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Sample records for sandy coastal environments

  1. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  2. Recent coastal evolution in a carbonate sandy environments and relation to beach ridge formation: the case of Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the

  3. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2017-10-01

    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  4. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Hurricane Sandy Coastal Impact Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles at 0.35m GSD created for NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative in Hurricane Sandy coastal...

  5. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-06-15

    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Warren H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  7. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal topographic and bathymetric data to support hurricane impact assessment and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers • Impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology • Impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures • Impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry. This fact sheet focuses on coastal topography and bathymetry.

  8. Precipitation patterns and moisture fluxes in a sandy, tropical environment with a shallow water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihane, M. R.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2011-08-01

    Identifying the dominant mechanisms controlling recharge in shallow sandy soils in tropical climates has received relatively little attention. Given the expansion of coastal fill using marine sands and the growth of coastal populations throughout the tropics, there is a need to better understand the nature of water balances in these settings. We use time series of field observations at a coastal landfill in Singapore coupled with numerical modeling using the Richards' equation to examine the impact of precipitation patterns on soil moisture dynamics, including percolation past the root zone and recharge, in such an environment. A threshold in total precipitation event depth, much more so than peak precipitation intensity, is the strongest event control on recharge. However, shallow antecedent moisture, and therefore the timing between events along with the seasonal depth to water table, also play significant roles in determining recharge amounts. For example, at our field site, precipitation events of less than 3 mm per event yield little to no direct recharge, but for larger events, moisture content changes below the root zone are linearly correlated to the product of the average antecedent moisture content and the total event precipitation. Therefore, water resources planners need to consider identifying threshold precipitation volumes, along with the multiple time scales that capture variability in event antecedent conditions and storm frequency in assessing the role of recharge in coastal water balances in tropical settings.

  9. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface, Pre-Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  10. Sub-Ensemble Coastal Flood Forecasting: A Case Study of Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Schulte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is proposed that coastal flood ensemble forecasts be partitioned into sub-ensemble forecasts using cluster analysis in order to produce representative statistics and to measure forecast uncertainty arising from the presence of clusters. After clustering the ensemble members, the ability to predict the cluster into which the observation will fall can be measured using a cluster skill score. Additional sub-ensemble and composite skill scores are proposed for assessing the forecast skill of a clustered ensemble forecast. A recently proposed method for statistically increasing the number of ensemble members is used to improve sub-ensemble probabilistic estimates. Through the application of the proposed methodology to Sandy coastal flood reforecasts, it is demonstrated that statistics computed using only ensemble members belonging to a specific cluster are more representative than those computed using all ensemble members simultaneously. A cluster skill-cluster uncertainty index relationship is identified, which is the cluster analog of the documented spread-skill relationship. Two sub-ensemble skill scores are shown to be positively correlated with cluster forecast skill, suggesting that skillfully forecasting the cluster into which the observation will fall is important to overall forecast skill. The identified relationships also suggest that the number of ensemble members within in each cluster can be used as guidance for assessing the potential for forecast error. The inevitable existence of ensemble member clusters in tidally dominated total water level prediction systems suggests that clustering is a necessary post-processing step for producing representative and skillful total water level forecasts.

  11. The near coastal environment monitored from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekielda, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    The optical information required for monitoring the marine environment from space is discussed and applied for the near coastal area. By categorizing coastal features it is possible to recognize coastal regions to a high degree and to indentify water masses derived from land sources and sewage dumping sites. It is concluded that monitoring from space can be used as a tool in environmental planning. (orig.) [de

  12. 2012 USGS EAARL-B Coastal Topography: Post-Sandy, First Surface (NJ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  13. Long-Term Observations of Dust Storms in Sandy Desert Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye-Won; Kim, Jung-Rack; Choi, Yun-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dust occupies the largest portion of atmospheric aerosol. Considering the numerous risks that dust poses for socioeconomic and anthropogenic activities, it is crucial to understand sandy desert environments, which frequently generate dust storms and act as a primary source of atmospheric aerosol. To identify mineral aerosol mechanisms, it is essential to monitor desert environmental factors involving dust storm generation in the long term. In this study, we focused on two major environmental factors: local surface roughness and soil moisture. Since installments of ground observation networks in sandy deserts are unfeasible, remote sensing techniques for mining desert environmental factors were employed. The test area was established within the Badain Jaran and Kubuqi Deserts in Inner Mongolia, China, where significant seasonal aeolian processes emit mineral dust that influences all of East Asia. To trace local surface roughness, we employed a multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) image sequence to extract multi-angle viewing (MAV) topographic parameters such as normalized difference angular index, which represents characteristics of the target desert topography. The backscattering coefficient from various space-borne SAR and stereotopography were compared with MAV observations to determine calibrated local surface roughness. Soil moisture extraction techniques from InSAR-phase coherence stacks were developed and compiled with advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture data. Combined with metrological information such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA interim, correlations between intensity of sand dune activity as a proxy of aeolian processes in desert environments, surface wind conditions, and surface soil moisture were traced. Overall, we have confirmed that tracking sandy desert aeolian environments for long-term observations is feasible with space-borne, multi-sensor observations when combined with

  14. Experimental assessment of factors mediating the naturalization of a globally invasive tree on sandy coastal plains: a case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thalita G; Andrade, Antonio C S; Richardson, David M

    2016-01-01

    As all naturalized species are potential invaders, it is important to better understand the determinants of naturalization of alien plants. This study sought to identify traits that enable the alien tree Casuarina equisetifolia to overcome barriers to survival and reproductive and to become naturalized on sandy coastal plains. Restinga vegetation in Brazil was used as a model system to conceptualize and quantify key stressors (high temperature, solar radiation, drought and salinity) which can limit the initial establishment of the plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these environmental factors on seed persistence in the soil (field), germination (laboratory), survival, growth, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration (greenhouse). Results show that the expected viability of the seeds in the soil was 50 months. Seeds germinated in a similar way in constant and alternating temperatures (20-40 °C), except at 40 °C. Low light, and water and salt stresses reduced germination, but seeds recovered germination when stress diminished. Young plants did not tolerate water stress (<2 % of soil moisture) or deep shade. Growth was greater in sunny than in shady conditions. Although a low degree of phenotypic plasticity is important in habitats with multiple stress factors, this species exhibited high germination plasticity, although young plants showed low plasticity. The positive effect of phenotypic integration on plastic expression in the shade shows that in stressful environments traits that show greater phenotypic plasticity values may have significant phenotypic correlations with other characters, which is an important factor in the evolutionary ecology of this invasive species. Long-term seed persistence in the soil, broad germination requirements (temperature and light conditions) and the capacity to survive in a wide range of light intensity favours its naturalization. However, C. equisetifolia did not tolerate water stress and

