮处理损失量最高,改变氮肥基追比处理次之,控释复合肥处理损失量最低。与不施肥对照相比,各施氮模式处理均能提高夏玉米产量,控释复合肥、改变氮肥基追比处理较当地常规施氮处理分别增产9.89%和7.14%。不同施氮模式下夏玉米季氮肥利用率以控释复合肥利用率最高,改变氮肥基追比处理次之,常规施氮最低。综合考虑,控释复合肥、改变氮肥基追比均可作为砂质潮土区推广的适宜氮肥施用模式。%Under the field experiment condition, the effects of different nitrogen application patterns on ammo⁃nia volatilization, yield of summer maize and nitrogen use efficiency were studied at the same amount of nitrogen(N) application with 200 kg/ha in summer maize season in each fertilizer treatment. There were four treatments includ⁃ing no fertilizer(CK), convention fertilizer(F1), changing basic fertilizer and topdressing regimes(F2) and controlled-release fertilizer(F3). The result showed that the amount of ammonia loss from summer maize field was different in all treatments, F1 was the highest, followed by F2, and F3 was the lowest. Compared to CK, each nitrogen applica⁃tion patterns treatment all can improve the yield of summer maize, of which F3 was best, followed by F2, compared with F1, the yield increased by 9.89%and 7.14%, respectively. In addition, the study also showed that the nitrogen use efficiency was different in all treatments, of which F3 was the highest, followed by F2, F1 was the lowest. In con⁃clusion, F3 and F2 could be taken as nitrogen application patterns by spread and application for summer maize in the sandy loam fluvo

  18. Analyzing Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca

    2015-03-01

    Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.

  19. Escarificação mecânica e biológica para a redução da compactação em argissolo franco-arenoso sob plantio direto Mechanical and biological chiseling to reduce compaction of a sandy loam alfisol under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Abreu

    2004-06-01

    saturado, em médio prazo, a "escarificação biológica" (CM-crot mostrou-se mais eficaz na ruptura da camada compactada e estabelecimento de poros condutores de água do que a escarificação mecânica (Esc-soja do solo. Em contrapartida, se o indicador for a RP, o resultado é inverso. Assim, a propriedade hídrica ou mecânica do solo a ser usada como indicadora para a avaliação da eficácia da ruptura da camada compactada do solo depende do processo físico priorizado: a infiltração e redistribuição de água ou a penetração e crescimento de raízes.Soil management alters the physical soil properties and changes the soil air, water, and solute dynamics. Physical soil properties as affected by conservationist soil management systems were studied in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. The treatments were established on a soil that has been under no-tillage for 10 years, and consisted of: no-tillage soybeans, chisel tillage soybeans, reduced tillage Crotalaria, and bare soil without tillage. The evaluated soil properties were soil penetration resistance, bulk density, porosity, pore size distribution, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, water infiltration using concentric rings or natural rainfall, variation of the volumetric soil moisture throughout the cropping cycle, and water retention curve. Soil penetration resistance (PR was highest at 0.075 m and 0.175 m depth in no-tillage and chiseled soil, respectively. Soil subsurface mobilization with chiseling and surface mobilization due to disking and sowing did not influence the bulk density (BD after the crop harvest. No-till soil under soybean crop had greater macroporosity than reduced tillage crotalaria and bare soil at 0.02 to 0.05 m depth, resulting in a greater saturated hydraulic conductivity and lower water retention during periods of low water availability. Among the analyzed soil physical-mechanical properties, PR seemed to be more sensitive to detect soil compaction than BD or porosities

  20. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M; Ouedraogo, T; Kumar, L; Sanou, S; van Langevelde, F; Kiema, A; van de Koppel, J; van Andel, J; Hearne, J; Skidmore, AK; de Ridder, N; Stroosnijder, L; Prins, HHT

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  1. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ouedraogo, T.; Kumar, L.; Sanou, S.; Langevelde, F. van; Kiema, A.; Koppel, J. van de; Andel, J. van; Hearne, J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  2. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  3. Meiobenthic diversity in space and time: The case of harpacticoid copepods in two Mediterranean microtidal sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastou, Katerina; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Eleftheriou, Anastasios

    2011-10-01

    Meiobenthic data from two microtidal sandy beaches of the eastern Mediterranean (Crete, Greece) were used to investigate patterns of both alpha and beta diversity in space and time. Copepod assemblages and environmental variables related to sediment characteristics, morphodynamics and food were studied over a year at four distinct habitats at each beach; the retention, resurgence and saturation zones of Salvat's intertidal scheme (midlittoral zone), and the surf zone of the sublittoral. Αlpha diversity analysis indicated similar species richness at both beaches when the whole 13-month data set was considered but was higher at the sheltered site when each sampling period was examined separately. Both beaches supported higher diversity in the sublittoral zone. Species richness increased seawards at the midlittoral zone of the sheltered site whereas, no pattern was evident at the exposed site, where the intense hydrodynamic conditions homogenized the sediments. Beta diversity increased markedly towards the sublittoral, indicating greater differences in alpha diversity between the sublittoral and the midlittoral zone. Species turnover was more variable at the exposed beach and at the most landward stations, where environmental conditions change often between extremes. A proportion of the variation in alpha diversity was explained by food availability at both beaches and additionally by grain size at the sheltered site. However, no environmental variable explained beta diversity patterns. Although the results of our study support the hypothesis of Multicausal Environmental Severity proposed for sandy beach macrofauna, we believe the classic Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is a more appropriate framework for the meiofauna communities of the studied sites.

  4. Time-lapse imagery of the breaching of Marmot Dam, Oregon, and subsequent erosion of sediment by the Sandy River, October 2007 to May 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Collins, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon, was removed and a temporary cofferdam standing in its place was breached, allowing the river to flow freely along its entire length. Time-lapse imagery obtained from a network of digital single-lens reflex cameras placed around the lower reach of the sediment-filled reservoir behind the dam details rapid erosion of sediment by the Sandy River after breaching of the cofferdam. Within hours of the breaching, the Sandy River eroded much of the nearly 15-m-thick frontal part of the sediment wedge impounded behind the former concrete dam; within 24-60 hours it eroded approximately 125,000 m3 of sediment impounded in the lower 300-meter-reach of the reservoir. The imagery shows that the sediment eroded initially through vertical incision, but that lateral erosion rapidly became an important process.

  5. Influence of Particle Shape on Drag Coefficient for Commonly Occuring Sandy Particles in Coastal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Arora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A well defined relationship connecting settling velocity with sediment geometry and ambient properties is an essential pre-requisite for coastal and hydraulic engineering studies. An established relationship for settling velocity of sandy particles assuming spherical shape geometry is available in the literature. In reality, the sediment particles need not be spherical at all times, which influences settling velocity that is strongly biased to the drag coefficient. Based on quantitative comparison with measured data collected at Oahu Islands located in the Hawaiian archipelago, USA this work provides a relationship between drag coefficient and particle shape factor for sand grains viz; sand, sandy loam and fine sandy loam typically found in coastal environment (typical size ranges from 0.05 to 2.0 mm. The particle Reynolds number and shape factor are evaluated for each grain. The drag coefficient evaluated as function of nominal diameter and Reynolds number show a positive correlation over a wide range of shape factors used in this study. A comprehensive correlation has been developed of the drag coefficient for non-spherical particles as a function of Reynolds number and particle shape. Further a regression analysis was performed on the functional dependence of drag coefficient on particle shape. Based on this study, it could be advocated the validity of Krumbien shape factor holds well for the above characterized grain size and various particle shapes considered. Hence, the settling velocity of particles has a functional dependence on estimated drag coefficient with important implications for modeling sediment transport and swash zone hydrodynamics.

  6. Acoustic Observation of the Time Dependence of the Roughness of Sandy Seafloors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-25

    limited to: NRL. Downloaded on January 5. 2010 at 15:39 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING. VOL. 34. NO. 4...limited to: NRL. Downloaded on January 5, 2010 at 15:39 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. JACKSON el at: ACOUSTIC OBSERVATION OF THE TIME...Downloaded on January 5, 2010 at 15:39 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. IEEE JOURNAL OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 34. NO. 4. OCTOBER 2009 where Q is

  7. Cadmium phytoextraction from loam soil in tropical southern China by Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-06-03

    The cadmium (Cd) uptake characteristics by Sorghum bicolor cv. Nengsi 2# and Cowley from the acidic sandy loam soil (pH = 6.1) during the entire growth period (100 days) were investigated in pot outdoors in a tropical district of southern China, Hainan Island. The Cd-spiked levels in soil were set as 3 and 15 mg/kg. Correspondingly, the available Cd levels in soil extracted by Mehlich III solution were 2.71 and 9.41 mg/kg, respectively. Basically, two varieties in a full growth period (100 days) did not show a significant difference in their growth and Cd uptake. Under high Cd stress, the plant growth was inhibited and its biomass weight and height decreased by 38.7-51.5% and 27.6-28.5%, respectively. However, S. bicolor showed higher bioaccumulation capability of Cd from soil to plant [bioconcentration factor (BCF)>4], and higher transfer capability of Cd from roots to shoots [translocation factor (TF)>1] under high Cd stress; Cd contents in the roots, stems, and leaves of S. bicolor reached 43.79-46.07, 63.28-70.60, and 63.10-66.06 mg/kg, respectively. S. bicolor exhibited the potential phytoextraction capability for low or moderate Cd-contamination in acidic sandy loam soil.

  8. Linear Shrinkage Behaviour of Compacted Loam Masonry Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWAB ALI LAKHO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Walls of wet loam, used in earthen houses, generally experience more shrinkage which results in cracks and less compressive strength. This paper presents a technique of producing loam masonry blocks that are compacted in drained state during casting process in order to minimize shrinkage. For this purpose, loam masonry blocks were cast and compacted at a pressure of 6 MPa and then dried in shade by covering them in plastic sheet. The results show that linear shrinkage of 2% occurred which is smaller when compared to un-compacted wet loam walls. This implies that the loam masonry blocks compacted in drained state is expected to perform better than un-compacted wet loam walls.

  9. Hurricane Sandy and earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  10. Fingerlike wetting patterns in two water-repellent loam soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    In soils with fingered flow, surface-applied solutes can reach the groundwater more rapidly than in the case of homogeneous wetting. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the occurrence of finger-like wetting patterns in a silt loam soil and a silty clay loam soil, and to investigate the

  11. Mobility of Arsenic and Heavy Metals in a Sandy-Loam Textured and Carbonated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GARCIA; M.DIEZ; F.MARTIN; M.SIMóN; C.DORRONSORO

    2009-01-01

    The continued effect of the pyrite-tailing oxidation on the mobility of arsenic,lead,zinc,cadmium,and copper was studied in a carbonated soil under natural conditions,with the experimcntal plot preserved with a layer of tailing covering the soil during three years.The experimental area is located in Southern Spain and was affected by a pyrite-mine spill.The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean,which determines the rate of soil alteration and element mobility.The intense alteration processes that occurred in the soil during three years caused important changes in its morphology and a strong degradation of the main soil properties.In this period,lead concentrated in the first 5 mm of the soil,with concentrations higher than 1500 mg kg-1,mainly associated to the neoformation of plumbojarosite.Arsenic was partially leached from the first 5 mm and mainly concentrated between 5-10 mm in the soil,with maximum values of 1 239 mg kg-1;the retention of arsenates was related to the neoformation of iron hydroxysulfates (jarosite,schwertmannite) and oxyhydroxides (goethite,ferrihydrite),both with a variable degree of crystallinity.The mobility of Zn,Cd,and Cu was highly affected by pH,producing a stronger leaching in depth;their retention was related to the forms of precipitated aluminium and,in the case of Cu,also to the neoformation of hydroxysulfate.

  12. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on inorganic nitrogen in silt loam and sandy agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  13. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: II. Soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore characte......Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore......, the volume of pores > 30 μm was more than 0.03 m3 m-3 larger for MP than for D in spring 2014 at the 4- to 8-cm depth. At the 18- to 27-cm depth, direct drilling resulted in a better air permeability and pore continuity index (e.g., air permeability of 18.2 and 11.2 mm2 for D and MP, respectively at −10 k...

  14. Determination of Selenium Toxicity for Survival and Reproduction of Enchytraeid Worms in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    active radiation (PAR) light intensity of 12.8  0.7 µM m2/s (985  52 lux ), and mean temperature of 21.6  0.1 C. The soil moisture level was...PAR light intensity of 12.8  0.7 µM m2/s (985  52 lux ), and a mean temperature of 21.6  0.1 °C, for the duration of the 28 d test. The containers

  15. Effects of Nitramine Explosive CL-20 on the Soil Microinvertebrate Community in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    by individually combining and gently mixing CL-20- amended soil concentrates with clean SSL field soil in a plastic bag . This approach ensured that...Hawari, J.; Spain, J.C. Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL- 20. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003, 69, 1871–1874. U.S. Department of

  16. Crop residues as driver for N2O emissions from a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Petersen, Søren O.; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling within agriculture constitutes a source of direct and indirect emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). We analysed relationships between N2O emissions and C and N balances of four arable cropping systems under conventional or organic management within a long......-term experiment on a loamy sand soil at Foulum in Denmark. All cropping systems included winter wheat, a leguminous crop (faba bean or grass-clover), potato and spring barley grown in different 4-crop rotations varying in strategies for N supply (fertilizer/manure type and rate, use of catch crops and green...... manure). Crops in both organic and conventional systems received N at rates below the optimum for crop production. Soil N2O emissions were monitored in 2008–2009 in six selected crops which could be combined with data from other monitoring programs to calculate N2O emission factors for each of the 16...

  17. Soil resistance and resilience to mechanical stresses for three differently managed sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per;

    2012-01-01

    carbon (CCC resistance and resilience of the three soils to compaction using air permeability (ka), void ratio (e) and air-filled porosity (ε) as functional indicators and to characterise aggregate stability, strength and friability. Aggregate tensile...... at both soil-water potentials than the MCC and CCC soils possibly due to higher biotic binding of soil particles by the greater organic carbon content. The water dispersible clay was negatively correlated with the level of clay saturation by organic carbon. The resistance of the soils to compaction......, quantified by both the compression index and a proposed functional index, was significantly greater for the MFC soil compared to the other two soils. The change in compression index with initial void ratio was significantly less for the MFC than the other soils. Plastic reorganisation of the soil particles...

  18. Olive Mill Effluent Spreading Effects on Water Retention of Tunisian Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SAHRAOUI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill effluents (OME are characterized by their nutrients content and their adhesive and hydrophobic properties. An experiment was carried out at an olive growing area in Tunisia, “Sidi Bou Ali”, to identify the impact of spreading over OME on physical soil characteristics. Three treatments were in situ monitored, namely T0 (Control, T1 (25 m3/ha and T2 (50 m3/ha, over a period of 4 months. Measurements were conducted monthly corresponding respectively to D1, D2, D3 and D4. Water retention curves were established by a physical capillary model in porous medium. Results showed that the two applied OME doses induced a decrease in water retention, especially for potential matrixes above pF 2 corresponding to the water available range. No significant differences were found between the treated soil plots T1 and T2.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.27

  19. Modeling Tractive Force Requirements of Wheel tractors For Disc Ploughing in Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Nkakini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tractive force models at different tillage speeds were developed using dimensional analysis, describing the tractor tyre - soil interaction. In this research study, disc ploughing on an experimental plot at twenty different soil moisture levels in loamy sand soil was carried out using trace tractor techniques. The independent variables: drawbar pull force, rolling (motion resistance, wheel slip, moisture content, cone index, wheel numeric, contact pressure, speed, width of plough, depth of plough, and dependent variable (Tractive force were measured and compared to computed values. High coefficients of determination R2 = 0.9492, 0.9555 and 0.9447 for ploughing at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s and 2.5m/s were obtained respectively. Standard errors of 0.3672552, 0.8628 and 0.8047 and the percentage (% errors of -2.272608059 and 2.45655144,-2.304946155 and 2.523126085,-1.424947801 and 2.020155232 at minimum and maximum values, were obtained. These results are clear evidence of the test of goodness of fit of the models between predictive and measured parameters for ploughing at different tillage speeds. The models were verified and validated by comparing the predicted with the measured tractive forces, and shown to closely followed the experimental results.

  20. Predictivity strength of the spatial variability of phenanthrene sorption across two sandy loam fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Sorption is commonly suggested as the major process underlying the transport and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. However, studies focusing in spatial variability at the field scale in particular are still scarce. In order to investigate the sorption of phenanthrene at th......). Other factors, such as the soil structure, available water content and the soil mineral fraction, might greatly influence the transport phenomenon, thus acting for important environmental repercussions....

  1. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Soil organic carbon (OC) and aggregate stability in water (MAW, ASC, DR and WSI) ... Key words: Tillage, Tillage systems, Soil Physical properties, Moisture storage, Physical quality ..... OC/organic matter contents of soils exerts great influe.

  2. Altered humin compositions under organic and inorganic fertilization on an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humin is the largest and also the least understood fraction of soil organic matter. The humin structure and its correlation with microbiological properties are particularly uncertain. We applied advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the structural chan...

  3. Microstructure and stability of two sandy loam soils with different soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.

    1969-01-01

    A practical problem initiated this study. In the Haarlemmermeer, a former lake reclaimed about 1850, several farmers had difficulties with soil structure. Land, plowed in autumn, was very wet in spring. Free water was sometimes present on the soil surface. Planting and seeding were long delayed in

  4. Effectiveness of Using Cellular Phones to Transmit Real-Time Shelter Morbidity Surveillance Data After Hurricane Sandy, New Jersey, October to November, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, Alice M; Yard, Ellen E; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Apostolou, Andria; Chan, Miranda; Tan, Christina; Noe, Rebecca S; Wolkin, Amy F

    2016-06-01

    Timely morbidity surveillance of sheltered populations is crucial for identifying and addressing their immediate needs, and accurate surveillance allows us to better prepare for future disasters. However, disasters often create travel and communication challenges that complicate the collection and transmission of surveillance data. We describe a surveillance project conducted in New Jersey shelters after Hurricane Sandy, which occurred in November 2012, that successfully used cellular phones for remote real-time reporting. This project demonstrated that, when supported with just-in-time morbidity surveillance training, cellular phone reporting was a successful, sustainable, and less labor-intensive methodology than in-person shelter visits to capture morbidity data from multiple locations and opened a two-way communication channel with shelters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;10:525-528).

  5. New way of measurement of thermophysical properties of clay loam materials by transient methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boháč, Vlastimil; Dieška, Peter; Vretenár, Viliam; Lukáč, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    The problem of the measurement of clay loam materials in plastic consistency is more or less difficult as they can change the shape during the long time measurements. The specimen thickness is expected as the constant during all the experiment measured by transient pulse method. In a case of plastic clay loam, it can change the form during the measurement because of the squeeze of the material even under the gravity condition. Thus the specimen surface wall should be reinforced by special dimensionally well-defined thin wall container. In this paper the special container in a form of thin tube rings bounded by central annular ring was constructed and used for the measurements. The heat source was inserted into the tube rings through the nozzle in the middle part and the thermocouple was inserted through the drilled openings at defined distance from the heat source. System clamped the heat source together with the rings at desired distance from the thermocouple. This distance represents the thickness of tested specimen. The soft plastic material fill the inner space of tube rings in such a way to fulfill the geometry conditions for this method. The need of soft clay loam material measurement is to test its thermal properties because of the interest to use it as the heat storage material below the buildings. The measured clay loam containing some moisture has quite high values of specific heat and thus the use of it as the heat storage material is promising.

  6. Time prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring of the groundwater level and the surface displacement at different locations on a sandy model slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Location of monitoring of the deformation and the groundwater level in a slope is important for time-prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring. The analysis of the monitored data of the surface displacement and the groundwater level at different locations in sandy model slope under artificial rainfall was conducted in this study. The monitored data showed that the surface displacement increased with the increase of the groundwater level significantly. Then the analysis of the monitored data revealed that the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level can be modified as hyperbolic curve. The surface displacement grew larger and maximum groundwater level was smaller at farther location from the toe of the slope. Time-prediction of an onset of a landslide based on the monitored data at different location on the slope was proposed as following procedures. (1) To make a regression equation for the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level based on the monitored data at any time before the failure, (2) To make a regression equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level based on the same data with (1), and (3) To incorporate the equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level into that between the surface displacement and the groundwater level to derive the time - the surface displacement relation. (4) To derive the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity from the equation for the time - the surface displacement relation. The equation for the time - the surface displacement and the equation for the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity could simulate the actual phenomena of the slope well based on the monitored data at any location on the model slope.

  7. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  8. 77 FR 74891 - Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy December 12, 2012. I. Introduction Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the mid-Atlantic Coast on October 29... in the Vault at the time Hurricane Sandy made landfall, facilitating DTCC's ability to...

  9. SHEARING AND WATER RETENTION BEHAVIOR OF UNSATURATED LOAM WITH MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Yukoh; Kazama, Motoki

    Unsaturated triaxial tests were carried out to study deformation behavior, effective stress path and water retention property of consolidated loam during consolidation and shearing processes. Initial matric suction was set as 0, 50, and 90 kPa, and confining pressures (net normal stresses) were set as 100 kPa. Then shearing processes were done under undrained and drained conditions. We clarified the relation between void ratio and Van Genuchten model parameter by using water retention curve. To predict the unsaturated shearing behavior, a modified Cam Clay model considering void ratio dependent Van Genuchten parameter was proposed. Those numerical test results were agreed well with laboratory tests results.

  10. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Terrestrial Plants in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    TNB, RDX, HMX, and heavy metals to cucumber and radish. They determined that toxicity was mostly related to TNT and TNB, with a LOEC of 7 to 19 mg kg...species exposed to TNB, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT. Hormesis has been reported in plants exposed to heavy metals and aromatic hydrocarbons (Stebbing, 1982...Watermilfoil and duckweed ), and terrestrial plant species (i.e., yellow nutsedge, poplar, lettuce, and tall fescue (Schott and Worthley, 1974; Palazzo and

  11. Soil precompression stress, penetration resistance and crop yields in relation to differently-trafficked, temperate-region sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    treatment (labelled M8-1), the soil was loaded only in the first year. A tricycle-like machine with a single pass of wide tyres each carrying 12 Mg (treatment S12) was included at one site. Traffic treatments were applied in a randomized block design with four replicates and with treatments repeated in four...... strength measure predicting resistance to subsoil compaction. The tyre inflation pressure and/or the mean ground pressure were the main predictors of PR in the upper soil layers. For deeper soil layers, PR correlated better to the wheel load. The number of wheel passes (M-treatments vs the S12 treatment......-pressure tyres by crab steering/dog-walk machinery....

  12. Nitrate leaching from sandy loam soils under a double-cropping forage system estimated from suction-probe measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trindade, H.; Coutinho, J.; Beusichem, van M.L.; Scholefield, D.; Moreira, N.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from a double-cropping forage system was measured over a 2-year period (June 1994–May 1996) in the Northwest region of Portugal using ceramic cup samplers. The crops were grown for silage making and include maize (from May to September) and a winter crop (rest of the year)

  13. Comparison of glyphosate and Roundup preparations influence on inorganic pyrophosphatase activity and available phosphorus content in sandy loam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of glyphosate and its formulations: Roundup 360 SL (containing isopropylamine salt of glyphosate and polyethoxylated tallow amine and Roundup TransEnergy 450 SL (containing potassium salt of glyphosate and polyethoxylated ether amine on inorganic pyrophosphatase activity and available phosphorus content in soil. The experiment was carried out on loamy sand with organic carbon content 10.9 g·kg-1. Glyphosate and its salts amounts added to soil were: 0 (control, 1, 10, 100 mg·kg-1. Samples were adjusted to 60% maximum water capacity and they were incubated in temperature 20°C. Inorganic pyrophosphatase and available phosphorus content were measured on days 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. The obtained results show that the observed effect of glyphosate and its formulations depended on the dosage and day of experiment. The largest changes of the measured parameters were observed after application of Roundup 360 SL – formulation containing glyphosate isopro­pylamine salt and polyethoxylated tallow amine. The positive statistically significant correlation between inorganic pyrophosphatase activity and available phosphorus content was reported only in soil treated with Roundup 360 SL.

  14. Quantity and nature of water-extractable organic matter from sandy loam soils with potato cropping managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) is part of the soil labile organic matter components. In this work, we evaluated the level and nature of soil WEOM from a long-term (6-year) potato crop rotation field experiment. The contents of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) were higher in continuous pot...

  15. Simultaneous hyperaccumulation of multiple heavy metals by Helianthus annuus grown in a contaminated sandy-loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Teresa; Gunda, Nagaraju; Kurt, Firat

    2010-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means for the treatment of contamination arising from heavy metal spills. Although several species have been identified as hyperaccumulators, most of the studies were performed with only one heavy metal. Experiments were conducted with two cultivars of H. annuus exposed to different combinations of metal contamination (30 mg/kg Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and/or Fe). Cultivar efficiency was based on total metal uptake, as well as translocation and selectivity of each metal. The results for each cultivar were also compared after 0.1 g/kg or 0.3 g/kg EDTA was added to enhance metal bioavailability. The key finding was that H. annuus achieved hyperaccumulator status for multiple metals simultaneously: Cd, Cr, and As.

  16. Toxicity of a New Polynitramine Energetic Material, CL-20, to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytraeus Crypticus, in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    due to photodecomposition, hydrolysis, reaction with organic matter, sorption/fixation, precipitation , immobilization, occlusion, microbial...ASTM Type II water, analytical reagent grade nitric acid 1% (volume/volume), then with ASTM Type I water. 2.3 Soil Amendment Procedures. Studies were...Initial reaction(s) in biotransformation of CL-20 is catalyzed by salicylate -l-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 29352. Appl. Environ

  17. Non-Linear finite element analysis of cone penetration in layered sandy loam soil-considering precompression stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisymmetric finite element (FE) method was developed using a commercial computer program to simulate cone penetration process in layered granular soil. Soil was considered as a non-linear elastic plastic material which was modeled using variable elastic parameters of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s r...

  18. Study and Estimation of the Ratio of 137CS and 40K Specific Activities in Sandy and Loam Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes changes in specific activities and fluctuations in the ratio of natural 40K and artificial 137Cs radionuclides in soil samples taken from different places of Lithuanian territory. The samples of soil have been selected from the districts polluted after the accident in Chernobyl nuclear plant performing nuclear testing operations. The study has established the main physical and chemical properties of soil samples and their impact on the concentration of 40K activities. 137Cs/40K specific activities in soil have been observed under the dry weight of the sample that varied from 0.0034 to 0.0240. The results of the study could be used for establishing and estimating 137Cs and 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant”.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Regional SOC inventory in the Belgian loam belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, F.; Bogaert, P.; van Wesemael, B.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest component of the terrestrial carbon pool and plays a vital role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC dynamics in intensively cultivated landscapes. The general objective of the research is to improve the regional SOC dynamics by taking into account the lateral fluxes of sediments and carbon. The study focuses on the croplands of the Belgian loam belt. The first part of the project consists in constructing a 3-dimensional SOC map from soil profile description and ancillary environmental data. A georeferenced soil database provided soil profile description and analyses across the entire Belgian loam belt. A Monte Carlo method was used to account for the uncertainty in the reported SOC content of each horizon. Different methods permitting to construct continuous distribution of SOC density from bulk horizon measurements were compared. Properties that best characterized the erosion-accumulation pattern in the region were searched in the profile description database. Different topographic indices were computed from digital elevation models to assess the influence of the topography on the SOC distribution. A linear regression analysis was conducted in order to predict the SOC spatial distribution at different depth intervals from soil and terrain properties. Using the resulting model, maps of SOC and other soil properties at different depths, and representative of the situation in ~1960, will be constructed. The total uncertainty will be assessed and the main sources of uncertainty determined. These maps could be used as input data for a processed-based model coupling lateral fluxes of sediment and carbon turnover.

  20. Soil water retention measurements using a combined tensiometer-coiled time domain reflectometry probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz, C.M.P.; Hopmans, J.W.; Macedo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the presented study was to develop a single probe that can be used to determine soil water retention curves in both laboratory and field conditions, by including a coiled time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe around the porous cup of a standard tensiometer. The combined tensiometer......-coiled TDR probe was constructed by wrapping two copper wires (0.8 mm diam. and 35.5 cm long) along a 5-cm long porous cup of a standard tensiometer. The dielectric constant of five different soils (Oso Flaco [coarse-loamy, mixed Typic Cryorthod-fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ustollic Haplargid], Ottawa sand [F-50......-silica sand], Columbia [Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Oxyaquic Xerofluvents], Lincoln sandy loam (sandy, mixed, thermic Typic Ustifluvents), and a washed sand - SR130) was measured with the combined tensiometer-coiled TDR probe (coil) as a function of the soil water content (0...

  1. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  2. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  3. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  4. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  5. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  6. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  7. Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. M.; Richmond, B. M.; Kane, H. H.; Lunghino, B.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were investigated at Forsyth National Wildlife Refuge (FNWR) on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey in order to map deposit thickness and characterize the sedimentary deposits. FNWR was chosen as a field area because there has been relatively little anthropogenic shoreline modification since washover deposition from Hurricane Sandy. Sediment, elevation, and geophysical data were collected during the April 2015 field campaign, approximately two and a half years after the storm. Sediment deposit data included trenches, stratigraphic descriptions, bulk sediment samples, push cores, Russian cores, and photos. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on push cores in order to acquire high resolution imaging of density, grain size, and sedimentary structure. Profiles of washover elevation were measured using Differential GPS with Real Time Kinematic processing. Ground Penetrating Radar data was collected to image the depth of the deposit and identify sedimentary structures. These data sets are compared to pre- and post -Sandy lidar surveys in order to determine post-Sandy modification in the two and a half years following the hurricane. We compare sediment thickness and sedimentary characteristics to hurricane Sandy deposits elsewhere along the U.S. eastern seaboard and to tsunami deposits.

  8. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis i...

  9. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    2002-11-01

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years

  10. Estimation of the Potential for Atrazine Transport in a Silt Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, D.A.V.; Wagenet, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The transport potential of the herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethyl-6-isopropyl-s-triazine) through a 1-meter-thick root zone of corn (Zea mays L.) in a silty-loam soil in Kansas was estimated for a 22-year period (1972-93) using the one-dimensional water-flow and solute-transport model LEACHM. Results demonstrate that, for this soil, atrazine transport is directly related to the amount and timing of rain that follows spring applications of atrazine. Two other critical transport factors were important in wet years - [1] variability in atrazine application rate, and [2] atrazine degradation rates below the root zone. Results demonstrate that the coincidence of heavy rain soon after atrazine application can cause herbicide to move below the rooting zone into depths at which biodegradation rates are assumed to be low but are often unknown. Atrazine that reaches below the rooting zone and persists in the underlying soil can subsequently be transported into ground water as soil water drains, typically after the growing season. A frequency analysis of atrazine concentrations in subsurface drainage, combined with field data, demonstrates the relative importance of critical transport factors and confirms a need for definitive estimates of atrazine-degradation rates below the root zone. The analysis indicates that periodic leaching of atrazine can be expected for this soil when rainfall that exceeds 20 cm/mo coincides with atrazine presence in soil.

  11. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU ASTIKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Astiko W, Fauzi MT, Sukartono. 2016. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 66-70. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on maize in sandy soil is expected to have positive implications for the improvement of AMF population and nutrient uptake. However, how many increases in the AMF population and nutrient uptake in the second cycle of a certain cropping system commonly cultivated by the farmers after growing their corn crop have not been examined. Since different cropping systems would indicate different increases in the populations of AMF and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to determine the population AMF and nutrient uptake on the second cropping cycle of corn-based cropping systems which utilized indigenous mycorrhizal fungi on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For that purpose, an experiment was conducted at the Akar-Akar Village in Bayan Sub-district of North Lombok, designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design, with four replications and six treatments of cropping cycles (P0 = corn-soybean as a control, in which the corn plants were not inoculated with AMF; P1 = corn-soybean, P2 = corn-peanut, P3 = corn-upland rice, P4 = corn-sorghum, and P5 = corn-corn, in which the first cycle corn plants were inoculated with AMF. The results indicated that the mycorrhizal populations (spore number and infection percentage were highest in the second cycle sorghum, achieving 335% and 226% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control. Increased uptake of N, P, K and Ca the sorghum plants at 60 DAS of the second cropping cycle reached 200%; 550%; 120% and 490% higher than in the control. The soil used in this experiment is rough-textured (sandy loam, so it is relatively low in water holding capacity and high porosity.

  12. Water flow and nutrient transport in a layered silt loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de J.A.

    1997-01-01


    Theory, numerical models, and field and laboratory measurements are used to describe and predict water flow and nutrient transport in a layered silt loam soil. One- and two-dimensional models based on the Darcy equation for water flow and the convection-dispersion equation for solute

  13. Influence of wood-derived biochar on the compactibility and strength of silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed; Gariepy, Yvan; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is proven to enhance soil fertility and increase crop productivity. Given that the influence of biochar on soil compaction remains unclear, selected physico-mechanical properties of soil amended with wood-derived biochar were assessed. For unamended silt loam, the bulk density, maximum bulk density, optimum moisture content, plastic limit, liquid limit, and plasticity index were 1.05 Mg m-3, 1.69 Mg m-3, 16.55, 17.1, 29.3, and 12.2%, respectively. The penetration resistance and shear strength of the unamended silt loam compacted in the standard compaction Proctor mold and at its optimum moisture content were 1800 kPa and 850 kPa, respectively. Results from amending the silt loam with 10% particle size ranges (0.5-212 μm) led to relative decreases of 18.1, 17.75, 66.66, and 97.4% in bulk density, maximum bulk density, penetration resistance, and shear strength, respectively; a 26.8% relative increase in optimum moisture content; along with absolute increases in plastic limit, liquid limit, and plasticity index of 5.3, 13.7, and 8.4%, respectively. While the biochar-amended silt loam soil was more susceptible to compaction, however, soil mechanical impedance enhanced.

  14. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning;

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...... of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors...

  15. The red mantle of weathering and brownish-red loam of Miaodao Islands in Shandong Province and implication in paleoclimate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹家欣; 严润娥; 王欢

    1995-01-01

    The formation,age and paleoclimatic changes of the red mantle of weathering and brownish-redloam of the Miaodao Islands are dealt with for the first time.The red mantle of weathering products formedthrough Fe-Al enrichment and desilication process under wet and hot climatic conditions.The brownish-red loam isa kind of eolian loess formed under semiarid and warm climatic conditions.They correlate,respectively,with thered clay of Pliocene and Wucheng Loess occurring in the inland of North China.They indicate that an abruptchange of climatic conditions took place during the turn of Pliocene and Pleistocene.This change may relate to theglobal climatic change.

  16. Freeze-Thaw Cycles Effects on Soil Compaction in a Clay Loam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, J.; Evans, R.; Iversen, W.

    2012-04-01

    Inappropriate soil management practices and heavier farm machinery and equipment have led to an increase in soil compaction in the last two decades prompting increased global concern regarding the impact of soil compaction on crop production and soil quality in modern mechanized agriculture. A 3-yr comprehensive study was established to evaluate the dynamic of freeze-thaw cycles on soil compaction in a clay loam soil. Plots of frozen soils were compared with plots where soils were prevented from freezing with electrically heated blankets commonly used on concrete. Results showed that frequent freeze-thaw cycles over the winter alleviated a majority of soil compaction at the 0 - 20 cm depth. Soil penetration resistance in compacted soils was reduced by 73 and 68% over the winter at the 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm depths, respectively, due to dynamic effects of freeze-thaw cycles on soil structure and particles configuration. In unfrozen compacted soils, the penetration resistance was also reduced by 50 and 60% over winter at the 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm depths, respectively, due to the biology of soil, microbial activity, and disruptive effects of shrink-swell cycles. These results have demonstrated of how repeated freeze-thaw cycles can alleviate soil compaction, alter soil physical quality and create optimal soil conditions required for profitable growth of agricultural crops. The results from this study will save growers considerable time, money and energy currently required to alleviate soil compaction using other methods such as sub-soiling and deep tillage. We believe that Mother Nature provides ways to reverse soil compaction and improve soil structure and aggregation through the dynamic of freeze-thaw cycles that soils in Montana and other parts of the country go through each year. We concluded that the Mother Nature is the most effective and cheapest way to alleviate soil compaction.

  17. Influence of Long-term Application of Feedlot Manure Amendments on Water Repellency of a Clay Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Beasley, Bruce W; Hazendonk, Paul; Drury, Craig F; Chanasyk, David S

    2017-05-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may increase the quantity of soil organic carbon (C) and change its quality, which may influence soil water repellency. The objective was to determine the influence of feedlot manure type (stockpiled vs. composted), bedding material (straw [ST] vs. woodchips [WD]), and application rate (13, 39, or 77 Mg ha) on repellency of a clay loam soil after 17 annual applications. The repellency was determined on all 14 treatments using the water repellency index ( index), the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method, and molarity of ethanol (MED) test. The C composition of particulate organic matter in soil of five selected treatments after 16 annual applications was also determined using C nuclear magnetic resonance-direct polarization with magic-angle spinning (NMR-DPMAS). Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on index and WDPT, and MED classification was similar. Mean index and WDPT values were significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic for WD than ST. Application rate had no effect on the index, but WDPT was significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic with increasing application rate. Strong ( > 0.7) but nonsignificant positive correlations were found between index and WDPT versus hydrophobic (alkyl + aromatic) C, lignin at 74 ppm (O-alkyl), and unspecified aromatic compounds at 144 ppm. Specific aromatic compounds also contributed more to repellency than alkyl, O-alkyl, and carbonyl compounds. Overall, all three methods consistently showed that repellency was greater for WD- than ST-amended clay loam soil, but manure type had no effect. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  19. Study on Improved Physical Properties of Aeolian Sandy Soil with Fly Ash%利用粉煤灰改良风沙土物理性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占宏; 白守德; 崔志永; 高将

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to research the effective measure of the improved physical properties of Aeolian sandy soil with fly ash. [ Method] Based on the analysis of the structure and physical properties of Aeolian sandy soil and fly ash,and the measurement of particle size range of test sample, soil proportion, soil bulk density and porosity the matching soil proportion, soil bulk density, porosity and water physical properties changes of fly ash of imposing different application rates to Aeolian sandy soil were studied. [ Result] The sandy soil by mixing fly ash increased Aeolian sandy soil clay, reduced soil bulk density and porosity coefficient. Contrasting four kinds of allocated proportion plans, optimal application rate of Aeolian sandy soil with fly ash was 30%. The fly ash with optimal application rate could effectively improve the soil physical traits. Soil permeability and water holding capacity was close to 1-2. Pore-size was between 50% and 60% , with the characteristics of loam. Soil moisture of fly ash in the soil significantly improved compared with sand, the permeability increased unceasingly, and effective water stranded time increased. [ Conclusion ] The research provided support for the improvement of physical properties of Aeolian sandy soil with fly ash.%[目的]研究粉煤灰改良风沙土物理性质的有效性.[方法]在测量供试样品的粒径范围、土壤比重、容重,孔隙度的基础上,对风沙土添加不同用量的粉煤灰并调控测试条件,研究了不同土壤样品的比重、容重,孔隙度及水分物理性质的变化情况.[结果]风沙土中掺入粉煤灰使风沙土黏粒含量增多,土壤容重、孔隙度降低,风沙土与粉煤灰最优的添加率为30%.30%添加率可有效改良土壤物理性状,土壤透水性与持水性约1∶2,孔隙度为50% ~ 60%,具有壤土的特点,其含水率较沙土有明显提高,渗透性不断升高,有效水分滞留时间增加.[结论]该研究为利

  20. Seasonal variation of bivalve larvae on an exposed sandy beach on Kashima-nada: Tips for the sandy beach recruitment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hideki; Saito, Hajime; Adachi, Kumiko; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2011-02-01

    Bivalves are often the dominant macrobenthos species in exposed sandy beach environments. However, our understanding of their recruitment processes before post-settlement stages on sandy beaches with highly energetic environments is incomplete. To clarify the characteristics of the free-swimming planktonic stage that affects recruitment efficiency in sandy shore ecosystems, we investigated the temporal (weekly-biweekly) variation of bivalve planktonic larval concentration coupled with oceanographic conditions on an exposed sandy shore on the sea of Kashima-nada, Japan, from summer 2003 to autumn 2005. Larvae were observed throughout the year, but the surge of larval concentration composed of sandy beach and sessile bivalves occurred most prominently in summer, from August to September. The peak concentration of larvae during this season was more than 1000 times higher than in other seasons. The larval concentration was positively correlated with water temperature and northward wind velocity and negatively correlated with each of the nutrient concentrations. On the other hand, chlorophyll a concentration and salinity seemed to have little effect on the larval concentration. Based on this fundamental knowledge, further investigations about planktonic larvae in sandy beaches are needed.

  1. Advance of Wetting Front in Silt Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under drip irrigation , the plant's root is concentrated inside the wetted bulb (region. Thus, the development of these roots and the plant production are greatly affected by the wetting pattern. Therefore, the wetting pattern of soil under drip irrigation must be taken into consideration in the design of drip irrigation system for both single dripping source or multi-overlapping wetting patterns of dripping water sources.2The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of initial water content of the soil and spacing between two adjacent dripping sources with different flow rate on the movement of the wetting front.This study included 16 tests for monitoring the advancement of the wetting front with time during and after the water application phase. The water advance and water distribution measurement are carried out for two cases of the soil profile: for the first case with initial volumetric water content of 4.08% and for the second case with initial volumetric water content of 12.24%. Two spacing between the emitter were tested 25cm and 50 cm using application flow rates of 0.606, 1.212, 1.818, and 2.424 cm3 /min/cm to show the combined effect of spacing and flow rate on the performance of two adjacent emitter.The study proposed a method for determining the spacing between the two emitting sources , the water application rate and watering time. The proposed method depends on a wetted zone whose depth is equal to the root zone depth with a values equals to the maximum vertical advance of the wetting front underneath the drip line at time when this depth is equal to the depth of wetting at mid­point between the drip line. the study revealed that both the vertical water advance in soil underneath the emitter and the horizontal advance of the wetting front is larger than those in the case of single emitter.Furthermore, the vertical water advance increases with the decrease spacing between the two drip lines. Also, the horizontal advance of the

  2. Feasibility of on-site bioremediation of loam soil contaminated by diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Narkis, N

    2001-09-01

    This study originated from an accidental event of diesel oil contamination in a loam soil area of 7,000 m2. Approximately a volume of 1,300 m3 of diesel oil was released into the environment. Reclamation of the contaminated soil by on-site bioremediation was selected as the most appropriate treatment method. A major concern was associated with the nature of the local loam soil. Loam has a very low hydraulic conductivity and very quickly becomes impermeable after its contact with water. The bioremediation approach incorporated excavation of the contaminated soil, mixing it with an agent, which increased its permeability. Following this preliminary treatment came the construction of bioreactors as a suitable environment of nutrients, moisture, dissolved oxygen, and enriched culture of microorganisms, which enabled breakdown of the diesel oil. This case study indicated that the target of 99% of diesel oil clean up could be achieved by using the technology of on-site bioremediation. The selected treatment method was found to be technologically and economically feasible. However, some improvement in the application of the basic treatment approach might increase the bioremediation efficiency.

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey...

  4. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  5. The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. B.; Meixner, F. X.; Sun, Z. G.; Chen, X. B.; Mamtimin, B.

    2009-04-01

    There are about 160.9 Mha of sandy land in China, about 17.6% of total Chinese area, which mainly distributed in 35°-50° N. The western Songnen Plain, which located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern China, is one of the main sandy soil distribution regions. The changes of land use in sandy soil are accompanied by changes in biogeochemical cycles of nutrients, particularly of the air-surface exchange of trace gases like nitric oxide. Our study, based on results obtained by a laboratory incubation technique, focuses on (a) NO production and consumption in sandy soils from two types of land use as function of soil temperature and soil moisture, and (b) The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils in semi-arid region. At 25˚C, average NO production (in terms of mass of N) was 0.016,and 0.013 ng kg-1s-1 in sandy soils from soybean land (SL) and man-made forest (MF), re¬spectively. NO consumption rate constant ranged from 0.26×10-6 to 7.28×10-6 m3 kg-1s-1. At 25˚C and under optimum soil moisture conditions for NO production, the NO compensation point mixing ratio was about 266 and 161 ug m-3 (465,and 281 ppb) for soils of SL and MF, respectively. Statistically sound relationships have been observed between NO fluxes and soil moisture (optimum curves). NO fluxes also increased exponentially with soil temperature at any given soil moisture. The optimum soil moisture for which maximum NO flux was observed was independent of soil temperature. The maximum of NO flux potentials for SL and MF soils (at 25°C) were 59.6 and 36.5 ng m-2s-1 at water-filled pore space (%WFPS) of 26 and 24, respectively. The NO flux potential was about 2 times larger for cropland soil than for man-made forest soils, most likely due to fertilizer application to the cropland soils.

  6. Agronomic and Economic Impact of Timing for Planting and Defoliation of Cotton on Cotton Yield, Quality, and Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was initiated in the fall of 2006 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, Alabama, on a Compass sandy loam (coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Plinthic Paleudults). The experiment was rotated to a different location each year, but the soil type was ...

  7. Gas entrapment and microbial N2O reduction reduce N2O emissions from a biochar-amended sandy clay loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Johannes; Guzman-Bustamante, Ivan; Kuehfuss, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Well, Reinhard; Spott, Oliver; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced during microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Soils represent the largest sources of N2O emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application being the main driver of rising atmospheric N2O concentrations. Soil biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising tool to mitigate N2O emissions from soils. However, the underlying processes that cause N2O emission suppression in biochar-amended soils are still poorly understood. We set up microcosm experiments with fertilized, wet soil in which we used 15N tracing techniques and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the impact of biochar on mineral and gaseous nitrogen dynamics and denitrification-specific functional marker gene abundance and expression. In accordance with previous studies our results showed that biochar addition can lead to a significant decrease in N2O emissions. Furthermore, we determined significantly higher quantities of soil-entrapped N2O and N2 in biochar microcosms and a biochar-induced increase in typical and atypical nosZ transcript copy numbers. Our findings suggest that biochar-induced N2O emission mitigation is based on the entrapment of N2O in water-saturated pores of the soil matrix and concurrent stimulation of microbial N2O reduction resulting in an overall decrease of the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio.

  8. Influence of 20-year organic and inorganic fertilization on organic carbon accumulation and microbial community structure of aggregates in an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanjun Zhang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the long-term effect of compost (CM and inorganic fertilizer (NPK application on microbial community structure and organic carbon (OC accumulation at aggregate scale, soils from plots amended with CM, NPK and no fertilizer (control for 20 years (1989-2009 were collected. Soil was separated into large macroaggregate (>2,000 μm, small macroaggregate (250-2,000 μm, microaggregate (53-250 μm, silt (2-53 μm and clay fraction (<2 μm by wet-sieving, and their OC concentration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA were measured. The 20-year application of compost significantly (P<0.05 increased OC by 123-134% and accelerated the formation of macroaggregates, but decreased soil oxygen diffusion coefficient. NPK mainly increased OC in macroaggregates and displayed weaker influence on aggregation. Bacteria distributed in all aggregates, while fungi and actinobacteria were mainly in macroaggregates and microaggregates. The ratio of monounsaturated to branched (M/B PLFAs, as an indicator for the ratio of aerobic to anaerobic microorganisms, increased inversely with aggregate size. Both NPK and especially CM significantly (P<0.05 decreased M/B ratios in all aggregates except the silt fraction compared with the control. The increased organic C in aggregates significantly (P<0.05 negatively correlated with M/B ratios under CM and NPK. Our study suggested that more efficient OC accumulations in aggregates under CM-treated than under NPK-treated soil was not only due to a more effective decrease of actinobacteria, but also a decrease of monounsaturated PLFAs and an increase of branched PLFAs. Aggregations under CM appear to alter micro-habitats to those more suitable for anaerobes, which in turn boosts OC accumulation.

  9. Community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria under long-term application of mineral fertilizer and organic manure in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a greater impact than organic manure, while N deficiency treatment (PK) had no significant effect. AOB community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the amoA gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DGGE profiles showed that the AOB community was more diverse in N-fertilized treatments than in the PK-fertilized treatment or the control, while one dominant band observed in the control could not be detected in any of the fertilized treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DGGE bands derived from N-fertilized treatments belonged to Nitrosospira cluster 3, indicating that N fertilization resulted in the dominance of Nitrosospira cluster 3 in soil. These results demonstrate that long-term application of N fertilizers could result in increased soil nitrification potential and the AOB community shifts in soil. Our results also showed the different effects of mineral fertilizer N versus organic manure N; the effects of P and K on the soil AOB community; and the importance of balanced fertilization with N, P, and K in promoting nitrification functions in arable soils.

  10. Effects of cropping system and rates of nitrogen in animal slurry and mineral fertilizer on nitrate leaching from a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Hansen, Jørgen Frederik; Kjellerup, Viggo K.;

    1993-01-01

    the cumulative loss of nitrate to increase significantly. More nitrate was leached after application of slurry because organic nitrogen in the slurry was mineralized. With IN (CAN) the leaching losses of nitrate were in the following order: continuous spring barley undersown with Italian ryegrass

  11. Enhancement of physical and hydrological properties of a sandy loam soil via application of different biochar particle sizes during incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Esmaeelnejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of many studies that have been carried out, there is a knowledge-gap as to how different sizes of biochars alter soil properties. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sizes of biochars on soil properties. The biochars were produced at two pyrolysis temperatures (350 and 550°C from two feedstocks (rice husk and apple wood chips. Produced biochars were prepared at two diameters (1-2 mm and <1 mm and mixed with soil at a rate of 2% (w/w. Multiple effects of type, temperature and size of biochars were significant, so as the mixture of soil and finer woodchip biochars produced at 550°C had significant effects on all soil properties. Soil aggregation and stabilization of macro-aggregates, values of mean weight diameter and water stable aggregates were improved due to increased soil organic matter as binding agents and microbial biomass. In addition, plant available water capacity, air capacity, S-index, meso-pores and water retention content were significantly increased compared to control. But, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks was reduced due to blockage of pores by biochar particles, reduction of pore throat size and available space for flow and also, high field capacity of biochars. So, application of biochar to soil, especially the finest particles of high-tempered woody biochars, can improve physical and hydrological properties of coarse-textured soils and reduce their water drainage by modification of Ks.

  12. Enhancement of physical and hydrological properties of a sandy loam soil via application of different biochar particle sizes during incubation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeelnejad, L.; Shorafa, M.; Gorji, M.; Hosseini, S.M.

    2016-11-01

    In spite of many studies that have been carried out, there is a knowledge-gap as to how different sizes of biochars alter soil properties. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sizes of biochars on soil properties. The biochars were produced at two pyrolysis temperatures (350 and 550°C) from two feedstocks (rice husk and apple wood chips). Produced biochars were prepared at two diameters (1-2 mm and <1 mm) and mixed with soil at a rate of 2% (w/w). Multiple effects of type, temperature and size of biochars were significant, so as the mixture of soil and finer woodchip biochars produced at 550°C had significant effects on all soil properties. Soil aggregation and stabilization of macro-aggregates, values of mean weight diameter and water stable aggregates were improved due to increased soil organic matter as binding agents and microbial biomass. In addition, plant available water capacity, air capacity, S-index, meso-pores and water retention content were significantly increased compared to control. But, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was reduced due to blockage of pores by biochar particles, reduction of pore throat size and available space for flow and also, high field capacity of biochars. So, application of biochar to soil, especially the finest particles of high-tempered woody biochars, can improve physical and hydrological properties of coarse-textured soils and reduce their water drainage by modification of Ks. (Author)

  13. Peanut plant growth and yield as influenced by co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and some rhizo-microorganisms under sandy loam soil conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Badawi, F.Sh.F; Biomy, A.M.M; Desoky, A.H

    2011-01-01

    ... known N 2 -fixing plant-microorganism interactions is the legume–rhizobia symbiosis, which is considered the most efficient and important process in crop production, so as to improve soil fertility and farming system flexibility ( Mylona et al., 1995 ). Numerous publications have indicated the necessity of legume inoculation with effective and effi...

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances P acquisition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a sandy loam soil with long-term inorganic fertilization regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Lin, Xiangui; Wang, Junhua; Cui, Xiangchao; Dai, Jue; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2010-10-01

    The P efficiency, crop yield, and response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledonium were tested in an experimental field with long-term (19 years) fertilizer management. The experiment included five fertilizer treatments: organic amendment (OA), half organic amendment plus half mineral fertilizer (1/2 OM), mineral fertilizer NPK, mineral fertilizer NK, and the control (without fertilization). AMF inoculation responsiveness (MIR) of wheat plants at acquiring P were estimated by comparing plants grown in unsterilized soil inoculated with G. caledonium and in untreated soil containing indigenous AMF. Without AMF inoculation, higher crop yields but lower colonization rates were observed in the NPK and two OA-inputted treatments, and NPK had significantly (P soils and thereby P acquisition of wheat plants compared with OA and 1/2 OM. G. caledonium inoculation significantly (P soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, only with the NPK treatment. This gave an MIR of ca. 45% on total P acquisition of wheat plants. There were no other remarkable MIRs. It suggested that the MIR is determined by soil available P status, and rational combination of AMF with chemical NPK fertilizer can compensate for organic amendments by improving P-acquisition efficiency in arable soils.

  15. Effect of Simulated Weathering and Aging of TNT in Amended Sandy Loam Soil on Toxicity to the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytreaeus Crypticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Carlton T. Phillips Jan E. Kolakowski Carl W. Kurnas RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE May 2006 20060828026 Approved for public release; distribution is...pp 2365-2370. Haley, M.V.; Checkai, R.T.; Kurnas , C.W.; Wentsel, R.S.; Nwanguma, R.O.; Sadusky, M. 1993. Toxicity determination of explosive...M.; Phillips, C.T.; Kolakowski, J.E.; Kurnas C.W.; Sunahara, G.I. 2003. Survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta

  16. Influence of 20-year organic and inorganic fertilization on organic carbon accumulation and microbial community structure of aggregates in an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanjun; Ding, Weixin; He, Xinhua; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of compost (CM) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK) application on microbial community structure and organic carbon (OC) accumulation at aggregate scale, soils from plots amended with CM, NPK and no fertilizer (control) for 20 years (1989-2009) were collected. Soil was separated into large macroaggregate (>2,000 μm), small macroaggregate (250-2,000 μm), microaggregate (53-250 μm), silt (2-53 μm) and clay fraction (soil oxygen diffusion coefficient. NPK mainly increased OC in macroaggregates and displayed weaker influence on aggregation. Bacteria distributed in all aggregates, while fungi and actinobacteria were mainly in macroaggregates and microaggregates. The ratio of monounsaturated to branched (M/B) PLFAs, as an indicator for the ratio of aerobic to anaerobic microorganisms, increased inversely with aggregate size. Both NPK and especially CM significantly (Psoil was not only due to a more effective decrease of actinobacteria, but also a decrease of monounsaturated PLFAs and an increase of branched PLFAs. Aggregations under CM appear to alter micro-habitats to those more suitable for anaerobes, which in turn boosts OC accumulation.

  17. Hurricane Sandy washover deposits on Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Selle, SeanPaul M.; Lunghino, Brent D.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Costa, Pedro J.M.

    2017-02-16

    Washover deposits on Fire Island, New York, from Hurricane Sandy in 2012 were investigated a year after the storm to document the sedimentary characteristics of hurricane washover features. Sediment data collected in the field includes stratigraphic descriptions and photos from trenches, bulk sediment samples, U-channels, and gouge and push cores. Samples and push cores were further analyzed in the laboratory for grain size, density variations using x-ray computed tomography (CT), and surface microtexture using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elevation profiles of washover features were measured using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) with Real Time Kinematic processing. The DGPS elevations were compared to lidar (light detection and ranging) data from pre- and post-Sandy surveys to assess the degree to which washover deposit thicknesses changed within the year following deposition. Hurricane Sandy washover deposits as much as 1 meter thick were observed in trenches. Initial results show that the upper parts of the deposits have been reworked significantly in some places by wind, but there are still areas where the deposits are almost entirely intact. Where mostly intact, the washover deposits consist of massive or weakly laminated sand near the base, overlain by more strongly laminated sands.

  18. Simulations and Visualizations of Hurricane Sandy (2012) as Revealed by the NASA CAMVis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Storm Sandy first appeared as a tropical storm in the southern Caribbean Sea on Oct. 22, 2012, moved northeastward, turned northwestward, and made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey in late October. Sandy devastated surrounding areas, caused an estimated damage of $50 billion, and became the second costliest tropical cyclone (TC) in U.S. History surpassed only by Hurricane Katrina (2005). To save lives and mitigate economic damage, a central question to be addressed is to what extent the lead time of severe storm prediction such as Sandy can be extended (e.g., Emanuel 2012; Kerr 2012). In this study, we present 10 numerical experiments initialized at 00 and 1200 UTC Oct. 22-26, 2012, with the NASA coupled advanced global modeling and visualization systems (CAMVis). All of the predictions realistically capture Sandy's movement with the northwestward turn prior to its landfall. However, three experiments (initialized at 0000 UTC Oct. 22 and 24 and 1200 UTC Oct. 22) produce larger errors. Among the 10 experiments, the control run initialized at 0000 UTC Oct. 23 produces a remarkable 7-day forecast. To illustrate the impact of environmental flows on the predictability of Sandy, we produce and discuss four-dimensional (4-D) visualizations with the control run. 4-D visualizations clearly demonstrate the following multiscale processes that led to the sinuous track of Sandy: the initial steering impact of an upper-level trough (appearing over the northwestern Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico), the blocking impact of systems to the northeast of Sandy, and the binary interaction with a mid-latitude, upper-level trough that appeared at 130degrees west longitude on Oct. 23, moved to the East Coast and intensified during the period of Oct. 29-30 prior to Sandy's landfall.

  19. Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kunz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and entered the United States not far from New York. Along its track, Sandy caused more than 200 fatalities and severe losses in Jamaica, The Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba, and the US. This paper demonstrates the capability and potential for near-real-time analysis of catastrophes. It is shown that the impact of Sandy was driven by the superposition of different extremes (high wind speeds, storm surge, heavy precipitation and by cascading effects. In particular the interaction between Sandy and an extra-tropical weather system created a huge storm that affected large areas in the US. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events, both from a hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. The distribution of losses to different sectors of the economy is calculated with simple input-output models as well as government estimates. Direct economic losses are estimated about USD 4.2 billion in the Caribbean and between USD 78 and 97 billion in the US. Indirect economic losses from power outages is estimated in the order of USD 16.3 billion. Modelling sector-specific dependencies quantifies total business interruption losses between USD 10.8 and 15.5 billion. Thus, seven years after the record impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane in the history of the United States.

  20. Hurricane Sandy Exposure and the Mental Health of World Trade Center Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Clouston, Sean; Gonzalez, Adam; Kotov, Roman; Guerrera, Kathryn M; Luft, Benjamin J

    2017-04-03

    The psychological consequences of a second disaster on populations exposed to an earlier disaster have rarely been studied prospectively. Using a pre- and postdesign, we examined the effects of Hurricane Sandy on possible World Trade Center (WTC) related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist score of ≥ 50) and overall depression (major depressive disorder [MDD]; Patient Health Questionnaire depression score of ≥ 10) among 870 WTC responders with a follow-up monitoring visit at the Long Island WTC Health Program during the 6 months post-Hurricane Sandy. The Hurricane Sandy exposures evaluated were damage to home (8.3%) and to possessions (7.8%), gasoline shortage (24.1%), prolonged power outage (42.7%), and filing a Federal Emergency Management Agency claim (11.3%). A composite exposure score also was constructed. In unadjusted analyses, Hurricane Sandy exposures were associated with 1.77 to 5.38 increased likelihood of PTSD and 1.58 to 4.13 likelihood of MDD; odds ratios for ≥ 3 exposures were 6.47 for PTSD and 6.45 for MDD. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, WTC exposure, pre-Hurricane Sandy mental health status, and time between assessments, reporting ≥ 3 Hurricane Sandy exposures was associated with a 3.29 and 3.71 increased likelihood of PTSD and MDD, respectively. These findings underscore the importance of assessing the impact of a subsequent disaster in ongoing responder health surveillance programs.

  1. Investigation of superstorm Sandy 2012 in a multi-disciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vannieuwenhuyse, M.; Comes, T.; Elmer, F.; Schröter, K.; Fohringer, J.; Münzberg, T.; Lucas, C.; Zschau, J.

    2013-10-01

    At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved from the Caribbean Sea into the Atlantic Ocean and entered the United States not far from New York. Along its track, Sandy caused more than 200 fatalities and severe losses in Jamaica, The Bahamas, Haiti, Cuba, and the US. This paper demonstrates the capability and potential for near-real-time analysis of catastrophes. It is shown that the impact of Sandy was driven by the superposition of different extremes (high wind speeds, storm surge, heavy precipitation) and by cascading effects. In particular the interaction between Sandy and an extra-tropical weather system created a huge storm that affected large areas in the US. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events, both from a hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. The distribution of losses to different sectors of the economy is calculated with simple input-output models as well as government estimates. Direct economic losses are estimated about USD 4.2 billion in the Caribbean and between USD 78 and 97 billion in the US. Indirect economic losses from power outages is estimated in the order of USD 16.3 billion. Modelling sector-specific dependencies quantifies total business interruption losses between USD 10.8 and 15.5 billion. Thus, seven years after the record impact of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Hurricane Sandy is the second costliest hurricane in the history of the United States.

  2. [Simulation alfalfa growth in Wulanbuhe sandy region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Bao, Xuemei

    2002-12-01

    Based on the theories of accumulated temperature and on the physio-ecological characteristics of Medicago sativa, a simulation model for its growth under soil water stress in arid sandy region was developed. The model was mainly composed of four modules: the stage module of growth, the dynamic module of leaf area index, the accumulated module of dry matter, and the distributive module of dry matter. After simulating and calculating, the model could be used to predict the growing progress and dynamic changes of leaf area and yield for herbage in sandy region. The result shows that the application of the model to production is usually effective.

  3. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    to a sandy and a sandy loam soil. After 1 week, the preceding storage period (0-20 weeks) and temperature (5 degrees C or 15 degrees C) had no significant effect on the net release of inorganic N from the slurry in soil. Thus, the increased NH4+ content in the slurry after storage was followed by increased...... net N immobilization in soil. Additional straw in the slurry caused increased net N immobilization only in the sandy loam soil. Following anaerobic storage, 8-14% of slurry C was released in gaseous form, and the net mineralization of slurry C after 12 weeks in soil amounted to 54-63%. The extra net...

  4. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse ... prominent in the mid-shore at Cape Cross but occurred in low numbers at Langstrand , where archiannelids ... Koop (1983) recorded the faunal composition of local .... four replicate sediment cores were taken at 15 cm.

  5. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  6. 77 FR 74341 - Establishing the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, resulting in major flooding, extensive structural damage... assist the affected region. A disaster of Hurricane Sandy's magnitude merits a comprehensive...

  7. Measured and Estimated Volatilisation of Naphthalene from a Sandy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of naphthalene from an artificially contaminated sandy soil at different water contents were measured in the laboratory, at 10°C. The soil contained 1.1% of organic carbon and the water content varied between 2.8 and 14% w/w. The diffusive flux of naphthalene from the ...... the fluxes by a factor of 1.5 to 6.4. The largest deviation between predicted and observed dynamic fluxes was found at high water contents. For the cover soil, half-life times of 1 to 2 days were estimated by the model for naphthalene degradation....

  8. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  9. Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  10. Degradation of roxarsone in a silt loam soil and its toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tengfang; Ke, Zhengchen; Chen, Qing; Liu, Li; Chen, Guowei

    2014-10-01

    The land application of poultry or swine litter, containing large amounts of roxarsone, causes serious arsenic pollution in soil. Understanding biotransformation process of roxarsone and its potential risks favors proper disposal of roxarsone-contaminated animal litter, yet remains not achieved. We report an experimental study of biotransformation process of roxarsone in a silt loam soil under various soil moisture and temperature conditions, and the toxicity of roxarsone and its products from degradation. Results showed that soil moisture and higher temperature promoted roxarsone degradation, associating with emergent pentavalent arsenic. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis activity revealed that roxarsone does not exert acute toxic on soil microbes. With the release of inorganic arsenic, FDA hydrolysis activity was inhibited gradually, as evidenced by ecotoxicological assessment using Photobacterium leiognathi. The results shade new lights on the dynamic roxarsone biotransformation processes in soil, which is important for guiding appropriate disposal of poultry or swine litter in the environment.

  11. Uncertainties in sandy shorelines evolution under the Bruun rule assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonéri eLe Cozannet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current practice of sandy shoreline change assessments, the local sedimentary budget is evaluated using the sediment balance equation, that is, by summing the contributions of longshore and cross-shore processes. The contribution of future sea-level-rise induced by climate change is usually obtained using the Bruun rule, which assumes that the shoreline retreat is equal to the change of sea-level divided by the slope of the upper shoreface. However, it remains unsure that this approach is appropriate to account for the impacts of future sea-level rise. This is due to the lack of relevant observations to validate the Bruun rule under the expected sea-level rise rates. To address this issue, this article estimates the coastal settings and period of time under which the use of the Bruun rule could be (invalidated, in the case of wave-exposed gently-sloping sandy beaches. Using the sedimentary budgets of Stive (2004 and probabilistic sea-level rise scenarios based on IPCC, we provide shoreline change projections that account for all uncertain hydrosedimentary processes affecting idealized coasts (impacts of sea-level rise, storms and other cross-shore and longshore processes. We evaluate the relative importance of each source of uncertainties in the sediment balance equation using a global sensitivity analysis. For scenario RCP 6.0 and 8.5 and in the absence of coastal defences, the model predicts a perceivable shift toward generalized beach erosion by the middle of the 21st century. In contrast, the model predictions are unlikely to differ from the current situation in case of scenario RCP 2.6. Finally, the contribution of sea-level rise and climate change scenarios to sandy shoreline change projections uncertainties increases with time during the 21st century. Our results have three primary implications for coastal settings similar to those provided described in Stive (2004 : first, the validation of the Bruun rule will not necessarily be

  12. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  13. Screening of cellulose decomposing fungi in sandy dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoKun Wang; XueYong Zhao; XiaoAn Zuo; XinPing Liu; Hao Qu; Wei Mao; JianYing Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose decomposing fungi play an important role in litter decomposition and are decisive in nutrient cycling in sandy land ecosystems. Thirty-one strains were isolated to select efficient cellulose decomposers, and four efficient cellulose decomposing fungi (NM3-1, NM3-2, NM3-3, and NM3-4) were screened using a CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) carbon source in dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land. They were identified as Asperigillus calidoustus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Hypocrea lixii by rDNA-ITS molecular biological methods. Cloth decomposition rates were 15.71%, 15.89%, 17.29%, and 17.89%by the four efficient decomposers incubated for 30 days, respectively. Screening of efficient cellulose decomposers can not only increase the dune soil functional microbe bank, but can also accelerate litter decom-position and available nutrient input in the Horqin Sandy Land.

  14. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.

  15. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  16. Dynamic Effect of the Dissolution Time of PAM on Soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity%干粉PAM溶解时间对土壤饱和导水率的动态影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬; 魏占民; 于健; 宋日权

    2016-01-01

    本试验选取两种质地土壤(黏壤土和砂壤土),采用3种干粉PAM施用水平(0、22.5 kg/hm2和45 kg/hm2),测定土样在10.25 mm/h入渗速度下的土壤饱和导水率(KS),然后根据土样团聚体含量和稳定性及团聚结构的微观图片,分析干粉PAM影响下土壤结构的变化特征,进而说明干粉PAM溶解时间对KS的影响机理。结果表明:施用PAM后, KS随干粉PAM在水中溶解时间的延长而逐渐减小,最终趋于稳定;干粉PAM溶解时间较短时,PAM处理的KS高于对照,其中PAM施用水平45 kg/hm2时砂壤土KS提高幅度最大,较对照提高26.87%,但不同PAM施用量处理间的KS差异不显著。干粉PAM溶解时间足够长时,PAM处理的KS均显著低于对照,其中PAM施用水平45 kg/hm2时黏壤土 KS降低幅度最大,较对照降低10.86%,但是不同施用量处理间 KS差异不显著。从影响机理上分析,PAM主要是通过增加土壤团聚体含量及稳定性来提高 KS;而干粉 PAM 溶解时间足够长时,由于 PAM 易吸附土壤颗粒,水解后的PAM分子链不断伸张延长,堵塞了土壤孔隙,加上PAM本身的黏滞特性,从而降低了KS。研究干粉PAM溶解时间对KS的动态影响,可以为PAM在改善土壤导水能力方面的应用提供理论依据。%Two soils (clay loam and sandy loam) and three addition levels of PAM (0, 22.5, 45 kg/hm2) were used to measure the dynamic changes of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity(KS) under constant water flow (10.25 mm/h), the content and stability of soil aggregates and thus to investigate the mechanisms for the effect of the dissolution time of PAM on KS. Results showed thatKS decreased as the dissolving time of PAM increased, and finally researched a stable state. When the dissolving time of PAM was shorter, theKS of the PAM treatment was higher than that of control. The sandy loam soil with PAM of 45 kg/hm2 had the highest grow rate ofKS, and theKS was

  17. Weathering the Superstorm: From Texts to Twitter--How Campus Communicators Overcame Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Gail

    2013-01-01

    By the time Superstorm Sandy struck New Jersey in late October 2012, Kathy Corbalis, executive director of communications and college relations at Atlantic Cape Community College, and her team were battle-tested. In the 15 months before the hurricane, the college experienced two bomb threats via Twitter, a lockdown due to gunfire, an on-campus…

  18. Improvement of Water Movement in an Undulating Sandy Soil Prone to Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h

  19. Leaching of trifluralin, metolachlor, and metribuzin in a clay loam soil of Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Feagley, Sam E

    2002-09-01

    Trifluralin[2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluormethyl)benzenamine], metolachlor[2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide], and metribuzin[4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)one] were applied in field plots located on a Commerce clay loam soil near Baton Rouge, Louisiana at the rate of 1683 g/ha, 2759 g/ha and 609 g/ha, respectively. The half-lives of trifluralin, metolachlor, and metribuzin in the top 0-15 cm soil depth were found to be 54.7 days, 35.8 days and 29.8 days, respectively. The proportion of trifluralin, metolachlor, and metribuzin in the top 0-15 cm soil depth was 94.7%, 86.6%, and 75.4%, respectively of that found in the top 0-60 cm soil depth 30 days after application. Trifluralin concentrations were within a range of 0.026 ng/mL to 0.058 ng/mL in 1 m deep well water, and between 0.007 ng/mL and 0.039 ng/mL in 2 m deep well water over a 62 day period after application. Metolachlor concentrations in the 1 m and 2 m wells ranged from 3.62 ng/mL to 82.32 ng/mL and 8.44 ng/mL to 15.53 ng/mL, respectively. Whereas metribuzin concentrations in the 1 m and 2 m wells ranged from 0.70 ng/mL to 27.75 ng/mL and 1.71 ng/mL to 3.83 ng/mL, respectively. Accordingly, trifluralin was found to be strongly adsorbed on the soil and showed negligible leaching. Although metolachlor and metribuzin were also both readily adsorbed on the soil, their leaching potential was high. As a result, in the clay loam soil studied, metribuzin concentration in groundwater with shallow aquifers is likely to exceed the 10 mg/L US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) advisory level for drinking water early in the application season, whereas trifluralin and metolachlor concentrations are expected to remain substantially lower than their respective 2 ng/mL and 175 ng/mL EPA advisory levels.

  20. [Effects of short-term fencing on organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Li, Xue-Bin; Liu, Bing-Ru

    2012-12-01

    In order to explore the change patterns of organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe at the early stage of fencing, 0-40 cm soil samples were collected from a 5-year fenced desert steppe (inside the fence) and a free grazing steppe (outside the fence) in Yanchi County of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon contents and soil particle composition analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the soil organic carbon content and soil particle composition inside and outside the fence. The average soil organic carbon inside and outside the fences was 3.25 g x kg(-1), the percentages of sand, silt, and clay were averagely 72%, 16%, and 12%, respectively, and the soil physical stability index was 1.30% -1.31%. The soil active organic carbon showed a significant change in 10-20 cm layer. The soil labile organic carbon content was 0.80 g x kg(-1) inside the fence, which was significantly higher than that outside the fence (0.62 g x kg(-1)). The percentage of soil particulate organic carbon was 50.9% inside the fence, which was also significantly higher than that outside the fence (31.7%). The soil texture inside the fence changed from sandy to loam, and the soil labile organic carbon content increased gradually; while the soil texture outside the fence was sandy, and its vertical change was relatively smooth. The organic carbon of sandy si- erozem in the desert steppe under the conditions of short-term fencing was still in a balance between consumption and accumulation, the soil texture was relatively stable, and the soil physical stability changed little. It was suggested that the soil active organic carbon content and its relative percentage in 10-20 cm layer could be used as the indicators of early soil quality change of desert steppe.

  1. Influence of crop residues on trifluralin mineralization in a silty clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2007-01-01

    Trifluralin is typically applied onto crop residues (trash, stubble) at the soil surface, or onto the bare soil surface after the incorporation of crop residues into the soil. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the type and amount of crop residues in soil on trifluralin mineralization in a Wellwood silty clay loam soil. Leaves and stubble of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) (P); Canola (Brassica napus) (C), Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (W), Oats (Avena sativa), (O), and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (A) were added to soil microcosms at rates of 2%, 4%, 8% and 16% of the total soil weight (25 g). The type and amount of crop residues in soil had little influence on the trifluralin first-order mineralization rate constant, which ranged from 3.57E-03 day(-1) in soil with 16% A to 2.89E-02 day(-1) in soil with 8% W. The cumulative trifluralin mineralization at 113 days ranged from 1.15% in soil with 16% P to 3.21% in soil with 4% C, again demonstrating that the observed differences across the treatments are not of agronomic or environmental importance.

  2. Effect of biochar amendment on nitrate retention in a silty clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar incorporation into agricultural soils has been proposed as a strategy to decrease nutrient leaching. The present study was designed to assess the effect of biochar on nitrate retention in a silty clay loam soil. Biochar obtained from the pyrogasification of fir wood chips was applied to soil and tested in a range of laboratory sorption experiments. Four soil treatments were considered: soil only (control, soil with 2, 4 and 8% of biochar by mass. The Freundlich sorption isotherm model was used to fit the adsorbed amount of nitrate in the soil-biochar mixtures. The model performed very well in interpreting the experimental data according to a general linear regression (analysis of co-variance statistical approach. Nitrate retention in the soilbiochar mixtures was always higher than control, regardless the NO3 – concentration in the range of 0-400 mg L–1. Different sorption capacities and intensities were detected depending on the biochar application rate. The highest adsorption capacity was observed in the soils added with 2 and 4% of biochar, respectively. From the results obtained is possible to infer that nitrate retention is higher at lower biochar addition rate to soil (2 and 4% and at lower nitrate concentration in the soil water solution. These preliminary laboratory results suggest that biochar addition to a typical Mediterranean agricultural soil could be an effective management option to mitigate nitrate leaching.

  3. Conceptual Model for Flow and Transport through Unsaturated Silty Loams and Sands in North Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S. H.; Corley, D. S.; van Volkenburg, G. J.; Wildman, J. C.; Holt, R. M.

    2008-05-01

    We conducted a five-day ponded infiltration test at the University of Mississippi (UM) Soil Moisture Observatory (SMO). The 5 acre SMO is located in a former agricultural field at the UM Field Station, a 740 acre tract of land with restricted access located 11 miles from the UM campus in Oxford, Mississippi. At the infiltration site, the near surface soils consist of about infiltration test, the soil surface was leveled and a 2.0 m diameter infiltration ring was installed. Six neutron access tubes were installed to a depth of 2.5 m around the infiltration ring. A constant ponding depth of 13 cm was maintained throughout the duration of the experiment. Blue dye was added to the water to enable mapping of infiltration paths. During the experiment, moisture content profiles were periodically measured at each neutron access tube. Neutron probe data suggested that infiltration was dominated by capillary forces. However, later mapping of a trench through the infiltration site revealed that infiltration in the upper silt loam was dominated by macropore flow along roots and microfractures in the soil. In the sand, gravity driven fingers formed below the root-zone, where deep roots focused flow.

  4. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  5. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy: the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New Jersey... Federal Register notice, bringing the total amount of Hurricane Sandy Emergency Relief funds allocated...

  6. Organic matter dynamics in coarse sandy calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Reuler, van H.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in coarse sandy calcareous soils (beach sand) is thought to be much higher than in acid fine sandy soils but relatively little research is performed on these soils. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the release of soil carbon (C) is determined may overest

  7. Field wind tunnel testing of two silt loam soils on the North American Central High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Van Pelt, R.; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Schlegel, Alan J.; Vigil, Merle F.; Acosta-Martinez, Veronica

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that threatens agricultural sustainability and environmental quality globally. Protecting the soil surface with cover crops and plant residues, practices common in no-till and reduced tillage cropping systems, are highly effective methods for shielding the soil surface from the erosive forces of wind and have been credited with beneficial increases of chemical and physical soil properties including soil organic matter, water holding capacity, and wet aggregate stability. Recently, advances in biofuel technology have made crop residues valuable feed stocks for ethanol production. Relatively little is known about cropping systems effects on intrinsic soil erodibility, the ability of the soil without a protective cover to resist the erosive force of wind. We tested the bare, uniformly disturbed, surface of long-term tillage and crop rotation research plots containing silt loam soils in western Kansas and eastern Colorado with a portable field wind tunnel. Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) were measured using glass fiber filters and respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, were measured using optical particle counters sampling the flow to the filters. The results were highly variable and TSP emission rates varied from less than 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 to greater than 16.1 mg m-2 s-1 but all the results indicated that cropping system history had no effect on intrinsic erodibility or dust emissions from the soil surfaces. We conclude that prior best management practices will not protect the soil from the erosive forces of wind if the protective mantle of crop residues is removed.

  8. IMPACT OF THE REPEATED TRACTOR PASSES ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILTY LOAM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to quantify soil compaction induced by tractor traffic on untilled wet silty loam soil (Mollic Fluvisol. Changes in penetration resistance, bulk density and total porosity were measured for detecting the soil compaction. Treatments include ten passes of a four-wheel drive tractor with the engine power of 54.0 kW and weight of 3560 kg (1580 kg on the front axle and 1980 kg on the rear axle, 2.41 m distance between axles. The tyres on the tractor were cross-ply, front 11.2-24 and rear 16.9-30, with the inflation pressure of 160 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. The speed of tractor during passes over experimental plots was 5.0 km h-1. In comparison to control, each tractor pass induced an increase in soil penetration resistance at all depths, and the average increment ratios, determined as the average of all layers, were 9.8, 18.5 and 26.1% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The bulk density also increased with number of tractor passes, but with less percentage increasing. The increment ratios comparison to the control were 3.6, 9.5 and 12.9% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The total porosity decreased with the number of passes, and the decrement ratios were 4.5, 16.5 and 20.8% after one, five and ten passes, respectively.

  9. Effects of Carboxymethylcelluloses (CMC) on Some Hydraulic Properties of Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRY Henintsoa; INOUE Mitsuhiro; MORITANI Shigeoki; UZOMA Kingsley Chinyere

    2010-01-01

    The property of hydrophilic polymers capable absorbing huge volumes of water led to many practical applications of these new materials in arid regions for improving the water retention in sandy soils. Effects of four carboxymethylcelluloses (CMC), mixed at various rates with the sandy soil, on the water-holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity (Ks) when leached with distilled water (simulating rain), tap water, and saline water were evaluated. The maximum water absorption of CMCs ranged between 80 and 100 kg. kg-1 of polymer; however, the absorbent swelling capacity decreased significantly with increasing the salt concentration in the solution. The water absorption capacity of CMCs decreased significantly when incorporated in the sandy soil compared to that of the absorbent alone. Application of CMC increased significantly the available water content up to 3 ±0.5 times. All soils treated with CMCs showed a significant lower in Ks compared to the control soil. Meanwhile, Ks was found increased with increasing the salt concentration in the leaching solution. This understanding of characteristics of the absorbents and the interactions among absorbents, soil, and irrigation water quality would be of help in water management of sandy soil.