  15. Experimental assessment of factors mediating the naturalization of a globally invasive tree on sandy coastal plains: a case study from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thalita G.; Andrade, Antonio C. S.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    As all naturalized species are potential invaders, it is important to better understand the determinants of naturalization of alien plants. This study sought to identify traits that enable the alien tree Casuarina equisetifolia to overcome barriers to survival and reproductive and to become naturalized on sandy coastal plains. Restinga vegetation in Brazil was used as a model system to conceptualize and quantify key stressors (high temperature, solar radiation, drought and salinity) which can limit the initial establishment of the plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these environmental factors on seed persistence in the soil (field), germination (laboratory), survival, growth, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration (greenhouse). Results show that the expected viability of the seeds in the soil was 50 months. Seeds germinated in a similar way in constant and alternating temperatures (20–40 °C), except at 40 °C. Low light, and water and salt stresses reduced germination, but seeds recovered germination when stress diminished. Young plants did not tolerate water stress (<2 % of soil moisture) or deep shade. Growth was greater in sunny than in shady conditions. Although a low degree of phenotypic plasticity is important in habitats with multiple stress factors, this species exhibited high germination plasticity, although young plants showed low plasticity. The positive effect of phenotypic integration on plastic expression in the shade shows that in stressful environments traits that show greater phenotypic plasticity values may have significant phenotypic correlations with other characters, which is an important factor in the evolutionary ecology of this invasive species. Long-term seed persistence in the soil, broad germination requirements (temperature and light conditions) and the capacity to survive in a wide range of light intensity favours its naturalization. However, C. equisetifolia did not tolerate water stress and

  16. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  17. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  18. FROG ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH BROMELIADS IN A SANDY COASTAL PLAIN IN THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIO MARQUES MAGESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians may use bromeliads for reproduction (i.e., bromeligenous species or only for refuge and foraging (i.e., bromelicolous species. The partition of bromeliad resources is essential to maintain the coexistence of the associated assemblages. We sampled 913 bromeliads in a sandy coastal plain (i.e., restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil and found 234 frogs belonging to seven species. One of the frog species was bromeligenous and the other six were facultative bromelicolous. The bromeliads of the genus Aechmea were the most frequently used by frogs. The low degree of frog occupancy of bromeliads (26% suggests habitat segregation. Our study highlights the importance of maintenance of bromeliad species for conservation of the associated frog assemblages.

  19. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  20. Geomorphology of coastal environments from satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rocha Ribeiro, R.; Velho, L.; Schossler, V.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at recognizing coastal environments supported by data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite. The digital processing of images, System Information Geographic (SIG) techniques and field observation in one section of the “Província Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul” between the Rio Grande and the São Gonçalo channels - resulted in a geomorphologic profile and mapping

  1. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Foreman, William T.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.

  2. Advancing UAS methods for monitoring coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.; Seymour, A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Dale, J.; Newton, E.; Johnston, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), we are working to improve coastal monitoring by increasing the accuracy, precision, temporal resolution, and spatial coverage of habitat distribution maps. Generally, multirotor aircraft are preferred for precision imaging, but recent advances in fixed-wing technology have greatly increased their capabilities and application for fine-scale (decimeter-centimeter) measurements. Present mapping methods employed by North Carolina coastal managers involve expensive, time consuming and localized observation of coastal environments, which often lack the necessary frequency to make timely management decisions. For example, it has taken several decades to fully map oyster reefs along the NC coast, making it nearly impossible to track trends in oyster reef populations responding to harvesting pressure and water quality degradation. It is difficult for the state to employ manned flights for collecting aerial imagery to monitor intertidal oyster reefs, because flights are usually conducted after seasonal increases in turbidity. In addition, post-storm monitoring of coastal erosion from manned platforms is often conducted days after the event and collects oblique aerial photographs which are difficult to use for accurately measuring change. Here, we describe how fixed wing UAS and standard RGB sensors can be used to rapidly quantify and assess critical coastal habitats (e.g., barrier islands, oyster reefs, etc.), providing for increased temporal frequency to isolate long-term and event-driven (storms, harvesting) impacts. Furthermore, drone-based approaches can accurately image intertidal habitats as well as resolve information such as vegetation density and bathymetry from shallow submerged areas. We obtain UAS imagery of a barrier island and oyster reefs under ideal conditions (low tide, turbidity, and sun angle) to create high resolution (cm scale) maps and digital elevation models to assess habitat condition

  3. Influence of humic acid on migration of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs in coastal sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Ni Shiwei.

    1993-10-01

    Sorption and migration experiments were performed by both batch and column methods, to study influence of humic acid complexing on the mobility of 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs in a coastal sandy soil. The study focuses on a correlation between molecular-weight of dissolved humic acid and ability of the complexing with the radionuclides in liquid phase. Dissolved humic acid was complexed with 60 Co and 85 Sr. The interaction ability of 60 Co was independent of molecular-weight of humic acid, while that of 85 Sr depended on. The mobility of 60 Co increased under the condition with coexistence of humic acid as well as its sorption ratio decreased. The distribution profile of molecular-weight of 60 Co was kept at a constant in the solution before and after the sorption experiment, due to completing the sorption and complexation equilibrium. The mobility of 85 Sr increased under the condition with coexistence of humic acid, in spite of the sorption ratio of 85 Sr was not affected by the coexistence. Such contradiction was caused by different kinetics between the batch and column methods. The sorption ability and mobility of 137 Cs were not affected by the coexistence of the humic acid. (author)

  4. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  5. Coastal zones : shifting shores, sharing adaptation strategies for coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.E. [Waikato Univ. (New Zealand); Morneau, F.; Savard, J.P. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Madruga, R.P. [Centre of Investigation on the Global Economy (Cuba); Leslie, K.R. [Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (Belize); Agricole, W. [Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Seychelles); Burkett, V. [United States Geological Survey (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A parallel event to the eleventh Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change was held to demonstrate examples of adaptation from around the world in the areas of food security, water resources, coastal zones, and communities/infrastructure. Panels on each theme presented examples from developing countries, countries in economic transition, and developed countries. These 4 themes were chosen because both mitigation and adaptation are essential to meeting the challenge of climate change. The objective of the event was to improve the knowledge of Canada's vulnerabilities to climate change, identify ways to minimize the negative effects of future impacts, and explore opportunities that take advantage of any positive impacts. This third session focused on how coastal communities are adapting to climate change in such places as Quebec, the Caribbean, and small Island States. It also presented the example of how a developed country became vulnerable to Hurricane Katrina which hit the coastal zone in the United States Gulf of Mexico. The presentations addressed the challenges facing coastal communities along with progress in risk assessment and adaptation both globally and in the Pacific. Examples of coastal erosion in Quebec resulting from climate change were presented along with climate change and variability impacts over the coastal zones of Seychelles. Cuba's vulnerability and adaptation to climate change was discussed together with an integrated operational approach to climate change, adaptation, biodiversity and land utilization in the Caribbean region. The lessons learned from around the world emphasize that adaptation is needed to reduce unavoidable risks posed by climate change and to better prepare for the changes ahead. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments.