  10. Rediscovering community--reflections after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Hoboken, New Jersey, is a town of 50,000 residents located across the Hudson River from New York City. Most of Hoboken's infrastructure was compromised during Hurricane Sandy as a result of flooding and power outages that rendered many businesses inoperable, including all of the pharmacies in town. Despite a focus on emergency preparedness since Hurricane Katrina and 9/11, there were no contingencies in place to facilitate and assess the medication needs of the community in the event of a natural disaster. This essay describes how the author rediscovered the meaning of community, and through working with colleagues in other health care disciplines and non-health care volunteers, provided care to patients in suboptimal circumstances.

  11. Hurricane Sandy science plan: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Clarice N.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. More than one-half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is one of the largest providers of geologic and hydrologic information in the world. Federal, State, and local partners depend on the USGS science to know how to prepare for hurricane hazards and reduce losses from future hurricanes. The USGS works closely with other bureaus within the Department of the Interior, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and many State and local agencies to identify their information needs before, during, and after hurricanes.

  12. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  13. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  14. Runoff of trifluralin, metolachlor, and metribuzin from a clay loam soil of Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Feagley, Sam E

    2002-09-01

    Trifluralin[2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluormethyl)benzenamine], metolachlor[2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and metribuzin[4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)one] were applied as pre-emergent herbicides to soybean plots in Louisiana (LA) at the rate of 1683 g/ha, 2759 g/ha and 609 g/ha, respectively. The concentrations of trifluralin in the runoff water ranged between 0.09 ng/mL and 0.02 ng/mL, which is lower than the 2 ng/mL US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) advisory level for trifuralin in drinking water. Metolachlor concentrations in the runoff water ranged from 9.0 ng/mL to 221.5 ng/mL, which is both lower and higher than the 175 ng/mL EPA advisory level for metolachlor. Similarly, metribuzin concentrations in the runoff water ranged between 1.5 ng/mL and 56.2 ng/mL, which is also lower and higher than the 10 ng/mL EPA advisory level for metribuzin. Accordingly, from the field plots located on a Commerce clay loam soil in LA, although the concentration of trifluralin in runoff water were substantially lower than the EPA advisory level, metolachlor and metribuzin concentrations are likely to exceed the EPA advisory levels early on in the application season with a subsequent rapid decrease to safe levels. The total loss of trifluralin in runoff water was 0.005% of the applied amount over an 89 day period after application. The total loss of metolachlor and metribuzin in the runoff water was 4.67% and 5.36% of the applied amount, respectively, over a 22 day period after application. As such, there was almost no movement of trifluralin in the runoff water, whereas metolachlor and metribuzin were much more easily moved.

  15. Nitrogen Mineralization of a Loam Soil Supplemented with Organic–Inorganic Amendments under Laboratory Incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. Kaleem; Khaliq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study. Treatments included: PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized). All the amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg-1. Results indicated that a substantial quantity of N had been released from the added amendments into the soil mineral pool and the net cumulative N mineralized varied between 39 and 147 mg N kg-1, lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50 + PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net mineral N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) varied between 16 and 126 mg kg-1, highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. On average, percentage conversion of added N into available N by different amendments varied between 21 and 80%, while conversion of applied N into NO3-–N ranged between 9 and 65%, and the treatment UN50 + PM50 displayed the highest N recovery. Urea N when applied alone showed disappearance of 37% N (N unaccounted for) at the end while application of PM and WSR with UN reduced N disappearance and increased N retention in the mineral pool for a longer period. Organic amendments alone or in combination with UN improved organic matter buildup and increased soil N concentration. These results demonstrate the existence of substantial amounts of N reserves present in PM

  16. Nitrogen mineralization of a loam soil supplemented with organic-inorganic amendments under laboratory incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaleem ABBASI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of nitrogen (N supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential mineralization of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. straw residues (WSR, and urea N (UN applied to a loam soil and incubated periodically over 140 days period. Treatments included PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized. Added amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg−1. Nitrogen supplying capacity of added materials was determined by measuring changes in total mineral N (ammonium-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen [NH4+–N + NO3––N] and accumulation of NO3––N over different incubation periods. Changes in soil organic matter content and total N concentration were also monitored during the study. Results indicated that added amendments released substantial N into the mineral N pool (net cumulative N mineralized [NCNM] ranged between 39 and 147 mg N kg−1, lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50+PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net inorganic N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. Total inorganic N derived from PM increased from 2.3 mg kg−1 at d 1, to a maximum of 102 to 105 mg kg−1 at 63, 84 and 105 d after PM application. The values were further increase from 31.5 mg kg−1 at d 0 to a maximum of 165 mg kg−1 at d 49 in UN50 + PM50 treatment. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN varied between 16 and 126 mg kg−1, highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. Soil amended with WSR100 showed negative values both for mineralization and nitrification until day 84, displaying net immobilization. On average, percentage conversion of added N into

  17. Nitrogen Mineralization of a Loam Soil Supplemented with Organic-Inorganic Amendments under Laboratory Incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Khaliq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of organic amendments applied to a soil is of immense importance to examine synchronization, N release capacity, and fertilizer values of these added materials. The aims of the present study was to determine the potential N mineralization and subsequent nitrification of separate and combined use of poultry manure (PM), wheat straw residues (WSR), and urea N (UN) applied to a loam soil incubated periodically over 140 days period. In addition, changes in total soil N and carbon contents were also monitored during the study. Treatments included: PM100, WSR100, PM50 + WSR50, UN100, UN50 + PM50, UN50 + WSR50, UN50 + PM25 + WSR25, and a control (unfertilized). All the amendments were applied on an N-equivalent basis at the rate of 200 mg N kg(-1). Results indicated that a substantial quantity of N had been released from the added amendments into the soil mineral pool and the net cumulative N mineralized varied between 39 and 147 mg N kg(-1), lowest in the WSR and highest in the UN50 + PM50. Significant differences were observed among the amendments and the net mineral N derived from a separate and combined use of PM was greater than the other treatments. The net cumulative N nitrified (NCNN) varied between 16 and 126 mg kg(-1), highest in UN50 + PM50 treatment. On average, percentage conversion of added N into available N by different amendments varied between 21 and 80%, while conversion of applied N into NO3 (-)-N ranged between 9 and 65%, and the treatment UN50 + PM50 displayed the highest N recovery. Urea N when applied alone showed disappearance of 37% N (N unaccounted for) at the end while application of PM and WSR with UN reduced N disappearance and increased N retention in the mineral pool for a longer period. Organic amendments alone or in combination with UN improved organic matter buildup and increased soil N concentration. These results demonstrate the existence of substantial amounts of N reserves present

  18. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits...... in south-eastern Sweden covered by xeric sand calcareous grasslands (EU habitat directive 6120). Methods: Soil and vegetation were investigated in most of the xeric sand calcareous grasslands in the Scania region (136 sample plots distributed over four or five major areas and about 25 different sites...

  19. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  20. THE PROBLEMATIC OF SANDY LANDS IN PARANAVAI MUNICIPALITY –PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eduardo Freres Stipp

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The sandy lands are a process of scouring with sand forming a sandy area, which correspondsto a reworking of the sands due its constant mobility, involving the transformation of notsolids deposits is sandy areas. This work tried to establish the characterization of thisphenomenon of scouring with sand in a local level, occurring in arenaceous areas in theNortheast of the state of Paraná, specifically in the urban site of Paranavaí. It was also madean evaluation of the environmental degradation as well as different causes for what provokedthese sandy areas. Being an area with a high level of soil decomposition with the highwaysroutes crossing it, it was necessary, besides bibliographic data that allowed a theoretical basis,a research applied in order to supply subsides for future planning related to the spaceorganization. The evolution of the use and soil occupation in this area has been processedwithin an urban planning which considered by no account neither soil characteristic, thevegetation nor the predominant climate in that region. The mechanisms of region atmospherecirculation were analyzed, the alterations or attributes of the climate as well, aiming toidentify the genesis of the erosion sandy and possible time and space distribution. Initially, themain characteristics of the region were collected, components e processes working on the landmodel. It was observed how it worked and the use and occupation of the soil in past times andcurrently. During 2004, using the Environmental Fragility Letter, the areas of erosion wereidentified, ravines and strong erosion that compounds the first stages of the focused problem.The sandy land is a process that involves erosion, transport, e accumulation, meaning most oftimes the loosing of Biosphere productivity. For monitoring these risk areas some measuringcanes were made to measure the soil loss, which were used in several spots of erosion in theurban area in Paranavaí. The measurement happened in

  1. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  2. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Post Sandy (Long Island, NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Long Island New York Sandy LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G14PD00296 Woolpert...

  3. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  4. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  5. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  6. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  7. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  8. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  9. Short Communication Energy and ash contents of sandy beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macrofauna found on three exposed sandy beaches on the west coast ... that they often form the predominant shore type (Bally,. McQuaid ... their sediments are given in Table I. Animals ..... The biochemical composition of the tropical intertida1 ...

  10. Superstorm Sandy: Implications For Designing A PostCyber Attack Power Restoration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    the grid and other man-made threats. Differences among the industrial control systems (ICSs) utilities use to manage their operations pose an...and control sensors on which utilities rely to provide reliable and resilient service. Major utilities typically use energy management systems...storm’s likely path. By providing timely and accurate forecasts to emergency managers 74 FEMA, Hurricane Sandy FEMA After-Action Report. 75 US

  11. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface, Pre-Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  12. Effect of chamber enclosure time on soil respiration flux: A comparison of linear and non-linear flux calculation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Tanka P.; Lærke, Poul Erik; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-09-01

    One of the shortcomings of closed chamber methods for soil respiration (SR) measurements is the decreased CO2 diffusion rate from soil to chamber headspace that may occur due to increased chamber CO2 concentrations. This feedback on diffusion rate may lead to underestimation of pre-deployment fluxes by linear regression techniques. Thus, usually the cumulative flux curve becomes downward concave due to the decreased gas diffusion rate. Non-linear models based on biophysical theory usually fit to such curvatures and may reduce the underestimation of fluxes. In this study, we examined the effect of increasing chamber enclosure time on SR flux rates calculated using a linear, an exponential and a revised Hutchinson and Mosier model (HMR). Soil respiration rates were measured with a closed chamber in combination with an infrared gas analyzer. During SR flux measurements the chamber was placed on fixed collars, and CO2 concentration in the chamber headspace were recorded at 1-s intervals for 45 min. Fluxes were measured in different soil types (sandy, sandy loam and organic soils), and for various manipulations (tillage, rain and drought) and soil conditions (temperature and moisture) to obtain a range of fluxes with different shapes of flux curves. The linear method provided more stable flux results during short enclosure times (few min) but underestimated initial fluxes by 15-300% after 45 min deployment time. Non-linear models reduced the underestimation as average underestimation was only about 10% after 45 min for regular flux curves. For irregular flux curves with a rapid increase in CO2 concentration immediately after chamber deployment it was shown that short enclosure times were prone to overestimation of pre-deployment fluxes, but this was mitigated by longer enclosure times (>10-15 min).

  13. Enhanced benthic activity in sandy sublittoral sediments: Evidence from 13C tracer experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühring, Solveig I.; Ehrenhauss, Sandra; Kamp, Anja

    2006-01-01

    investigated the pathway of settling particulate organic carbon through the benthic food web. The diatom Ditylum brightwellii was labelled with the stable carbon isotope 13C and injected into incubation chambers. On-board incubations lasted 12, 30 and 132 h, while the in situ experiment was incubated for 32 h......In situ and on-board pulse-chase experiments were carried out on a sublittoral fine sand in the German Bight (southern North Sea) to investigate the hypothesis that sandy sediments are highly active and have fast turnover rates. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments where we....... The study revealed a stepwise short-term processing of a phytoplankton bloom settling on a sandy sediment. After the 12 h incubation, the largest fraction of recovered carbon was in the bacteria (62%), but after longer incubation times (30 and 32 h in situ) the macrofauna gained more importance (15 and 48...

  14. Distribution of transformed organic matter in structural units of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, B. M.; Yashin, M. A.; Semenov, V. M.; Avdeeva, T. N.; Markina, L. G.; Lukin, S. M.; Tarasov, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of land use types and fertilizing systems on the structural and aggregate composition of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil and the quantitative parameters of soil organic matter has been studied. The contribution of soil aggregates 2-1 mm in size to the total Corg reserve in the humus horizon is higher than the contributions of other aggregates by 1.3-4.2 times. Reliable correlations have been revealed between the contents of total (Corg), labile (Clab), and active (C0) organic matter in the soil. The proportion of C0 is 44-70% of Clab extractable by neutral sodium pyrophosphate solution. The contributions of each of the 2-1, 0.5-0.25, and humus horizon of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil, the active, slow, and passive pools contain 6-11, 34-65, and 26-94% of the total Corg, respectively.

  15. Exploring Water Level Sensitivity for Metropolitan New York during Sandy (2012 Using Ensemble Storm Surge Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Colle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes storm surge simulations made for Sandy (2012 for the Metropolitan New York (NYC area using the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC model forced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The atmospheric forecast uncertainty was quantified using 11-members from an atmospheric Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF system. A control WRF member re-initialized every 24 h demonstrated the capability of the WRF-ADCIRC models to realistically simulate the 2.83 m surge and 4.40 m storm tide (surge + astronomical tide above mean lower low water (MLLW for NYC. Starting about four days before landfall, an ensemble of model runs based on the 11 “best” meteorological predictions illustrate how modest changes in the track (20–100 km and winds (3–5 m s−1 of Sandy approaching the New Jersey coast and NYC can lead to relatively large (0.50–1.50 m storm surge variations. The ensemble also illustrates the extreme importance of the timing of landfall relative to local high tide. The observed coastal flooding was not the worst case for this particular event. Had Sandy made landfall at differing times, locations and stages of the tide, peak water levels could have been up to 0.5 m higher than experienced.

  16. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  17. 78 FR 7780 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC Announces Further Details for the First Post-Superstorm Sandy Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...In the wake of Superstorm Sandy, Federal Communications Chairman Julius Genachowski announced plans to convene a series of field hearings to examine challenges to the nation's communications networks during natural disasters and in other times of crisis. The first hearing will facilitate a wider national dialogue about the resiliency of communications networks by focusing on the impact of......

  18. Strategies to optimize allocation of limited nutrients to sandy soils of the Sahel: a case study from Niger, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandah, M.; Brouwer, J.; Hiernaux, P.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    2003-01-01

    Soils used for rainfed cereal production in Niger are sandy, deficient in major nutrients (N and P), and also low in organic matter content. Scarce rainfall with an unpredictable distribution in space and time makes crop and nutrient management difficult. Observations were made in 1996 and 1997 on m

  19. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  20. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization.

  1. New land-based method for surveying sandy shores and extracting DEMs: the INSHORE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paulo; Cunha, Telmo R; Matias, Ana; Gama, Cristina; Bernardes, Cristina; Ferreira, Oscar

    2011-11-01

    The INSHORE system (INtegrated System for High Operational REsolution in shore monitoring) is a land-base survey system designed and developed for the specific task of monitoring the evolution in time of sandy shores. This system was developed with two main objectives: (1) to produce highly accurate 3D coordinates of surface points (in the order of 0.02 to 0.03 m); and (2) to be extremely efficient in surveying a beach stretch of several kilometres. Previous tests have demonstrated that INSHORE systems fulfil such objectives. Now, the usefulness of the INSHORE system as a survey tool for the production of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of sandy shores is demonstrated. For this purpose, the comparison of DEMs obtained with the INSHORE system and with other relevant survey techniques is presented. This comparison focuses on the final DEM accuracy and also on the survey efficiency and its impact on the costs associated with regular monitoring programmes. The field survey method of the INSHORE system, based on profile networks, has a productivity of about 30 to 40 ha/h, depending on the beach surface characteristics. The final DEM precision, after interpolation of the global positioning system profile network, is approximately 0.08 to 0.12 m (RMS), depending on the profile network's density. Thus, this is a useful method for 3D representation of sandy shore surfaces and can permit, after interpolation, reliable calculations of volume and other physical parameters.

  2. Application of Wenner Configuration to Estimate Soil Water Content in Pine Plantations on Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the mean value of surface soil water content rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively, field investigations on soil electrical resistivity (SER) with the Yokogawa 324400 earth resistivity meter and the surface (0-150 cm) soil water content (SWC) with time domain reflectometry (TDR), together with the abiotic factors including soil texture, structure,and salinity concentrations were conducted in the Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations on a sandy land. The measurement of SER was based on the 4-probe Wenner configuration method. Relationships between the values of SWC and SER were obtained based on analysis of the abiotic factors of the research site, which play a key role in affecting the soil electrical resistivity. Results indicate that the SER meter could be used to estimate the mean value of SWC in the Mongolian pine plantations on the sandy land during the growing seasons. The bulky nature of the equipment simplified the cumbersome measurements of soil water content with the general methods. It must be noted that the Wenner configuration method could only provide the mean values of the SWC, and the soil texture, structure,temperature, and solute concentrations influenced the SER and further affected the estimation of the SWC by the SER meter. Therefore, the results of this study could be applied on a sandy land during the growing seasons only. However,the SWC of other soil types also may be obtained according to the individual soil types using the procedures of this study.

  3. Using humic acid for remediation of sandy soils contaminated by heavy metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new remediation technology for contaminated sandy soil using humic acid (HA). Distribution of amount of Cr (VI) in the aqueous or solid system containing humic acid and sandy soil, was studied using batch experiments, es-pecially for effects of reaction time, pH, concentrations, temperature and irradiation on the reduction of Cr (VI), and the optimum reaction conditions. The results indicated a significant increase of the adsorption of Cr (VI) because of the complexion reaction between HA and Cr (VI) that occurred under acidic condition. The reaction mechanisms of HA with chromium on sand surfaces were certified. Thus it came to a conclusion that HA could be used effectively on remediation of Cr (VI)-contaminated soil and groundwater in a wide range of pH, with or without sunlight. These results suggest that the organic-inorganic complex-such as sandy soils coated with humic substances-is important as a metal reservoir in the environment.

  4. 有机氯代烃在壤土中的吸附和解吸特性%Sorption and Desorption of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons onto Loam Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤君; 贾晗; 刘佳露; 董佳新; 卢伟; 吕聪

    2015-01-01

    The sorption and desorption characteristics of the four organic chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene (TCE) ,cis 1 ,2 dichloroethylene (cis 1 ,2 DCE) ,1 ,1 ,1 trichloroethane (1 ,1 , 1 TCA ) , and 1 ,2 dichloroethane (1 ,2 DCA )) onto loam soil are investigated by a batch of experiments in this study .The results indicate that the sorption equilibrium time of the four chlorinated hydrocarbons onto the loam soil is about three days .The sorption isotherm for all compounds is nearly linear , and fits to Freundlich isotherm slightly over the entire concentration range . As for chloroethylenes ,TCE is strongly sorbed to the loam samples (Kd = 0 .624 L/kg) ,and followed by cis‐DCE (Kd = 0 .238 L/kg) .For chloroethanes ,1 ,1 ,1 TCA is strongly sorbed (Kd = 0 .520 L/kg) ,and followed by 1 ,2 DCA (Kd = 0 .353 L/kg) .This is consistent with the order of hydrophobicity of the compounds .In addition , the lg Koc value is estimated by Abdul , Dobbs , Rao and Cong empirical regression formula respectively in this study , and the results show that the estimated lg Koc value determined by Abdul regression is significantly lower than the calculated value ,and the estimated lgKoc value determined by Cong regression is significantly higher than the calculated value , while the estimated lg Koc values determined by Dobbs and Rao regression are much closer to the calculated values . This demonstrates that the Dobbs and Rao regression is more suitable for lg Koc estimation for chlorinated hydrocarbons .Besides ,it is found that there is a certain lag in desorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons from the loam soil ;and the higher the sorption capacity of chlorinated hydrocarbon ,the lower the desorption capacity of chlorinated hydrocarbon .%选取三氯乙烯(TCE)、顺1,2二氯乙烯(cis 1,2 DCE)、1,1,1三氯乙烷(1,1,1 TCA)、1,2二氯乙烷(1,2 DCA)4种常见的有机氯代烃,通过批次实验研究其在壤土中的吸附和

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  6. Short-term Effects of Tillage Practices on Organic Carbon in Clay Loam Soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A tillage experiment, consisting of moldboard plow (MP), ridge tillage (RT), and no-tillage (NT), was performed in a randomized complete block design with four replicates to study the effect of 3-year tillage management on SOC content and its distribution in surface layer (30 cm) of a clay loam soil in northeast China. NT did not lead to significant increase of SOC in topsoil (0-5 cm) compared with MP and RT; however, the SOC content in NT soil was remarkably reduced at a depth of 5-20 cm. Accordingly, short-term (3-year) NT management tended to stratify SOC concentration, but not necessarily increase its storage in the plow layer for the soil.

  7. THE EFFECT OF MIXING WITH ORGANIC SOIL ON CHANGES IN SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A COMPACTED CLAY LOAM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BARAN

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of organic soil on changes in total pore space, aeration porosity, available water content and hydraulic conductivity of a compacted clay loam were investigated. By adding organic soil at rates of 0 %, 1 %, 2 % and 4 % to soil, mixtures were compacted at compaction levels of 0 kg/cm2, 0.21 kg/cm2, 1.98 kg/cm2 and 3.95 kg/cm2 Some physical properties of compacted soil were determined. Compaction decreased total pore space, areation porosity, available water content and hydraulic conductivity, but in samples with the mixing rate of 4 %, all properties inspected were affected positively in all compaction levels, except available water content

  8. Did Hurricane Sandy influence the 2012 US presidential election?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-07-01

    Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold.

  9. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Release behavior of copper and zinc from sandy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-kui; XIA Yi-ping

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations and chemical forms of copper(Gu) and zinc(Zn) in surface soils directly influence the movement of Gu and Zn. In this study, thirteen sandy soil samples with a wide range of total Cu and Zn concentrations were collected for evaluating the relationships between Cu and Zn release and extraction time, ratio of soil to water, pH and electrolyte types. The results indicated that Cu released in batch extraction that represents long-term leaching was mainly from exchangeable, and carbonate bound Cu fractions, and Zn released in the batch extraction was mainly from its carbonate bound fraction. However, the Cu and Zn leached from the soils using the column leaching that represents short-term leaching were mainly from their exchangeable fractions. Soil column leaching at different pH values indicated that the amounts of leached Zn and Cu were greatly affected by pH. The Cu and Zn release experiments with varying extraction times and ratio of soil to water suggest that long-term water-logging in the soils after rain may increase contact time of the soils with water and the release of Cu and Zn to water from the soils, and total amounts of Cu or Zn released from the soils increase, but the Cu or Zn concentration in the surface runoff decrease with increasing rainfall intensity. The increased Ca concentration in soil solution increased stability of organic matter-mineral complexes and might decrease the dissolution of organic matter, and thus decreased the release of Cu-binding component of organic matter. However, high concentration of Na in the soil solution increased the dispersion of the organic matter-mineral complexes and increased dissolution of organic matter and the release of Cu from the soils.

  11. Effect of nitrogen and water availability of three soil types on yield, radiation use efficiency and evapotranspiration in field-grown quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    in field lysimeters with sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil. Despite application of the same amount of nitrogen (120 kg N ha−1) to all plots, there were large differences in crop nitrogen-uptake for sandy clay loam (134 kg ha−1), sandy loam (102 kg ha−1) and sand (77 kg ha−1) under full irrigation...

  12. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  13. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  14. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar-extracted dune features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dune crest and toe positions along a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October...

  15. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012 hurricane...

  16. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  17. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Digital elevation model (DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A DEM was produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  18. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  19. STATUS, CAUSES AND COMBATING SUGGESTIONS OF SANDY DESERTIFICATION IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-hua; DONG Guang-rong; LI Sen; DONG Yu-xiang

    2005-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the major sandy desertification regions of China. Based on the recent investigation on sandy desertification, this paper analyses the status such as the type, area, distribution and damage of sandy land desertification in the plateau. Through the analysis on the factors affecting sandy desertification in the region's natural and socio-economic systems as well as the processes and their interrelations, it can be concluded that sandy desertification in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau resulted from the combined actions of normal natural sand drift processes, natural sandy desertification processes caused by climatic changes and man-made sandy desertification caused by improper human activities. In addition, it also predicts the possible developmental trend including the increase in desertification area and the enhancement in desertification developmental degree with the exacerbation of the complex processes, and finally puts forward some strategic suggestions to combat sandy desertification in the coming years.

  20. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  1. Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Nielsen, Tara; Weston, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Sandy beaches are primarily valued for their amenity and property values rather than for their ecological functions and properties. Some human usage of beaches potentially conflicts with the conservation and management of wildlife, such as beach-dwelling birds, on sandy shorelines. Because responses by birds to environmental change, including disturbance by humans, often involve behaviours that carry fitness costs, we quantify behaviour profiles of birds in relation to human occurrence along 200 km of sandy shoreline in Eastern Australia, including the large conservation area of Fraser Island. Disturbance to birds on these shores was considerable: 1) birds encountered motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, buses etc.) during 80% of focal bird observation bouts, 2) birds were flushed in over half (up to 86% in individual species) of all bouts, and 3) individuals spent, on average, one-third of their time on disturbance-related behaviours; this was particularly prevalent for Crested Terns (Thalasseus bergii) which were alert 42% of the time and spent 12% of their time escaping from human stimuli. Overall, this study demonstrated that motorized traffic is the prime agent of disturbance to birds on these beaches, resulting in frequent and time-consuming escape behaviours. These findings also emphasize that management of vehicle-based recreation on beaches needs to be re-aligned to meet conservation requirements in addition to providing leisure opportunities in National Parks and beyond; we identify some salient issue for this development: a) encouragement of social norms that promote environmentally benign beach use not involving motor vehicles, b) creation of spatial refuges for beach wildlife from traffic and other non-compatible uses, and c) investment in developing complementary management actions such as effective set-back distances.

  2. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  3. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  4. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  5. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the intertidal macroinfauna of exposed sandy beaches around South America is reviewed in relation ... The middle shore is prim

  6. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  7. Biological soil crust formation under artificial vegetation effect and its properties in the Mugetan sandy land, northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. W.; Jia, Y. H.; Zhang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Mugetan sandy land is an inland desertification area of about 2,065 km2 in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the ecological restoration region of the Mugetan sandy land, different crusts have formed under the action of vegetation in three types of sandy soil (i.e. semi-fixed sand dune, fixed sand dune and ancient fixed aeolian sandy soil). The surface sand particle distribution, mineral component and vegetation composition of moving sand dunes and three types of sandy soil were studied in 2010-2014 to analyze the biological crust formation properties in the Mugetan sandy land and the effects of artificial vegetation. Results from this study revealed that artificial vegetation increases the clay content and encourages the development of biological curst. The fine particles (i.e. clay and humus) of the surface layer of the sand dunes increased more than 15% ten years after the artificial vegetation planting, and further increased up to 20% after one hundred years. The interaction of clay, humus, and other fine particles formed the soil aggregate structure. Meanwhile, under the vegetation effect from the microbes, algae, and moss, the sand particles stuck together and a biological crust formed. The interconnection of the partial crusts caused the sand dunes to gradually be fixed as a whole. Maintaining the integrity of the biological crust plays a vital role in fixing the sand under the crust. The precipitation and temperature conditions in the Mugetan sandy land could satisfy the demand of biological crust formation and development. If rational vegetation measures are adopted in the region with moving sand dunes, the lichen-moss-algae biological curst will form after ten years, but it still takes more time for the sand dunes to reach the nutrient enrichment state. If the biological curst is partly broken due to human activities, reasonable closure and restoration measures can shorten the restoration time of the biological crust.

  8. Diesel and silica monitoring at two sites following hurricane sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Luo, Honghong; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Lucchini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy, which hit New York City and New Jersey in October 2012, industrial hygienists from the Mount Sinai and Belleview/New York University occupational medicine clinics conducted monitoring for diesel exhaust and silica in lower Manhattan and Rockaway Peninsula. Average daytime elemental carbon levels at three stations in lower Manhattan on December 4, 2012, ranged from 9 to18 μg/m(3). Sub-micron particle counts at various times on the same day were over 200,000 particles per cubic centimeter on many streets in lower Manhattan. In Rockaway Peninsula on December 12, 2012, all average daytime elemental carbon levels were below a detection limit of approximately 7 μg/m(3). The average daytime crystalline silica dust concentration was below detection at two sites on Rockaway Peninsula, and was 0.015 mg/m(3) quartz where sand was being replaced on the beach. The daily average levels of elemental carbon and airborne particulates that we measured are in the range of levels that have been found to cause respiratory effects in sensitive subpopulations like asthmatic patients after 2 hr of exposure. Control of exposure to diesel exhaust must be considered following natural disasters where diesel-powered equipment is used in cleanup and recovery. Although peak silica exposures were not likely captured in this study, but were reported by a government agency to have exceeded recommended guidelines for at least one cleanup worker, we recommend further study of silica exposures when debris removal operations or traffic create visible levels of suspended dust from soil or sand.

  9. 78 FR 46999 - Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in... impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78 FR 14329, published....) (Stafford Act), due to Hurricane Sandy and other eligible events in calendar years 2011, 2012, and 2013....

  10. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction AGENCY: Federal Transit... by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition to the initial $2 billion allocation announced in the... allocation restoration FTA Section 5324 Emergency Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

  11. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... south (eastbound) span of the William P. Lane Jr. Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a...

  12. Estimation of Variability Characteristics of Regional Drought during 1964–2013 in Horqin Sandy Land, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought has an important influence on the hydrological cycle, ecological system, industrial and agricultural production, and social life. Based on the different time scales of characteristics of drought variability, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI, a multi-timescale index with consideration of evaporation, was used in this study to estimate the spatial and temporal variability characteristics of drought. Climatic data from 15 meteorological stations across Horqin Sandy Land during 1964–2013 were used to calculate the SPEI of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. In order to examine the relationship between droughts and other variables, 10 extreme climate indices were calculated based on the daily precipitation and maximum/mean/minimum temperature data of 15 meteorological stations, and linkages between SPEI-12 and atmosphere indices were established using by the cross wavelet transform method. The results indicated that the climate of Horqin Sandy Land had a tendency towards drought conditions, which is particularly apparent from the year 2000 onwards. During the study period, drought events were frequent in the region. Mild drought occurred in a quarter of the month, with that of moderate, severe, and extreme drought accounting for 0.11, 0.05, and 0.02 of the total months. The spatial trend of multi-timescale drought revealed that there was an increase in the severity of drought throughout Horqin Sandy Land, among which the magnitude in southern parts was larger than that of northern parts. The results also showed that the short time scale drought negatively correlated with precipitation extremes and positively correlated with temperature extremes. Furthermore, the long time scale drought (SPEI-12 was associated with atmosphere indices. Significant resonance periods were found between El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO, the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI, and SPEI-12.

  13. Connectivity and percolation of pore networks in a cultivated silt loam soil quantified by X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nicholas; Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats

    2016-04-01

    The connectivity of macropore networks is thought to exert an important control on transport processes in soil. However, little progress has been made towards quantifying these effects for natural soils in the field, partly because of the experimental difficulties but also because the concept of connectivity lacks a unique mathematical definition. To investigate this question, X-ray tomography was used to measure pore volume, size distribution and connectivity at an image resolution of 65 microns for 64 samples taken in two consecutive years in the harrowed and ploughed layers of a silt loam soil a few weeks after spring cultivation. Three different connectivity metrics were evaluated and compared: one local metric, the Euler number, and two global measures, the connection probability and the probability of percolation (the fraction of the porosity which is continuous across the sample). The connection probability was found to be a good measure of the long-range connectivity (i.e. continuity) of the pore networks. In contrast, the Euler number was not a sensitive measure of global connectivity, although all samples with negative Euler numbers did percolate. We also found that the way connection is defined in the image analysis (either by 6 or 26 nearest neighbours) did not influence the calculations of percolating porosity. The results also demonstrate that harrowing has a clear homogenizing effect on the distribution of the pore space. However, a comparison with random field simulations and the evidence of small percolation thresholds shows that the macropore system developed in the recently harrowed soil was far from completely random or disordered. In some samples, more than one pore cluster percolated, while in others the percolating cluster was not the largest one. Nevertheless, the macropore networks in this cultivated silt loam soil displayed some key features predicted by percolation theory: a strong relationship was found between the percolating fraction

  14. Escoamento superficial e desagregação do solo em entressulcos em solo franco-argilo-arenoso com resíduos vegetais Interrill surface runoff and soil detachment on a sandy clay loam soil with residue cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemar Antonino Cassol

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A presença de resíduos vegetais sobre a superfície do solo altera as características do escoamento superficial gerado pela chuva e a desagregação e transporte de sedimento resultantes do processo erosivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições hidráulicas e as relações de desagregação do solo e de resistência ao escoamento com a presença de resíduos vegetais na erosão em entressulcos. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório, com um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em parcelas com 0,10 m m-1 de declive sob chuva simulada. O solo foi coberto por resíduos vegetais de palha de soja, nas doses de 0, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,8 kg m-2. O aumento na cobertura do solo (CS com resíduos vegetais elevou a altura da lâmina de escoamento e a rugosidade hidráulica e reduziu a velocidade média do escoamento, provocada pelo aumento das forças viscosas promovida pela interposição física dos resíduos ao escoamento. O resultado é a redução na taxa de desagregação do solo (Di. A Di foi de 5,35x10-4 kg m-2 s-1 para solo descoberto e 1,50x10-5 kg m-2 s-1 em solo com 100% de cobertura na maior dose de palha. Os modelos de Laflen e potencial foram adequados para estimar o coeficiente de cobertura para resíduo em contato direto com a superfície do solo em função da cobertura do solo.Soil surface cover with crop residue modifies surface flow characteristics, generated by excess rainfall, and soil detachment and sediment transport resulting from the erosion process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conditions, detachment and flow resistance on interrill erosion on soil covered with residue. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, on a Hapludult soil at a slope of 0.10 m m-1, under simulated rainfall and soil surface covered with soybean residue at the rates of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 kg m-2. The increase in soil surface cover (SC with residue, caused an increase in water flow depth and hydraulic roughness, and a decrease in the mean flow velocity, due to an increase in the viscous forces from the physical interference of residue on runoff, thus contributing to a reduction in interrill soil detachment rate (Di. The Di was 5.35x10-4 kg m-2 s-1 for bare soil and was reduced to 1.50x10-5 kg m-2 s-1 for soil with 100% of surface cover. The Laflen's and the potential models were adequate to estimate the coefficient of soil coverage by residue in direct contact with soil as a function of the soil surface cover.

  15. Road traffic and sandy playground influence on ambient pollutants in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Rivas, I.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Font, O.; Córdoba, P.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-06-01

    Urban air pollution has a greater impact on children's health compared to adults. In the framework of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, the present work studies the impact of road traffic and the presence of sandy playgrounds on the outdoor air quality around schools. Four schools were selected for intensive campaigns of one month. PM2.5 samples were collected daily from 8:00 to 20:00 and chemically analysed. Real time measurements of NOx, black carbon (BC), PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were carried out. Sand samples from five school playgrounds were characterized. The results confirm the representativeness of the general BREATHE project campaigns (eight weekdays measurements at each of the 39 schools). NOx, BC and PMx concentrations were higher in the school located nearest to traffic in the city centre with the daily pattern reflecting the traffic rush hours. The NOx concentrations were found to decrease with distance to the main road. The road traffic influence on ambient pollutants was higher on weekdays than weekends. The PM10 concentrations at one of the schools were mainly driven by the influence of the sandy playground, with peaks up to 25, 57 and 12 times higher than night background concentrations during mid-morning break, lunch break and end of school day, respectively. The airborne mineral matter concentrations registered at this school further confirm this origin. Nevertheless the influence of the re-suspension from the sandy playground was very local and decreased drastically within a short distance. The possible impact of the use of the private car for children's commuting on the outdoor air quality of the schools cannot be quantitatively assessed due to the overlapping with the rush hour of the city.

  16. BIOSYNTHESIS OF AgNPs WITH THREE WIDESPREAD LOAM FUNGI VIA ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS, FUSARIUM SPP. RHIZOPUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SHIVAKUMAR SINGH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium spp. and Rhizopus spp. for the potential synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Methods: The standard techniques have been followed for the AgNPs synthesis characterizations. Spectral analysis of UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. Results: The hurried decline of silver (Ag+ ions was monitored using a UV-visible spectrophotometer and showed the formation of silver nanoparticles within 28 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are varied from 15-50 nm and have the varying in shapes like round, rod, uneven. Further, the XRD analysis confirms the nano-crystalline phase of the silver structure. FTIR examinations confirm the Silver particles. The present study, it reveals the increasing broth concentration increases the rate of reduction and decreases the particle size. Conclusion: The AgNPs were biologically synthesized using isolated fungal species biomass from the soil of loam. The cell filtrate of fungi was challenged with 1mm Silver nitrate, change of mixture from colorless to orange-brown indicates the synthesis of AgNPs in the reaction mixture. The isolated fungi are an important producer of Silver nanoparticles.

  17. Landscape Change and Sandy Desertification Monitoring and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir M. Elhadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study is to develop techniques for assessing and analyzing sand desertification in the northern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Approach: In order to reveal the process of land degradation, especially the latest situation of sandy desertification, a method integrating remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS and field survey was employed to build a sandy desertification dataset for analysis. Remote Sensing images included the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images in 1987 and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ images in 1999. Eight land-cover classes, including active sand dunes, fixed sand dunes, semi-fixed sand dunes, grass land, farm land, wet land, built up area and unused land and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, were identified. Results: The results showed that the active sand dunes and semi-fixed sand dunes have increased with a change rate of 128.70 and 55.65 km2 year-1, respectively, in the meantime the fixed sand dunes has decreased with a decreasing rate of 182.14 km2 year-1. During the 1987s, the area of sandy desertified land reached 12,006.11 km2 (57.17% of the total sandy area, of which severely desertified, medium desertified and slightly desertified land areas were 4,442.23, 4,253.45 and 3,310.43 km2, respectively. By the year 1999, the area of desertified land was increased to 13,782.30 km2 (65.63% of the total sandy area, of which severely desertified, medium desertified and slightly desertified land areas were 5,169.89, 4,918.15 and 3,694.26 km2, respectively increasing by 1,776.19 km2. Conclusion: Spatial change detection based on active sand dunes showed that the expansion area was much larger than the reversion in the past two decades and that several active sand belts has been formed, suggesting that sandy desertification of northern part of Shaanxi Province, China, will be a long-term task.

  18. Sandy Desertification Status and its Driving Mechanism in North Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang

    2004-01-01

    As the main body of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, North Tibet Plateau is one of three major sandy desertification regions in China and also a representative sandy desertification zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Accordingly, it is an important region for the study of recent sandy desertification processes and formation mechanism. From such aspects as desertified land types, areas and distributions etc., this paper analyses in detail the sandy desertification status on North Tibet Plateau,and qualitatively and quantitatively deals with the main factors that affect recent sandy desertification processes and the driving mechanism. Research results show that North Tibet Plateau is an important sandy desertification region in China characterized with large desertified land areas, diversified types,high severity, extensive distributions and serious damages. Sandy desertification occurrence and development resulted from combined effects of natural factors, anthropogenic factors, natural processes and man-made processes, of which climatic change is the main driving force.

  19. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shores (Brown & Jarman 1978) and estuaries (Connell. 1974; Blaber ... 1981). In the case of mysids, two quantitative series with ... sieve and repeated four times for each sample. Dry mass ..... The zooplankton of Msikaba estuary. Zool. afro II: ...

  20. The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry V. Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE, was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS.