  7. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  8. The Light-Field of Microbenthic Communities - Radiance Distribution and Microscale Optics of Sandy Coastal Sediments Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    radiance distribution. Comparison of light fields in wet and dry quartz sand showed that the lower refractive index of air than of water caused a more forward-biased scattering in wet sand. Light penetration was therefore deeper and surface irradiance reflectance was lower in wet sand than in dry sand......The light field in coastal sediments was investigated at a spatial resolution of 0.2-0.5 mm by spectral measurements (450-850 nm) of field radiance and scalar irradiance using fiber-optic microprobes. Depth profiles of field radiance were measured with radiance microprobes at representative angles...... relative to vertically incident collimated light in rinsed quartz sand and in a coastal sandy sediment colonized by microalgae. Upwelling and downwelling components of irradiance and scalar irradiance were calculated from the radiance distributions. Calculated total scalar irradiance agreed well...

  9. Preface: Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments” presents a wide range of articles focusing on a variety of remote sensing models and techniques to address coastal issues and processes ranging for wetlands and water quality to coral reefs and kelp habitats. The SI is comprised of twenty-one papers, covering a broad range of research topics that employ remote sensing imagery, models, and techniques to monitor water quality, vegetation, habitat suitability, and geomorphology in the coastal zone. This preface provides a brief summary of each article published in the SI.

  10. Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Noronha, L.; Lourenco, N.; Lobo-Ferreira, J.P.; Lieopart, A.; Feoli, E.; Sawkar, K.; Chachadi, A.

    This book is among the products of a research project entitled "Measuring, monitoring and managing sustainability: The coastal dimension" INCO-DC programme over the period 1998-2002. The contributions reflect a range of disciplines including...

  11. Developmental stages of chaetognaths in the coastal environs of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Nair, V.R.

    Abundances of developmental stages-juveniles, developing and mature-of Sagitta bedoti, S. oceania, S. enflata and S. robusta were recorded from the coastal, estuarine and creek environs of Bombay (Maharashtra, India) from October 1985 to September...

  12. What Happened to Our Environment and Mental Health as a Result of Hurricane Sandy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao; Lu, Yi; Justino, John; Dong, Guanghui; Lauper, Ursula

    2016-06-01

    This study describes findings of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on environmental factors including power outages, air quality, water quality, and weather factors and how these affected mental health during the hurricane. An ecological study was conducted at the county level to describe changes in environmental factors-especially power outages-and their relationships to emergency department (ED) visits for mental health problems by use of a Poisson regression model. We found that many environmental hazards occurred as co-exposures during Hurricane Sandy in addition to flooding. Mental health ED visits corresponded with the peak of maximum daily power blackouts, with a 3-day lag, and were positively associated with power blackouts in Bronx (prevalence ratio [PR]: 8.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-61.42) and Queens (PR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.05-5.82) counties. A possible dose-response relationship was found between the quantile of maximum blackout percentage and the risk of mental health in the Bronx. We found that multiple co-environmental hazards occurred during Hurricane Sandy, especially power blackouts that mediated this disaster's impacts. The effects of power outage on mental health had large geographic variations and were substantial, especially in communities with low sociodemographic status. These findings may provide new insights for future disaster response and preparedness efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:314-319).

  13. Monitoring and simulation of salinity changes in response to tide and storm surges in a sandy coastal aquifer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, S.; Karaoulis, M.C.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    Tidal dynamics and especially storm surges can have an extensive impact on coastal fresh groundwater resources. Combined with the prospect of sea-level rise and the reliance of many people on these resources, this demonstrates the need to assess the vulnerability of coastal areas to these threats.

  14. Disentangling plant establishment in sandy coastal systems: biotic and abiotic factors that determine Allagoptera arenaria (Arecaceae germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination rate and establishment success of plants in harsh environments depend on the ability of seeds to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions and avoid predators. Brazilian coastal plains, known as restinga, are subject to environmental factors that seriously limit plant establishment and survival (e.g. salinity, desiccation, oligotrophy, flooding, high temperature and radiation levels. We tested, both in field and laboratory experiments, conditions for germination and establishment of Allagoptera arenaria, a palm tree often found in restinga ecosystems of southeastern Brazil, and which have a principal role in plant community dynamics. Our results showed that the absence of mesocarp, high radiation exposure, and temperature were the main drivers of seed germination. In the field, the highest germination rate was linked to nude seeds buried in open areas. High temperatures and/or predation damaged seeds that remained on the soil surface, especially if they were close to the mother plant and alongside dung piles made by dispersers. Under controlled conditions, seeds exhibited optimum germination at 35 ºC. Therefore, the germination and establishment of A. arenaria depend as much on environmental conditions as on a network of interactions including vertebrates and invertebrates, which allow this species to colonize harsh, open areas in restinga ecosystems.

  15. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  16. EAARL-B coastal topography: Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  17. Changes in the coastal and marine environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Ahmed, A.U.; DileepKumar, M.; Jagtap, T.G.; Sardessai, S.; Hassan, A.

    to the euphotic layer. These factors make the Arabian Sea a potentially fertile area, since any vertical disturbance that can disrupt or shift the thermocline banier can lead to injection of nutrients into the euphotic layer and fuel increased biological...) injecting nutrients from the thermocline region into the surface layer, as observed by de Sousa et a!. (1996b). 1.1.3 Biological Response It was seen in sections 1.1.1-1.1.2 that processes of upwelling (both coastal and open ocean) during summer monsoon...

  18. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  19. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  20. Unusual rise in mercury-resistant bacteria in coastal environs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; De, J.

    A sharp rise in mercury-resistant bacteria (MRB) capable of tolerating very high concentration of Hg was observed over the last 3-4 years in the coastal environs of India. While none or negligible colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria were counted...

  1. Effects of bioturbation on the fate of oil in coastal sandy sediments - An em>in situem> experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Klinge, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Effects of bioturbation by the common lugworm Arenicola marina on the fate of oil hydrocarbons (alkanes and PAHs) were studied in situ during a simulated oil spill in a shallow coastal area of Roskilde fjord, Denmark. The fate of selected oil compounds was monitored during 120 d using GC–MS and b......) mainly was affected by removal processes induced by wave actions and other bioturbating infauna such as Nereis diversicolor, Corophium volutator and Hydrobia spp. present in the experimental plots....

  2. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-18

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  3. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  4. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  5. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Heavy or high-specific gravity minerals make up a small but diagnostic component of sediment that is well suited for determining the provenance and distribution of sediment transported through estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. By this means, we see that surficial sand-sized sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System comes primarily from the Sierra Nevada and associated terranes by way of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and is transported with little dilution through the San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate. Heavy minerals document a slight change from the strictly Sierran-Sacramento mineralogy at the confluence of the two rivers to a composition that includes minor amounts of chert and other Franciscan Complex components west of Carquinez Strait. Between Carquinez Strait and the San Francisco Bar, Sierran sediment is intermingled with Franciscan-modified Sierran sediment. The latter continues out the Gate and turns southward towards beaches of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Sierran sediment also fans out from the San Francisco Bar to merge with a Sierran province on the shelf in the Gulf of the Farallones. Beach-sand sized sediment from the Russian River is transported southward to Point Reyes where it spreads out to define a Franciscan sediment province on the shelf, but does not continue southward to contribute to the sediment in the Golden Gate area.

  6. Flow-structure-seabed interactions in coastal and marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    Flow–structure–seabed interaction in coastal and marine environments is a rapidly growing area of research and applications. In this vision paper, this area is discussed with a view of identifying its state of the art and current research challenges. The discussion draws attention to key issues......, among other areas, as an emerging branch of Marine Civil Engineering. Predictions of the field development for the forthcoming years are also briefly outlined....

  7. A multi-sensor oceanographic measurement system for coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Marinna A.; Strahle, William J.

    1993-01-01

    An instrument system has been developed for long-term sediment transport studies that uses a modular design to combine off the shelf components into a complete and flexible package. A common data storage format is used in each instrument system so that the same hardware can be assembled in different ways to address specific scientific studies with minimal engineering support and modification. Three systems have been constructed and successfully deployed to date in two different coastal environments.

  8. Ecological aspects of nuclear power plants in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, P.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented about ecological effects of giant nuclear Power Plants (ca. 5,000 MWe) on coastal environment. From short to long time, the problems concern the following points of view: - physical: (sitology; necessity of ecological mapping); - mechanical: (the cooling systems. 'Courantology'. Disturbance of marine micro- and macro-organisms); - thermal: (the heated discharges; thermal pollution. Effects on dissolved chemicals and marine organisms. Acquaculture and its limits); - chemical and radiochemical: (synergistic pollutions. Chlorine vs. fouling. Acute or chronic radioactive effluents; concentration by food chains). The conclusions emphasize the necessity of 'pluridisciplinarity' and 'zero-point' definition. Three ecological categories can be distinguished on the basis of water physical turn-over; to this categories correspond various standards and recommandations for management of nuclear Power Plants in coastal zones [fr

  9. Soil color indicates carbon and wetlands: developing a color-proxy for soil organic carbon and wetland boundaries on sandy coastal plains in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, M L; Van Huyssteen, C W; Brown, L R

    2017-10-13

    A relationship between soil organic carbon and soil color is acknowledged-albeit not a direct one. Since heightened carbon contents can be an indicator of wetlands, a quantifiable relationship between color and carbon might assist in determining wetland boundaries by rapid, field-based appraisal. The overarching aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of top soil color to indicate soil organic carbon, and by extension wetland boundaries, on a sandy coastal plain in South Africa. Data were collected from four wetland types in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 300 mm in three transects in each wetland type and analyzed for soil organic carbon. The matrix color was described using a Munsell soil color chart. Various color indices were correlated with soil organic carbon. The relationship between color and carbon were further elucidated using segmented quantile regression. This showed that potentially maximal carbon contents will occur at values of low color indices, and predictably minimal carbon contents will occur at values of low or high color indices. Threshold values can thus be used to make deductions such as "when the sum of dry and wet Value and Chroma values is 9 or more, carbon content will be 4.79% and less." These threshold values can then be used to differentiate between wetland and non-wetland sites with a 70 to 100% certainty. This study successfully developed a quantifiable correlation between color and carbon and showed that wetland boundaries can be determined based thereon.

  10. Use of a mobile terrestrial laser system to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sandy beaches, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Wierts, S.; Bernatchez, P.

    2012-04-01

    Coastal erosion is an important issue within the St-Lawrence estuary and gulf, especially in zones of unconsolidated material. Wide beaches are important coastal environments; they act as a buffer against breaking waves by absorbing and dissipating their energy, thus reducing the rate of coastal erosion. They also offer protection to humans and nearby ecosystems, providing habitat for plants, animals and lifeforms such as algae and microfauna. Conventional methods, such as aerial photograph analysis, fail to adequately quantify the morphosedimentary behavior of beaches at the scale of a hydrosedimentary cells. The lack of reliable and quantitative data leads to considerable errors of overestimation and underestimation of sediment budgets. To address these gaps and to minimize acquisition costs posed by airborne LiDAR survey, a mobile terrestrial LiDAR has been set up to acquire topographic data of the coastal zone. The acquisition system includes a LiDAR sensor, a high precision navigation system (GPS-INS) and a video camera. Comparison of LiDAR data with 1050 DGPS control points shows a vertical mean absolute error of 0.1 m in beach areas. The extracted data is used to calculate sediment volumes, widths, slopes, and a sediment budget index. A high accuracy coastal characterization is achieved through the integration of laser data and video. The main objective of this first project using this system is to quantify the impact of rigid coastal protective structures on sediment budget and beach morphology. Results show that the average sediment volume of beaches located before a rock armour barrier (12 m3/m) were three times narrower than for natural beaches (35,5 m3/m). Natural beaches were also found to have twice the width (25.4 m) of the beaches bordering inhabited areas (12.7 m). The development of sediment budget index for beach areas is an excellent proxy to quickly identify deficit areas and therefore the coastal segments most at risk of erosion. The obtained

  11. Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-12-28

    Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.