  1. Fit-for-purpose phosphorus management: do riparian buffers qualify in catchments with sandy soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David; Summers, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope runoff and leaching studies, catchment-scale water quality measurements and P retention and release characteristics of stream bank and catchment soils were used to better understand reasons behind the reported ineffectiveness of riparian buffers for phosphorus (P) management in catchments with sandy soils from south-west Western Australia (WA). Catchment-scale water quality measurements of 60 % particulate P (PP) suggest that riparian buffers should improve water quality; however, runoff and leaching studies show 20 times more water and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more P are transported through leaching than runoff processes. The ratio of filterable reactive P (FRP) to total P (TP) in surface runoff from the plots was 60 %, and when combined with leachate, 96 to 99 % of P lost from hillslopes was FRP, in contrast with 40 % measured as FRP at the large catchment scale. Measurements of the P retention and release characteristics of catchment soils (bank soil (bank soils suggest that catchment soils contain more P, are more P saturated and are significantly more likely to deliver FRP and TP in excess of water quality targets than stream bank soils. Stream bank soils are much more likely to retain P than contribute P to streams, and the in-stream mixing of FRP from the landscape with particulates from stream banks or stream beds is a potential mechanism to explain the change in P form from hillslopes (96 to 99 % FRP) to large catchments (40 % FRP). When considered in the context of previous work reporting that riparian buffers were ineffective for P management in this environment, these studies reinforce the notion that (1) riparian buffers are unlikely to provide fit-for-purpose P management in catchments with sandy soils, (2) most P delivered to streams in sandy soil catchments is FRP and travels via subsurface and leaching pathways and (3) large catchment-scale water quality measurements are not good indicators of hillslope P mobilisation and transport

  2. Modeling of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Surface Drip Irrigationin Clay Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    foroogh abbasi teshnizi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water for agriculture is one of the most important factors in arid and semi-arid areas and municipal wastewater treatment is an important resource for this purpose. Therefore, potential of transfer contaminations is a serious problem regarding use of treated wastewater for agriculture. Due to the risk of transfer contaminations through the use of wastewater, the study of transfer microbes in soil in recent decades has been of interest to researchers. In the present study, the transfer of bacteria fecal coliform was investigated in a lysimeter and the HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate water flow and the fecal coliform in the soil. For calibration of the model and estimating the model input parameters, soil hydraulic and transport parameters, were inversely estimated. Results represented that the HYDRUS-1D with reasonably accurately simulated the outlet flow. To simulate the transfer of the bacteria in the soil, one site sorption model, two kinetic sites model (particle transport using attachment/detachment and one kinetic site model were used. In the simulation of bacterial transfer, one site sorption model was selected as the proper model for this study. One site sorption model estimated solid-phase growth coefficient ( about sextuple more than liquid-phase. It showed that deposited cells had a higher division rate compared with the cell in liquid-phase. The calibrated model was used for surveying the effect various irrigation intervals and irrigation times on bacterial transfer. The results showed that by increasing irrigation times, more bacteria leached out from the soil. Also by increasing irrigation intervals, more bacteria observed in the soil profile, due to favorable environmental conditions and food for the bacteria growth. According to the results, the best interval and irrigation times were one day and four hours, respectively.

  3. Quantifying the digital traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-11-05

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive "digital traces" of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  4. Factors influencing real time internal structural visualization and dynamic process monitoring in plants using synchrotron-based phase contrast X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Lahlali, Rachid; Zhu, Ning; Webb, Adam M; Schmidt, Marina; Fransishyn, Kyle; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Olson, Jeremy; Cooper, David M L; Hallin, Emil

    2015-07-17

    Minimally invasive investigation of plant parts (root, stem, leaves, and flower) has good potential to elucidate the dynamics of plant growth, morphology, physiology, and root-rhizosphere interactions. Laboratory based absorption X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) systems are extensively used for in situ feasibility studies of plants grown in natural and artificial soil. These techniques have challenges such as low contrast between soil pore space and roots, long X-ray imaging time, and low spatial resolution. In this study, the use of synchrotron (SR) based phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) has been demonstrated as a minimally invasive technique for imaging plants. Above ground plant parts and roots of 10 day old canola and wheat seedlings grown in sandy clay loam soil were successfully scanned and reconstructed. Results confirmed that SR-PCI can deliver good quality images to study dynamic and real time processes such as cavitation and water-refilling in plants. The advantages of SR-PCI, effect of X-ray energy, and effective pixel size to study plant samples have been demonstrated. The use of contrast agents to monitor physiological processes in plants was also investigated and discussed.

  5. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estuary(32°25' 45"E128° 15'35"S),Blythdale (31 ° 16'20"EI. 29° 16'25"S) ... Bentho-planktonic mysids were collected with a sledge which skims off ... Along each transect a series of .... times more carbonate than the southern beaches. At So-.

  6. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    OpenAIRE

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Society’s increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive “digital traces” of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, desc...

  7. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  8. Responses of plant diversity and species composition to the cessation of fertilization in a sandy grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-nan Shi; Zhan-yuan Yu; Qiong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen was the main limiting nutrient of net primary pro-duction in the southeastern Keerqin Sandy Lands, Northeast China. Spe-cies richness declined and biomass increased after five consecutive years of nitrogen fertilization of these sandy grasslands (2004-2008). After fertilization had been stopped for three years (2009-2011), we surveyed vegetation on previously fertilized plots to quantify changes in commu-nity composition. Respect species richness showed an increasing trend over time since the cessation of fertilization. Respect vegetation height and coverage showed decreasing trends over time since the cessation of fertilization. Species composition changed after fertilization ceased, the dominant species shifting from Cannabis sativa, Phragmites communis and Chenopodium acuminatum in 2008 to Cannabis sativa, Phragmites communis and Artemisia scoparia in 2011. Dominance of dominant species declined from 66.2%in 2008 to 57.5%in 2011. The importance value of annual plants in the earlier nitrogen addition plots was higher than in control plots, but the differences were not significant in 2011. The importance value of perennial plants differed significantly between treatments from 2009 to 2011. The reversion rate not only differed be-tween community characteristics, but also between functional groups in the same community characteristic. Although the residual effect of nitro-gen addition on vegetation was still observed three years after fertiliza-tion ceased, the vegetation showed signs of recovery.

  9. Spatial distribution of sandy desertificationchange in the west of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHuiqing; XUJiawei; LVXinmiao

    2003-01-01

    The sandy land of the western part of Jilin Province is located in the ecotone of semi-humid and semi-arid area in the temperate zone of China. The sandy desertification has widely spread in the region because of the vulnerable natural conditions and the unreasonable human activity; as a result of this, the precious land resources and the economic development in the area have been seriously impacted. In this paper, the sandy land ecologic environment geographic information system is established based on the multi-spectral, multi-temporal Landsat TM images and field investigation. The comprehensive indexes of sandy desertification extent assessment which include vegetation degradation, wind erosion extent and soil depth are presented to classify the sandy land in western Jilin into three levels--slight, moderate and severe sandy desertification with the support of GIS platform. The results demonstrate that the sandy desertification has been partly controlled in the past twenty years, except some small sites. However, this doesn't necessarily mean that there is nothing for more concern. The two main causes of sandy desertification have not been eliminated yet, one is its natural factor, especially the physical and chemical characters of sandy soil and dry climate; another is the immoderate economic activity of human being that has highly accelerated the sandy desertification process.

  10. Transport of Alachlor, Atrazine, Dicamba, and Bromide through Silt and Loam Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    factor in transport of these herbicides, i.e., chemicals were leached away at these sites. By comparison, concentrations of alachlor on non-macropore sites ranged from 20-55 μg ml-1 for the first 30 days and none thereafter indicating that initially non-macropore sites had longer residence times, allowing for less chemical transport and more decay.

  11. Effect of blade vibration on mulch tillage performance under silt clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Goudarzi

    2015-09-01

    and randomized complete block design and three replications, and the fixed factors were: the depth of tillage: 20 cm, soil moisture: 16 to 17 percent and rack angle: 15 degrees; and the variable factors were the rate of progress in both 4.5 and 7.5 kilometers per hour and six levels of frequency, 1 fixed (zero 2 variables (self-induced, 3 (positive19 and 4 (negative19, 5 (positive37 and 6 (negative37 Hz were performed. An electric generator was used to create vibration power. The equation (1 was used to calculate the vibration power: (1 Where P: Electric power (W, V: voltage (V, I: current (amps and Ǿ: phase angle (degrees between the voltage and current. After the calculation, the required power of 19 Hz was calculated to be 0.6, and the required power of 37Hz, was calculated to be 0.75 kilowatts, respectively. The sample of mean weighted diameter, after tillage in each plot, was about 10 kg soil (0 to 20 cm depth with 3 replicates and through the equation (2, mean weight diameter was calculated as follows: (2 Where MWD: Mean weight diameter (cm, Xi: Two Elk consecutive mean diameters (cm and Wi: weight ratio of the soil remaining on the sieve to the total weight of the sample. In order to calculate the specific energy tension due to the width of tillage (28 Cm, equation (3 was used. (3 Where E: tensile special energy in kilojoules per square meter, P1: drawbar pulling power required in kW, P2: the vibration according to equation (1 based on kilowatt, T: tillage time in one square meter per second. Results and discussion: According to analysis of variance (Table 2 interaction effects of frequency and speed to keep the residue are significant at 1%, and this situation was shown well in Fig.2 Therefore, in practice, with increasing frequency in both induction and self-induction vibration, the tillage blades created a groove at the soil surface with less turmoil, and this would maintain the maximum residue on the surface of the soil. As is clear from Fig.3, treatment

  12. Rapid development of enhanced atrazine degradation in a Dundee silt loam soil under continuous corn and in rotation with cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotowicz, Robert M; Krutz, L Jason; Reddy, Krishna N; Weaver, Mark A; Koger, Clifford H; Locke, Martin A

    2007-02-07

    Mississippi Delta cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in field experiments from 2000 to 2005 at Stoneville, Mississippi. Plots maintained under minimum tillage were established in 2000 on a Dundee silt loam with treatments including continuous cotton or corn and alternate cotton-corn rotations. Mineralization and dissipation of 14C [ring]-labeled atrazine were evaluated in the laboratory on soils collected prior to herbicide application in the first, second, third, and sixth years of the study. In soils collected in 2000, a maximum of 10% of the atrazine was mineralized after 30 days. After 1 year of herbicide application, atrazine-treated soils mineralized 52-57% of the radiolabeled atrazine in 30 days. By the sixth year of the study, greater than 59% of the atrazine was mineralized after 7 days in soils treated with atrazine, while soils from plots with no atrazine treatment mineralized less than 36%. The data also indicated rapid development of enhanced atrazine degradation in soils following 1 year of corn production with atrazine use. Atrazine mineralization was as rapid in soils under a rotation receiving biannual atrazine applications as in soils under continuous corn receiving annual applications of atrazine. Cumulative mineralization kinetics parameters derived from the Gompertz model (k and ti) were highly correlated with a history of atrazine application and total soil carbon content. Changes in the soil microbial community assessed by total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis indicated significant interactions of cropping system and sampling date, with FAME indicators for soil bacteria responsible for differences in community structure. Autoclaved soil lost all ability to mineralize atrazine, and atrazine-mineralizing bacteria were isolated from these plots, confirming the biological basis for atrazine mineralization. These results indicate that changes in degradative potential of a soil can

  13. Spatial analysis of highway incident durations in the context of Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to develop an incident duration model which can account for the spatial dependence of duration observations, and (2) to investigate the impacts of a hurricane on incident duration. Highway incident data from New York City and its surrounding regions before and after Hurricane Sandy was used for the study. Moran's I statistics confirmed that durations of the neighboring incidents were spatially correlated. Moreover, Lagrange Multiplier tests suggested that the spatial dependence should be captured in a spatial lag specification. A spatial error model, a spatial lag model and a standard model without consideration of spatial effects were developed. The spatial lag model is found to outperform the others by capturing the spatial dependence of incident durations via a spatially lagged dependent variable. It was further used to assess the effects of hurricane-related variables on incident duration. The results show that the incidents during and post the hurricane are expected to have 116.3% and 79.8% longer durations than those that occurred in the regular time. However, no significant increase in incident duration is observed in the evacuation period before Sandy's landfall. Results of temporal stability tests further confirm the existence of the significant changes in incident duration patterns during and post the hurricane. Those findings can provide insights to aid in the development of hurricane evacuation plans and emergency management strategies.

  14. Natural persistence of the coastal plant Glehnia littoralis along temperate sandy coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Xiao; Chu, Jian-Min; Liu, Xiao-Shan

    2017-01-01

    We studied germination behaviors and persistence mechanism of wild Glehnia littoralis, a typical coastal species at temperate sandy coasts of the North Pacific Ocean, and tested the hypothesis that the coastal plants may have evolved special seeds adapting to the coasts, by which they recruit and persist easily, occupying the coasts as ideal habitats. In the Shandong Peninsula, China, we investigated temperature and moisture conditions of coast sand in relation to germination and evaluated effects of sand burial, seawater immersion and sowing time on germination. When germination began, daily dawn temperatures of sand were about 10 °C and daily noon temperatures were about 25 °C; the temperatures were not different in the sand seeds exhibited large germination rates if sand burial was at depths >= 3 cm and winter freezing was kept longer than 2.5 months. Seeds experiencing seawater immersion were able to germinate well. These evidences suggest that G. littoralis has evolved special seeds adapting to seawater dispersal and specific season rhythm. By the seeds, G. littoralis occupies temperate sandy coasts as ideal habitats to persist. PMID:28211487

  15. Adsorption capacity of chosen sandy ground with respect to contaminants relocating with groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniszewski Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems concerning contaminant transport in the ground is the problem related to the definition of parameters characterizing the adsorption capacity of ground for the chosen contaminants relocating with groundwater. In this paper, for chloride and sulfate indicators relocating in sandy ground, the numerical values of retardation factors (Ra (treated as average values and pore groundwater velocities with adsorption (ux/Ra (in micro-pore ground spaces are taken into consideration. Based on 2D transport equation the maximal dimensionless concentration values (C*max c in the chosen ground cross-sections were calculated. All the presented numerical calculations are related to the unpublished measurement series which was marked in this paper as: October 1982. For this measurement series the calculated concentration values are compared to the measured concentration ones (C*max m given recently to the author of this paper. In final part of this paper the parameters characterizing adsorption capacity (Ra, ux/Ra are also compared to the same parameters calculated for the two earlier measurement series. Such comparison also allowed for the estimation of a gradual in time depletion of adsorption capacity for the chosen sandy ground.

  16. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  17. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Y.; Cejas, C. M.; Barrois, R.; Dreyfus, R.; Durian, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and...

  18. The effect of the dominant polychaete Scolelepis squamata on nematode colonisation in sandy beach sediments: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Esteves, André M.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-09-01

    The effect of an abundant sandy beach polychaete, Scolelepis squamata, on the colonisation of defaunated sediments by marine nematodes indicates that sandy beach fauna can be partially controlled by biological interactions within and across size groups. Experimental cores, equipped with windows allowing infaunal colonisation, were filled with defaunated sandy beach sediment containing two different treatments with and without S. squamata. These cores were inserted into microcosms filled with sediment with indigenous meiofauna collected from the field. The treatments were incubated in the laboratory at ambient temperature and salinity for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, in order to follow the colonisation process of the defaunated sediments by the indigenous nematode fauna over time. Nematodes initially colonised both treatments, with abundances of up to 10% of the densities in the control; after 2 weeks, nematode densities in the cores without S. squamata surpassed the control densities. Nematode assemblages in both treatments were not species rich, and also differed in composition from the natural assemblages. The most successful colonising species, Enoplolaimus litoralis, was rare in the surrounding sediment, suggesting that colonisation was determined by species-specific characteristics such as body size, motility and feeding strategy. Initially the presence of macrofauna did not affect the nematode community composition, but after 2 weeks of the experiment, the presence of the polychaete seemed to facilitate the earlier establishment of non-opportunistic species.

  19. Sediment and discharge yields within a minimally disturbed, headwater watershed in North Central Pennsylvania, USA, with an emphasis on Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Shull, Dustin R.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated discharge and suspended sediment (SS) yield in a minimally disturbed watershed in North Central Pennsylvania, USA, and compared a typical storm (September storm, 4.80 cm) to a large storm (Superstorm Sandy, 7.47 cm rainfall). Depending on branch, Sandy contributed 9.7–19.9 times more discharge and 11.5–37.4 times more SS than the September storm. During the September storm, the upper two branches accounted for 60.6% of discharge and 88.8% of SS at Lower Branch; during Sandy these percentages dropped to 36.1% for discharge and 30.1% for SS. The branch with close proximity roads had over two-three times per area SS yield than the branch without such roads. Hysteresis loops showed typical clockwise patterns for the September storm and more complicated patterns for Sandy, reflecting the multipeak event. Estimates of SS and hysteresis in minimally disturbed watersheds provide useful information that can be compared spatially and temporally to facilitate management.

  20. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders.

  1. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. 1. Podzolic and brown soils developed from sands and loams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Pawłowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupying cereal stubble-fields weed flora is the most characteristic of the environmental (especially soil conditions. Because of its developing and accomplishing the reproductive stages there it can threatens cultivated plants. They are considered to complete the seed store in a soil by 393 min per ha. The results presented in the paper concern the species composition, number and constancy (S and indice of coverage (D of the cereal stubble-field weed species on various soils in the Kielce region (the central part of Poland. The report was based upon 885 phytosociological records collected in the 268 stands. The records were carried out after the crop harvest, in the latter part of September, in 1976-1980. Soil were chosen on the base of soil maps. The analyse of soil samples, taken at the investigation process, were done in order to confirm the soil quality. The worked out material was divided into three parts. The first part, including 369 phytosociological records collected in the 112 stands (in 90 localities concerns stubble-field weeds on podzolic and brown soils developed from sands (loose, weakly loamy and loamy and loams (light and medium. It was found that these soils were grown by 108 (loamy sands to 132 (weakly loamy sands weed species. Among them 66 species were common for all of the soils. Species composition was not differentiated by the soil type (brown, podzolic within kind of the. soil (sand or loams. Among soil examined, the brown loams was the most abundant with species of high constancy degree (30 species but brown loose sands and podzolic loamy sands was the poorest one with (16 species.

  2. Changes to soil water content and biomass yield under combined maize and maize-weed vegetation with different fertilization treatments in loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehoczky Éva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially during early developmental stages, competition with weeds can reduce crop growth and have a serious effect on productivity. Here, the effects of interactions between soil water content (SWC, nutrient availability, and competition from weeds on early stage crop growth were investigated, to better understand this problem. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using long-term study plots on loam soil in Hungary. Plots of maize (Zea mays L. and a weed-maize combination were exposed to five fertilization treatments. SWC was observed along the 0–80 cm depth soil profile and harvested aboveground biomass (HAB was measured.

  3. The bioremediation potential of marine sandy sediment microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Răzvan POPOVICIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbiota from marine sandy sediments on the Romanian sea coast was tested for resilience in case of hydrocarbon contamination, for estimating the number of (culturable hydrocarbon and lipid oil-degrading microorganisms and for determining the influence of inorganic nitrate and phosphate nutrients on hydrocarbon spill bioremediation process, by microcosm experiments.Results show that hydrocarbon contamination affects the bacteriobenthos both in terms of cell numbers and composition. Bacterial numbers showed a rapid decrease (28% in four days, followed by a relatively fast recovery (two weeks. The pollution favoured the increase of Gram-positive bacterial proportion (from around 25% to 33%Sandy sediment microbiota in both sites studied contained microorganisms able to use mineral or lipid oils as sole carbon sources, usually around 103-104/cm3, with variations according to the sediment grain size and substrate used.The biostimulation experiments showed that, in absence of water dynamism (and, implicitly, an efficient oxygenation, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus can be ineffective and even inhibit the remediation process, probably due to eutrophication.

  4. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  5. Experimental evidences on the scaling behavior of a sandy porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, C.; Straface, S.; Chidichimo, F.; Ferrante, A. P.; De Bartolo, S.

    2012-04-01

    Various authors treated the scaling of the hydrodispersive parameters in porous media. Nevertheless several studies and reports finding in literature on this matter, specifically on the dispersivity increases with scale of measurement, are based on a statistical or experimental approach (Neuman, 1990; Wheatcraft & Tylor, 1988; Clauser, 1992; Schulze-Makuch, 2005). Following this last approach, we analysed the scale behaviour of a sandy porous media, the grain size of which was characterized carefully in laboratory. For this aim we carried out several tracer tests on three cylindrical samples of the considered sandy soil. The diameter of these samples was the same, equal to 0.0635 m, and the lengths respectively equal to 0.15 m, 0.30 m and 0.60 m. At the bottom and the top of the cylindrical sample two membrane were located to allow the water flow. The water arrived in the sample from the bottom by a plastic tube and came out from the top to exclude the presence of air in the soil sample. The flow was produced by a peristaltic pump, able to develop different rates and therefore different flow velocities. For all tests the utilized tracer was NaCl, that was melted in 50 ml of solution with concentration of 5 g/l. The letting in of the solution was performed immediately up pump, by a connection of plastic tubes and a tap. The tests was carried out at first letting in the tracer in short times and after repeating it with continuous letting in. In this way the tests was carried out, repeating them five times with different rates and, therefore, velocities. For each of test the breakthrough curves were obtained and successively the longitudinal dispersivity (αL) and the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion (DL) were calculated. These values, considering also the lengths of the samples, allowed to verify the scaling behaviour of the examined sandy porous media. In fact a specific law to describe the increase of αL with scale was determined. Analogously another law was

  6. Restructuring of the Aquatic Bacterial Community by Hydric Dynamics Associated with Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nikea; Rosenberger, Abigail; Brislawn, Colin; Wright, Justin; Kessler, Collin; Toole, David; Solomon, Caroline; Strutt, Steven; McClure, Erin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial community composition and longitudinal fluctuations were monitored in a riverine system during and after Superstorm Sandy to better characterize inter- and intracommunity responses associated with the disturbance associated with a 100-year storm event. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess microbial community structure within water samples from Muddy Creek Run, a second-order stream in Huntingdon, PA, at 12 different time points during the storm event (29 October to 3 November 2012) and under seasonally matched baseline conditions. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to track changes in bacterial community structure and divergence during and after Superstorm Sandy. Bacterial community dynamics were correlated to measured physicochemical parameters and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. Bioinformatics analyses of 2.1 million 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant increase in bacterial diversity in samples taken during peak discharge of the storm. Beta-diversity analyses revealed longitudinal shifts in the bacterial community structure. Successional changes were observed, in which Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased in 16S rRNA gene relative abundance, while the relative abundance of members of the Firmicutes increased. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequences matching pathogenic bacteria, including strains of Legionella, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter, as well as bacteria of fecal origin (e.g., Bacteroides), exhibited an increase in abundance after peak discharge of the storm. This study revealed a significant restructuring of in-stream bacterial community structure associated with hydric dynamics of a storm event. IMPORTANCE In order to better understand the microbial risks associated with freshwater environments during a storm event, a more comprehensive understanding of the variations in aquatic bacterial diversity is warranted. This study

  7. Coastal topography–Northeast Atlantic coast, post-hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.; Sopkin, Kristin L.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Fredericks, Xan

    2013-01-01

    This Data Series contains lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, dune elevations, and mean-high-water shoreline position datasets for most sandy beaches for Fire Island, New York, and from Cape Henlopen, Delaware to Cape Lookout, North Carolina. The data were acquired post-Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall as an extratropical cyclone on October 29, 2012.

  8. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be fulfille

  9. Heterogeneous water flow and pesticide transport in cultivated sandy soils : description of model concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample experimental evidence that complications in water flow and pesticide transport can occur in cultivated humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soils. As a result, pesticide leaching to groundwater and water courses can be higher than expected. We made an inventory of mechanistic/deterministic mod

  10. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2000-01-01

    belonging to Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Protodriloidae (Polychaeta) occurred only at the sandy locality, whereas Kinorhyncha, Foraminifera, and Cumacea (Crustacea) occurred only at the muddy stations. The larger number of meiofauna individuals at the sandy locality may in part be explained...

  11. Nitrate leaching to groundwater at experimental farm "De Marke" and other Dutch sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on nitrate leaching to the groundwater as a result of the land use system of experimental farm 'De Marke', translated to other sandy soils in the Netherlands. The land use was extrapolated to five major sandy soil map units, selected from the 1: 50 000 Soil Map of the Netherlands,

  12. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River...

  13. Temporal variations in microbial activities and carbon turnover in subtidal sandy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böer, S. I.; Arnosti, C.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.; Boetius, A.

    2009-07-01

    Temporal dynamics and vertical patterns in bacterial abundances and activities were studied in a shallow subtidal sand flat in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (North Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany). Extracellular enzymatic activities, bacterial carbon production and community respiration showed strong (factor of 4-5) temporal variations that were mostly related to seasonal temperature change and to changes in substrate availability. These temporal patterns in enzymatic activity were barely reflected in bacterial (200-400 mmol C m-2) and microphytobenthic biomass (800-1500 mmol C m-2) or the sedimentary carbohydrate inventory (1300-2900 mmol C m-2), suggesting that grazing controls the standing stocks of the microphytobenthic and bacterial assemblages. Despite their exposure to strong hydrodynamic forces such as tidal currents and wind-induced wave surge, the subtidal sandy sediments showed persistent vertical gradients in bacterial abundances, carbon production and extracellular enzymatic activities at all times. The vertical distribution of these parameters was tightly coupled to that of the microphytobenthos, dominated by diatoms. Despite the low organic carbon content typical for surge-exposed sandy sediments, high extracellular enzymatic activities and bacterial carbon production rates indicate a very active heterotrophic bacterial community, with a gross secondary productivity of 30-180 mmol C m-2, and a biomass turnover time of 2-18 days. Our data suggest that this high activity is supported by the rapid flux of carbohydrates from microphytobenthic primary productivity. Accordingly, the potential activities of enzymes hydrolyzing carbohydrates cover most of the total bacterial carbon demand during all seasons.

  14. Temporal variations in microbial activities and carbon turnover in subtidal sandy sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boetius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal dynamics and vertical patterns in bacterial abundances and activities were studied in a shallow subtidal sand flat in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (North Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany. Extracellular enzymatic activities, bacterial carbon production and community respiration showed strong (factor of 4–5 temporal variations that were mostly related to seasonal temperature change and to changes in substrate availability. These temporal patterns in enzymatic activity were barely reflected in bacterial (200–400 mmol C m−2 and microphytobenthic biomass (800–1500 mmol C m−2 or the sedimentary carbohydrate inventory (1300–2900 mmol C m−2, suggesting that grazing controls the standing stocks of the microphytobenthic and bacterial assemblages. Despite their exposure to strong hydrodynamic forces such as tidal currents and wind-induced wave surge, the subtidal sandy sediments showed persistent vertical gradients in bacterial abundances, carbon production and extracellular enzymatic activities at all times. The vertical distribution of these parameters was tightly coupled to that of the microphytobenthos, dominated by diatoms. Despite the low organic carbon content typical for surge-exposed sandy sediments, high extracellular enzymatic activities and bacterial carbon production rates indicate a very active heterotrophic bacterial community, with a gross secondary productivity of 30–180 mmol C m−2, and a biomass turnover time of 2–18 days. Our data suggest that this high activity is supported by the rapid flux of carbohydrates from microphytobenthic primary productivity. Accordingly, the potential activities of enzymes hydrolyzing carbohydrates cover most of the total bacterial carbon demand during all seasons.

  15. Hurricane Sandy: Caught in the eye of the storm and a city's adaptation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, P. M.; Horton, R. M.; Blumberg, A. F.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.; Bader, D.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA RISA program has funded the seven-institution Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN) for the past five years to serve stakeholder needs in assessing and managing risks from climate variability and change. When Hurricane Sandy struck, we were in an ideal position, making flood forecasts and communicating NOAA forecasts to the public with dozens of media placements, translating the poorly understood flood forecasts into human dimensions. In 2013 and 2015, by request of New York City (NYC), we worked through the NYC Panel on Climate Change to deliver updated climate risk assessment reports, to be used in the post-Sandy rebuilding and resiliency efforts. These utilized innovative methodologies for probabilistic local and regional sea level change projections, and contrasted methods of dynamic versus (the more common) static flood mapping. We participated in a federal-academic partnership that developed a Sea Level Tool for Sandy Recovery that integrates CCRUN sea level rise projections with policy-relevant FEMA flood maps, and now several updated flood maps and coastal flood mapping tools (NOAA, FEMA, and USACE) incorporate our projections. For the adaptation response, we helped develop NYC's $20 billion flood adaptation plan, and we were on a winning team under the Housing and Urban Development Rebuild By Design (RBD) competition, a few of the many opportunities that arose with negligible additional funding and which CCRUN funds supported. Our work at times disrupted standard lines of thinking, but NYC showed an openness to altering course. In one case we showed that an NYC plan of wetland restoration in Jamaica Bay would provide no reduction in flooding unless deep-dredged channels circumventing them were shallowed or narrowed. In another, the lead author's RBD team challenged the notion at one location that levees were the solution to accelerating sea level rise, developing a plan to use ecological breakwaters and layered components of

  16. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  17. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar point-cloud data (LAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  18. Progress in sandy desertification research of China%中国沙漠化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2004-01-01

    Sandy desertification is land degradation characterized by wind erosion mainly resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in northern China. The research on sandy desertification has experienced more than 5 decades of arduous course of the struggle along with the establishment and development of China′s desert science. Researches in this field have made a great contribution to the national economic construction, and environmental protection. This paper focuses on presenting the major progress and achievements in the sandy desertification research during the last 50 years, including the stages of study on sandy desertification,background environment of sandy desertification and its changes, the conception, causes, process,monitoring and assessment of sandy desertification, the vegetation succession, landscape ecology, plant physiology, impacts on ecosystem, high-effective use of water and land resources and sustainable development in sandy desertified regions, sandy desertification control models and techniques etc.

  19. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar point-cloud data (LAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  20. Pine Woodchip Biochar Impact on Soil Nutrient Concentrations and Corn Yield in a Silt Loam in the Mid-Southern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy E. Brantley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has altered plant yields and soil nutrient availability in tropical soils, but less research exists involving biochar additions to temperate cropping systems. Of the existing research, results vary based on soil texture, crop grown, and biochar properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pine (Pinus spp. woodchip biochar at 0, 5, and 10 Mg·ha−1 rates combined with urea nitrogen (N on soil chemical properties and corn (Zea mays L. yield under field conditions in the first growing season after biochar addition in a silt-loam alluvial soil. Biochar combined with fertilizer numerically increased corn yields, while biochar alone numerically decreased corn yields, compared to a non-amended control. Corn nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUE was greater with 10 Mg·ha−1 biochar compared to no biochar. There were limited biochar effects on soil nutrients, but biochar decreased nitrate, total dissolved N, and Mehlich-3 extractable sulfur and manganese concentrations in the top 10 cm. Pine woodchip biochar combined with N fertilizer has the potential to improve corn production when grown in silt-loam soil in the mid-southern U.S. by improving NUE and increasing yield. Further research will be important to determine impacts as biochar ages in the soil.

  1. Study on sound-speed dispersion in a sandy sediment at frequency ranges of 0.5-3 kHz and 90-170 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng-qi; Liu, Bao-hua; Yu, Kai-ben; Kan, Guang-ming; Yang, Zhi-guo

    2017-03-01

    In order to study the properties of sound-speed dispersion in a sandy sediment, the sound speed was measured both at high frequency (90-170 kHz) and low frequency (0.5-3 kHz) in laboratory environments. At high frequency, a sampling measurement was conducted with boiled and uncooked sand samples collected from the bottom of a large water tank. The sound speed was directly obtained through transmission measurement using single source and single hydrophone. At low frequency, an in situ measurement was conducted in the water tank, where the sandy sediment had been homogeneously paved at the bottom for a long time. The sound speed was indirectly inverted according to the traveling time of signals received by three buried hydrophones in the sandy sediment and the geometry in experiment. The results show that the mean sound speed is approximate 1710-1713 m/s with a weak positive gradient in the sand sample after being boiled (as a method to eliminate bubbles as much as possible) at high frequency, which agrees well with the predictions of Biot theory, the effective density fluid model (EDFM) and Buckingham's theory. However, the sound speed in the uncooked sandy sediment obviously decreases (about 80%) both at high frequency and low frequency due to plenty of bubbles in existence. And the sound-speed dispersion performs a weak negative gradient at high frequency. Finally, a water-unsaturated Biot model is presented for trying to explain the decrease of sound speed in the sandy sediment with plenty of bubbles.

  2. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  3. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Kryvasheyeu

    Full Text Available Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours; and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  4. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  5. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle.

  6. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    ; Zn: 6±22,800 l/kg) and correlating them to the characteristics of the aquifer material (particle size distribution, organic C content, surface area, pH) revealed good correlation with pH in the range 5.3± 8.9 (Cu: r 2=0.72; Zn: r 2=0.94). Including any other of the measured aquifer characteristics...... improved the correlation only a few percent. The results indicate that the mobility of Cu and Zn in sandy aquifers, as re¯ected in the measured Kd values, is very restricted at pH values above 6, since the relative migration velocity is less than 1%. However, at lower pH values, Zn seems to become mobile...

  7. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  8. Visual Odometry for Planetary Exploration Rovers in Sandy Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual odometry provides planetary exploration rovers with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation, which needs effective feature tracking results, especially in barren sandy terrains. In this paper, a stereovision based odometry algorithm is proposed for a lunar rover, which is composed of corner extraction, feature tracking and motion estimation. First, a morphology based image enhancement method is studied to guarantee enough corners are extracted. Second, a Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm is proposed to make a robust estimation of the fundamental matrix, which is the basic and critical part of feature matching and tracking. Then, the 6 degrees of freedom rover position and orientation is estimated by the RANSAC algorithm. Finally, experiments are performed in a simulated lunar surface environment using a prototype rover, which have confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  10. Nematode Faunal Response to Grassland Degradation in Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The responses of soil nematode communities to grassland degradation were studied under undegraded grassland (UG),degraded grassland (DG), and improved grassland (IG), in Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN)exhibited positive effects on the total number of nematodes and trophic groups. Significant treatment effects were found in the total number of nematodes, plant parasites, and omnivores-predators. Measures taken in the improved grassland could improve the number of omnivore-predators, especially in the deeper soil layers. Nematode richness was lower in the DG treatment than in the IG and UG treatments. The food web structure index (SI) was significantly higher in the UG and IG treatments than in the DG treatment. A higher SI suggested a food web with more trophic linkages and relatively healthy ecosystems.

  11. Extraction Efficiency of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1991-10-01

    Numbers of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from sandy soils (91-92% sand) by sieving and centrifugation were only 40-55% of those extracted by sieving and incubation on a Baermann tray. Residues normally discarded at each step of the sieving plus Baermann tray extraction procedure were examined for nematodes to obtain estimates of extraction efficiencies. For third-stage and fourth-stage juveniles, males, and females, estimates of extraction efficiency ranged from 60 to 65% in one experiment and 73 to 82% in another. Estimated extraction efficiencies for second-stage juveniles were lower (33% in one experiment, 67% in another) due to losses during sieving. When sterilized soil was seeded with known numbers of B. longicaudatus, 60% of second-stage juveniles and 68-76% of other stages were recovered. Most stages of B. longicaudatus could be extracted from these soils by sieving plus Baermann incubation with an efficiency of 60-70%.

  12. 78 FR 52560 - Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force-Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force--Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams AGENCY: Hurricane Sandy Task Force, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In June 2013, the Hurricane Sandy Task Force launched Rebuild by Design, a multi-stage regional design competition to...

  13. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  14. Glider observations and modeling of sediment transport in Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Regional sediment resuspension and transport are examined as Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) in October 2012. A Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider, equipped with a Nortek Aquadopp current profiler, was deployed on the continental shelf ahead of the storm, and is used to validate sediment transport routines coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The glider was deployed on 25 October, 5 days before Sandy made landfall in southern New Jersey (NJ) and flew along the 40 m isobath south of the Hudson Shelf Valley. We used optical and acoustic backscatter to compare with two modeled size classes along the glider track, 0.1 and 0.4 mm sand, respectively. Observations and modeling revealed full water column resuspension for both size classes for over 24 h during peak waves and currents, with transport oriented along-shelf toward the southwest. Regional model predictions showed over 3 cm of sediment eroded on the northern portion of the NJ shelf where waves and currents were the highest. As the storm passed and winds reversed from onshore to offshore on the southern portion of the domain waves and subsequently orbital velocities necessary for resuspension were reduced leading to over 3 cm of deposition across the entire shelf, just north of Delaware Bay. This study highlights the utility of gliders as a new asset in support of the development and verification of regional sediment resuspension and transport models, particularly during large tropical and extratropical cyclones when in situ data sets are not readily available.

  15. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. High-density turbidity currents: Are they sandy debris flows?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Conventionally, turbidity currents are considered as fluidal flows in which sediment is supported by fluid turbulence, whereas debris flows are plastic flows in which sediment is supported by matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. The concept of high-density turbidity current refers to high-concentration, commonly non-turbulent, flows of fluids in which sediment is supported mainly by matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. The conventional wisdom that traction carpets with entrained turbulent clouds on top represent high-density turbidity currents is a misnomer because traction carpets are neither fluidal nor turbulent. Debris flows may also have entrained turbulent clouds on top. The traction carpet/debris flow and the overriding turbulent clouds are two separate entities in terms of flow rheology and sediment-support mechanism. In experimental and theoretical studies, which has linked massive sands and floating clasts to high-density turbidity currents, the term high-density turbidity current has actually been used for laminar flows. In alleviating this conceptual problem, sandy debris flow is suggested as a substitute for high-density turbidity current. Sandy debris flows represent a continuous spectrum of processes between cohesive and cohesionless debris flows. Commonly they are rheologically plastic. They may occur with or without entrained turbulent clouds on top. Their sediment-support mechanisms include matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. They are characterized by laminar flow conditions, a moderate to high grain concentration, and a low to moderate mud content. Although flows evolve and transform during the course of transport in density-stratified flows, the preserved features in a deposit are useful to decipher only the final stages of deposition. At present, there are no established criteria to decipher transport mechanism from the depositional record.

  17. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  18. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  19. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Gupta, Axita A

    2014-01-01

    Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales). Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria) and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales). These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment. Future research will

  20. Surf zone diatoms: A review of the drivers, patterns and role in sandy beaches food chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Du Preez, Derek R.; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Campbell, Eileen E.

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of high biomass of diatoms in the surf zone is a characteristic feature of some sandy beaches where the wave energy is sufficiently high. A few species of diatoms, called surf diatoms, thrive in this harsh environment. The main processes driving the spatial and temporal distribution of surf diatoms as well as their standing biomass and growth were described twenty to thirty years ago based on studies conducted on the western coast of the United States of America and South African beaches. Since then, over fifty locations around the world have been reported to have surf diatom accumulations with most (three-quarters) of these being in the southern hemisphere. Their occurrence is controlled by physical and chemical factors, including wave energy, beach slope and length, water circulation patterns in the surf zone and the availability of nutrients to sustain the high biomass. The main forces driving the patterns of temporal variability of surf diatom accumulations are meteorological. In the short term (hours), the action of wind stress and wave energy controls the diatom accumulation. In the intermediate time scale (weeks to months), seasonal onshore winds of sufficient strength, as well as storm events are important. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances that influence the beach ecosystem as well as large-scale events, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, may lead to significant changes in surf diatom populations in the long term (inter-annual). Surf diatoms form the base of a short and very productive food chain in the inshore of the sandy beaches where they occur. However, the role of surf diatoms in the microbial food web is not clear and deserves further studies.

  1. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  2. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Sandy along the Atlantic coast of the United States, October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Brian E.; Wicklein, Shaun M.; Reiser, Robert G.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Morrison, Jonathan; Verdi, Richard J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Frantz, Eric R.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of water-level and barometric pressure sensors at 224 locations along the Atlantic coast from Virginia to Maine to continuously record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Sandy. These records were greatly supplemented by an extensive post-flood high-water mark (HWM) flagging and surveying campaign from November to December 2012 involving more than 950 HWMs. Both efforts were undertaken as part of a coordinated federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  3. Assessment of sandy desertification trends in the Shule River Basin from 1978 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Song; ChangZhen Yan; Sen Li; JiaLi Xie

    2014-01-01

    Sandy desertification in the Shule River Basin has expanded dramatically during the past 30 years. We evaluated the status, evolution, and main causes of sandy desertification by interpreting Landsat images which were acquired in 1978, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and analyzing the relevant meteorological data. The results show there was 3,477.95 km2, 3,733.32 km2, 3,620.29 km2, 3,565.65 km2, and 3,557.88 km2 of sandy desertified land in 1978, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively. From 1978 to 1990, not only the area of sandy desertified land (SDL) but also the degree of SDL levels increased. From 1990 to 2010 there was widespread restoration of SDL but the recovery trend of SDL gradually slowed. Although climate change contributes to expanding sandy desertification, human activities can either accelerate or reverse trends of natural sandy desertification. Some detrimental human activities can accelerate sandy desertification, but, conversely, desertification control measures such as the Three-North Shelter Forest Project and watershed rehabilitation programs in areas including the Shule River Basin resulted in many SDL being turned into grasslands or forest lands when shrubs and trees were planted to fix mobile sands at the edges of oases and cities. With population growth, much SDL has been reclaimed as farm land using water-saving agricultural methods or has been turned into built-up land as a result of urbanization.

  4. Field investigation of surface sand and dust movement over different sandy grasslands in the Otindag Sandy Land, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shulin; Wang, Tao; Chen, Guangting; Guo, Jian; Xue, Xian; Ma, Shaoxiu

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of sand and dust movement over different sandy grasslands in China’s Otindag Sandy Land were explored based on field observations and laboratory analyses. Threshold wind speeds (the speed required to initiate sand movement) at a height of 2 m above the ground were estimated in the field for different surface types. Threshold wind speed above shifting dunes in the study area is about 4.6 m s-1 at this height. This value was smaller than values observed above other surfaces, resulting in a greater risk of blowing sand above these dunes. Differences in sand transport rates (STR) as a function of the severity of desertification resulted primarily from differences in surface vegetation cover and secondarily from the soil’s grain-size distribution. STR increased exponentially with increasing near-bed wind velocity. Under the same wind conditions, STR increased with increasing severity of desertification: from 0.08 g cm-2 min-1 above semi-fixed dunes to 8 g cm-2 min-1 above semi-shifting dunes and 25 g cm-2 min-1 above shifting dunes. Vegetation’s affect on STR was clearly large. Different components of sand and dust were trapped over different lands: mostly sand grains but little dust were trapped above shifting dunes, but much dust was collected over semi-shifting and semi-fixed dunes. Human disturbance is likely to produce dust even from fixed dunes as a result of trampling by animals and vehicle travel. In addition, spring rainfall decreased the risk of sand and dust movement by accelerating germination of plants and the formation of a soil crust.

  5. USE OF THE “ROTHC” MODEL TO SIMULATE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS ON A SILTY-LOAM INCEPTISOL IN NORTHERN ITALY UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Francaviglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the efficiency of the RothC model to simulate Soil Organic Carbon (SOC dynamics after 12 years of organic and mineral fertilization practices in a study area located in northern Italy, on a silty-loam Inceptisol with a rotation including tomato, maize and alfalfa. The model performance was assessed by RMSE and EF coefficients. RothC simulated well observed SOC decreases in 71 samples (RMSE=7.42; EF=0.79, while performed with less accuracy when considering all samples (96 samples; RMSE=12.37; EF=0.58, due to the fact that the model failed in case of measured SOC increases (25 samples; RMSE=20.77; EF=-0.038. The model was used to forecast the SOC dynamics over a 50 year period under the same pedoclimatic conditions. Only clay contents >15% allowed to predict increasing levels of SOC respect to the starting values.

  6. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-01-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg−1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg−1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems. PMID:28155886

  7. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg‑1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg‑1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  8. Impact of redox-stratification on the diversity and distribution of bacterial communities in sandy reef sediments in a microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; Wang, Xin; Hannides, Angelos K.; Sansone, Francis J.; Wang, Guangyi

    2011-11-01

    Relationships between microbial communities and geochemical environments are important in marine microbial ecology and biogeochemistry. Although biogeochemical redox stratification has been well documented in marine sediments, its impact on microbial communities remains largely unknown. In this study, we applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction to investigate the diversity and stratification of bacterial communities in redox-stratified sandy reef sediments in a microcosm. A total of 88 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were identified from 16S rRNA clone libraries constructed from sandy reef sediments in a laboratory microcosm. They were members of nine phyla and three candidate divisions, including Proteobacteria ( Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Spirochaetes, and the candidate divisions WS3, SO31 and AO19. The vast majority of these phylotypes are related to clone sequences from other marine sediments, but OTUs of Epsilonproteobacteria and WS3 are reported for the first time from permeable marine sediments. Several other OTUs are potential new bacterial phylotypes because of their low similarity with reference sequences. Results from the 16S rRNA, gene clone sequence analyses suggested that bacterial communities exhibit clear stratification across large redox gradients in these sediments, with the highest diversity found in the anoxic layer (15-25 mm) and the least diversity in the suboxic layer (3-5 mm). Analysis of the nosZ, and amoA gene libraries also indicated the stratification of denitrifiers and nitrifiers, with their highest diversity being in the anoxic and oxic sediment layers, respectively. These results indicated that redox-stratification can affect the distribution of bacterial communities in sandy reef sediments.

  9. Impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies in severely affected areas of New York City: A qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vibhuti; Medina, Eric; Scaccia, Allison; Mathew, Cathleen; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Of the total 52 solicited pharmacies, 35 (67 percent) responded and were included in our analysis. Only 10 (29 percent) of the pharmacies surveyed reported having a generator during Hurricane Sandy; 37 percent reported being equipped with a generator at the time of the survey approximately 1 year later. Our findings suggest that issues other than power outages contributed more toward a pharmacy remaining operational after the storm. Of those surveyed, 26 (74 percent) suffered from structural damage (most commonly in Coney Island). Most pharmacies (71 percent) were able to reopen within 1 month. Despite staffing challenges, most pharmacies (88 percent) had enough pharmacists/staff to resume normal operations. Overall, 91 percent were aware of law changes for emergency medication access, and 81 percent found the information easy to obtain. This survey helped inform our work toward improved community resiliency. Our findings have helped us recognize community pharmacists as important stakeholders and refocus our energy toward developing sustained partnerships with them in NYC as part of our ongoing preparedness strategy.

  10. Impact of redox-stratification on the diversity and distribution of bacterial communities in sandy reef sediments in a microcosm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zheng; WANG Xin; Angelos K. HANNIDES; Francis J. SANSONE; WANG Guangyi

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between microbial communities and geochemical environments are important in marine microbial ecology and biogeochemistry.Although biogeochemical redox stratification has been well documented in marine sediments,its impact on microbial communities remains largely unknown.In this study,we applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction to investigate the diversity and stratification of bacterial communities in redox-stratified sandy reef sediments in a microcosm.A total of 88 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) were identified from 16S rRNA clone libraries constructed from sandy reef sediments in a laboratory microcosm.They were members of nine phyla and three candidate divisions,including Proteobacteria (Alpha-,Beta-,Gamma-,Delta-,and Epsilonproteobacteria),Actinobacteria,Acidobacteria,Bacteroidetes,Chloroflexi,Cyanobacteria,Firmicutes,Verrucomicrobia,Spirochaetes,and the candidate divisions WS3,SO31 and AO19.The vast majority of these phylotypes are related to clone sequences from other marine sediments,but OTUs of Epsilonproteobacteria and WS3 are reported for the first time from permeable marine sediments.Several other OTUs are potential new bacterial phylotypes because of their low similarity with reference sequences.Results from the 16S rRNA,gene clone sequence analyses suggested that bacterial communities exhibit clear stratification across large redox gradients in these sediments,with the highest diversity found in the anoxic layer (15-25 mm) and the least diversity in the suboxic layer (3-5 mm).Analysis of the nosZ,and amoA gene libraries also indicated the stratification of denitrifiers and nitrifiers,with their highest diversity being in the anoxic and oxic sediment layers,respectively.These results indicated that redox-stratification can affect the distribution of bacterial communities in sandy reef sediments.

  11. Assessing Extreme Events for Anthropogenic Influence: Examples of Recent Cases for Australian Temperatures, U.S. Precipitation, and Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, T. R.; Zeng, F. J.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Duffy, P.; Arnold, J. R.; Massey, C.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.; Bender, M.; Morin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The degree to which particular extreme weather and climate events are assessed as being attributable to anthropogenic climate change (e.g., that anthropogenic forcing influenced their probability of occurrence or other characteristics) can vary dramatically from case to case. One example assessed at GFDL is the record or near-record annual mean temperature over a large region of Australia in 2013. According to this analysis of the CMIP5 models, the event was largely attributable to anthropogenic forcing of the climate system. Another 2013 case was the extreme positive annual mean precipitation anomalies in 5x5 degree gridded (GHCN) precipitation data that were observed along the U.S./Canadian border region. This is a region with a detectable long-term increase of precipitation since 1900. Nonetheless, the 2013 event is assessed as primarily attributable to internal (unforced) climate variability and only partly attributable to external forcing (natural and anthropogenic combined). There are many outstanding challenges to these studies. Among these are the limitations to historical data length, data quality, model ensemble size, and model control run length. Furthermore, there is room for improvement in addressing model biases, station/gridcell scale mismatches, modeling the extreme ends of the distributions e.g. with Generalized Extreme Value methods, etc. Another project assesses anthropogenic influences on the track and evolution (but not the likelihood) of Sandy-like storms. Assuming the existence of a Sandy-like storm under non-industrial conditions, we use CMIP5 model simulations, a global atmospheric model time slice experiment, and regional hurricane model idealized simulations to suggest that the unusual left turn the storm took may have been made more likely by anthropogenic climate forcing. This does not imply that Sandy-like events are less likely in the non-industrial climate, because we assumed the existence of such a storm to begin with.

  12. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D

    2015-11-01

    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior.

  13. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  15. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... significant spending cuts known as sequestration and is unavailable for Hurricane Sandy disaster relief. The... January 29, 2013. FTA announced individual allocations on a rolling basis beginning March 6, 2013. Table...

  16. 2012-2013 Post-Hurricane Sandy EAARL-B Submerged Topography - Barnegat Bay, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data for part of Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, post-Hurricane Sandy (October 2012 hurricane), were produced from remotely sensed, geographically...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  20. 2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (New Jersey)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS New Jersey CMGP Sandy Lidar 0.7 Meter NPS LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No....

  1. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  2. Quantitative Retrieval of Soil Nutrient in Sandy Land Based on BJ-1 Multispectral Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai; Wang, Bengyu; Bai, Lina; Sun, Bin; Li, Changlong; Ding, Xiangyuan

    2014-11-01

    To research an indicator for sandy information, this paper conducts a study on soil nutrient in sandy land. Firstly, the difference of soil nutrient between sandy land and the other was analyzed. Secondly, the correlation between soil nutrient index and band was studied. Then the best inversion band and model was determined and evaluated. Finally, the distribution of soil nutrient was obtained. As the result indicated that the divergence of total nitrogen in different land was the maximum among the three nutrient indicators. With the development of desertification, total nitrogen declined dramatically. The correlation coefficient between each band and total nitrogen was relatively higher, and it reached 0.6. In addition, taking the reciprocal for the sum of three bands as the independent variable was an excellent choice, it could reflect the sandy information better than the single band. The quantitative retrieval model was checked by independent sample, and RMSE was 0.0407.

  3. 2012 USGS EAARL-B Coastal Topography: Post-Sandy, First Surface (NJ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  7. Numerical prediction on the scour burial of cylinder object freely resting on the sandy seabed in the East China Sea using the DRAMBUIE model1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-guang PANG; Li-qian LIU; Kun LI

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing 8-day combined tidal current, circulation and wave actions, scour depth surrounding cylinder object freely resting on sandy seabed in the East China Sea (ECS) in January is numerically predicted using the DRAMBUIE model designed for scour burial, which has been widely used and verified by in-situ experiments. During the period of numerical integration, the value of time t is generally variable at every time step via the special time-stepped approach developed by this paper to eliminate the time error. The tidal current velocity, wave orbital velocity and the depth-averaged circulation in the ECS have been obtained by numerical simulations with Estuarine Coastal and Ocean Model (ECOM), Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model respectively. The control experiment and several idealized test cases on influential factors in scour depth reveal that the dominant hydrodynamic factor is tidal current in the ECS under normal weather conditions, and the impacts of shelf circulation and wave motion on local scour almost can be ignored with an exception of the Kuroshio area where the high-speed mainstream of Kuroshio flows. It is also indicated that in sandy sediments, the distribution of scour depth nearly follows the pattern of tidal currents, while the secondary influencing factor on scour depth appears to be grain size of sandy sediment in the ECS. Numerical tests on sediment grain size further testify that much finer sand is more easily scoured, and an increasing trend for scour depth with reduction of grain size is displayed due to imposed resistance of larger sized particles. Three aspects explored by this paper, including the empirical equations in the Defense Research Agency Mine Burial Environment (DRAMBUIE) model, the accuracy of inputs and infill process can severely affect the prediction of scour depth surrounding cylinder objects freely resting on sandy seabed in the ECS.

  8. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.

  9. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective of this st......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...... of this study was to characterize the variation of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil organoprofile development on forest sites with comparable geological substrate, soil type and climatic conditions, but different stand ages and tree species in terms of the effects of forest transformation...... from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...

  10. Evaluation of the Intel Sandy Bridge-EP server processor

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on a set of benchmark results recently obtained by CERN openlab when comparing an 8-core “Sandy Bridge-EP” processor with Intel’s previous microarchitecture, the “Westmere-EP”. The Intel marketing names for these processors are “Xeon E5-2600 processor series” and “Xeon 5600 processor series”, respectively. Both processors are produced in a 32nm process, and both platforms are dual-socket servers. Multiple benchmarks were used to get a good understanding of the performance of the new processor. We used both industry-standard benchmarks, such as SPEC2006, and specific High Energy Physics benchmarks, representing both simulation of physics detectors and data analysis of physics events. Before summarizing the results we must stress the fact that benchmarking of modern processors is a very complex affair. One has to control (at least) the following features: processor frequency, overclocking via Turbo mode, the number of physical cores in use, the use of logical cores ...

  11. Extraction of sandy bedforms features through geodesic morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debese, Nathalie; Jacq, Jean-José; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    State-of-art echosounders reveal fine-scale details of mobile sandy bedforms, which are commonly found on continental shelfs. At present, their dynamics are still far from being completely understood. These bedforms are a serious threat to navigation security, anthropic structures and activities, placing emphasis on research breakthroughs. Bedform geometries and their dynamics are closely linked; therefore, one approach is to develop semi-automatic tools aiming at extracting their structural features from bathymetric datasets. Current approaches mimic manual processes or rely on morphological simplification of bedforms. The 1D and 2D approaches cannot address the wide ranges of both types and complexities of bedforms. In contrast, this work attempts to follow a 3D global semi-automatic approach based on a bathymetric TIN. The currently extracted primitives are the salient ridge and valley lines of the sand structures, i.e., waves and mega-ripples. The main difficulty is eliminating the ripples that are found to heavily overprint any observations. To this end, an anisotropic filter that is able to discard these structures while still enhancing the wave ridges is proposed. The second part of the work addresses the semi-automatic interactive extraction and 3D augmented display of the main lines structures. The proposed protocol also allows geoscientists to interactively insert topological constraints.

  12. Influence of advective bio-irrigation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in sandy sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Na, T.; Gribsholt, B.; Galaktionov, O. S.; T. Lee; Meysman, F. J. R.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy sediments, the burrow ventilation activity of benthic macrofauna can generate substantial advective flows within the sediment surrounding their burrows. Here we investigated the effects of such advective bio-irrigation on carbon and nitrogen cycling in sandy sediments. To this end, we combined a range of complementary experimental and modelling approaches in a microcosm study of the lugworm Arenicola marina (Polychaeta: Annelida). Bio-irrigation rates were determined using uranine as...

  13. Utilization of Geotextile Tube for Sandy and Muddy Coastal Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Siew Cheng Lee; Roslan Hashim; Shervin Motamedi; Ki-Il Song

    2014-01-01

    Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However...

  14. Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet Christopher Martens Dept. of Marine Sciences CB...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...was noted that there was substantially higher organic material in the shallow troughs of the sand ripples than on the crests. Most of this appears

  15. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.130 Sandy... following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″ W...

  16. A comparison of fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a Caribbean island, based on species, families, size distribution and functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2004-08-01

    Differences in fish community structure between different estuaries, lagoons and bays can be very large, and generalisations are complicated by the use of a wide variety of sampling methods. In the present study, fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a single Caribbean island were therefore sampled using a uniform method. The objective of the study was to determine whether the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats of various embayments are characterised by typical fish assemblages which differ in terms of taxa (species, families), size classes (life stages) and functional groups (ecological species groups, feeding time and diet). This was linked to the hypothesis that differences in fish assemblages between habitats in different embayments are larger at taxonomic levels than at the level of functional groups. A second objective was to determine the most useful discriminating features between the two habitat types. The above hypothesis was rejected, since differences in fish assemblages from different seagrass and sandy seabed sites did not increase from functional to taxonomic level, but from size class to diet/species to family/feeding time to ecological species group. However, the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats could each be characterised by typical fish assemblages which differed in taxonomical and functional group composition, irrespective of differences in environmental and biotic variables between the embayments in which these habitats were situated. The two habitat types could be best characterised on the basis of fish family, ecological species group, feeding time and size distribution. Seagrass beds mainly harboured nocturnally active nursery species (Haemulidae, Lutjanidae, etc.), whose relative abundance was related to vegetation (mainly seagrass) cover. Sandy seabeds mainly harboured diurnally active bay species (Gerreidae, etc.) whose relative abundance was related to cover of bare sand. Similarities

  17. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Precipitation patterns and moisture fluxes in a sandy, tropical environment with a shallow water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihane, M. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-08-01

    Identifying the dominant mechanisms controlling recharge in shallow sandy soils in tropical climates has received relatively little attention. Given the expansion of coastal fill using marine sands and the growth of coastal populations throughout the tropics, there is a need to better understand the nature of water balances in these settings. We use time series of field observations at a coastal landfill in Singapore coupled with numerical modeling using the Richards' equation to examine the impact of precipitation patterns on soil moisture dynamics, including percolation past the root zone and recharge, in such an environment. A threshold in total precipitation event depth, much more so than peak precipitation intensity, is the strongest event control on recharge. However, shallow antecedent moisture, and therefore the timing between events along with the seasonal depth to water table, also play significant roles in determining recharge amounts. For example, at our field site, precipitation events of less than 3 mm per event yield little to no direct recharge, but for larger events, moisture content changes below the root zone are linearly correlated to the product of the average antecedent moisture content and the total event precipitation. Therefore, water resources planners need to consider identifying threshold precipitation volumes, along with the multiple time scales that capture variability in event antecedent conditions and storm frequency in assessing the role of recharge in coastal water balances in tropical settings.

  19. Spectral induced polarization measurements for predicting the hydraulic conductivity in sandy aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Attwa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP measurements are integrated to characterize the hydrogeological conditions at the Schillerslage test site in Germany. The phase images are capable of monitoring thin peat layers within the sandy aquifers. However, the field results show limitations of decreasing resolution with depth. In comparison with the field inversion results, the SIP laboratory measurements show a certain shift in SIP response due to different compaction and sorting of the samples. The SIP data are analyzed to derive an empirical relationship for predicting the hydraulic conductivity (K. In particular, two significant but weak correlations between individual real resistivities (ρ' and relaxation times (τ, based on a Debye decomposition (DD model, with measured K are found for the upper groundwater aquifer. The maximum relaxation time (τmax and logarithmically weighted average relaxation time (τlw show a better relation with K values than the median value τ50. A combined power law relation between individual ρ' and τ with K is developed with an expression of A · (ρ'B · (τlwC, where A, B and C are determined using a least-squares fit between the measured and predicted K. The suggested approach with the calculated coefficients of the first aquifer is applied for the second. Results show good correlation with the measured K indicating that the derived relationship is superior to single phase angle models as Börner or Slater models.

  20. Assessing capacity and disease burden in a virtual network of New York City primary care providers following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Kimberly; Jacobson, Laura; Wang, Jason; Newton-Dame, Remle; Singer, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    Urban contexts introduce unique challenges that must be addressed to ensure that areas of high population density can function when disasters occur. The ability to generate useful data to guide decision-making is critical in this context. Widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems in recent years has created electronic data sources and networks that may play an important role in public health surveillance efforts, including in post-disaster situations. The Primary Care Information Project (PCIP) at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has partnered with local clinicians to establish an electronic data system, and this network provides infrastructure to support primary care surveillance activities in New York City. After Hurricane Sandy, PCIP generated several sets of data to contribute to the city's efforts to assess the impact of the storm, including daily connectivity data to establish practice operations, data to examine patterns of primary care utilization in severely affected and less affected areas, and data on the frequency of respiratory infection diagnosis in the primary care setting. Daily patient visit data from three heavily affected neighborhoods showed the health department where primary care capacity was most affected in the weeks following Sandy. Overall transmission data showed that practices in less affected areas were quicker to return to normal reporting patterns, while those in more affected areas did not resume normal data transmissions for a few months. Rates of bronchitis increased after Sandy compared to the two prior years; while this was most likely attributable to a more severe flu season, it demonstrates the capacity of primary care networks to pick up on these types of post-emergency trends. Hurricane Sandy was the first disaster situation where PCIP was asked to assess public health impact, generating information that could contribute to aid and recovery efforts. This experience allowed us to

  1. Nonfatal injuries 1 week after hurricane sandy--New York city metropolitan area, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Robert M; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maliniak, Maret; Stellman, Steven D; Fairclough, Monique A; Farfel, Mark R; Turner, Lennon; Maslow, Carey B; Moy, Amanda J; Wu, David; Yu, Shengchao; Welch, Alice E; Cone, James E; Walker, Deborah J

    2014-10-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) made landfall in densely populated areas of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Flooding affected 51 square miles (132 square kilometers) of New York City (NYC) and resulted in 43 deaths, many caused by drowning in the home, along with numerous storm-related injuries. Thousands of those affected were survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001 (9/11) who had previously enrolled in the WTC Health Registry (Registry) cohort study. To assess Sandy-related injuries and associated risk factors among those who lived in Hurricane Sandy-flooded areas and elsewhere, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene surveyed 8,870 WTC survivors, who had provided physical and mental health updates 8 to 16 months before Sandy. Approximately 10% of the respondents in flooded areas reported injuries in the first week after Sandy; nearly 75% of those had more than one injury. Injuries occurred during evacuation and clean-up/repair of damaged or destroyed homes. Hurricane preparation and precautionary messages emphasizing potential for injury hazards during both evacuation and clean-up or repair of damaged residences might help mitigate the occurrence and severity of injury after a hurricane.

  2. Evaluation of power outages in Connecticut during hypothetical future Hurricane Sandy scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanik, D. W.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Astitha, M.; Frediani, M. E.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable electric power is a staple of our modern society.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of power outages under more intense, future Hurricane Sandy simulations in Connecticut. In addition, we also evaluated how many crews would be necessary to restore power in 7 days, and how different vegetation scenarios might contribute to a decrease in outages. We trained five pairwise models on each current Sandy runs (2012) as training using the random forest model (each validated using 10-fold cross-validation), and used each future Sandy run as an independent test. We predict that a future Sandy would have 2.5x as many outages as current Sandy, which would require 3.23x as many crews as current Sandy to restore power in 7 days. We also found that increased vegetation management might decrease outages, which has implications for both fair-weather and storm days of all types (i.e. blizzards, thunderstorms, ice storms). Although we have only evaluated outages for electric distribution networks, there are many other types (water supply, wastewater, telecommunications) that would likely benefit from an analysis of this type. In addition, given that we have the weather simulations already processed within our 2-km weather simulation domain, we would like to expand our vulnerability analyses to surrounding utilities in New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire to facilitate regional coordination among electric distribution networks.

  3. Hurricane Sandy (New Jersey): Mortality Rates in the Following Month and Quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Rajan, Mangala; Thomas, Pauline; Tsai, Stella; Tan, Christina; Davidow, Amy

    2017-08-01

    To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level. In elderly persons, all-cause mortality rates increased 10% (95% CI = 5%, 15%) and 13% (95% CI = 10%, 16%) in the month and quarter, respectively. Deaths that were cardiovascular disease-related increased by 6% in both periods, noninfectious respiratory disease-related by 24% in the quarter, infection-related by 20% in the quarter, and unintentional injury-related by 23% in the month. Mortality increased, heterogeneous by cause, for both periods after Hurricane Sandy, particularly in communities more severely affected and in the elderly, who may benefit from supportive services.

  4. Study of spatial distribution of sandy desertification in North China in recent 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; WU Wei; XUE Xian; SUN Qingwei; CHEN Guangting

    2004-01-01

    Sandy desertification is a land degradation characterized by wind erosion, mainly resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in North China. It is one of main kinds of desertification/land degradation as well as water-soil erosion and salinization in China. Rapid and continuous spread of sandy desertification during last 50 years has created a major environmental and socio-economic problem in North China. Remote sensing monitored results in 2000 showed that the sandy desertified land area has been 38.57×104 km2. The area of potential to slightly sandy desertified land is 13.93×104 km2, moderately land 9.977×104 km2, severely land 7.909×104 km2 and very severely land 6.756×104km2. Sandy desertification mainly occurs in the semi-arid mixed farming-grazing zone and its northern rangeland zone, semi-arid dryland rainfed cropping zone and arid oasis-desert margin zone. The average annually developmental rate of sandy desertified land increased from 2,100tion in North China is "overall deterioration, while local rehabilitation". Already achieved rehabilitation results and monitoring assessment show that about 60% of desertified land in North China can be restored under the conditions of rational land-use ways and intensity.

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF SANDY SOIL WITH WATER-CONSERVING MEMBRANE AND ITS EFFECT ON CROP GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-jun; CUI Xiang-hao; LI Qu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Water-conserving membrane is a new material of improving sandy soil. It is based on the rule that a compound with organic and inorganic components can produce colloid after its integrating with Ca2+ in soil. The water-conserving membrane will obstruct capillary and increase viscidity of sandy soil, so as to decrease leakage and evaporation in sandy soil. The water-conserving membrane contains polyacrylic acid (PAA) and bentonite. When PAA concentration and Ph of solution are different, water-conserving membrane can be made in different depth of soil. This experiment shows that the solution with 0.2% PAA does not harm and poison the crops, on the contrary,promotes crop germination. The solution with 0.2% or 0.4% PAA can accelerate corn growth. Accordingly, different crops need the application of the different PAA concentrations in the cultivation. Therefore, on the basis of different vadose coefficient in sandy soil, the solution with different PAA concentration can improve sandy soil and increase its water-conserving competence very well. The solution can be used to improve sandy soil and control desert enlargement in arid, semi-arid and semi-humid areas.

  6. Assessing the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and human activities are driving forces of sandy desertification and the relative role of them in sandy desertification is the hot point in related researches. A study was carried to assess the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region in China. Potential NPP and the difference between potential and actual NPP were selected as indicators to assess the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification, respectively. Assessing methods were built based on some scenarios for the reversion and expansion of sandy desertification and the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region were assessed from 1981 to 2000. The results showed that although some local places experienced an expansion of sandy desertification, the change of sandy desertification of Ordos region from 1981 to 2000 showed a stably reversing trend. The relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region varied at different temporal and spatial scales in the reversion and expansion processes. In the reversion of sandy desertification, climate change was the dominant factor in the period of 1981 to 1990 and the reversed areas mainly induced by climate change including Mu Us sandy land and the transition zone between temperate steppe and temperate deciduous scrubs in north east of Ordos region; however, human activities controlled the reversed process during the period from 1991 to 2000 and the areas mainly induced by human activities distributed in all banners of Ordos region. In the expansion of sandy desertification, human activities were the dominant factor in the period of 1981 to 1990 and the expanded areas mainly included the regions around common boundary of Hanggin, Dalad Banners and Dongsheng City; however, climate change dominated the expansion of sandy desertification from 1991 to 2000, the expanded areas equably

  7. Hurricane Sandy beach response and recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline, beach profile data, and breach shoreline data: October 2012 to June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rachel E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2017-01-01

    Fire Island, New York is the site of a long term coastal morphologic change and processes project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One of the objectives of the project was to understand the morphologic evolution of the barrier system on a variety of time scales (months–years–decades–centuries). In response to Hurricane Sandy (October 2012), this effort continued with the intention of resolving storm impacts, post-storm beach response, and recovery. The day before Hurricane Sandy made landfall a USGS field team conducted surveys at Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) to quantify the pre-storm morphologic state of the beach and dunes. The area was re-surveyed after the storm, as soon as access to the island was possible. In order to fully capture the recovery of the barrier system, the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study was established to include regular surveying in the weeks, months, and years following the storm. As part of the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study, the beach is monitored periodically to enable better understanding of post-Sandy recovery. The alongshore state of the beach is recorded using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) to collect data around the mean high water (MHW; 0.46 meter North American Vertical Datum of 1988) to derive a shoreline, and the cross-shore response and recovery are measured along a series of 15 profiles (Figure 1). Monitoring continued in the weeks following Hurricane Sandy with additional monthly collection through April 2013, and repeat surveys every 2–3 months thereafter until October 2014. Additional bi-annual surveys have been collected through September 2016. Beginning in October 2014 the USGS also began collecting a shoreline at the Wilderness breach, in the location of Old Inlet, in the Otis Pike High Dunes Wilderness area. The shoreline collected was an approximation of the MHW shoreline. The operator walked along an estimated MHW elevation above

  8. Instream wood as a driver of nutrient attenuation in a lowland sandy stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, Megan; Shelley, Felicity; Blaen, Phil; Dapelo, Davide; Trimmer, Mark; Bridgeman, John; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Our poster outlines our research to assess the potential of instream wood to enhance nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) attenuating potential in UK lowland rivers. Using cutting-edge distributed temperature sensing, geophysical technologies, novel microbial metabolic activity tracers and 15N isotope tracer applications, we are able to identify how instream wood alters hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence times which control the development and occurrence of biogeochemical hotspots, which facilitate nitrogen removal. Initial results show that instream wood increases surface water downwelling into the hyporheic, creating increased hyporheic mixing. Metabolic tracer, nutrient and modelling data reveal a correlation between these hyporheic exchange flow locations and increased denitrification hotspots. This data in conjunction with ongoing experimentation suggests that instream wood could be used in river basin management and river restoration efforts to improve water quality and hydromorphic integrity within lowland sandy streams. Ongoing work seeks to quantify the efficiency of alternative (stationary and transient) wood designs for controlled alteration and management of hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence times and nutrient turnover in the streambed. Outputs from this project will provide a quantitative understanding of the optimal design and efficiency of instream wood structures for removing excess nitrate from streambed sediments of nutrient impacted lowland rivers. This information will directly impact UK and European river restoration policies and inform decisions of whether wood restoration in UK lowland rivers should be promoted on a national level and how the most efficient strategies should be designed.

  9. Predicting the Storm Surge Threat of Hurricane Sandy with the National Weather Service SLOSH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Forbes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the storm tide that flooded the US Atlantic coastline during Hurricane Sandy (2012 are carried out using the National Weather Service (NWS Sea Lakes and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH storm surge prediction model to quantify its ability to replicate the height, timing, evolution and extent of the water that was driven ashore by this large, destructive storm. Recent upgrades to the numerical model, including the incorporation of astronomical tides, are described and simulations with and without these upgrades are contrasted to assess their contributions to the increase in forecast accuracy. It is shown, through comprehensive verifications of SLOSH simulation results against peak water surface elevations measured at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA tide gauge stations, by storm surge sensors deployed and hundreds of high water marks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, that the SLOSH-simulated water levels at 71% (89% of the data measurement locations have less than 20% (30% relative error. The RMS error between observed and modeled peak water levels is 0.47 m. In addition, the model’s extreme computational efficiency enables it to run large, automated ensembles of predictions in real-time to account for the high variability that can occur in tropical cyclone forecasts, thus furnishing a range of values for the predicted storm surge and inundation threat.

  10. Tsunami characteristics and formation potential of sandy tsunami deposit in Sanriku Coast: implications from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, D.; Haraguchi, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological investigation of paleotsunami deposit is crucial for knowing the history and magnitude of tsunami events in the past. Among various kinds of grain sizes, sandy tsunami deposit has been best investigated by previous studies, because of its potential for identification in the sedimentary column. Many sandy tsunami deposits have been found from coastal plains, which have sandy beach and low-lying wetlands. However, sandy tsunami deposits in narrow valleys at rocky ria coast have rarely been found. It may be presumed that formation potential of sandy tsunami layer in the rocky coasts is generally lower than coastal plains, because of the absence of sandy beach, tsunami run-up on steeper slope and stronger return flow. In this presentation, characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake tsunami in Sanriku Coast, a continuous rocky ria coast located in the northeast Japan, is investigated based on numerical modeling. In addition, the formation potential of sandy tsunami deposit is also investigated based on numerical modeling of sediment transport. Preliminary result of tsunami hydrodynamics showed that the waveform and amplification of the tsunami are clearly affected by the local bathymetry, which is associated with submerged topography formed during the last glacial stage. Although the tsunami height in the offshore of each bay is around 8.0 m, the tsunami height at the bay head was increased in different way. The amplification factor at the bay head was typically 2.0 among most of V-shaped narrow embayments; meanwhile the amplification factor is much lower than 1.0 at some cases. The preliminary result of the modeling of sediment transport predicted huge amount of sediments may be suspended into the water column, given that sandy deposit is available there. Massive erosion and deposition of sea bottom sediments may commonly take place in the bays. However, formation of onshore tsunami deposit differs from each other. Whether the suspended sediments

  11. Trusted information sources used during and after Superstorm Sandy: TV and radio were used more often than social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Health and safety professionals, and the public, are interested in the best methods of providing timely information about disasters. The objective of this study was to examine information sources used for Superstorm Sandy with respect to the storm, evacuation routes, shelters, safety, and health issues. Respondents in Central New Jersey and Jersey Shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm. Jersey shore respondents had higher evacuation rates (47 % vs 13 %), higher flood waters in homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs 6 days), and longer periods without internet (29 vs 6 days). Electricity outages disrupted both sources and receivers of communication. Both groups obtained most of their information regarding safety from television, radio, friends and web/email. Information sources on health varied by location, with central Jersey respondents using mainly TV and the web, and Jersey shore respondents obtaining health information from the radio, and TV (before the storm). For information on evacuation routes, Jersey shore respondents obtained information from many sources, while central Jersey respondents obtained it from TV. Information on mold was largely obtained from friends and the web, since mold issues were dealt with several weeks after Sandy. The reliance on traditional sources of information (TV, radio, friends) found in this study suggests that the extreme power outages rendered web, cell phones, and social media on cell phones less usable, and suggests the need for an integrated communication strategy with redundancies that takes into account prolonged power outages over large geographical areas. PMID:24279815

  12. Trusted information sources used during and after Superstorm Sandy: TV and radio were used more often than social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Health and safety professionals and the public are interested in the best methods of providing timely information about disasters. The objective of this study was to examine information sources used for Superstorm Sandy with respect to the storm, evacuation routes, shelters, safety, and health issues. Respondents in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm. Jersey shore respondents had higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), higher flood waters in homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 d), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 d). Electricity outages disrupted both sources and receivers of communication. Both groups obtained most of their information regarding safety from television, radio, friends, and Web/e-mail. Information sources on health varied by location, with central Jersey respondents using mainly TV and the Web, and Jersey shore respondents obtaining health information from the radio and TV (before the storm). For information on evacuation routes, Jersey shore respondents obtained information from many sources, while central Jersey respondents obtained it from TV. Information on mold was largely obtained from friends and the Web, since mold issues were dealt with several weeks after Sandy. The reliance on traditional sources of information (TV, radio, friends) found in this study suggests that the extreme power outages rendered Web, cell phones, and social media on cell phones less usable, and suggests the need for an integrated communication strategy with redundancies that takes into account prolonged power outages over large geographical areas.

  13. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  14. First-Year Downstream Sediment Budget Following the Marmot Dam Removal from the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, C. J.; Wilcock, P. R.; Pittman, A.

    2008-12-01

    The October 2007 removal of the Marmot Dam, from the Sandy River, OR, provides an opportunity to assess the impact of increased sediment flux on a river channel. The Sandy River drains the west flank of Mt Hood and typically carries a large load of sand and gravel. The 14-meter-tall dam impounded over 750,000 m3 of sediment, only a small amount of which was removed during the decommissioning. Using a one- dimensional modeling approach, it was assessed that the river could transport the accumulated sediment without large adverse impacts downstream of the dam (Cui et al, 2008 - abstract submitted). In order to observe the actual changes to the river due to the dam removal and to test the modeled predictions, a significant monitoring effort has be in place on the Sandy River including bedload and suspended load measurements, discharge measurements, high-fidelity topographic surveys, repeat photography, multiple airborne LIDAR flights, long profile surveys, as well as mapping and characterizing the grain sizes throughout several reaches downstream of the dam. A key step in the quest to describe and predict the spatial distribution of the sediment throughout the downstream reach is to first account for all the sediment (both stored in the reservoir and supplied from upstream). Here, we examine the transport and deposition downstream of the dam through a 2-fraction sediment budget approach using the former dam as the upstream limit of the reach and choosing a the mouth of a bedrock gorge 7 km below the dam site as the downstream limit. Suspended sediment and bedload measurements taken by the USGS just below the dam site (Major et al, 2008 - abstract submitted) are combined with suspended sediment and bedload measurements collected just below the mouth of the gorge and the annual hydrograph to define the sediment fluxes into and out of the reach. Repeat surveys in the reach below the dam (Wallick et al, 2008 - abstract submitted) provide the measure of change in storage

  15. GC estimation of organic hydrocarbons that threaten shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrah, M F; Ebiad, M A; Rashad, A M; El-Sayed, E; Snousy, Moustafa Gamal; Tantawy, M A

    2014-11-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination is one of the important environmental problems at petroleum-related sites, which causes critical environmental and health defects. Severe petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from coastal refinery plant was detected in a shallow Quaternary sandy aquifer is bordered by Gulf in the Northwestern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The overall objective of this investigation is to estimate the organic hydrocarbons in shallow sandy aquifers, released from continuous major point-source of pollution over a long period of time (91 years ago). This oil refinery contamination resulted mainly in the improper disposal of hydrocarbons and produced water releases caused by equipment failures, vandalism, and accidents that caused direct groundwater pollution or discharge into the gulf. In order to determine the fate of hydrocarbons, detailed field investigations were made to provide intensive deep profile information. Eight composite randomly sediment samples from a test plot were selected for demonstration. The tested plot was 50 m long × 50 m wide × 70 cm deep. Sediment samples were collected using an American auger around the point 29° 57' 33″ N and 32° 30' 40″ E in 2012 and covered an area of 2,500 m(2) which represents nearly 1/15 of total plant area (the total area of the plant is approximately 3.250 km(2)). The detected total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) were 2.44, 2.62, 4.54, 4.78, 2.83, 3.22, 2.56, and 3.13 wt%, respectively. TPH was calculated by differences in weight and subjected to gas chromatography (GC). Hydrocarbons were analyzed on Hewlett-Packard (HP-7890 plus) gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). The percentage of paraffine of the investigated TPH samples was 7.33, 7.24, 7.58, 8.25, 10.25, 9.89, 14.77, and 17.53 wt%, respectively.

  16. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses.