  12. External dose rates in coastal urban environments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    A long term activity aiming on assessing the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation is being developed at IRD/CNEN. Several research groups within IRD work in this activity, although mostly as a parallel work associated to main research lines followed by researches of the institution. One main activity is related to the raise of external gamma dose rates throughout the country. The objective of this work is to present results from recent surveys performed as part of the emergency preparedness for radiological emergencies during major public events in Brazil, such as the the World Youth Day, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2013, and the Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup soccer games, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In this work, only the recent (2014) coastal urban environments measurements were included. Average kerma rates for Fortaleza is 80 ± 23 nGy/h, for Vitoria is 96 ± 33 nGy/h and for Angra dos Reis is 147 ± 16 nGy/h. These results are then compared to previous results on other coastal urban towns (Rio de Janeiro, Niterói and Salvador), and with the high background coastal area of Guarapari town. (authors)

  13. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  14. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, L.; Bonner, L.; Brown, R.; Francis, K.; Johanneson, D.; Canessa, R.; Paynter, R.

    2006-01-01

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.L.; Obbard, J.P. . E-mail esejpo@nus.edu.sg

    2006-01-01

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 μm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 μm) and subsurface layer (1 m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping

  16. Mussels as bioindicators of diclofenac contamination in coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Pena, A; Fernandes, J O

    2017-06-01

    Diclofenac a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been confirmed as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environment. Toxicology studies have revealed that harmful effects may emerge from diclofenac presence not only for human health, but also for marine organisms, which implies its monitoring. To overcome the demanding challenges of diclofenac quantification in biotic aquatic species, a novel method for the determination of diclofenac in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus edulis) and macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated according to the EC Decision 2002/657/EC. Additionally, a study was done about diclofenac contamination in mussels collected from 8 sites along the 1115 miles of coastline in Portugal in 2015. The results suggested that levels in mussels are closely related to the environmental contamination. Therefore, mussels can be a potential bioindicator of diclofenac contamination in the coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coastal and Marine Environment Problems in East Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Supriharyono

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine problems were collected from the coastal community in area of the Municipality of Balikpapan East Kalimantan Province, from fishermen, NGO's and government officials. The technique used was that of the Field Participatory Workshop's. the result of the study revealed some coastal community awarenees, coastal resources USAge, and governmental policy. The local government's failure to solve those problems was mainly due to lack of social awarenees for environmental coastal man...

  18. [Effects of litter and root exclusion on soil microbial community composition and function of four plantations in subtropical sandy coastal plain area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chang Peng; Wan, Xiao Hua; Yu, Zai Peng; Wang, Min Huang; Lin, Yu; Huang, Zhi Qun

    2017-04-18

    We conducted detritus input and removal treatment (DIRT) to examine the effects of shifting above- and belowground carbon (C) inputs on soil microbial biomass, community composition and function in subtropical Pinus elliottii, Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis, Acacia aulacocarpa and Casuarina equisetifolia coastal sandy plain forests, and the treatments included: root trenching, litter removal and control. Up to September 2015, one year after the experiment began, we collected the 0-10 cm soil samples from each plot. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to characterize the microbial community composition, and micro-hole enzymatic detection technology was utilized to determine the activity of six kinds of soil enzymes. Results showed that changes in microbial biomass induced by the C input manipulations differed among tree species, and mainly affected by litter and root qualily. In E. urophylla × E. grandis stands, root trenching significantly decreased the contents of total PLFAs, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes by 31%, 30%, 32%, 36% and 26%, respectively. Litter removal reduced the contents of Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes by 24%, 27% and 24%, respectively. However, C input manipulations had no significant effect on soil microbial biomassunder other three plantations. According to the effect of C input manipulations on soil microbial community structure, litter and root exclusion decreased fungi abundance and increased actinomycetes abundance. Different treatments under different plantations resulted in various soil enzyme activities. Litter removal significantly decreased the activities of cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase of P. elliottii, A. aulacocarpa and C. equisetifolia, root exclusion only decreased and increased the activities of β-glucosidase in P. elliottii and A. aulacocarpa forest soils, respectively. Litter removal also

  19. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  20. Mercury in the atmospheric and coastal environments of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Delgado-Alvarez, Carolina; Frías-Espericueta, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico, published studies relating to the occurrence of Hg in the environment are limited. Among the main sources of Hg in Mexico are mining and refining of Auand Hg, chloralkali plants, Cu smelting, residential combustion of wood, carbo electric plants, and oil refineries. Hg levels are highly variable in the atmospheric compartment because of the atmospheric dynamics and ongoing metal exchange with the terrestrial surface. In atmospheric studies, Hg levels are usually reported as total gaseous Hg (TGM). In Mexico, TGM values ranged from 1.32 ng m-3 in Hidalgo state (a rural agricultural area) to 71.82 ng m-3 in Zacatecas state (an area where brick manufacturers use mining wastes as a raw material).Published information on mercury levels in the coastal environment comprise 21 studies, representing 21 areas, in which sediments constituted the substrate that was analyzed for Hg. In addition, water samples were analyzed for Hg in nine studies.Few studies exist on Hg levels in the Caribbean and in the southwest of the country where tourism is rapidly increasing. Hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury in these increasingly visited areas. In regions where studies have been undertaken, Hg levels in sediments were highly variable. Variations in Hg sediment levels mainly result from geological factors and the varying degree of anthropogenic impacts in the studied areas. In areas that still have pristine or nearly pristine environments (e.g., coast, Baja California, Todos Santos Bay, and La Paz lagoon), sediment Hg levels ranged from Mexico, it is clear that Hg fluxes to sediments have increased from2- to 15-fold in recent years. Since the 1940s, historical increases of Hg fluxes have resulted from higher agricultural waste releases and exhaust from the thermo electric plants. The levels of Hg in water reveal a moderate to elevated contamination of some Mexican coastal sites. In Urias lagoon (NW Mexico), moderate to high levels were found in

  1. Spatial variation in energy exchange across coastal environments in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, M.; Abermann, J.; Citterio, M.; Hansen, B. U.; Larsen, S. H.; Stiegler, C.; Sørensen, L. L.; van As, D.