  17. Impact of treated wastewater on growth, respiration and hydraulic conductivity of citrus root systems in light and heavy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Indira; Cohen, Shabtai; Shaviv, Avi; Bar-Tal, Asher; Bernstein, Nirit; Heuer, Bruria; Ephrath, Jhonathan

    2016-06-01

    Roots interact with soil properties and irrigation water quality leading to changes in root growth, structure and function. We studied these interactions in an orchard and in lysimeters with clay and sandy loam soils. Minirhizotron imaging and manual sampling showed that root growth was three times lower in the clay relative to sandy loam soil. Treated wastewater (TWW) led to a large reduction in root growth with clay (45-55%) but not with sandy loam soil (hydraulic conductivity was severely reduced in clay soil. Treated wastewater increased respiration rate and reduced hydraulic conductivity of all root orders in clay but only of the lower root orders in sandy loam soil. Loss of hydraulic conductivity increased with root order in clay and clay irrigated with TWW. Respiration and hydraulic properties of all root orders were significantly affected by sodium-amended TWW in sandy loam soil. These changes in root order morphology, anatomy, physiology and hydraulic properties indicate rapid and major modifications of root systems in response to differences in soil type and water quality.

  18. Sandy inland braidplain deposition with local aeolian sedimentation in the lower and middle parts of the buntsandstein and sandy coastal braidplain deposition in the topmost zechstein in the sudetes (Lower Silesia, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Jerzy; Mader, Detlef

    restricted to a narrow range between the end members of a pebbly to sandy highly-braided stream system representing the coarser facies tracts and a sandy to pebbly moderately-braided river complex representing the finer facies tracts. The evolution in time and space is characterized by mainly random lateral shifting and vertical overlapping of two coexistent fluvial styles within an irregularly zoned braidplain lacking organization of the two facies realms into discrete belts. Palaeogeographically, the two end members of the spectrum of fluvial style may sometimes even be equivalent to a more proximal and a more distal facies belt. In terms of position within the general depositional framework of the whole Mid-European Triassic Basin, the inland braidplain of the Sudetes is situated within the transitional reach from the proximal zone to the medial zone I. Based on comparative interpretation of the topmost Zechstein beds in the region of Chemsko and Kochanów in the Intra Sudetic Trough, the overall depositional history in parts of the area comprises the passage from marine carbonate sedimentation via a narrow coastal fluvial braidplain with pedogenesis in semi-arid climate at the margin of the Zechstein sea to an extensive inland fluvial braidplain with probably local aeolian deposition in almost arid climate in the Buntsandstein. Comparative evaluation of the marginal Zechstein in the Intra Sudetic Trough in Lower Silesia in Poland and of the marginal Lower Muschelkalk in Luxembourg allows to assess the Buntsandstein succession near the borders of the basin as an overall symmetrical major clastic wedge prograding into the depositional area with retreat of the Zechstein ocean and retrograding from the basin with transgression of the Muschelkalk sea. In view of a general model of continental sedimentation, the alluvial marginal belt of the Zechstein sea in Lower Silesia in Poland represents a predecessor, and the fluvial marginal seam of the Muschelkalk ocean in Luxembourg

  19. 高光谱特征辨别潴育型麻沙泥田和潮沙泥田水稻土%Discrimination between hydromorphic alluvial sandy mud paddy and tide sandy mud paddy based on hyperspectral characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭熙; 谢碧裕; 叶英聪; 谢文

    2014-01-01

    为了快速识别和划分不同类型水稻土,该研究以江西省兴国县潴育型麻沙泥田和潴育型潮沙泥田为研究对象,以样点方差分析为基础,采用光谱重采样处理、包络线去除处理及光谱一阶微分变换3种光谱分析方法,提取有效的光谱吸收特征参数(spectral absorption feature parameter,SAFP),分析得出两土种有效光谱特征。结果表明:识别潴育型水稻土最有效的是波谷波长位置的共性参数,而区分两土种最有效的是波峰宽度、波谷宽度及波谷倾斜角特性参数。重采样光谱特征参数分析中最有效的是波峰宽度:麻沙泥田的波峰宽度为58 nm,而潮沙泥田为27 nm,麻沙泥田波形起点高,下滑速度比潮沙泥田更快,吸收宽度大;去包络线算法提取光谱吸收特征参数发现,辨别麻沙泥田与潮沙泥田最有效的是波谷宽度,前者在波长482 nm处波谷宽度为26 nm,后者在波长484 nm处波谷宽度为178 nm,潮沙泥田波谷宽度大了将近6倍,而且麻沙泥田波谷倾斜角比潮沙泥田更大,麻沙泥田趋于突变型,而潮沙泥田趋于平缓型;光谱一阶微分方法提取特征参数中区分两土种最有效的是波谷倾斜角:麻沙泥田与潮沙泥田在波段471 nm处分别为-0.00573°和0.00573°,前者相邻波谷走向为负向坡,而后者为正向坡。研究可为高光谱技术辨别不同水稻土类型提供参考。%The application of hyperspectral analysis techniques can extract hyperspectral characteristic parameters and identify soil types. In contrast to the traditional methods, this application is more convenient and time-saving. This paper took two types of Typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols (the hydromorphic alluvial sandy mud paddy and the hydromorphic tide sandy mud paddy) in Xingguo County as the research objects to analyze the hyperspectal characteristics and to extract the effective hyperspectral

  20. Hurricane Sandy puts NJ hospital under extreme stress, highlighting vulnerabilities, areas requiring improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When monster storm, Hurricane Sandy, struck the northeastern coast in late October, the emergency systems for many hospitals in the region were stressed beyond their limits. At least four hospitals in the region had to be evacuated, and many hospitals lost power and access to essential services. Using backup generators, CentraState Medical Center in Freehold, NJ, was able to keep its doors open throughout the emergency, but the event highlighted a number of vulnerabilities that administrators will work to improve. Demand for care spiked because people in the hospital's service area could not get in to see their primary care providers. The hospital established care areas next to its emergency department to handle the demand, and it also enabled physicians in the region to see patients in offices on an ambulatory campus, adjacent to the hospital. Emergency department visits increased by about 41% during the hurricane week, admits went up by about 50%, and the number patients sent to observation went up by 450%, according to hospital administrators. In the future, hospital leaders say practice drills need to regularly test for events that cause many systems to go down, rather then testing for one vulnerability at a time.

  1. Community healthcare delivery post-Hurricane Sandy: lessons from a mobile health unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Cynthia; Raimo, John; Abramowitz, Jessica; Khanijo, Sameer; Kritharis, Athena; Mason, Christopher; Jarmon, Charles H; Nash, Ira S; Carney, Maria T

    2014-06-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy the North Shore LIJ Health System (NS-LIJ HS) organized and launched its first mobile health unit (MHU) operation to some of New York's hardest hit communities including Queens County and Long Island, NY. This document describes the initiation, operational strategies, outcomes and challenges of the NS-LIJ HS community relief effort using a MHU. The operation was divided into four phases: (1) community needs assessment, (2) MHU preparation, (3) staff recruitment and (4) program evaluation and feedback. From November 16th through March 21st, 2013 the Health System launched the MHU over 64 days serving 1,160 individuals with an age range of 3 months to 91 years. Vaccination requests were the most commonly encountered issue, and the most common complaint was upper respiratory illness. The MHU is an effective resource for delivering healthcare to displaced individuals in the aftermath of natural disaster. Future directions include the provision of psychosocial services, evaluating strategies for timely retreat of the unit and methods for effective transitions of care.

  2. Recharge in northern clime calcareous sandy soils: soil water chemical and carbon-14 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, E. J.; Mozeto, A. A.; Fritz, P.

    1980-11-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on soil water extracted from two cores taken from a sandy calcareous soil near Delhi, Ontario. Calcite saturation is attained within the unsaturated zone over short distances and short periods of time, whereas dolomite undersaturation persists to the groundwater table. The progressive dissolution of dolomite by soil water, within the unsaturated zone, after calcite saturation is reached results in calcite supersaturation. Deposition of iron and manganese oxyhydroxide phases occurs at the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary. This is a result of soil water neutralization due to carbonate dissolution during infiltration but may also reflect the increased rate of oxidation of dissolved ferrous and manganous ions at higher pH's. The role of bacteria in this process has not been investigated. The depth of the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary in a calcareous soil has important implications for 14C groundwater dating. The depth of this interface at the study site (-2 m) does not appear to limit 14C diffusion from the root zone to the depth at which carbonate dissolution occurs. Thus, soil water achieves open system isotopic equilibrium with the soil CO 2 gas phase. It is calculated that in soils with similar physical properties to the study soil but with depths of leaching of 5 m or more, complete 14C isotopic equilibration of soil water with soil gas would not occur. Soil water, under these conditions would recharge to the groundwater exhibiting some degree of closed system 14C isotopic evolution.

  3. Impact of shield tunneling on adjacent spread foundation on sandy cobble strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Fang; Jun Wang; Chuan He; Xiongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    The section of shield tunnel of the Chengdu Metro line passes primarily through sandy cobble strata. There are many buildings with spread foundations along the lines. Shield tunnel construction will disturb the ground, causing displacement or stress to adjacent spread foundations. Based on the similarity theory, a laboratory model test of shield tunnel driving was carried out to study the influence of shield tunnel excavation on the displace-ment of adjacent spread foundation. The results show that foundation closer to the tunnel has greater displacement or settlement than that further away. The horizontal dis-placement is small and is influenced greatly by the cutting face. The displacement along the machine driving direction is bigger and is significantly affected by the thrust force. Settlement occurs primarily when shield machine passes close to the foundation and is the greatest at that time. Uneven settlement at the bottom of the spread foundation reaches a maximum after the excavation ends. In a numerical simulation, a particle flow model was con-structed to study the impact of shield tunnel excavation on the stresses in the ground. The model showed stress con-centration at the bottom of the spread foundation. With the increasing ground loss ratio, a loose area appears in the tunnel dome where the contact force dropped. Above the loose area, the contact force increases, forming an arch-shaped soil area which prevents the loose area from expanding to the ground surface. The excavation also changed the pressure distribution around spread foundation.

  4. Vulnerability of sandy coasts to climate change and anthropic pressures: methodology and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, D.; Poumadère, M.; Vinchon, C.; Romieu, E.; Oliveros, C.

    2009-04-01

    1-INTRODUCTION Climate change is considered in the latest reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC (2007) as unequivocal. Induced vulnerability of the system is defined as "the combination of sensitivity to climatic variations, probability of adverse effects, and adaptive capacity". Substantial methodological challenges remain, in particular estimating the risk of adverse climate change impacts and interpreting relative vulnerability across diverse situations. As stated by the IPCC, the "coastal systems should be considered vulnerable to changes in climate". In these areas, amongst the most serious impacts of sea-level rise (Nicholls, 1996) are erosion and marine inundation. Thus, the coast of metropolitan France, being composed of 31% sandy coasts, is potentially vulnerable, as it has been qualitatively assessed on the pilot coasts of Aquitaine and Languedoc-Roussillon in the RESPONSE project (Vinchon et al., 2008). Within the ANR VULSACO project (VULnerability of SAndy COast to climate change and anthropic pressure), the present day erosion tendencies as well as the potentially future erosion trends are investigated. The main objectives are to: (1) assess indicators of vulnerability to climate change for low-lying linear sandy coastal systems, from the shore to the hinterland, facing undergoing climate change and anthropic pressure until the 2030s; and (2) identify the aggravating or improving effect of human pressure on this vulnerability. This second issue is sometimes considered as a main driver of coastal risks. The methodology proposed in the project considers anthropic adaptation (or not) by putting decision makers in front of potential modifications of the physical system, to study the decision process and the choice of adaptation (or not). The coastal system is defined by its morphology, its physical characteristics and its land use. The time scales will range from short-term (days to weeks, e.g. time scale of extreme events) to

  5. Desorption kinetics of benzene in a sandy soil in the presence of powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J-W; Kim, S-B; Kim, D-J

    2007-02-01

    Desorption kinetics of benzene was investigated with a modified biphasic desorption model in a sandy soil with five different powdered activated carbon (PAC) contents (0, 1, 2, 5, 10% w/w) as sorbents. Sorption experiments followed by series dilution desorption were conducted for each sorbent. Desorption of benzene was successively performed at two stages using deionized water and hexane. Modeling was performed on both desorption isotherm and desorption rate for water-induced desorption to elucidate the presence of sorption-desorption hysteresis and biphasic desorption and if present to quantify the desorption-resistant fraction (q (irr)) and labile fraction (F) of desorption site responsible for rapid process. Desorption isotherms revealed that sorption-desorption exhibited a severe hysteresis with a significant fraction of benzene being irreversibly adsorbed onto both pure sand and PAC, and that desorption-resistant fraction (q (irr)) increased with PAC content. Desorption kinetic modeling showed that desorption of benzene was biphasic with much higher (4-40 times) rate constant for rapid process (k (1)) than that for slow process (k (2)), and that the difference in the rate constant increased with PAC content. The labile fraction (F) of desorption site showed a decreasing tendency with PAC. The experimental results would provide valuable information on remediation methods for soils and groundwater contaminated with BTEX.

  6. Monitoring human impacts on sandy shore ecosystems: a test of ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.) as biological indicators on an urban beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Schlacher, Thomas A; Walker, Simon

    2009-05-01

    Sandy beaches comprise one of the most important coastal resources worldwide, providing habitats to threatened vertebrates, supporting underappreciated invertebrate biodiversity, and delivering crucial ecosystem services and economic benefits to mankind. Monitoring of the natural resource condition of sandy beaches and assessments of the ecological impacts of human disturbance are, however, rare on sandy shores. Because a crucial step in developing beach monitoring is to identify and test biological indicators, we evaluated the utility of using population densities of ghost crabs (genus Ocypode) to measure how beach biota respond to human pressures. Densities of crabs--estimated via burrow counts--were quantified at two sites exposed to high and low levels of human disturbance on an urban beach in eastern Australia. Human disturbance consisted of pedestrian trampling and shoreline armouring which led to the loss of dune habitat. Overall, crab numbers were halved in disturbed areas, but contrasts between impact and control sites were not necessarily consistent over time and varied between different levels of the shore: stronger and more consistent effect sizes were recorded on the upper shore than further seawards. In addition to lowering crab densities, human disturbance also caused shifts in intertidal distributions, with a greater proportion of individuals occurring lower on the shore in the impacted beach sections. The number of visible burrow openings also changed in response to weather conditions (temperature and wind). We demonstrate that spatial contrasts of burrow counts are broadly useful to indicate the existence of a human-induced disturbance effect on urban beaches; we also highlight a number of critical, hitherto unknown, issues in the application of this monitoring technique; these encompass three broad dimensions: (1) a need for standardised protocols; (2) unresolved causal links between observed patterns and putative pressures; and (3) uncertainties

  7. Contributions of different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province to the material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyan; TIAN Yuhong; DING Deng

    2003-01-01

    Different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province are linked to a material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing based on results of field vegetation and soil survey and laboratory works. Results of grain size analysis show that dust release potential in per unit area of moving sandy land is small, while lowland meadow and meadow steppe in stony hillshave high potential of releasing dusts in per unit area during sand stormy weather occurrence. Further considering the effects of vegetation, it is inferred that the moving sandy land served as a material source of past dust storm and the possibility of dust release in per unit area is low in current time. Typical steppe in stony hills is undergoing desertification and its dust release possibility in per unit area is high. Farmland has strong potential of release dusts when they are ploughed in spring, but a large amount of therophytes grow and thus prevent dusts from release when cultivation was terminated. Potentials of dust release in per unit area in fixed sand dunes, stony mountain meadow steppe and lowland meadow are low due to high cover of perennials. Sand dune reactivation and desiccation of lakes and lowlands under estimated future climatic change will makethem serve as a future material source of sand stormy weather.

  8. A theoretical model to estimate the oil burial depth on sandy beaches: A new oil spill management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Ana M; Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Rey, Daniel

    2016-08-15

    In oiled sandy beaches, unrecovered fuel can be buried up to several metres. This study proposes a theoretical approach to oil burial estimation along the intertidal area. First, our results revealed the existence of two main patterns in seasonal beach profile behaviour. Type A is characterized by intertidal slopes of time-constant steepness which advance/recede parallel to themselves in response to changing wave conditions. Type B is characterized by slopes of time-varying steepness which intersect at a given point in the intertidal area. This finding has a direct influence on the definition of oil depth. Type A pattern exhibits oil burial along the entire intertidal area following decreasing wave energy, while the type B pattern combines burial in high intertidal and exhumation in mid and/or low intertidal zones, depending on the position of the intersection point. These outcomes should be incorporated as key tools in future oil spill management programs.

  9. Degraded Ecosystem and its Rehabilitating Measures in Sandy Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFengchun; LUQi

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem degradation occurs in parallel with desertification process in sandy areas of North China. The vast sandy areas in North China are characterized with flexible environments and fragile ecosystems as well as intensive human activities. Due to the annual precipitation gradient decreases from east to west in North China, the whole sandy region falls into 3 main climatic zones: add, semi-add and dry sub-humid zones.The ecosystems in each type of climatic zones are different in climatic conditions, human activities,cultural dimensions, vegetation covers, landscapes, and causes and processes of ecosystem degradation.Therefore, the most effective rehabilitation measures of degraded ecosystems in different types of the climatic zones are also different. For the arid sandy areas, vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems needs to be completely closed, assisting with artificial measures, such as plantation, irrigation or others. For semi-add sandy areas, the effective measures of vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems include increasing of proportion of forests and rangelands and limitation of reclamation; reducing the carrying capacity of livestock on unit area of rangelands and growth of fodder plants; and plantation on the lowlands betweens and dunes. For the dry sub-humid areas, the most effective measure is enclosure of degraded ecosystems combined with plantation, and in some cases, just stop uses by grazing or reclamation.

  10. Morphology of Rain Water Channeling in Systematically Varied Model Sandy Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuli; Cejas, Cesare M.; Barrois, Rémi; Dreyfus, Rémi; Durian, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different rain conditions using a quasi-2D experimental setup and systematically determine the impact of the soil grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the water channeling phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of the soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed rain condition, we combine the effects of the grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to the rain water channeling phenomenon, including prewetting sandy soils at different levels before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  11. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the mental health of New York area residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Sison, Cristina; Kerath, Samantha M; Murphy, Lisa; Breil, Trista; Sikavi, Daniel; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term psychological impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York residents. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Community-based study. From October 2013 to February 2015, 669 adults in Long Island, Queens, and Staten Island completed a survey on their behavioral and psychological health, demographics, and hurricane impact (ie, exposure). Depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using multivariable logistic regression models, the relationships between Hurricane Sandy exposure and depression, anxiety, and PTSD were examined. Participants experienced an average of 3.9 exposures to Hurricane Sandy, most of which were related to property damage/loss. Probable depression was reported in 33.4 percent of participants, probable anxiety in 46 percent, and probable PTSD in 21.1 percent. Increased exposure to Hurricane Sandy was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.14), anxiety (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13), and probable PTSD (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.23-1.40), even after controlling for demographic factors known to increase susceptibility to mental health issues. Individuals affected by Hurricane Sandy reported high levels of mental health issues and were at an increased risk of depression, anxiety, and PTSD in the years following the storm. Recovery and prevention efforts should focus on mental health issues in affected populations.

  12. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry regulates the magnitude and temporal dynamics of nitrogenous nutrient regeneration in sandy beach pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, B. M.; Melack, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sandy beaches are located at the interface of terrestrial and marine ecosystems, lining about 70% of the world's ice-free coastline. They can be conduits for fresh groundwater delivery of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), a vital and often limiting nutrient source, to oceans along coastlines where a hydrologic connection exists with shallow coastal aquifers. However, even along such coastlines, the majority of water within beach sands is recirculated seawater (i.e., pore water), and the regeneration of DIN from the mineralization of marine organic matter (OM) is considered the dominant source of DIN in beach pore water and flux to coastal oceans. The biogeochemical mechanisms regulating the magnitude of and temporal changes in DIN regeneration in saline beach pore water are therefore of prime importance in assessing the role of beaches in coastal marine nitrogen cycling. We assessed the potential stoichiometric control of resource carbon to nitrogen (C:N) on pore water DIN regeneration at four sandy beach study locations, and temporal evolution of pore water C:N at two of the four study locations, along the Santa Barbara, California coastline during synoptic sampling events over the course of a year. We identified pore water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) as the resources most likely available to microbial heterotrophic metabolism (i.e., C:N), the dominant catalyst of DIN regeneration in marine sediments, finding a negative exponential correlation of DIN with DOC:TDN ratios (673 × 173 e-1.05 × 0.30(DOC:TDN); R2 = 0.55, n = 123). DOC:TDN ratios also demonstrated a negative exponential correlation with residence time (10.0 × 1.7 e-1.08 × 0.48(RT) + 1.61 × 0.54; R2 = 0.79, n = 46), estimated using radon-222 as a pore water residence time tracer. Using model-derived DOC:TDN ratios as the independent variable in the DIN vs. DOC:TDN relationship, we explored temporal changes in DIN regeneration. The modeled DIN vs. residence time

  13. Development of methods for multiresidue analysis of rice post-emergence herbicides in loam soil and their possible applications to soils of different composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Silvina; Pareja, Lucia; Asteggiante, Lucía Geis; Roehrs, Rafael; Pizzutti, Ionara R; García, Claudio; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, María Verónica

    2010-01-01

    Two simple and straightforward sample preparation methods were developed for the multiresidue analysis of post-emergence herbicides in loam soil that are commonly used in rice crop cultivation. A number of strategic soil extraction and cleanup methods were evaluated. The instrumental analysis was performed by HPLC with a diode array detector. The best compromise between the recoveries (69-98%) and good repeatability (RSD clomazone were analyzed simultaneously. Quinclorac and bispyribac sodium were also assayed, but their recoveries were below 50%. Both methods had an LOD of 0.7 microg/kg and could accurately determine the residues at the 2 microg/kg level. These two methods could not be applied directly to other soil types as the recoveries strongly depended on the soil composition. The developed methodologies were successfully applied in monitoring 87 real-world soil samples, in which only propanil (6 to 12 microg/kg) and clomazone (15 to 20 microg/kg) residues could be detected.

  14. How Unique was Hurricane Sandy? Sedimentary Reconstructions of Extreme Flooding from New York Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Christine M.; Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Sullivan, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of flooding in New York City by Hurricane Sandy is commonly believed to be extremely rare, with estimated return periods near or greater than 1000 years. However, the brevity of tide gauge records result in significant uncertainties when estimating the uniqueness of such an event. Here we compare resultant deposition by Hurricane Sandy to earlier storm-induced flood layers in order to extend records of flooding to the city beyond the instrumental dataset. Inversely modeled storm conditions from grain size trends show that a more compact yet more intense hurricane in 1821 CE probably resulted in a similar storm tide and a significantly larger storm surge. Our results indicate the occurrence of additional flood events like Hurricane Sandy in recent centuries, and highlight the inadequacies of the instrumental record in estimating current flood risk by such extreme events.

  15. Sandy desertification trend in western Northeast China Plain in the past 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The west sandy land of the Northeast China Plain is located in the eastern huge sandy belt of mid-latitude in Eurasia and the eastern fringe of desertified land with best bio-climatic conditions in China. With rapid economic development, the deterioration of eco-environment has occurred and the desertification becomes very obvious. The first part of this paper studies the regional differences of landscape patterns and explores the regional differences of desertification. The second part aims to reveal the dynamics of desertification in the 1990s by using NOAA/AVHRR data and thematic data in GIS database. This work lays a scientific basis for the rehabilitation and development of the sandy lands.

  16. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%.

  17. Simulation of atrazine and metabolite transport and fate in a sandy-till aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan; Chesters, Gordon

    1995-11-01

    In a 2.5-yr field study we determined the distribution of atrazine and its metabolites in a sandy-till aquifer overlying Cambrian sandstone in a dairy farming area. Flow paths are predominantly downward at piezometer nests where vertical hydraulic gradients dominate. Atrazine and desethylated atrazine concentrations along those flow paths generally decrease with increasing estimated groundwater travel time to the monitoring points. A one-dimensional contaminant transport model is developed in FORTRAN incorporating major chemical processes and dispersion along simulated flow paths. Separate simulations of atrazine and desethylated atrazine transport to individual piezometers are made, each with an appropriate average groundwater velocity. Regression equations are developed, based on an extensive literature review, to estimate acceptable sorption and dispersivity coefficients for the transport model. The one-dimensional simulations are calibrated using the field concentration-travel time relationships for atrazine and desethylated atrazine. The calibration procedure provides estimates of atrazine and desethylated atrazine degradation rates in groundwater corresponding to half-lives of 3470 and 2770 days, respectively. Although uncertain, the estimates provide evidence of much slower degradation in the aquifer than indicated by laboratory experiments. Using the calibrated transport parameter values, simulations of long-term steady-state leaching to the water table demonstrate that even with such slow degradation rates, steady-state concentrations at most piezometers are reached within ˜ 20 yr. Concentrations in the underlying sandstone aquifer are therefore not expected to increase substantially over time due to continued atrazine use. However, the slow degradation rates mean that even with the most optimistic condition, i.e. all input to the aquifer ceases in response to a cessation of atrazine application, it may take more than a decade for concentrations deeper in

  18. Spectral induced polarization measurements for environmental purposes and predicting the hydraulic conductivity in sandy aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Attwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency field and laboratory induced polarization measurements are carried out to characterize the hydrogeological conditions at Schillerslage test site in Germany. The laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP data are analyzed to derive an empirical relationship for predicting the hydraulic conductivity (K in the field scale. On the other hand, the results from SIP sounding and profiling field data indicate that the method identifies the lithological layers with sufficient resolution to achieve our objectives. Two main Quaternary groundwater aquifers separated by a till layer can be well differentiated. Furthermore, the phase images are also capable of monitoring thin peat layers within the sandy groundwater aquifer. However, the field results show limitations of decreasing resolution with depth and/or low data coverage. Similarly, the SIP laboratory results show a certain shift in SIP response due to different compaction and sorting of the samples. The overall results obtained show that the integration of field and laboratory SIP measurements is an efficient tool to avoid a hydrogeological misinterpretation. In particular, two significant but weak correlations between individual real resistivities (ρ' and relaxation times (τ, based on a Debye decomposition (DD model, with measured K are found for the upper groundwater aquifer. While the maximum relaxation time (τmax and logarithmically weighted average relaxation time (τlw show a better relation with K values than the median value τ50, however, the single relationships are weak. A combined power law relation between individual ρ' and/or τ with K is developed with an expression of A · (ρ'B · (τlwC, where A, B and C are determined using a least-squares fit between the measured and predicted K. The suggested approach with the calculated coefficients of the first aquifer is applied for the second one. The results indicate a good correlation with the measured K and prove to be

  19. Does thermal carbonization (Biochar of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC content and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and enhanced the available phosphorus (P in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5–0.8 (soil pH: 8.3–8.6, while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25–0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4–6 times in comparison to 2–5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  20. Quantifying microplastic pollution on sandy beaches: the conundrum of large sample variability and spatial heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisner, Mara; Majer, Alessandra P; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Gorman, Daniel; Turra, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Despite the environmental risks posed by microplastic pollution, there are presently few standardized protocols for monitoring these materials within marine and coastal habitats. We provide a robust comparison of methods for sampling microplastics on sandy beaches using pellets as a model and attempt to define a framework for reliable standing stock estimation. We performed multiple comparisons to determine: (1) the optimal size of sampling equipment, (2) the depth to which samples should be obtained, (3) the optimal sample resolution for cross-shore transects, and (4) the number of transects required to yield reproducible along-shore estimates across the entire sections of a beach. Results affirmed that the use of a manual auger with a 20-cm diameter yielded the best compromise between reproducibility (i.e., standard deviation) and sampling/processing time. Secondly, we suggest that sediments should be profiled to a depth of at least 1 m to fully assess the depth distribution of pellets. Thirdly, although sample resolution did not have major consequence for overall density estimates, using 7-m intervals provides an optimal balance between precision (SD) and effort (total sampling time). Finally, and perhaps most importantly, comparing the minimum detectable difference yielded by different numbers of transects along a given section of beach suggests that estimating absolute particle density is probably unviable for most systems and that monitoring might be better accomplished through hierarchical or time series sampling efforts. Overall, while our study provides practical information that can improve sampling efforts, the heterogeneous nature of microplastic pollution poses a major conundrum to reproducible monitoring and management of this significant and growing problem.

  1. The North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study and the US Army Corps of Engineers Sandy Recovery Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Disaster Relief Appropriation Act of 2013 (P.L. 113-2 recognized the need to comprehensively evaluate the existing and planned measures to reduce the flooding risk from tidally-influenced storm surges as well as other alternatives for areas at risk to future storm damages. The legislation directed the US Army Corps of Engineers to undertake a Comprehensive Study of the Sandy impacted areas in the North Atlantic Division (Maine to Virginia. This paper reviews the findings and outcomes of the NACCS and their application across the USACE’s Sandy Recovery Program.

  2. Vegetation landscape structure and dynamics in sandy forest-steppe ecotone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUChun-jing; HANShi-jie; XUWen-duo; LIDao-tang

    2003-01-01

    Sandy forest-steppe ecotone in Baiyinaobao Natural Reserve of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China is one of the special landscape types in forest-steppe vegetation zone in China. Vegetation landscape types, landscape patches and patch size were measured by the field investigation, forest photograph, and airscape. The structure of landscape patches in sandy forest-steppe ecotone, including composition structure, and size structure, was studied and the dynamics and transformation of landscape patches were analyzed. The data obtained in this study could provide theoretical basis for the research on vegetation landscape in forest-steppe ecotones and other vegetation types.

  3. Propagation of Rayleigh waves in anisotropic layer overlying a semi-infinite sandy medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Pal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the propagation of Rayleigh waves in anisotropic layer overlying a sandy medium. Anisotropic material is in the nature of most general case i.e. of triclinic crystal and sandy medium is of alluvial soil type. The solutions for layer and half-space are obtained analytically. The displacement components in x and z directions are obtained for both the media. The dispersion relation is obtained subjected to certain boundary conditions. The special cases are considered. The numerical results are presented in the form of wave number and phase velocity (k − c analytical curves.

  4. Draft Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment, Sandy Point Navigation Channel, Whatcom County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    ment. Maurice L. Schwartz, of Coastal Consultants, Inc., provided a report on shoaling at Sandy Point which was also used in developing this...8217 BS SOFT TO VERY A. SFT. LACO [...j L RAVEL C0%TACT SUR- TORVAYAE.BOOPSF FIT ORGANIC SILT £PEAT IN LAYE RS, VERY CT LL:RA BLACK * ~~ VE ASN PL 44...Schwartz, Maurice L. 1983. Marina inlet shoaling at Sandy Point, Washington. Submitted to Seattle District, U.S. Amy Corps of Engineers. U.S. Fish and

  5. Experiments on the movement of pesticides in sandy soils to groundwater : prospects of testing preferential transport models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many agricultural areas with humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soils are used also for the extraction of water for drinking-water supply. Model concepts have been developed for the fast preferential transport of plant protection products (pesticides) in such soils, e.g. by fingered and funneled flow. An i

  6. 78 FR 12109 - Order Extending Temporary Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... seq. \\2\\ Order Granting Exemptions from Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy... Hurricane Sandy made landfall and whose settlement depends on the delivery of such physical certificates (or... COMMISSION Order Extending Temporary Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to...

  7. Maize productivity and mineral N dynamics following different soil fertility management practices on a depleted sandy soil in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.; Mapfumo, P.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for an improved understanding of nitrogen (N) dynamics in depleted sandy soils in southern Africa. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of different soil fertility improvement practices on a degraded granitic sandy soil in Zimbabwe. Legumes capable of accumula

  8. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons or...

  9. On the role of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack for macroinvertebrates of a Tyrrhenian sandy shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Isabella; Mateo, Miguel Ángel; Serrano, Oscar; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Serrano, Laura; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The use of Posidonia oceanica beach wrack by macroinvertebrates of the sandy beach at Burano (Tuscany, Italy) was assessed by following the colonisation dynamics of the wrack and analysing the stable isotopes 'scenario' of the main local carbon and nitrogen sources and consumers. One-hundred experimental cylinders, filled with P. oceanica wrack, were placed on the beach and sampled over a 1-month period. Abundance and species richness of macroinvertebrates in wracks varied through time. Wrack was colonised by crustaceans almost immediately after deployment of the experimental cylinders. The amphipod Talitrus saltator largely dominated the faunal assembly and, together with the isopod Tylos europaeus, occupied the wracks closer to the sealine. These were followed by dipterans, staphylinids, pselaphids and tenebrionids that occurred in drier wracks higher up on the eulittoral. Moisture content of the wrack and sand decreased through space and time. This was the primary factor explaining the spatial and temporal changes observed in macroinvertebrate abundance, with species colonising or abandoning wracks according to thresholds of environmental parameters. Isotopic analysis clearly established the absence of any direct dietary link between P. oceanica wrack and macroinvertebrates. Terrestrial food sources were also discarded. Both our experimental data and a literature search showed that the organic matter from seston as filtered by the sand is the most plausible carbon and nitrogen source for beach food webs. Even if P. oceanica wrack is not a trophic source for macroinvertebrates, it is vitally important as a physical structure that provides detritivorous and predatory species with refuge from environmentally stressful conditions.

  10. Impact of lfuxapyroxad on the microbial community structure and functional diversity in the silty-loam soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-hu; XU Jun; LIU Yong-zhuo; DONG Feng-shou; LIU Xin-gang; ZHANG Wen-wen; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of applying three different doses of lfuxapyroxad on microbial activity, com-munity structure and functional diversity as measured by respiration, microbial biomass C, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and community-level physiological proifles (CLPPs). Our results demonstrated that substrate-induced respiration (on day 15) and microbial biomass C (on days 7 and 15) were inhibited by lfuxapyroxad, but stimulation was observed thereafter. In contrast, lfuxapyroxad addition increased the basal respiration and metabolic quotients (qCO2) and respiratory quotients (QR). Analysis of the PLFA proifles revealed that the total and bacterial biomass (both Gram-positive bacteria (GP) and Gram-negative bacteria (GN)) were decreased within the initial 15 days, whereas those as wel as the GN/GP ratio were increased at days 30 and 60. Fluxapyroxad input decreased the fungi biomass but increased the bacteria/fungi ratio at al incubation time. Moreover, high lfuxapyroxad input (75 mg lfuxapyroxad kg–1 soil dry weight) increased the microbial stress level. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFAs revealed that lfuxapyroxad treatment signiifcantly shifted the microbial community structure, but al of the observed effects were transient. Biolog results showed that average wel color development (AWCD) and functional diversity index (H´) were increased only on day 60. In addition, the dissipation of lfuxa-pyroxad was slow in soil, and the degradation half-lives varied from 158 to 385 days depending on the concentration tested.

  11. The Scientific and Institutional Context for the Removal of Marmot Dam, Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G. E.; Major, J. J.; O'Connor, J.; Wallick, J. R.; Marr, J.; Wilcock, P.; Podolack, C.

    2008-12-01

    Dam removal has been widely viewed as an important river restoration strategy and an interesting scientific opportunity, the latter because it represents a real-time, full-scale field experiment on fluvial adjustment. Removals therefore offer an excellent setting for testing analytical models of sediment transport, morphologic change, and our capacity to predict short- and medium-term channel evolution in response to changing water and sediment transport regimes. Most dam removals to date have involved relatively small structures and modest releases of sediment stored in pre-removal reservoirs. The largest instantaneous and uncontrolled release of sediment accompanying a dam removal occurred with the breaching of the Marmot coffer dam on the Sandy River in Oregon in October 2007. Marmot Dam was a 14-m-high by 50-m-wide diversion dam built in 1913 as part of a larger hydroelectric project. It was located on the Sandy River, an energetic gravel to cobble-bed river that naturally carries copious quantities of sand and gravel, ~45 km upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River near Portland, Oregon. At the time of removal, the reservoir upstream of the dam was completely filled with ~750,000 m3 of sand (40%) and gravel (60%). The river below the dam includes bedrock gorges, mixed bedrock/alluvial reaches, and alluvial reaches with well-developed gravel and sand bars. The decision to remove the dam was motivated by a combination of increasing maintenance costs and an unfavorable future economic return due to the necessity of installing expensive fish passage facilities to meet relicensing requirements. Portland General Electric, the dam's owner, surrendered the dam's license in 1999, and removal commenced in summer 2007. To remove the concrete structure, a temporary coffer dam was constructed 70 m upstream. In October 2007 the coffer dam was breached and the river allowed to erode the remaining impounded sediment (~730,000 m3). Physical modeling conducted at

  12. 科尔沁沙质草地封育过程中的植被变化及其机制%Change and Mechanism of Vegetation in the Fenced Sandy Grassland in Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗仁辉; 蒋德明; 王永翠

    2013-01-01

    对科尔沁沙地乌兰敖都地区的沙质草地封育后的植被变化及其机制进行分析研究.结果表明:①围栏封育使植被物种丰富度、密度显著提高,群落的优势种发生明显变化;围封地的Simpson多样性指数和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数均表现为随封育时间增加而下降,而Pielou均匀度指数随围封时间增加表现出先增加后下降的趋势.②围栏封育可以增加土壤表层(0~10 cm)的养分含量,但电导率随围封时间表现出先降低后增加的趋势,同时围栏封育使土壤水分含量下降.③土壤表层(0 ~ 10 cm)各因子对多样性的影响不同,全氮和pH与Pielou指数呈显著(P<0.05)负相关;全氮对于丰富度指数呈显著(P<0.05)正相关;其他土壤环境因子与多样性指数间关系均不显著,表明在沙质草地封育不利于植物多样性的维持,但有利于土壤养分的积累.%In this paper, the change and mechanism of vegetation in sandy grassland in Horqin Sandy Land during the natural regeneration process was studied. The study was carried out at Ulanaodu in Horqin Sandy Land. The results are as follows: (1) Vegetation density and species richness in the fenced grassland were obviously improved, and the dominant species of plant community were changed obviously. The indexes of Simpson and Shannon-Wiener species diversity were decreased with the increase of fenced time, whereas the Pielou evenness was increased at firstly, and then decreased with the increase of fenced period; (2) Nutrient content in topsoil (0-10 cm) in the fenced grassland was increased,but the electric conductivity was decreased at firstly,and then increased with the vegetation regeneration process. Soil moisture content was decreased with fenced time; (3) Effects of topsoil factors on the plant species diversity were different. There was a significant negative correlation (P <0. 05) between total N and the pH value and Pielou diversity index,but a positive

  13. Fine natural aggregate replacement for sandy residue from itabirite exploitation in Portland cement mortar; Substituicao dos agregados miudos naturais por residuo arenoso gerado no beneficiamento do itabirito em argamassas de cimento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, V.A.R. [Rede Tematica em Engenharia de Materiais (REDEMAT), MG (Brazil); Freire, C.B.; Pereira Junior, S.S.; Lameiras, F.S.; Tello, C.C.O., E-mail: cbf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The fine natural aggregates are a material largely used by the civil construction for mortar and concrete production. Due to tightening legal restrictions imposed on their extraction, alternative materials are being considered. The use of sandy residue from BIF (banded iron formations) exploitation was investigated. It requires their grinding and flotation to concentrate iron oxides. Large amounts of sandy residue composed of quartz and iron oxides are generated in this process. The sandy residue was characterized relative to mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, presence of organic impurities, and particle shape. Mortar formulations were prepared by varying the type of cement, the cement to aggregate proportion and the water/cement ratio (a/c). The results of viscosity and density of fresh mortar, setting time, and compressive strength are presented. Compressive strength up to 19.5 MPa at 28 days were achieved with the use of cement CPV, a/c ratio of 0.80 and cement:aggregate proportion of 1:2. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of using sandy residue as fine aggregate. (author)

  14. Effects of biochar and maize straw on the short-term carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a cultivated silty loam in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Xiao, Qian; Shen, Yu-Fang; Li, Shi-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Application of maize straw and biochar can potentially improve soil fertility and sequester carbon (C) in the soil, but little information is available about the effects of maize straw and biochar on the mineralization of soil C and nitrogen (N). We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment with five treatments of a cultivated silty loam, biochar produced from maize straw and/or maize straw: soil only (control), soil + 1 % maize straw (S), soil + 4 % biochar (B1), soil + 4 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B1S), and soil + 8 % biochar + 1 % maize straw (B2S). CO2 emissions, soil organic C, dissolved organic C, easily oxidized C, total N, mineral N, net N mineralization, and microbial biomass C and N of three replicates were measured periodically during the 60-day incubation using destructive sampling method. C mineralization was highest in treatment S, followed by B2S, B1S, the control, and B1. Total net CO2 emissions suggested that negative or positive priming effect may occur between the biochar and straw according to the biochar addition rate, and biochar mineralization was minimal. By day 35, maize straw, irrespective of the rate of biochar addition, significantly increased microbial biomass C and N but decreased dissolved organic N. Biochar alone, however, had no significant effect on either microbial biomass C or N but decreased dissolved organic N. Mixing the soil with biochar and/or straw significantly increased soil organic C, easily oxidized C and total N contents, and decreased dissolved organic N content. Dissolved organic C contents showed mixed results. Notably, N was immobilized in soil mixed with straw and/or biochar, but the effect was stronger for soil mixed with straw, which may cause N deficiency for plant growth. The application of biochar and maize straw can thus affect soil C and N cycles, and the appropriate proportion of biochar and maize straw need further studies to increase C sequestration.