    2015-12-01

    The surface energy partitioning in Arctic terrestrial and marine areas is a crucial process, regulating snow, glacier ice and sea ice melt, and permafrost thaw, as well as modulating Earth's climate on both local, regional, and eventually, global scales. The Arctic region has warmed approximately twice as much as the global average, due to a number of feedback mechanisms related to energy partitioning, most importantly the snow and ice-albedo feedback. However, direct measurements of surface energy budgets in the Arctic are scarce, especially for the cold and dark winter period and over transects going from the ice sheet and glaciers to the sea. This study aims to describe annual cycles of the surface energy budget from various surface types in Arctic Greenland; e.g. glacier, snow, wet and dry tundra and sea ice, based on data from a number of measurement locations across coastal Greenland related to the Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) program, including Station Nord/Kronprins Christians Land, Zackenberg/Daneborg, Disko, Qaanaq, Nuuk/Kobbefjord and Upernaviarsuk. Based on the available time series, we will analyze the sensitivity of the energy balance partitioning to variations in meteorological conditions (temperature, cloudiness, precipitation). Such analysis would allow for a quantification of the spatial variation in the energy exchange in aforementioned Arctic environments. Furthermore, this study will identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in Arctic energy budgets and related climate feedback effects.

  2. Hydrochemical and physical processes influencing salinization and freshening in Mediterranean low-lying coastal environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.; Antonelli, M.; Dinelli, E.; Gabbianelli, G.; Greggio, N.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ground- and surface water chemistry and stable isotope data from the coastal zone near Ravenna (Italy) have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur and their implications for fresh water availability in the various brackish/saline coastal environments. Fresh

  3. Annual variations in zooplankton from a polluted coastal environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Menon, P.G.; Madhupratap, M.

    Seasonal changes in the composition and distribution of zooplankton from the coastal waters of Trivandrum were studied. The study indicated that the effluent discharged from a nearby titanium dioxide factory did not affect the zooplankton abundance...

  4. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, O.A.; Phillips, M.R.; Williams, A.T.; Gheith, A.M.; Bantan, R.A.; Rasul, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = − 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ► New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ► Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ► Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ► Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  5. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.S.; Sartandel, S.; Pote, M.B.; Hemalatha, P.; Rajan, M.P.; Vidyasagar, D.; Indumati, S.P.; Shrivastava, R.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The data on the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of 137 Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The 137 Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m −3 . The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III). - Highlights: ► Benchmark value of 137 Cs in coastal environment of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. ► International reference source of 137 Cs in coastal marine environment of India. ► In-situ pre-concentration technique for measurement of 137 Cs. ► Comparison of 137 Cs Indian coastal data with ASPAMARD.

  6. Quantum Fingerprint-Based Air Quality Monitoring in Coastal Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coastal environments vital to our nation are strongly impacted by natural and human factors and are also sensitive to global climate change. A need exists for...

  7. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): an integrated approach to the study of coastal oceanographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Piermattei, Viviana; Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Albani, Marta; Borsellino, Chiara; Zappalà, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The study of the physical and biological processes of the coastal environment, characterized by high spatial and time variability, requires the adoption of multidisciplinary strategies of investigation that takes into account, not only the biotic and abiotic components of coastal marine ecosystems, but also the terrestrial, atmospheric and hydrological features linked to them. The understanding of coastal environment is fundamental to face efficiently and effectively the pollution phenomena, as expected by Marine Strategy (2008/56 EC) Directive, which is focused on the achievement of GES by 2020 in all Member States. Following these lines, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (University of Tuscia) has developed a multi-platform observing network (the Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System, C-CEMS) that operates since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), where multiple uses (industrial, commercial and tourist activities) and high ecological values (Posidonia oceanica meadows, hard-bottom benthic communities, priority species, etc.) closely coexist. Furthermore, in the last years the Civitavecchia harbour, which is one of the main ports of Europe, has been subjected to a series of expansion works that could impact significantly on the coastal environment. The C-CEMS, implemented in the current configuration, is composed by five main modules (fixed stations, in-situ measurements and samplings, satellite observations, numerical models, GIS) which provide integrated informations to be used in different fields of the environmental research. The fixed stations system controls one weather, two water quality and two wave-buoy stations along the coast. In addition to the long term observations acquired by the fixed stations (L-TER), in situ surveys are periodically carried out for the monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column and marine sediments

  8. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  9. Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatley, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities. The threats to coastal biodiversity are numerous and include air and water pollution; over exploitation and harvesting; the introduction of exotic species; the dramatic loss of habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and other land use changes; and the potentially serious effects of global climate change. These threats suggest the need for swift action at a number of jurisdictional and governmental levels. Major components of such an effort are identified and described. These include the need for comprehensive management approaches, the expansion of parks and protected areas, restoration and mitigation, multinational and international initiatives, and efforts to promote sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles. Suggestions for future research are also provided

  10. The impact of tourism and personal leisure transport on coastal environments: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Davenport, Julia L.

    2006-03-01

    Coastal tourism started in the 19th Century and has increased in non-linear fashion ever since, stimulated by a combination of developments in transport technology and rising prosperity. Initially, mainly national in character, the introduction of roll-on, roll-off ferries and inexpensive air transport caused an exponential 28-fold rise in international tourism between 1950 and the start of the 21st Century. This review considers the impact of tourism at two levels: (1) that created by the sheer numbers of tourists and their demands ('mass tourism and transport') and (2) that resulting from individual, often novel, forms of transport ('personal leisure transport'). Under (1), the consequences of the construction of coastal resorts and roads, marinas and jetties for habitat fragmentation and reduced biodiversity are described. Next, the effects of large cruise ships (now some 250 in number) are considered, particularly in relation to unregulated pollution and the delivery of substantial numbers of tourists to remote destinations. Thirdly, the literature related to disturbance caused by intertidal trampling by tourists on rocky/sandy shores is reviewed, followed by a section devoted to the unappreciated effects of beach 'cleaning' (i.e. removal of natural strandlines as well as litter) that is practiced throughout the world's sandy beach resorts. Finally, the potentially positive area of coastal ecotourism is considered, but evidence is assembled to highlight the problems associated with too high a demand. Under (2), the impact of a range of personal leisure transport modes is considered. These range from relatively innocuous pursuits (e.g. swimming, surfing, sailboarding and dinghy sailing), to an extremely popular sport (SCUBA diving) that is marketed for its environmentally-friendly nature, yet causes measurable deterioration in the world's coral ecosystems despite good management practices. The impact of motorboats is considered, particularly in the context of

  11. Conceptualizing delta forms and processes in Arctic coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic directly causes two opposite changes in Arctic coastal systems: increased melt-water discharge through rivers induces extra influx of sediments and extended open water season increases wave impact which reworks and erodes the shores. A shoreline change analysis along...... and popped up as hotspots. The Tuapaat delta and Skansen delta showed large progradation rates (1.5 and 7m/yr) and migration of the adjacent barriers and spits. The dynamic behavior at the delta mouths was mainly caused by classic delta channel lobe switching at one delta (Tuapaat), and by a breach...... of the fringing spit at the other delta (Skansen). The longshore and cross-shore transports are responsible for reworking the sediment with a result of migrating delta mouths and adjacent subaqueous mouth bars. Seaward progradation of the deltas is limited due to the steep nature of the bathymetry in Disko Bay...