  15. Cultivos de cobertura: efectos sobre la macroporosidad y la estabilidad estructural de un suelo franco-limoso Cover crops: effects on soil macroporosity and soil structural stability in a silt loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Varela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos franco-limosos manejados con siembra directa a menudo poseen porosidad estructural baja e inestable. Con el objetivo de determinar la capacidad de los cultivos de cobertura (CC de mejorar la porosidad y estabilidad estructural de estos suelos se llevaron a cabo experimentos de campo y de invernáculo. Ambos tuvieron tratamientos con y sin CC (avena, Avena sativa L., en rotación con soja (Glicine max L. Merr.. Luego de los CC se midieron densidad aparente (DA, el índice de inestabilidad estructural (IE y en el ensayo de invernáculo además, se midió la evolución de la distribución de tamaño de poros (DTP. En ambos ensayos la introducción de CC no disminuyó la DA, aunque incrementó la estabilidad del suelo (PNo- till (NT silt loam topsoils have often a low and unstable structural porosity. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of cover crops (CC of improving the structural porosity and stability of silt loam soils under NT. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out on a silt loam soil (Typic Argiudoll with and without CC (oat, Avena sativa L. in crop sequences with soybean (Glicine max L. Merr.. Soil bulk density (DA and aggregate instability index (IE were measured after the CC in both experiments. In the greenhouse experiment, soil pore size distribution (DTP was measured. The use of CC did not change DA, but soil IE was significantly lower in crop sequences with CC (P < 0.05 both under field and greenhouse conditions. Stability increases were likely due to the effect of CC residues and root mass. No differences in DTP were found between treatments, although a significant effect of sampling date was observed (P<0.05. Changes in DTP were due to significant increases in mesopore (517.5% and macropore (52.7% volumes. Such changes occurred in all the treatments, probably due to the soil wetting-drying cycles. The results found in this study agree with other studies carried out on silt loams in the

  16. Geochemical processes at a fresh/seawater interface in a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Postma, Diederik Jan

    2001-01-01

    Chemical processes in a natural fresh-/seawater mixing zone were studied in a shallow sandy aquifer. The dominant redox-processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methanogenesis produces CO2, which causes calcite dissolution. The produced calcium induces ion exchange with sodium. The final...

  17. Comparative study on microphytobenthic pigments of muddy and sandy intertidal sediments of the Tagus estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartaxana, P; Mendes, CR; van Leeuwe, MA; Brotas, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microphytobenthic pigments determined by HPLC (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were compared between muddy and sandy sediments of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). In the two types of sediment, with similar periods of illuminated emersion, chlorophyll a concentrations on

  18. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy: a community response in Brooklyn, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltz, Michael T; González, Sonia K; Fuentes, Liza; Kwan, Amy; Ortega-Williams, Anna; Cowan, Lisa Pilar

    2013-10-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather events have increased in recent decades; one example is Hurricane Sandy. If the frequency and severity continue or increase, adaptation and mitigation efforts are needed to protect vulnerable populations and improve daily life under changed weather conditions. This field report examines the devastation due to Hurricane Sandy experienced in Red Hook, Brooklyn, New York, a neighborhood consisting of geographically isolated low-lying commercial and residential units, with a concentration of low-income housing, and disproportionate rates of poverty and poor health outcomes largely experienced by Black and Latino residents. Multiple sources of data were reviewed, including street canvasses, governmental reports, community flyers, and meeting transcripts, as well as firsthand observations by a local nonprofit Red Hook Initiative (RHI) and community members, and social media accounts of the effects of Sandy and the response to daily needs. These data are considered within existing theory, evidence, and practice on protecting public health during extreme weather events. Firsthand observations show that a community-based organization in Red Hook, RHI, was at the center of the response to disaster relief, despite the lack of staff training in response to events such as Hurricane Sandy. Review of these data underscores that adaptation and response to climate change and likely resultant extreme weather is a dynamic process requiring an official coordinated governmental response along with on-the-ground volunteer community responders.

  19. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  20. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the ero

  1. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Virginia and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK ORDER NAME: VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND LIDAR ACQUISITION FOR SANDY RESPONSE CONTRACT NUMBER: W912P9-10-D-0533 TASK ORDER NUMBER: W81C8X2314841 Woolpert Project...

  2. Solute leaching in a sandy soil with a water-repellent surface layer: a simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de G.H.; Vries, de P.

    1996-01-01

    Many sandy soils in the Netherlands have a water-repellent surface layer covering a wettable soil with a shallow groundwater table. Fingers form in the water-repellent surface layer and rapidly transport water and solutes to the wettable soil in which the streamlines diverge. Although several field

  3. Modeling the growth and migration of sandy shoals on ebb-tidal deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, W.; de Swart, H. E.; van der Vegt, M.; Hoekstra, P.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent sandy shoals that migrate toward the downdrift coast are observed on many ebb-tidal deltas. In this study, processes that cause the growth and migration of shoals on ebb-tidal deltas are identified. Moreover, the effect of the incident wave energy and the tidal prism of an inlet on the migr

  4. Trends in soil organic matter contents in Dutch grasslands and maize fields on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Hoffland, E.; Kuikman, P.J.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable concern in Europe that soil organic matter (SOM) contents are declining, which would threaten both agriculture and the environment. We performed a trend analysis of SOM contents in sandy soils, using historic data from routine agricultural soil analyses. Data were selected from

  5. Experimental study on stability of sunken large diameter cylindrical structure on sandy seabed during construction period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦崇仁; 庞红犁; 李世森; 张伟

    2002-01-01

    A systematic experimental research work is done for the stability of sunken large diameter cylinder during construction period. It is the first research that gives the method for assessing the stability of the larger diameter cylindrical structure, a set of values is derived also for the critical stability indices of the large diameter cylinder sunken to the sandy seabed.

  6. Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Ozzie Paez, “Emergency Managers’ Views on Improving Defense Support/ Military Assistance to Civil Authorities (DSCA/MACA) Educa - tion Programs...contrary, in fact. The prob- 74 lems that occurred during the Sandy response in most cases can be attributed largely to lack of formal educa - tion

  7. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  8. Efficacy of exclosures in conserving local shrub biodiversity in xeric sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng-Rui Li; Zhi-Yu Zhou; Li-Ya Zhao; Ai-Sheng Zhang; Ling-Fen Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the abundance and frequency of occurrence of all shrub species present in the standing vegetation at four sites, including a 5-year exclosure (protected grassland) and three adjacent unprotected grazing sites that had been subjected to different levels of degradation (light, moderate and severe), in xeric sandy grassland of Inner Mongolia for...

  9. State of the art of the meiofauna of Brazilian Sandy Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fabricio Maria

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, meiofauna studies began in the middle of last century, but they adopted a purely taxonomical approach, describing species from various zoological groups. After this first step, this benthic group was largely neglected until the end of the 20th century when ecological studies began. We here provide a brief review of present knowledge of the meiofauna found on Brazilian sandy beaches to provide information for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network. Our methodology consisted of a bibliographic survey undertaken using different datasets (Web of ScienceTM, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Lattes Plataform. For the survey, we considered only those studies published till early 2015. Our analysis showed that the number of meiofauna studies has increased over the last two decades, though they are mainly still concentrated on the Southeast of Brazil. These studies aim to explain the distribution pattern of the meiofauna of the intertidal region of sandy beaches. Based on the results, we presented a discussion of three main topics, i.e., (a current knowledge of Brazilian sandy beach meiofauna, (b sampling strategies for monitoring of the meiofauna, and (c use of the meiofauna as a tool to assess climate change. We trust that this brief review will be useful as a starting point for the delineation of further climate change investigations into sandy beach meiofauna.

  10. 2012 USACE Post-Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Long Island, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK ORDER NAME: EASTERN LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK LIDAR ACQUISITION FOR HURRICANE SANDY RESPONSE CONTRACT NUMBER: W912P9-10-D-0533 TASK ORDER NUMBER: W81C8X23208588...

  11. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R

  12. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  13. Enhanced benthic activity in sandy sublittoral sediments: Evidence from 13C tracer experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühring, S.I.; Ehrenhauss, S.; Kamp, A.; Moodley, L.; Prof. Witte, U.

    2006-01-01

    In situ and on-board pulse-chase experiments were carried out on a sublittoral fine sand in the German Bight (southern North Sea) to investigate the hypothesis that sandy sediments are highly active and have fast turnover rates. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of experiments where we

  14. 2012 USACE Post Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Virginia and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK ORDER NAME: VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND LIDAR ACQUISITION FOR HURRICANE SANDY RESPONSE CONTRACT NUMBER: W912P9-10-D-0533 TASK ORDER NUMBER: W81C8X2314841 Woolpert...

  15. Effects of DCD addition to slurry on nitrate leaching in sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Zwart, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to cattle slurry, applied in autumn to an arable sandy soil, were investigated in a three-year field experiment in the Netherlands. Treatments included application of slurry with DCD in November and December, application

  16. Contribution of individual sorbents to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    A multisurface model is used to evaluate the contribution of various sorption surfaces to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil samples at pH 3.7-6.1 with different sorbent contents. This multisurface model considers soil as a set of independent sorption surfaces, i.e. organic matter (NI

  17. Factors affecting N immobilisation/mineralisation kinetics for cellulose-, glucose- and straw-amended sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinten, A.J.A.; Whitmore, A.P.; Bloem, J.; Howard, R.; Wright, F.

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of nitrogen immobilization/mineralization for cellulose-, glucose- and straw-amended sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory incubations. Three Scottish soils expected to exhibit a range of biological activity were used: aloamy sand, intensively cropped horticultural soi

  18. Sediment yield computation of the sandy and gritty area based on the digital watershed model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiahong; WANG; Guangqian; LI; Tiejian; XUE; Hai

    2006-01-01

    The Yellow River is well known as a sediment-laden river, which is the main reason that it cannot be controlled as easily as other rivers. Many researchers, such as Qian Ning et al., have found that the sediment load of the Yellow River comes mainly from the sandy and gritty area of the Loess Plateau. Therefore, it is very important to simulate the sediment yield in this area. This paper proposes a method to compute the sediment production in the sandy and gritty area based on the digital watershed model. The suggested model is calibrated and validated in the Chabagou basin, which is a small catchment in the study area. Finally, the model simulates the sediment yield of the sandy and gritty area in 1967, 1978, 1983, 1994 and 1997, which represents a high water and high sediment year, a mean water and mean sediment year, a high water and low sediment year, a low water and high sediment year, and a low water and low sediment year separately. The simulation results, including the runoff depth and erosion modulus, can well explain the "low water and high sediment" phenomena in the Yellow River basin. The total amount of the sediment production and its distribution generated by the model is very useful for water and soil conservation in the sandy and gritty area of the Loess Plateau.

  19. Evaluation of a LIDAR Land-Based Mobile Mapping System for Monitoring Sandy Coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitenc, M.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Khoshelham, K.; Van Waarden, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch coast is characterized by sandy beaches flanked by dunes. Understanding the morphology of the coast is essential for defense against flooding of the hinterland. Because most dramatic changes of the beach and the first dune row happen during storms, it is important to assess the state of th

  20. Evaluation of a laser land-based mobile mapping system for monitoring sandy coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bitenc, M.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Khoshelham, K.; Van Waarden, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch coast is characterized by sandy beaches flanked by dunes. Its morphology is essential for the defense against flooding of the hinterland. Therefore it is monitored on a yearly basis by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS). However, it is recognized that most erosion of the beach and first dune ro

  1. Denitrification coupled to pyrite oxidation and changes in groundwater quality in a shallow sandy aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.-C.; Slomp, C.P.; Broers, H.P.; Passier, H.F.; Cappellen, P. van

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on denitrification in a sandy aquifer using geochemical analyses of both sediment and groundwater, combined with groundwater age dating (3H/3He). The study sites are located underneath cultivated fields and an adjacent forested area at Oostrum, The Netherland

  2. Comparative study on microphytobenthic pigments of muddy and sandy intertidal sediments of the Tagus estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartaxana, P; Mendes, CR; van Leeuwe, MA; Brotas, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microphytobenthic pigments determined by HPLC (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were compared between muddy and sandy sediments of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). In the two types of sediment, with similar periods of illuminated emersion, chlorophyll a concentrations on

  3. Comparative study on microphytobenthic pigments of muddy and sandy intertidal sediments of the Tagus estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxana, P.; Mendes, C. R.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Brotas, V.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microphytobenthic pigments determined by HPLC (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were compared between muddy and sandy sediments of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). In the two types of sediment, with similar periods of illuminated emersion, chlorophyll a concentrations on a per area basis (mg m -2) were comparable (down to 2 mm). Pigment analysis also revealed similar microphytobenthic communities in terms of algal classes. Diatoms were the dominant microalgae, but cyanophytes, euglenophytes and phanerogam debris were also present. For both muddy and sandy sediments, microphytobenthic biomass showed a high level of variability both within and between two consecutive years. Microphytobenthos was highly stratified in the mud, with most of the chlorophyll a occurring in the top 500 μm. In the sand, relatively constant concentrations were found throughout the sediment profile down to 3 mm. This is probably related to deeper light penetration in sandy sediment and/or increased physical mixing caused by invertebrate activity or overlying currents, leading to the burial of an important fraction of the microphytobenthic cells. Differences observed in the intensity of sediment coloration of muddy and sandy sediments might have resulted from the different vertical distribution of benthic biomass.

  4. Irrigation and nitrogen use efficiency of Thuja occidentalis grown on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A combined conifer growth - soil water and nitrogen balance model was calibrated to simulate dry mass production and partitioning, water and nitrogen demand and nitrogen losses for Thuja occidentalis grown for two years on a sandy soil. Light interception was successfully described by the row-of-cub

  5. Importance of phytodetritus and microphytobenthos for heterotrophs in a shallow subtidal sandy sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evrard, V.; Huettel, M.; Cook, P.L.M.; Soetaert, K.; Heip, C.H.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of allochthonous phytodetritus deposition and autochthonous microphytobenthos (MPB) production for benthic consumers in an organic carbon (C-org)-poor sandy sediment was assessed using a C-13-stable isotope natural abundance study combined with a dual C-13-tracer addition app

  6. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  7. Modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching at Fire Island (NY) during hurricane Sandy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, P.L.M.; McCall, R.T.; Den Bieman, J.P.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ormondt, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused a breach at Fire Island (NY, USA), near Pelican Island. This paper aims at modelling dune erosion, overwash and breaching processes that occured during the hurricane event at this stretch of coast with the numerical model XBeach. By using the default settings, the

  8. Geochemical processes at a fresh/seawater interface in a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Postma, Diederik Jan

    2001-01-01

    Chemical processes in a natural fresh-/seawater mixing zone were studied in a shallow sandy aquifer. The dominant redox-processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methanogenesis produces CO2, which causes calcite dissolution. The produced calcium induces ion exchange with sodium. The final...... result of these interactions between different types of geochemical processes is an anoxic groundwater enriched in bicarbonate and sodium....

  9. Transport of water and solutes in wettable and water repellent sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The research yielded the following conclusions and results: preferential flow can be expected in recently deposited, loosely packed, wettable dune sands; preferential flow is common in most water-repellent sandy soils; distribution flow in topsoils isa process of major importance, resulting in a

  10. Soil Inorganic Nitrogen and Microbial biomass Carbon and Nitrogen Under Pine Plantations in Zhanggutai Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-Yuan; CHEN Fu-Sheng; ZENG De-Hui; ZHAO Qiong; CHEN Guang-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen (NH+4-N and NO-3N) and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) under 30-year-old fenced Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SF), unfenced P. sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SUF), and unfenced Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. (DUF) plantations in the Zhanggutai sandy soil of China were studied during Apr. to Oct. 2004 by the in situ closed-top core incubation method. All mentioned C and N indices in each stand type fluctuated over time. The ranges of inorganic N, Cmic, and Nmic contents in the three stand types were 0.7-2.6, 40.0-128.9, and 5.4-15.2 μg g-1, respectively. The average contents of soil NH+4-N and Cmic under the three 30-year-old pine plantations were not different. However, soil NO-3-N and total inorganic N contents decreased in the order of SUF > SF > DUF, the Nmic content was in the order of SF = SUF > DUF, and the Cmic:Nmic ratio was in the order of SUF = DUF > SF. Seasonal variations were observed in soil inorganic N, microbial biomass, and plant growth. These seasonal variations had certain correlations with microbe and plant N use in the soil, and their competition for NH+4-N was mostly regulated by soil N availability. The influence of tree species on inorganic N and Nmic were mainly because of differences in litter quality. Lack of grazing decreased the Cmic:N ratio owing to decreased carbon output and increased the ability of soil to supply N. The soil N supply under the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantation was lower than under the P. densiflora plantation.

  11. PCDD/PCDF behavior in low-temperature pyrolysis of PCP-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Ngo Thi; Dien, Nguyen Thanh; Chang, Moo Been

    2013-01-15

    This study investigates the behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) formation, dechlorination and destruction in PCP-contaminated sandy soil by low-temperature thermal treatment. Experimental tests were carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 200-400 °C with a treatment time of 30 min. 70% of PCP removal from the soil was achieved, resulting in 1436±230 ng/kg, the highest PCDD/F formation at 250 °C; however, the highest toxic concentration was measured around 4.20±0.62 ng TEQ/kg at 300 °C with 80% PCP removal from the soil. Further analysis has revealed that OCDD is the most dominant congener that is supposed to be formed from the pyrolysis of PCP, while OCDF is the second prevailing congener, possibly due to pyrolysis of 2,3,4,5-TeCP being a main byproduct of PCP pyrolysis. Detection of less chlorinated dioxins and furans over 300 °C indicates the dechlorination of highly chlorinated dioxins and furans, especially octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) at 350 °C and 400 °C. Desorption from soil was supposed as a main mechanism for the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the gaseous phase, and not much difference in dioxins and furan levels was observed at 350 °C and 400 °C in the gaseous phase. Therefore, 350 °C is the most appropriate temperature to remove most PCP and PCDD/Fs from soil, as well as to meet PCDD/F emission standards (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrient Discharge Beneath Urban Lawns To A Sandy Coastal Aquifer, Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. L.; Herne, D. E.; Byrne, J. D.; Kin, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    Excess nitrogen and phosphorus leaching beneath urban lawns on sandy soils in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, may pose a serious threat not only to the quality of the underlying groundwater but also to many surface-water bodies. In this study, suction-driven lysimeters were developed and used to quantify water and nutrient fluxes below the root zone at four urban lawn sites in Perth. The four sites received similar fertiliser treatment but differed in irrigation regimes. Over a period of 12 months, up to 51 percent of incident water passed below the root zone. Annual flow-weighted concentrations of NO3-N in the leachate ranged from 0.8-5.4 mg/L, whereas PO4-P concentrations ranged from 0.003-0.034 mg/L. At most sites, NO3-N concentrations periodically equalled or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water limit of 10 mg/L; high concentration were maintained for longer periods at two sites with coarser sands and high irrigation regimes. Evidence exists that concentrations of N and P in urban groundwater are reduced through dilution and possibly through chemical transformation and adsorption. It is unlikely that NO3-N concentrations in groundwater will exceed the WHO drinking limit except for relatively short periods of time. However, nutrients (especially N) from fertilised lawns are a threat to wetlands and waterways into which nutrient-rich groundwater is discharged. Modified management practices for urban lawns, or alternative-style home gardens may need to be developed in order to minimise nutrient enrichment of groundwater and water bodies. Some suggestions for these are presented.

  13. Transport behavior of groundwater protozoa and protozoan-sized microspheres in sandy aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R.W.; Kinner, N.E.; Bunn, A.; MacDonald, D.; Metge, D.

    1995-01-01

    Transport behaviors of unidentified flagellated protozoa (flagellates) and flagellate-sized carboxylated microspheres in sandy, organically contaminated aquifer sediments were investigated in a small-scale (1 to 4-m travel distance) natural-gradient tracer test on Cape Cod and in flow-through columns packed with sieved (0.5-to 1.0-mm grain size) aquifer sediments. The minute (average in situ cell size, 2 to 3 ??m) flagellates, which are relatively abundant in the Cape Cod aquifer, were isolated from core samples, grown in a grass extract medium, labeled with hydroethidine (a vital eukaryotic stain), and coinjected into aquifer sediments along with bromide, a conservative tracer. The 2-??m flagellates appeared to be near the optimal size for transport, judging from flowthrough column experiments involving a polydispersed (0.7 to 6.2 ??m in diameter) suspension of carboxylated microspheres. However, immobilization within the aquifer sediments accounted for a log unit reduction over the first meter of travel compared with a log unit reduction over the first 10 m of travel for indigenous, free-living groundwater bacteria in earlier tests. High rates of flagellate immobilization in the presence of aquifer sediments also was observed in the laboratory. However, immobilization rates for the laboratory-grown flagellates (initially 4 to 5 ??m) injected into the aquifer were not constant and decreased noticeably with increasing time and distance of travel. The decrease in propensity for grain surfaces was accompanied by a decrease in cell size, as the flagellates presumably readapted to aquifer conditions. Retardation and apparent dispersion were generally at least twofold greater than those observed earlier for indigenous groundwater bacteria but were much closer to those observed for highly surface active carboxylated latex microspheres. Field and laboratory results suggest that 2- ??m carboxylated microspheres may be useful as analogs in investigating several abiotic

  14. Evaluation of pedotransfer functions for estimating the soil water retention points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Omid; Palangi, Sahar

    2016-06-01

    Direct measurement of soil moisture has been often expensive and time-consuming. The aim of this study was determining the best method to estimate the soil moisture using the pedotransfer functions in the soil par2 model. Soil samples selected from the database UNSODA in three textures include sandy loam, silty loam and clay. In clay soil, the Campbell model indicated better results at field capacity (FC) and wilting point (WP) with RMSE = (0.06, 0.09) and d = (0.65, 0.55) respectively. In silty loam soil, the Epic model had accurate estimation with MBE = 0.00 at FC and Campbell model had the acceptable result of WP with RMSE = 0.03 and d = 0.77. In sandy loam, Hutson and Campbell models had a better result to estimation the FC and WP than others. Also Hutson model had an acceptable result to estimation the TAW (Total Available Water) with RMSE = (0.03, 0.04, 0.04) and MBE = (0.02, 0.01, 0.01) for clay, sandy loam and silty loam, respectively. These models demonstrate the moisture points had the internal linkage with the soil textures. Results indicated that the PTFs models simulate the agreement results with the experimental observations.

  15. Assessing the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU DuanYang; KANG XiangWu; LIU ZhiLi; ZHUANG DaFang; PAN JianJun

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and human activities are driving forces of sandy desertification and the relative role of them in sandy desertification is the hot point in related researches.A study was carried to assess the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region in China.Potential NPP and the difference between potential and actual NPP were selected as indicators to as-sess the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification,respectively.Assessing methods were built based on some scenarios for the reversion and expansion of sandy desertification and the relative role of climate change and human activities in sandy desertification of Ordos region were assessed from 1981 to 2000.The results showed that although some local places experienced an expansion of sandy desertification,the change of sandy desertification of Ordos region from 1981 to 2000 showed a stably reversing trend.The relative role of climate change and human ac-tivities in sandy desertification of Ordos region varied at different temporal and spatial scales in the reversion and expansion processes.In the reversion of sandy desertification,climate change was the dominant factor in the period of 1981 to 1990 and the reversed areas mainly induced by climate change including Mu Us sandy land and the transition zone between temperate steppe and temperate decidu-ous scrubs in north east of Ordos region; however,human activities controlled the reversed process during the period from 1991 to 2000 and the areas mainly induced by human activities distributed in all banners of Ordos region.In the expansion of sandy desertificallon,human activities were the dominant factor in the period of 1981 to 1990 and the expanded areas mainly included the regions around com-mon boundary of Hanggin,Dalad Banners and Dongsheng City; however,climate change dominated the expansion of sandy desertification from 1991 to 2000,the expanded areas equably distributed

  16. 影响沙区赤松造林成活率的主要因素分析%Main Factors Affecting the Afforestation Survival Rate of Pinus densiflora in Sandy Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云波; 宋佩东

    2015-01-01

    通过试验分析沙区赤松造林中采取不同整地方式、不同质量苗木及不同管护措施对造林成活率及生长量的影响,结果表明:伏前全面整地的赤松造林成活率、当年高生长最大,分别为93%和12.8 cm,玉米茬地好于现整现造地;不同等级、不同类型苗木中以容器苗造林成活率最高,为94.4%;不同立地条件以沙壤土的条件下造林苗木成活率最高,为95%。%The effects of different land preparation methods,quality of different seedlings and different management measures on survival rate and growth of Pinus densiflora were analyzed.Result shows that survival rate and height growth in the very year of Pinus densiflora with full preparation before the hot summer days are the highest,being 93% & 12.8 cm,respectively.Stub land of Zeamays is optimal than extempore soil preparation and extempore af-forestation.Survival rate of container seedlings among different grade and types of seedlings is the highest,being 94.4%;the survival rate under sandy loam is the highest,being 95%.

  17. Preliminary reconstruction of the desert and sandy land distributions in China since the last interglacial period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Huizhong; SU; Zhizhu; YANG; Ping; DONG; Guangrong

    2004-01-01

    The desert and sandy land are the products of arid climate. The spatial distribution of modern deserts and sandy land in China and their relation to climate show following characteristics: arid and hyper-arid desert zones, at isohyet of less than 200 mm, are dominated by mobile dunes; semi-arid steppe and arid desert steppe with the precipitation between 200-400mm, are dominated by semi-fixed and fixed sand dunes; the precipitation of sub-humid forest grassland and humid forest zones with scattered fixed sand land is higher than 400 mm. With this as reference, in combination with considerable amount of paleoclimatic data in desert regions and adjacent regions, the distributions of desert and sandy land in China during the last interglacial period, the last glacial maximum (LGM), and the Holocene megathermal, were preliminarily reconstructed. The results compared with that of today show that the distribution of desert and sandy land in China was greatly dwindled during last interglacial period, and the mobile dune area was about two-thirds of that of today's, but greatly expanded during LGM. However, the dwindling area of desert and sandy land in the Holocene megathermal was smaller than that in the last interglacial period. The forcing mechanism was mainly related to the changes of East Asian winter and summer monsoon, south-northward swing of the westerlies and the variations of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau monsoon intensity caused by global climate changes during the cold and warm intervals since the last interglacial period.

  18. Resource utilization and trophic niche width in sandy beach macrobenthos from an oligotrophic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cisneros, Kelly; de Lecea, Ander M.; Smit, Albertus J.; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the paradigms underlying sandy beach ecology is the overriding control by physical processes; thus, biological interactions (i.e. food availability, competition and predation) are believed to play a role structuring macrofaunal communities only in benign habitats such as dissipative beaches. Moreover, sandy beaches are characterized by low in-situ productivity, so their food webs rely heavily on marine inputs. Studies have shown that estuarine organic matter plays a key role in influencing the dynamics of marine ecosystems. However, very few studies have tested the role of estuarine input on sandy beaches. Here, we aim to determine the impact of estuarine input on the food web of a sandy beach macrobenthic community. To this end, particulate organic matter (POM) samples from the marine environment and the estuary, as well as macrobenthic samples from the beach, were analysed for their stable isotope (SI) signature. Our results indicated that the POM SI signatures were not different along the beach, but differences were recorded between marine and estuarine sources. Bayesian mixing models indicated that the organisms did not make use of the estuarine POM at the beginning of the wet season, but relied more heavily on this resource towards the end of the wet season. This leads to the conclusion that changes in estuarine flow throughout the wet season can impact the trophic structure of macrobenthos communities, confirming a link between lotic and marine communities. Moreover, SI signatures suggest that the species collected here exhibit overlapping trophic niches, indicating high level of inter-specific competition. This highlights that species in low-productivity areas, such as the one studied here, can experience high levels of competition even in physically controlled environments such as sandy beaches.

  19. Grass Cover Influences Hydrophysical Parameters and Heterogeneity of Water Flow in a Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. LICHNER; D. J. ELDRIDGE; K. SCHACHT; N. ZHUKOVA; L. HOLKO; M. (S)(I)R; J. PECHO

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation cover has a major effect on water flow in soils.Two sites,separated by distance of about 50 m,were selected to quantify the influence of grass cover on hydrophysical parameters and heterogeneity of water flow in a sandy soil emerging during a heavy rain following a long hot,dry period.A control soil (pure sand) with limited impact of vegetation or organic matter was obtained by sampling at 50 cm depth beneath a glade area,and a grassland soil was covered in a 10 cm thick humic layer and colonised by grasses.The persistence of water repellency was measured using the water drop penetration time test,sorptivity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using a mini disk infiltrometer,and saturated hydraulic conductivity using a double-ring infiltrometer.Dye tracer experiments were used to assess the heterogeneity of water flow,and both the modified method for estimating effective cross section and an original method for assessing the degree of preferential flow were used to quantify this heterogeneity from the images of dyed soil profiles.Most hydrophysical parameters were substantially different between the two surfaces.The grassland soil had an index of water repellency about 10 times that of pure sand and the persistence of water repellency almost 350 times that of pure sand.Water and ethanol sorptivities in the grassland soil were 7% and 43%,respectively,of those of the pure sand.Hydraulic conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivities in the grassland soil were 5% and 16% of those of the pure sand,respectively.Dye tracer experiments revealed a stable flow with "air-draining" condition in pure sand and well-developed preferential flow in grassland soil,corresponding to individual grass tussocks and small micro-depressions.The grassland soil was substantially more water repellent and had 3 times the degree of preferential flow compared to pure sand.The results of this study reinforce our view that the consequences of any change in climate

  20. Geomorphic response of the Sandy River, Oregon, to removal of Marmot Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Podolak, Charles J.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Grant, Gordon E.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Pittman, Smokey; Bragg, Heather M.; Wallick, J. Rose; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Rhode, Abagail; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    The October 2007 breaching of a temporary cofferdam constructed during removal of the 15-meter (m)-tall Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon, triggered a rapid sequence of fluvial responses as ~730,000 cubic meters (m3) of sand and gravel filling the former reservoir became available to a high-gradient river. Using direct measurements of sediment transport, photogrammetry, airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys, and, between transport events, repeat ground surveys of the reservoir reach and channel downstream, we monitored the erosion, transport, and deposition of this sediment in the hours, days, and months following breaching of the cofferdam. Rapid erosion of reservoir sediment led to exceptional suspended-sediment and bedload-sediment transport rates near the dam site, as well as to elevated transport rates at downstream measurement sites in the weeks and months after breaching. Measurements of sediment transport 0.4 kilometers (km) downstream of the dam site during and following breaching show a spike in the transport of fine suspended sediment within minutes after breaching, followed by high rates of suspended-load and bedload transport of sand. Significant transport of gravel bedload past the measurement site did not begin until 18 to 20 hours after breaching. For at least 7 months after breaching, bedload transport rates just below the dam site during high flows remained as much as 10 times above rates measured upstream of the dam site and farther downstream. The elevated sediment load was derived from eroded reservoir sediment, which began eroding when a meters-tall knickpoint migrated about 200 m upstream in the first hour after breaching. Rapid knickpoint migration triggered vertical incision and bank collapse in unconsolidated sand and gravel, leading to rapid channel widening. Over the following days and months, the knickpoint migrated upstream more slowly, simultaneously decreasing in height and becoming less distinct. Within 7 months

  1. Long-term effects of grass-clover ley on the structure of a silt loam soil in a cold temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nicholas; Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats; Taylor, Astrid; Kätterer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soil pore space structure is mediated by interacting biological and physical processes that can be strongly affected by land use or management change. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of grass-clover leys on the structure of a silt loam soil in a cold humid climate. The measurements were made in a long-term field trial established in 1956 at Offer in northern Sweden. This experiment includes four treatments with varying proportions of ley (1, 2, 3 or 5 years) in a 6-year forage-based rotation. We used X-ray tomography to quantify topsoil structural pore networks in the first year of arable cropping following the ley break, a few weeks after sowing in spring. Near-saturated infiltration was also measured as a proxy for soil structure in both topsoil and subsoil. Earthworm populations were quantified by both hand-digging and infiltration of mustard solution. In the topsoil, the treatments with a greater proportion of ley in the rotation had larger organic carbon contents, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and earthworm biomass as well as smaller bulk densities and larger total porosities. In contrast, no treatment effects were found for the volume, size distribution, connectivity and heterogeneity of the X-ray imaged pore space. Topsoil structure is seasonally dynamic and it seems possible that significant effects of long-term cropping treatments on the architecture of these larger pore networks (image resolution of 65 microns) would have been found later in the season, as a result of the re-establishment of earthworm biopores after tillage. No individuals of deep-burrowing anecic earthworm species were found at the site. Previous work has also showed shallow rooting at this site, with almost all visible roots of spring barley confined to the uppermost 30 cm. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that no effects of crop treatment on organic carbon content were found in the subsoil. Likewise, there were no apparent treatment

  2. Temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity measured in seasonally dry sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, Aura; Brevik, Eric C.; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Soil is spatially heterogeneous due to differences in parent material, climate, topography, time and management practices. The use of non-invasive and non-contact geophysical methods facilitates the exploration of natural landscapes or cropped areas. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors which measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) express soil spatial variability in terms of spatial soil ECa variability. In an agricultural context, knowledge and understanding of the soil spatial variability will allow us to delimit areas where precision agriculture techniques could be used to improve management practices. These practices enhance soil and water conservation, especially for sandy soils in Mediterranean climates where soils are dry for substantial periods of time. The first objective of this work was to apply principal component analysis (PCA) to see if a temporally stable component could be found. The second objective was to see if temporal stability information acquired from several ECa surveys could be used to better interpret results of a single survey in terms of relationships between ECa and soil water content (SWC). The experimental catchment, "La Manga", is located in SW Spain and covers 6.7 ha of a rainfed olive orchard. Soil profile samples were collected at 41 locations on a pseudo-regular grid. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for soil texture, stone content, and bulk density (ρb). The catchment was sampled for gravimetric SWC at the 0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m depth intervals at the same 41 locations on 18 occasions. At the same 41 locations ECa was measured during 9 of the 18 SWC surveys using a DUALEM-21S EMI sensor. In addition, 7 field-wide ECa surveys were conducted. Soil ECa values were used to delimit three areas in the orchard, based on the spatial distribution of the first principal component (PC), which represented the spatial ECa pattern. Soil properties were studied within each area, and using analysis of variance

  3. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration is used to describe movements of populations of birds or other animals. There are three types of migrants. One way to look at migration is to consider the distances traveled. The pattern of migration can vary within each category, but is most variable in short and medium distance migrants. The origin of migration is related to the distance traveled. The birds migrating through the area, take shelter on the river front before going to the Sandi Bird sanctuary. The birds generally migrate in the winter months of October-November-December. Bird sanctuary is a popular tourist location. Sandi particularly attracts ornithologists and bird watchers, as many rare migratory birds take refuge in the sanctuary. The bird watching camps arranged to observe the migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary in the month of October and November 2012. The migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include great crested grebe, white storks, black lbis, glossy lbis, spoonbill, ruddy shelduck, pin tail, sholveller, spot bill duck, mallard, gadwall, wigeon, tufted pochard, gargancey teal, common teal, cotton teal, grey lag goose, coot, black tailed godwit, painted stock pin tail snipe, marsh sand piper, common tern, river tern, magpie robin, white wagtail, pied wagtail, common snipe, starlings, white lbis, red crested pochard, common pochard, painted stock, black lbis, curlew, Indian skimmer etc. The resident birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include little grebe, darter, purple heron, grey

  4. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-03-17

    ) Determine fish community characteristics, including species composition, abundance, and temporal and spatial distributions. (1c) Estimate the stock of origin for the yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon captured at the sampling sites using genetic analysis. (1d) Statistically assess the relationship between salmonid abundance and habitat parameters, including ancillary variables such as temperature and river stage. (2) Acoustic Telemetry Monitoring-Assess feasibility of applying Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) technology to determine migration characteristics from upriver of Bonneville Dam through the study area (vicinity of the Sandy River delta/Washougal River confluence). (2a) Determine species composition, release locations, and distributions of JSATS-tagged fish. (2b) Estimate run timing, residence times, and migration pathways for these fish. Additionally, both objectives serve the purpose of baseline research for a potential tidal rechannelization project on the Sandy River. The U.S. Forest Service, in partnership with the Bonneville Power Administration and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is currently pursuing reconnection of the east (relict) Sandy River channel with the current channel to improve fish and wildlife habitat in the Sandy River delta. Our study design and the location of sampling sites in this reach provide baseline data to evaluate the potential restoration.

  5. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  6. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth phase of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' vines and nitrogen forms in sandy soil of the Pampa Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information on nitrogen fertilization in growing vines is still a very limited subject, especially for crops on sandy soils in the Pampa Biome in Rio Grande do Sul, where viticulture has expanded considerably in the last decade. This study aimed to assess the impact of N doses on growth of young plants of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines and N forms present in sandy soil in the Pampa Biome. The experiment was conducted from October 2011 to December 2012 in a vineyard in Santana do Livramento, in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, in soil with 82 g kg-1 clay in the 0-20 cm layer. Vines of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varieties were subjected to applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1. Total N in leaves, SPAD readings, stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of the pruned material were evaluated in two growth cycles and three times. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths at four crop growth stages, in which N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total N were analyzed and the mineral N was calculated. The N levels applied to young vines, although they did not provide relevant changes in the N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and mineral N contents in the soil, were able to increase the N content in the leaves, increasing plant vigor. because the reason is that there was an increase in stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of pruned material in most evaluation periods. These parameters suggest better growth patterns and uniformity of young grapevines with possible positive effects in anticipation of production, demonstrating the importance of nitrogen fertilization strategies to the growing vines in the sandy soil conditions of the Pampa Biome.

  7. FACIES ANALYSIS, STRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEONTOLOGY (MOLLUSCS AND VERTEBRATES IN THE UPPER PLIOCENE SANDY FLOOD-BASIN DEPOSITS OF THE UPPER VALDARNO BASIN (NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMILIANO GHINASSI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Valdarno Basin, one of the most investigated Neogene–Quaternary basins of the Northern Apennines, developed during three main phases, as testified by the occurrence of three unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units (UBSUs in the basin infill. Despite numerous studies having been carried out, biochronological, paleoecological and stratigraphical issues in the lower portion of the Montevarchi Synthem (second phase have yet to be understood. Sandy deposits (Montecarlo Sand and Silt Unit, stratigraphically located in this portion of the Montevarchi Synthem, are the focus of this multidisciplinary study. These deposits conformably overlie sandy fluvio-eolian sediments and are, in turn, capped by fluvio-palustrine deposits through a progressive unconformity. Facies analysis suggest a sandy flood-basin environment for these deposits, characterised by variations in water discharge and flood event energy. Mollusc and fish remains, pointing to quiet or slow-moving shallow waters, have been affected by transport processes before final burial in overbank areas. Fish remains of the primary marine family Mugilids highlight a connection between the basin and the sea that was previously only supposed. Small mammal remains, referred to the rodent Mimomys polonicus, are coherent with a water-rich environment. Cyclic variations in shell content and sedimentological characteristics testify to the occurrence of short-term climatic oscillations during this warming phase. This study fits with paleomagnetic and radiometric datings and mammal biochronology, in indicating that the Montecarlo Sand and Silt Unit belongs to a time interval preceding the Reunion paleomagnetic event. The depositional evolution of the Montecarlo Unit was driven by climatic change from arid to humid conditions, related to a global increase in temperature that occurred between 2.4 and 2.2 Ma.

  8. 阿塔山水库壤土心墙堆石坝施工工艺%Construction Technology of Loam Core-wall Rock-fill Dam of Atashan Reservoir Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦美荣

    2015-01-01

    阿塔山水库大坝是大型壤土心墙堆石坝,通过精心组织、科学管理、严把质量,填筑质量满足规范设计要求,保质保量完成合同任务。%Atashan reservoir dam is a large loam core-wall rock-fill dam. Through the elaborate organization, scientific management and strict quality control, the filling quality meets the requirements of the specification design, and the contract task is completed with good quality.

  9. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  10. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Warren H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  11. Transitions in climate and energy discourse between Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Emily M; Bagrow, James P; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Although climate change and energy are intricately linked, their explicit connection is not always prominent in public discourse and the media. Disruptive extreme weather events, including hurricanes, focus public attention in new and different ways, offering a unique window of opportunity to analyze how a focusing event influences public opinion. Simultaneously shaping and reflecting public discourse, media coverage of extreme weather events reflects public opinion of climate issues. Here we analyze climate and energy media coverage of Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) using topic models, mathematical techniques used to discover abstract topics within a set of documents. Our results demonstrate that post-Katrina media coverage does not contain a climate change topic, and the energy topic is limited to discussion of energy prices, markets, and the economy with almost no explicit linkages made between energy and climate change. In contrast, post-Sandy media coverage does contain a prominent climate ch...

  12. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-06-15

    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.

  13. Parameters of the occurrence of internal erosion processes in salty-sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Grozdana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at defining the conditions of the occurrence of internal erosion in silty-sandy soils. The susceptibility of this soil to internal erosion depends on the porosity, particle-size composition and hydro-geo-mechanical parameters. Internal erosion stability was analyzed by the introduction of the coefficient of particle composition as the critical particle-size condition, which is in fact the coefficient of internal erosion (Kue. Based on the study results, mathematical models and the functional correlation between water regime and resistant characteristics of silty-sandy soils, we defined the parameters of the occurrence of initial internal erosion and analyzed the effects of the practical application of the study results.

  14. Sandy Bridge—E顶级平台抢先展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Intel X79芯片组和LGA2011接口的sandy Bridge—E CPU(简称SNB—E)组成的整个平台开发代号为waimea Bay。这套新平台将完全解除目前SNB处理器以及6系列芯片组设下的超频限制,重新在BIOS中开放处理器外频调校,令骨灰玩家可以尽情挖掘SNB新架构处理器的潜能。除了超频,Sandy Bridge—E还可以为我们带来哪些呢?今天我们就带大家展望一下。

  15. Sandy grassland blowouts in Hulunbuir,northeast China:geomorphology,distribution,and causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Altan MunkhDalai; FENG Zongwei; WANG Xiaoke; SUN Hongwei; ZHAO Jiaming; U Hurlee

    2007-01-01

    A sandy grassland blowout consists of an aeolian depression formed in top soil and the underlying sand deposit underlie,and the adjoining redeposit of sand derived from the depression. Research based on field survey and topographic mapping combined with aerophotograph interpretation reveals that: (1) All the three sand land tracts in Hulunbuir Grasslands are composed of blowout depressions and adjoining dunes, with interlaying remnants of sandy grasslands as background; (2) blowout depressions and their adjoining dunes can be classified according to their morphometric characteristics, development stages, and initiating factors; (3) blowouts develop mostly in the upper parts of sidelong aweather and sunward slopes inclining southwestward when west wind prevails; (4) initiation of blowouts is closely related with the coupling of extreme droughts and wide spread intense human disturbance to the fragile topsoil layer. The investigations indicate that key factors to prevent desertification are to protect grassland vegetation and topsoil.

  16. Pore-size distribution and compressibility of coarse sandy subsoil with added biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, E.; Larsen, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable agricultural production on coarse sandy soil is constrained by the restricted growth of roots, and poor water and nutrient retention. Amending the soil with biochar can reduce these problems, but the processes involved are not known in detail. We investigated in the laboratory...... the effects of two fine-grained gasification biochars made of straw (LTST) and other materials (LTSN) and of one fast pyrolysis straw biochar (FPST) on pore-size distribution and soil compressibility when added to coarse sandy subsoil. Water retention and therefore pore-size distribution were affected...... systematically. All biochars converted drainable pore space with pore diameters in the range 60–300 µm into water-retaining pores of size 0.2–60 µm, which was taken as an estimate of available water capacity (AWC). Effects were linear over the whole range of biochar (0–4% by mass). The effect of LTST and LTSN...

  17. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  18. Competition between n-alkane-assimilating yeasts and bacteria during colonization of sandy soil microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, C; Goebel, I; Wagner, S; Vomberg, A; Klinner, U

    2000-07-01

    An n-alkane-assimilating strain of Candida tropicalis was selected in sandy soil inoculated with microorganisms from contaminated sites. Competition experiments with n-alkane utilizers from different strain collections confirmed that yeasts overgrow bacteria in sandy soil. Acidification of the soil is one of the colonization factors useful for the yeasts. It can be counteracted by addition of bentonite, a clay mineral with high ion exchange capacity, but not, however, by kaolin. Strains of different yeast species showed different levels of competitiveness. Strains of Arxula adeninivorans, Candida maltosa, and Yarrowia lipolytica overgrew strains of C. tropicalis, C. shehatae or Pichia stipitis. Two strains of C. maltosa and Y. lipolytica coexisted during several serial transfers under microcosm conditions.

  19. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L.) to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saad Drissi; Abdelhadi Aït Houssa; Ahmed Bamouh; Mohamed Benbella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn) fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions...

  20. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar and digital elevation model (DEM) tile index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data represents the tile index for lidar data collected for the U.S. Geological Survey in November 2012 following Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall in the...

  1. Sediment Chemistry and Toxicity in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey: Pre- and Post- Hurricane Sandy, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Timothy J.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall in Barnegat Bay, October, 29, 2012, damaging shorelines and infrastructure. Estuarine sediment chemistry and toxicity were investigated before and after to evaluate potential environmental health impacts and to establish post-event baseline sediment-quality conditions. Trace element concentrations increased throughout Barnegat Bay up to two orders of magnitude, especially north of Barnegat Inlet, consistent with northward redistribution of silt. Loss of organic compounds, clay, and organic carbon is consistent with sediment winnowing and transport through the inlets and sediment transport modeling results. The number of sites exceeding sediment quality guidance levels for trace elements tripled post-Sandy. Sediment toxicity post-Sandy was mostly unaffected relative to pre-Sandy conditions, but at the site with the greatest relative increase for trace elements, survival rate of the test amphipod decreased (indicating degradation). This study would not have been possible without comprehensive baseline data enabling the evaluation of storm-derived changes in sediment quality.

  2. Sediment chemistry and toxicity in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey: Pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Timothy J; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K

    2016-06-30

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall in Barnegat Bay, October, 29, 2012, damaging shorelines and infrastructure. Estuarine sediment chemistry and toxicity were investigated before and after to evaluate potential environmental health impacts and to establish post-event baseline sediment-quality conditions. Trace element concentrations increased throughout Barnegat Bay up to two orders of magnitude, especially north of Barnegat Inlet, consistent with northward redistribution of silt. Loss of organic compounds, clay, and organic carbon is consistent with sediment winnowing and transport through the inlets and sediment transport modeling results. The number of sites exceeding sediment quality guidance levels for trace elements tripled post-Sandy. Sediment toxicity post-Sandy was mostly unaffected relative to pre-Sandy conditions, but at the site with the greatest relative increase for trace elements, survival rate of the test amphipod decreased (indicating degradation). This study would not have been possible without comprehensive baseline data enabling the evaluation of storm-derived changes in sediment quality.

  3. 2013-2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (New York City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS New York CMGP Sandy Lidar 0.7 Meter NPS LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No....

  4. Aggregations of the sandy-beach isopod, Tylos granulatu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-12-14

    Dec 14, 1995 ... Tylos feed for a few hours at night, but spend most of their time con- ... The mouth of the Groenrivier estuary enters at the south- ern end, but .... series of individual moves joined by straight lines. ...... plankton /-;cology 33: 303.

  5. Growth and reproduction of two molluscs from an exposed sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    form of carrion and phytoplankton and particulate matter ... A series of hauls each 10 m long and cutting to 5 cm .... histograms for B. rhodostoma on Maitland River beach at nine sampling times during 1977/8. ...... balthica in the Ythan estuary.

  6. The ecology of sandy beaches in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series of 10-m hauls from the swash line out to nearly 1-m depth. ... decanting four times and trapping on a 45-",m screen. The procedure is about ..... The bentho-planktonic mysid,. Gastrosaccus .... associated with small estuaries. They have ...

  7. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231) following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1–1.9]), depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3–2.2]), and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8–3.4]), while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01–1.12]) and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1–1.2]). Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5–2.8]) or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1–1.2]) were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms. PMID:28129410

  8. Soil-water characteristics of sandy soil and soil cement with and without vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The use of soil cement as a growth medium was examined in this study. During the monitoring, green soil cement revealed diverse ecological values. The survival rates of plants in each soil conditions were higher than 80%,which was very promising. Furthermore, the survival rates dropped when the soil density reached95%, which means soil density might influence the survival rate of plant. Plant growth rates in sandy soil were higher than that in soil cement. In particular, low soil density faci...

  9. Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in Southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-Hui; FAN Zhi-Ping; D.K.LEE

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, large areas of the Horqin sandy land were afforested to prevent desertification. Although the afforestation policy appears successful, many people now doubt whether it is suitable to plant trees with high density on the poor soils in semiarid regions. Little is known about the impacts of afforestation on the sandy soil properties, although the evaluation of these impacts is fundamental to judge the rationality of afforestation policy. Soil phosphorus (P) fractions, acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and other soil chemical properties were compared among five adjoining typical ecosystems on poor sandy soils in southeastern Horqin sandy land. The ecosystems studied are natural elm savanna, degraded grassland, Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica) plantation, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation, and mixed plantation of Mongolian pine and poplar (Populus simonii). The results showed that organic P dominated soil P (47%-65%) was the principal source of available P. The degradation of elm savanna to grassland significantly reduced soil pH and resulted in an overall reduction in soil fertility, although slightly increased labile inorganic P. Grassland afforestation had no significant influence on soil pH, organic carbon, and total N but significantly reduced total P. Impacts of grassland afforestation on soil P fractions depended on tree species. Natural elm savanna had higher soil P conserving ability than artificial plantations. Therefore, with the aim of developing a sustainable ecosystem, we suggested that vegetations with low nutrient demand (particularly P) and efficient nutrient cycling would be more suitable for ecosystem restoration in the semiarid region.

  10. A modified criterion for wave-induced momentary liquefaction of sandy seabed

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Gang Qi; Fu-Ping Gao

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the wave-induced soil liquefaction plays a key role in the geotechnical design for offshore foundations. The underlying shortcomings of the existing momentary liquefaction criteria are identified and clarified by mechanism analyses and the recent field observations. A modified criterion for the wave-induced momentary liquefaction of a sandy seabed is given to describe the vertical pore-pressure distributions. An improved approximation of the momentary liquefaction depth is f...

  11. Detection of objects in sandy ground by an FM-CW radar

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Y.(International Center for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Tsurugi, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Sengoku, M.; Kikuta, T.; Nishino, M; Tsunasaki, M.; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Sengoku, Masakazu; 山口, 芳雄; 仙石, 正和

    1993-01-01

    An FM-CW radar system for the detection of objects buried in sandy ground is explored and applied to field measurement. The key factors for underground radar performance are the center frequency and the bandwidth determining the depth at which the radar can detect targets and the resolution in the range direction, respectively. To realize a practical underground radar, two ridged horn antennas are employed in the system, which are operative in the frequency range of 250-1000 MHz. The impedanc...

  12. Retention of pesticides in sandy soil columns modified with a wood barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Martin, M. J.; Rodriguez-Cruz, M. S.; Ordax, J. M.; Arienzo, M.

    2009-07-01

    Wood residues can be used as low-cost potential sorbents of hydrophobic pesticides in technologies aimed to prevent soil and water contamination and reduce the risk of environmental pollution produced by point pollution sources of these compounds. The objective of this work was to study the effect of a pine or oak sawdust barrier on the retention of Iinuron, alachlor and metalaxyl, with different hydrophobic character, in a sandy soil. (Author)

  13. A Study of Variations in Atmospheric Turbulence Kinetic Energy on a Sandy Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscinski, J. S.; MacMahan, J. H.; Wang, Q.; Thornton, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    A 6-m high, meteorological tower consisting six evenly spaced ultrasonic anemometers and temperature-relative humidity sensors was deployed at the high tide line on sandy, wave-dissipative, meso-tidal beach in southern Monterey Bay, CA in October 2015. The micro-meteorology study focus is to explore the momentum fluxes and turbulent kinetic energy influenced by the interaction between an intensive wave-breaking surf zone and a sandy beach associated with onshore & cross-shore winds, diurnal heating, and differences in ocean-air temperatures. The tower was deployed for approximately 1-month and experienced diurnal wind variations and synoptic storm events with winds measuring up to 10 m/s and an air temperature range of 5-28 oC. This beach environment was found to be primarily unstable in thermal stratification indicating that the air temperature is colder than underlying surface, either the ocean or the sandy beach. The drag coefficient was found to be dependent upon the atmospheric stability. Direct-estimates of atmospheric stability were obtained with the sonic anemometer. The direct estimates are a ratio of w*/u*, where the w*, vertically scaled buoyancy velocity, is greater than u*, horizontally scaled friction velocity. Hypotheses for the enhanced buoyancy are 1) diurnal heating of the sandy beach, 2) warmer ocean temperatures relative to air temperatures, and 3) the wave breaking within the surf zone. Further exploration into these hypotheses is conducted by using vertical tower sensor pairs for estimating the temporal variability of the mechanical shear production and buoyancy production terms in turbulent kinetic energy budget. These results are part of the Coastal Land Air Sea Interaction (CLASI) experiment.

  14. Parameters of the occurrence of internal erosion processes in salty-sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Grozdana

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed at defining the conditions of the occurrence of internal erosion in silty-sandy soils. The susceptibility of this soil to internal erosion depends on the porosity, particle-size composition and hydro-geo-mechanical parameters. Internal erosion stability was analyzed by the introduction of the coefficient of particle composition as the critical particle-size condition, which is in fact the coefficient of internal erosion (Kue). Based on the study results, mathematical model...

  15. Self-Reported and FEMA Flood Exposure Assessment after Hurricane Sandy: Association with Mental Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Liu, Bian; Schneider, Samantha; Schwartz, Rebecca; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage; the long-term mental health consequences are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing mental health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. Here we assess the concordance in self-reported and Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy and determine the associations between flooding and anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported flood data and mental health symptoms were obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents (N = 1231) following Sandy. Self-reported flood data was compared to FEMA data obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationship between flooding exposure and mental health outcomes. There were significant discrepancies between self-reported and FEMA flood exposure data. Self-reported dichotomous flooding was positively associated with anxiety (ORadj: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-1.9]), depression (ORadj: 1.7 [1.3-2.2]), and PTSD (ORadj: 2.5 [1.8-3.4]), while self-reported continuous flooding was associated with depression (ORadj: 1.1 [1.01-1.12]) and PTSD (ORadj: 1.2 [1.1-1.2]). Models with FEMA dichotomous flooding (ORadj: 2.1 [1.5-2.8]) or FEMA continuous flooding (ORadj: 1.1 [1.1-1.2]) were only significantly associated with PTSD. Associations between mental health and flooding vary according to type of flood exposure measure utilized. Future hurricane preparedness and recovery efforts must integrate micro and macro-level flood exposures in order to accurately determine flood exposure risk during storms and realize the long-term importance of flooding on these three mental health symptoms.

  16. Seminavis atlantica Garcia, a new psammic diatom (Bacillariophyceae from southern Brazilian sandy beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcia

    Full Text Available The paper presents the description of Seminavis atlantica Garcia, a psammic marine diatom from dissipative sandy beaches from southern Brazil. It is characterized by its convex linear dorsal margin (37 to 50% of its length is in a straight line, linear ventral margin and raphe located very close to the ventral margin. Its morphology is compared to similar species such as Amphora clevei Grunow, Amphora angusta (Greg. Cleve var. orientalis Allem, Amphora ventricosa Gregory and Amphora eulesteinii Grunow.

  17. Dynamics of Small-Scale Topographic Heterogeneity in European Sandy Salt Marshes

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Elschot; Bakker, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity can boost biodiversity, as well as increase the resilience of an ecosystem to changing environmental conditions; therefore, it is important to understand how topographic heterogeneity in ecosystems is formed. Sandy tidal marshes have a repetitive pattern of higher elevated hummocks surrounded by lower elevated depressions, representing topographic heterogeneity at the scale of a few square meters. The aims of this study were to determine when this topographic heterogeneity forms...

  18. The finding of a paleo-spruce timber in Hunshandak sandy land and its paleoecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海亭; 刘鸿雁; 腰希申

    1997-01-01

    A paleo-sprucc (Picea jezoensis) timber dated to (10 040 + 100) a B. P. was found in the Hunshan-dak sandy land, Inner Mongolia, which is also one of the oldest timber found in China. Pollen and mammal fossil further evidence that theropencedrymion dominated by birch and spruce existed in this area in the late period of the earlier Holocene. This finding has great significance for the analysis of paleoclimate, paleovegetation and landscape development in this area.

  19. The Method of Calculating the Settlement of Weak Ground Strengthened with the Reinforced Sandy Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an engineering method for calculating the weak clay base, strengthened with sandy piles reinforced along the contour. The method is based on the principle of layer-by-layer summation, which is used when designing the bases and foundations. The novelty of the suggested method lies in the taking account of the soil reaction along the pile lateral surface and the impact of external vertical loads on the vertical displacement of the base.

  20. Wind-dispersed Seed Deposition Patterns and Seedling Recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a Moving Sandy Land

    OpenAIRE

    LI, FENG-RUI; Wang, Tao; ZHANG, AI-SHENG; ZHAO, LI-YA; KANG, LING-FEN; Chen, Wen

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings.

  1. Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: crossing a line in the sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Defeo, Omar

    2014-08-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ways that are consistent with expectations under climate change. We base our assessments on evidence coming from case studies on beach invertebrates in South America and on sea turtles globally. Surprisingly, we find that observational evidence for climate-change responses in beach biota is more convincing for invertebrates than for highly charismatic turtles. This asymmetry is paradoxical given the better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which turtles are likely to respond to changes in climate. Regardless of this disparity, knowledge of the unique attributes of beach systems can complement our detection of climate-change impacts on sandy-shore invertebrates to add rigor to studies of climate-change ecology for sandy beaches. To this end, we combine theory from beach ecology and climate-change ecology to put forward a suite of predictive hypotheses regarding climate impacts on beaches and to suggest ways that these can be tested. Addressing these hypotheses could significantly advance both beach and climate-change ecology, thereby progressing understanding of how future climate change will impact coastal ecosystems more generally.

  2. Personality diatheses and Hurricane Sandy: effects on post-disaster depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, D. C.; Kotov, R.; Bromet, E. J.; Carlson, G. A.; Danzig, A. P.; Black, S. R.; Klein, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to diathesis–stress models, personality traits, such as negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE), may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of depression. However, relatively little empirical research has directly examined whether NE and PE act as diatheses in the presence of stressful life events, and no research has examined whether they moderate the effect of disaster exposure on depressive symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in US history, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps. Method A total of 318 women completed measures of NE and PE 5 years prior to Hurricane Sandy. They were also assessed for lifetime depressive disorders on two occasions, the latter occurring an average of 1 year before the hurricane. Approximately 8 weeks after the disaster (mean = 8.40, s.d. = 1.48 weeks), participants completed a hurricane stress exposure questionnaire and a measure of current depressive symptoms. Results Adjusting for lifetime history of depressive disorders, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms, but only in participants with high levels of NE or low levels of PE. Conclusions These findings support the role of personality in the development of depression and suggest that personality traits can be useful in identifying those most vulnerable to major stressors, including natural disasters. PMID:26619902

  3. Use of dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers to reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G C; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Yang, X E; Yu, S; Calvert, D

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing concern over P leaching from sandy soils applied with water-soluble P fertilizers. Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate P leaching from a typical acidic sandy soil in Florida amended with DPR fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) and N-Viro soil. Ten leaching events were carried out at an interval of 7 days, with a total leaching volume of 1,183 mm equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachates were collected and analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the leachate was dominantly reactive, accounting for 67.7-99.9% of total P leached. Phosphorus leaching loss mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, accounting for 62.0-98.8% of the total P leached over the whole period. The percentage of P leached (in the total P added) from the soil amended with water-soluble P fertilizer was higher than those receiving the DPR fertilizers. The former was up to 96.6%, whereas the latter ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. These results indicate that the use of N-Viro-based DPR fertilizers can reduce P leaching from sandy soils.

  4. Attitudinal Determinants of Local Public Health Workers' Participation in Hurricane Sandy Recovery Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errett, Nicole A; Egan, Shannon; Garrity, Stephanie; Rutkow, Lainie; Walsh, Lauren; Thompson, Carol B; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Altman, Brian; Schor, Kenneth; Barnett, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Local health departments play a critical role in short-, intermediate-, and long-term recovery activities after a public health emergency. However, research has not explored attitudinal determinants of health department workers' participation in the recovery phase following a disaster. Accordingly, this qualitative investigation aims to understand perceived facilitators and barriers to performing recovery-related activities following Hurricane Sandy among local health department workers. In January 2014, 2 focus groups were conducted in geographically representative clusters of local health departments affected by Hurricane Sandy (1 cluster in Maryland and 1 cluster in New Jersey). Focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed to qualitatively assess attitudes toward Hurricane Sandy recovery activities. This analysis identified 5 major thematic categories as facilitators and barriers to participation in recovery activities: training, safety, family preparedness, policies and planning, and efficacy. Systems that support engagement of health department personnel in recovery activities may endeavor to develop and communicate intra- and interjurisdictional policies that minimize barriers in these areas. Development and implementation of evidence-informed curricular interventions that explain recovery roles may also increase local health department worker motivation to participate in recovery activities.

  5. Utilization of geotextile tube for sandy and muddy coastal management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Cheng; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin; Song, Ki-Il

    2014-01-01

    Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However, for the muddy coasts, mangrove rehabilitation and conservation were additional concerns in coastal management schemes. The mangrove forests are natural barriers which can be found on the muddy coasts of many tropical countries. In this paper, the viability of geotextile tubes in sandy and muddy beaches was analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of geotextile tubes in coastal management were discussed based on the experiences from the tropical countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, and Thailand. From the case studies, impressive improvements in coastal restoration after installation of geotextile tubes were shown. Based on the discussion, several recommendations to improve the application of geotextile tubes were suggested in this paper.

  6. Utilization of Geotextile Tube for Sandy and Muddy Coastal Management: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Cheng; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin; Song, Ki-Il

    2014-01-01

    Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However, for the muddy coasts, mangrove rehabilitation and conservation were additional concerns in coastal management schemes. The mangrove forests are natural barriers which can be found on the muddy coasts of many tropical countries. In this paper, the viability of geotextile tubes in sandy and muddy beaches was analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of geotextile tubes in coastal management were discussed based on the experiences from the tropical countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, and Thailand. From the case studies, impressive improvements in coastal restoration after installation of geotextile tubes were shown. Based on the discussion, several recommendations to improve the application of geotextile tubes were suggested in this paper. PMID:24955408

  7. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Good

    Full Text Available Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18O, > 160‰ for δ(2H and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰ were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  8. Fire impacts on water repellency of sandy soils in SW Spanish coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdá, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Although water repellency of sandy soils from dune areas and their consequences (irregular wetting front, preferential flow pathways) are well studied, there is not much information about the effect of fire on hydrophobicity and its consequences in these areas. In this paper we study the in-depth variation of water repellency of burnt sandy soils from south-western Spain. Generally, it was observed that water repellency from unburnt forest soils is relatively higher than in shrublands and grasslands (where the lowest values were observed). However, the impact of fire caused a strong increase of hydrophobicity in the first two cases, with no major differences between them. This study confirms the presence of natural water repellency in sandy soils, as well as some of its consequences (irregular infiltration or increased surface water flow) depending on the type of vegetation, although the differences observed in burnt soils suggest that, although the composition of vegetation is important in the formation of natural water repellency, organic matter content is much more important in the case of burnt soils.

  9. Effect of pore-size distribution on the collapse behaviour of anthropogenic sandy soil deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baille Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the former open-pit mines of the Lusatian region in Germany, several liquefaction events have occurred during the recent years in the anthropogenic deposits made of very loose sandy soils. These events are related to the rising ground water table after the stop of controlled ground water lowering. The very loose state is due to the formation of sand aggregates (pseudo-grains during the deposition process. The pseudo-grains enclose larger voids of dimension greater than the single sand grain. Wetting induced collapse of the pseudo-grains is presumed to be one of the possible mechanisms triggering liquefaction. In the present study, the effect of larger voids on the wetting induced deformation behaviour of sandy soils is experimentally investigated by laboratory box tests. The deformation field in the sample during wetting was measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique. The results show that the observed deformations are affected by the pore size distribution, thus the amount of voids between the pseudo-grains (macro-void ratio and the voids inside the pseudo-grains (matrix void ratio. The global void ratio of a sandy soil is not sufficient as single state parameter, but the pore size distribution has to be taken into account, experimentally as well as in modelling.

  10. Utilization of Geotextile Tube for Sandy and Muddy Coastal Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Cheng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However, for the muddy coasts, mangrove rehabilitation and conservation were additional concerns in coastal management schemes. The mangrove forests are natural barriers which can be found on the muddy coasts of many tropical countries. In this paper, the viability of geotextile tubes in sandy and muddy beaches was analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of geotextile tubes in coastal management were discussed based on the experiences from the tropical countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, and Thailand. From the case studies, impressive improvements in coastal restoration after installation of geotextile tubes were shown. Based on the discussion, several recommendations to improve the application of geotextile tubes were suggested in this paper.

  11. Evacuation of Intensive Care Units During Disaster: Learning From the Hurricane Sandy Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mary A; Dorfman, Molly V; Einav, Sharon; Niven, Alex S; Kissoon, Niranjan; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-02-01

    Data on best practices for evacuating an intensive care unit (ICU) during a disaster are limited. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on New York City area hospitals provided a unique opportunity to learn from the experience of ICU providers about their preparedness, perspective, roles, and activities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians who played direct roles during the Hurricane Sandy ICU evacuations. Sixty-eight health care professionals from 4 evacuating hospitals completed surveys (35% ICU nurses, 21% respiratory therapists, 25% physicians-in-training, and 13% attending physicians). Only 21% had participated in an ICU evacuation drill in the past 2 years and 28% had prior training or real-life experience. Processes were inconsistent for patient prioritization, tracking, transport medications, and transport care. Respondents identified communication (43%) as the key barrier to effective evacuation. The equipment considered most helpful included flashlights (24%), transport sleds (21%), and oxygen tanks and respiratory therapy supplies (19%). An evacuation wish list included walkie-talkies/phones (26%), lighting/electricity (18%), flashlights (10%), and portable ventilators and suction (16%). ICU providers who evacuated critically ill patients during Hurricane Sandy had little prior knowledge of evacuation processes or vertical evacuation experience. The weakest links in the patient evacuation process were communication and the availability of practical tools. Incorporating ICU providers into hospital evacuation planning and training, developing standard evacuation communication processes and tools, and collecting a uniform dataset among all evacuating hospitals could better inform critical care evacuation in the future.

  12. Hurricane Sandy washover deposits on southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James M.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Lunghino, Brent D.; Kane, Haunani H.

    2016-07-22

    Sedimentologic and topographic data from Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were collected from southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in order to document changes to the barrier-island beaches, dunes, and coastal wetlands caused by Hurricane Sandy and subsequent storm events. These data will provide a baseline dataset for use in future coastal change descriptive and predictive studies and assessments. The data presented here were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Barrier Island and Estuarine Wetland Physical Change Assessment Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/sandy-wetland-assessment/), which aims to assess ecological and societal vulnerability that results from long- and short-term physical changes to barrier islands and coastal wetlands. This report describes data that were collected in April 2015, approximately 2½ years after Hurricane Sandy’s landfall on October 29, 2012. During the field campaign, washover deposits were photographed and described, and sediment cores, sediment samples, and surface-elevation data were collected. Data collected during this study, including sample locations and elevations, core photographs, computed tomography scans, descriptive core logs, sediment grain-size data, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available in the associated U.S. Geological Survey data release (Bishop and others, 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7PK0D7S).

  13. Trade-offs between soil hydrology and plant disease effects after biochar amendment in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Silva, Flavio; Amaro, Antonio; Pinto, Gloria; Mesquita, Raquel; Jesus, Claudia; Alves, Artur; Keizer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can affect multiple soil-based ecosystem services to varying extents, leading to trade-offs. Improvements in plant-available water have predominantly been found at high biochar application rates in sandy soils. Reductions in plant diseases after biochar application have been found in various horticultural plants, and trees such as maple and oak, mostly at relatively low biochar application rates. Serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed, and eucalypts are the major tree species in commercial forestry plantations of Portugal, forming an important economic activity. Here we investigated simultaneous effects on plant available water and on disease suppression of eucalypt, in a completely randomised full factorial greenhouse pot experiment, using a range of woody feedstock biochar concentrations in sandy soil. Treatments included plant inoculation with the fungus Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and cycles of acute drought stress. Preliminary results showed delayed wilting for plants treated with 3-6% biochar, but also increased stem lesion length. These results suggest a trade-off between effects on water availability and disease for Eucalyptus globulus plants in the selected sandy soil amended with this specific biochar, at the selected application rates.

  14. Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  15. Effects of heavy metals on the survival and feeding behaviour of the sandy shore scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus (Powys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S G; Tai, K K; Leung, C K; Siu, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr on the survival and feeding behaviour of the sandy shore scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus were compared. The 96-h LC50 for Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr were 0.36, 1.52, 1.76 and 36.9 mg l(-1), respectively. Four sublethal concentrations of each metal plus a control were prepared and the snails were exposed to experimental solutions for 96 h. Feeding behaviour was studied after the snails were starved for five days. As compared with the control, the number of individuals feeding was significantly reduced by exposure to 0.05 mg l(-1) Cu, 0.2 mg l(-1) Zn, 0.5 mg l(-1) Cd and 5 mg l(-1) Cr. The time spent feeding was greater for individuals exposed to greater concentrations of Zn and Cd but no effect was found for Cu and Cr. Chemoreception of food was studied by placing the snails at a fixed distance of 15 cm from the bait. The success rate of reaching the bait was less for individuals exposed to Cr but no effect was found for Zn, Cu or Cd. The time required for an individual to reach the bait decreased as the concentration of Zn increased. In contrast, a longer time was required for individuals exposed to Cr whereas the effect of Cd and Cu was insignificant. The potential of using feeding behaviour and chemoreception in contaminant evaluations is discussed.

  16. Inner-shelf ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Safak, Ilgar; Liste, Maria; Baldwin, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history, making landfall on the New Jersey coast on October 30, 2012. Storm impacts included several barrier island breaches, massive coastal erosion, and flooding. While changes to the subaerial landscape are relatively easily observed, storm-induced changes to the adjacent shoreface and inner continental shelf are more difficult to evaluate. These regions provide a framework for the coastal zone, are important for navigation, aggregate resources, marine ecosystems, and coastal evolution. Here we provide unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics based on both observations and numerical modeling over time scales associated with these types of large storm events. Oceanographic conditions and seafloor morphologic changes are evaluated using both a coupled atmospheric-ocean-wave-sediment numerical modeling system that covered spatial scales ranging from the entire US east coast (1000 s of km) to local domains (10 s of km). Additionally, the modeled response for the region offshore of Fire Island, NY was compared to observational analysis from a series of geologic surveys from that location. The geologic investigations conducted in 2011 and 2014 revealed lateral movement of sedimentary structures of distances up to 450 m and in water depths up to 30 m, and vertical changes in sediment thickness greater than 1 m in some locations. The modeling investigations utilize a system with grid refinement designed to simulate oceanographic conditions with progressively increasing resolutions for the entire US East Coast (5-km grid), the New York Bight (700-m grid), and offshore of Fire Island, NY (100-m grid), allowing larger scale dynamics to drive smaller scale coastal changes. Model results in the New York Bight identify maximum storm surge of up to 3 m, surface currents on the order of 2 ms-1 along the New Jersey coast, waves up to 8 m in height, and bottom stresses

  17. Copper Accumulation, Availability and Adsorption Capacity in Sandy Soils of Vineyards with Different Cultivation Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, F. J. K.; Miotto, A.; Bender, M. A.; Gubiani, E.; Rheinheimer, D. D. S.; Kaminski, J.; Ceretta, C. A.; Šimůnek, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bordeaux mixture is a copper-based (Cu) fungicide and bactericide applied in vineyards to control plant diseases. Since it is applied several times per year, it accumulates in large quantities on plants and in soil. This study evaluates the Cu accumulation in, and desorption kinetics and adsorption capability of a sandy Ultisol in a natural field and in 3 vineyards for 5 (V1), 11 (V2), and 31 (V3) years in South of Brazil. Soil samples were collected in 8 depths (0-60 cm) of all four soil profiles, which all displayed similar soil properties. The following soil properties were measured: pH, organic matter (OM), soil bulk density, Cu total concentration, and Cu desorption and adsorption curves. A two first-order reactions model and the Langmuir isotherm were fitted to the desorption and adsorption curves, respectively. An increase in the total mass of Cu in the vineyards followed a linear regression curve, with an average annual increase of 7.15 kg ha-1. Cu accumulated down to a depth of 5, 20, and 30 cm in V1, V2 and V3, respectively, with the highest Cu content reaching 138.4 mg kg-1 in the 0-5 cm soil layer of V3. Cu desorption parameters showed a high correlation with its total concentration. Approximately 57 and 19% of total Cu were immediately and slowly available, respectively, indicating a high potential for plant absorption and/or downward movement. Cu concentrations extracted by EDTA from soil layers not affected by anthropogenic Cu inputs were very low. The maximum Cu adsorption capacity of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers increased with the vineyard age, reaching concentrations higher than 900 mg kg-1. This increase was highly related to OM and pH, which both increased with cultivation duration. Despite of low clay content of these soils, there is low risk of groundwater Cu contamination for actual conditions. However, high Cu concentrations in the surface layer of the long-term vineyards could cause toxicity problems for this and for companion crops.

  18. Inner-shelf ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.; List, Jeffrey; Safak, Ilgar; Liste, Maria; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history, making landfall on the New Jersey coast on Oct 30, 2012. Storm impacts included several barrier island breaches, massive coastal erosion, and flooding. While changes to the subaerial landscape are relatively easily observed, storm-induced changes to the adjacent shoreface and inner continental shelf are more difficult to evaluate. These regions provide a framework for the coastal zone, are important for navigation, aggregate resources, marine ecosystems, and coastal evolution. Here we provide unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics based on both observations and numerical modeling over time scales associated with these types of large storm events. Oceanographic conditions and seafloor morphologic changes are evaluated using both a coupled atmospheric-ocean-wave-sediment numerical modeling system and observation analysis from a series of geologic surveys and oceanographic instrument deployments focused on a region offshore of Fire Island, NY. The geologic investigations conducted in 2011 and 2014 revealed lateral movement of sedimentary structures of distances up to 450 m and in water depths up to 30 m, and vertical changes in sediment thickness greater than 1 m in some locations. The modeling investigations utilize a system with grid refinement designed to simulate oceanographic conditions with progressively increasing resolutions for the entire US East Coast (5-km grid), the New York Bight (700-m grid), and offshore of Fire Island, NY (100-m grid), allowing larger scale dynamics to drive smaller scale coastal changes. Model results in the New York Bight identify maximum storm surge of up to 3 m, surface currents on the order of 2 ms-1 along the New Jersey coast, waves up to 8 m in height, and bottom stresses exceeding 10 Pa. Flow down the Hudson Shelf Valley is shown to result in convergent sediment transport and deposition along its axis

  19. The status of sandy beach science: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Ronel; Campbell, Eileen E.; Harris, Linda; Hauser, Lorenz; Schoeman, David S.; McLachlan, Anton; du Preez, Derek R.; Bezuidenhout, Karien; Schlacher, Thomas A.

    2014-10-01

    Open-ocean sandy beaches are coastal ecosystems with growing relevance in the face of global change. They provide key ecosystem services, such as storm buffering, nutrient cycling, water purification, nursery habitats for resource species, and feeding-breeding habitats for focal species (e.g. endangered sea turtles and shorebirds), and have also become nodes for economic development and cultural use. As a result, beaches face a range of threats, primarily from extractive use, habitat modification and development, sea-level rise and coastal squeeze. Consequently, balancing conservation of the ecosystem and sustainable use of the goods and services is particularly important for sandy shores. Thus, the only way to ensure their protection and continued provision of their valuable services, especially in a period of rapid global change, will be to apply knowledge generated from sound science in beach conservation and management. Here we aim to (1) identify and outline the broad ecological paradigms in sandy beach science; (2) report on a citation analysis of the published literature of the past 63 years (1950-2013) to provide context regarding the topics and location of research, the size and institutional composition of the research teams; and (3) investigate whether beach ecology can and has been incorporated into integrated coastal zone management practices. Past research was framed by specific paradigms (chiefly the Swash Exclusion Hypothesis and derivatives), which can be identified with distinct principles and concepts unique to beaches. Most of the sandy beach literature comes from only a few countries (dominated by USA, South Africa, Brazil and Italy), published by small research teams (theory. Despite the constraints, beach science is responding to new challenges, with increasing use of the latest techniques. However, research in conservation and management specifically remains limited, with stronger focus on anthropogenic impacts, in turn leading to management

  20. Challenges in estimating the health impact of Hurricane Sandy using macro-level flood data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Liu, B.; Schneider, S.; Schwartz, R.; Taioli, E.

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hurricane Sandy caused extensive physical and economic damage but the long-term health impacts are unknown. Flooding is a central component of hurricane exposure, influencing health through multiple pathways that unfold over months after flooding recedes. This study assesses concordance in Federal Emergency Management (FEMA) and self-reported flood exposure after Hurricane Sandy to elucidate discrepancies in flood exposure assessments. Methods: Three meter resolution New York State flood data was obtained from the FEMA Modeling Task Force Hurricane Sandy Impact Analysis. FEMA data was compared to self-reported flood data obtained through validated questionnaires from New York City and Long Island residents following Sandy. Flooding was defined as both dichotomous and continuous variables and analyses were performed in SAS v9.4 and ArcGIS 10.3.1. Results: There was a moderate agreement between FEMA and self-reported flooding (Kappa statistic 0.46) and continuous (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.50) measures of flood exposure. Flooding was self-reported and recorded by FEMA in 23.6% of cases, while agreement between the two measures on no flooding was 51.1%. Flooding was self-reported but not recorded by FEMA in 8.5% of cases, while flooding was not self-reported but indicated by FEMA in 16.8% of cases. In this last instance, 84% of people (173/207; 83.6%) resided in an apartment (no flooding reported). Spatially, the most concordance resided in the interior of New York City / Long Island, while the greatest areas of discordance were concentrated in the Rockaway Peninsula and Long Beach, especially among those living in apartments. Conclusions: There were significant discrepancies between FEMA and self-reported flood data. While macro-level FEMA flood data is a relatively less expensive and faster way to provide exposure estimates spanning larger geographic areas affected by Hurricane Sandy than micro-level estimates from cohort studies, macro