  12. Monitoring coastal wetlands in a highly dynamic tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saynor, M.J.; Finlayson, C.M.; Spiers, A.; Eliot, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Region in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has been selected by government and collaborating agencies as a key study area for the monitoring of natural and human-induced coastal change. The Region contains the floodplain wetlands of Kakadu National Park which have been recognised internationally for their natural and cultural heritage value. A coastal monitoring program for assessing and monitoring environmental change in the Alligator Rivers Region has been established at the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist. This program has developed a regional capacity to measure and assess change on the wetlands, floodplains and coastline within the region. Field assessment and monitoring procedures have been developed for the program. The assessment procedures require use of georeferencing and data handling techniques to facilitate comparison and relational overlay of a wide variety of information. Monitoring includes regular survey of biophysical and cultural processes on the floodplains; such as the extension of tidal creeks and mangroves, shoreline movement, dieback in Melaleuca wetlands, and weed invasion of freshwater wetlands. A differential Global Positioning System is used to accurately georeference spatial data and a Geographic Information System is then used to store and assess information. The assessment and monitoring procedures can be applied to the wet-dry tropics in general. These studies are all particularly pertinent with the possibility of greenhouse gases causing global warming and potential sea-level rise, a major possible threat to the valued wetlands of Kakadu National Park, and across the wet-dry tropics in general

  13. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B. (ODOT); Laylor, H.M. (ODOT)

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  14. Underwater noise pollution in a coastal tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, L; Carvalho, R R; Lailson-Brito, J; Azevedo, A F

    2014-06-15

    Underwater noise pollution has become a major concern in marine habitats. Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, is an impacted area of economic importance with constant vessel traffic. One hundred acoustic recording sessions took place over ten locations. Sound sources operating within 1 km radius of each location were quantified during recordings. The highest mean sound pressure level near the surface was 111.56±9.0 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency band of 187 Hz. Above 15 kHz, the highest mean sound pressure level was 76.21±8.3 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency 15.89 kHz. Noise levels correlated with number of operating vessels and vessel traffic composition influenced noise profiles. Shipping locations had the highest noise levels, while small vessels locations had the lowest noise levels. Guanabara Bay showed noise pollution similar to that of other impacted coastal regions, which is related to shipping and vessel traffic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements of transmission in the visible and the IR in the Baltic coastal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dion, D.; Gardenal, L.; Jong, A.N. de; Forand, L.; Vogel, H.; Hurtaud, Y.; Stein, K.

    2007-01-01

    multinational campaign was organized by the NATO SET56 Group to assess transmission in coastal environments: the VAlidation Measurements of Propagation in IR and RAdar (VAMPIRA) experiment. VAMPIRA was conducted in the Baltic Sea, near Surendorf, Germany, from 27 March to 4 April 2004. During

  16. Evaluation of the Wave Energy Conversion Efficiency in Various Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with sea waves, respectively. Some of the most representative existent wave converters were evaluated in the analysis and a second objective was to compare their performances at the considered locations, and in this way to determine which is better suited for potential commercial exploitation. In order to estimate the electric power production expected in a certain location, the bivariate distributions of the occurrences corresponding to the sea states, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, were constructed in each coastal area. The wave data were provided by hindcast studies performed with numerical wave models or based on measurements. The transformation efficiency of the wave energy into electricity is evaluated via the load factor and also through the capture width, defined as the ratio between the electric power estimated to be produced by each specific wave energy converters (WEC and the expected wave power corresponding to the location considered. Finally, by evaluating these two different indicators, comparisons of the performances of three WEC types (Aqua Buoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon in the three different groups of coastal environments considered have been also carried out. The work provides valuable information related to the effectiveness of various technologies for the wave energy extraction that would operate in different coastal environments.

  17. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  18. Adaptions of ArcGIS' Linear Referencing System to the Coastal Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstrøm, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    For many years it has been problematic to store information for the coastal environment in a GIS. However, a system named "Linear referencing System" based upon a dynamic segmentation principle implemented in ESRIs ArcGIS 9 software has now made it possible to store and analyze information...

  19. [The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Irene

    2003-01-01

    The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem.

  20. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  1. Bacteriological quality and solid wastes at five coastal marine environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vera; Acuna Gonzalez, Jenaro; Vargas Zamora, Jose A.; Garcia Cespedes, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic waste and water bacteriological quality were surveyed twice a year in 2000 and in 2002 at five coastal marine environments in Costa Rica, one in the Caribbean (Bahia de Moin) and four in the Pacific (Bahia de Culebra, Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Puntarenas, Bahia de Golfito). The most probable number (MPN)/100 mL of coliform bacteria was calculated after incubation series of five test tubes. A total of 14 coastal and two river water samples were collected in the Caribbean, and 32 coastal, nine estuarine and one tap water samples in the Pacific, plus 25 samples investigated for Escherichia coli in 2002. The means of 2 MPN/100 mL in June 2000 and 17 MPN/100 mL in May 2002, and faecal coliforms [es

  2. Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine water of India - Behaviour of Radium in coastal marine environment of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, S.K.; Sartandel, S.; Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Radioactivity measurement Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Kanyakumari which comprises the high natural background region reflects different ratio varying from 3.5 to 6.9. The Higher concentration ratio of {sup 228}Ra to {sup 226}Ra in coastal water of Rameswaram and Kanyakumari reflecting {sup 232}Th rich sources of terrigenous material in regions. The findings supported the fact that the area also comes under natural high radiation background at the south west of Indian peninsula due to the presence of heavy mineral containing monazite in the beach sand. In Arabian sea, {sup 226}Ra activity concentration were observed to be in the range of 1.5-2.9 Bq m{sup -3} with a mean of 2.2 Bq m{sup -3} while {sup 228}Ra was in the range of 2.5-8.6 Bq m{sup -3} with mean of 4.9 Bq m{sup -3}. The observed ratio at locations in Arabian sea indicates restricted circulation pattern of sea water. The activity concentrations for radium isotopes were found within the reported range of values from other coastal area. The radioactive database can be used as tracer for understanding processes and for assessing radioactivity inventory in the coastal marine environment in India. (authors)

  3. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  4. Challenges in Projecting Sea Level Rise impacts on the Coastal Environment of South Florida (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeysekera, J.; Park, J.; Irizarry-Ortiz, M. M.; Barnes, J. A.; Trimble, P.; Said, W.

    2010-12-01

    Due to flat topography, a highly transmissive groundwater aquifer, and a growing population with the associated infrastructure, South Florida’s coastal environment is one of the most vulnerable areas to sea level rise. Current projections of sea level rise and the associated storm surges will have direct impacts on coastal beaches and infrastructure, flood protection, freshwater aquifers, and both the isolated and regional wetlands. Uncertainties in current projections have made it difficult for regional and local governments to develop adaptation strategies as such measures will depend heavily on the temporal and spatial patterns of sea level rise in the coming decades. We demonstrate the vulnerability of both the built and natural environments of the coastal region and present the current efforts to understand and predict the sea level rise estimate that management agencies could employ in planning of adaptation strategies. In particular, the potential vulnerabilities of the flood control system as well as the threat to the water supply wellfields in the coastal belt will be presented. In an effort to understand the historical variability of sea level rise, we present linkages to natural phenomena such as Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation, and the analytical methods we have developed to provide probabilistic projections of both mean sea level rise and the extremes.

  5. Science and Sandy: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.

  6. Modelling study of sea breezes in a complex coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.-M.; Steyn, D. G.

    This study investigates a mesoscale modelling of sea breezes blowing from a narrow strait into the lower Fraser valley (LFV), British Columbia, Canada, during the period of 17-20 July, 1985. Without a nudging scheme in the inner grid, the CSU-RAMS model produces satisfactory wind and temperature fields during the daytime. In comparison with observation, the agreement indices for surface wind and temperature during daytime reach about 0.6 and 0.95, respectively, while the agreement indices drop to 0.4 at night. In the vertical, profiles of modelled wind and temperature generally agree with tethersonde data collected on 17 and 19 July. The study demonstrates that in late afternoon, the model does not capture the advection of an elevated warm layer which originated from land surfaces outside of the inner grid. Mixed layer depth (MLD) is calculated from model output of turbulent kinetic energy field. Comparison of MLD results with observation shows that the method generates a reliable MLD during the daytime, and that accurate estimates of MLD near the coast require the correct simulation of wind conditions over the sea. The study has shown that for a complex coast environment like the LFV, a reliable modelling study depends not only on local surface fluxes but also on elevated layers transported from remote land surfaces. This dependence is especially important when local forcings are weak, for example, during late afternoon and at night.

  7. Analyzing coastal environments by means of functional data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Flor-Blanco, Germán; Ordoñez, Celestino; Flor, Germán; Gallego, José R.

    2017-07-01

    Here we used Functional Data Analysis (FDA) to examine particle-size distributions (PSDs) in a beach/shallow marine sedimentary environment in Gijón Bay (NW Spain). The work involved both Functional Principal Components Analysis (FPCA) and Functional Cluster Analysis (FCA). The grainsize of the sand samples was characterized by means of laser dispersion spectroscopy. Within this framework, FPCA was used as a dimension reduction technique to explore and uncover patterns in grain-size frequency curves. This procedure proved useful to describe variability in the structure of the data set. Moreover, an alternative approach, FCA, was applied to identify clusters and to interpret their spatial distribution. Results obtained with this latter technique were compared with those obtained by means of two vector approaches that combine PCA with CA (Cluster Analysis). The first method, the point density function (PDF), was employed after adapting a log-normal distribution to each PSD and resuming each of the density functions by its mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. The second applied a centered-log-ratio (clr) to the original data. PCA was then applied to the transformed data, and finally CA to the retained principal component scores. The study revealed functional data analysis, specifically FPCA and FCA, as a suitable alternative with considerable advantages over traditional vector analysis techniques in sedimentary geology studies.

  8. Characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyatmo, B.; Rustadi; Priyono, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study were to determine characteristics and environmental carrying capacities of coastal area in Yogyakarta Special Region for aquaculture. This study was conducted in 2015 by characterizing land and water dynamics, land use, and the suitability of coastal environments for aquaculture. Evaluation on the coastal environments suitability for aquaculture ponds was based on the landforms, soil properties, water quality and land. Selection of coastal locations for aquaculture development was based on the level of suitability of coastal environment. The results showed that the coastal in Kulon Progo and Bantul Regencies were characterized by sand dune and beach ridge with sandy soil texture, while in Gunungkidul Regency was characterized by limestone hill with rocky texture. Water sources of the coastal area were the sea, river, and ground water with the salinity of 31–37, 7–11, 7–31 ppt and pH of 7.4–8.4 7.0–8.2 and 7.4–9.9, respectively. The coastal lands were used for seasonal/annual planting, ponds, fish landing sites, tourism areas and conservation areas. The coastal carrying capacity was rather suitable for aquaculture, especially in the sandy soil area. Aquaculture in that area can be done intensively for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), using biocrete (biological material) or plastic sheet.

  9. Fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic organics in Louisiana coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaune, R.D.; Gambrell, R.P.; Pardue, J.H.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous potentially toxic compounds are entering Louisiana's inshore and nearshore coastal environments. To a large degree there is insufficient information for predicting the fate and effect of these materials in aquatic environments. Studies documenting the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons entering Louisiana coastal wetlands are summarized. Also included are research findings on factors affecting the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons and other toxic organics (pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), creosote, etc.) in sediment-water systems. Sediment pH and redox conditions have been found to play an important role in the microbial degradation of toxic organics. Most of the hydrocarbons investigated degrade more rapidly under high redox (aerobic) conditions although there are exceptions (e.g., 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)(DDT) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)). Some of these compounds, due to their slow degradation in anaerobic sediment, may persist in the system for decades

  10. Diatom-based characterization of iberian coastal environments at different time scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Tânia Maria de Azevedo, 1978-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Geologia (Geologia Económica e do Ambiente), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 This thesis presents the mesoscale characterization of the evolution of two lagoon systems, Traba (550 years of sedimentary sequence) and Melides (1745 years of sedimentary sequence), using sedimentological, geochemical and biological, particularly diatoms, indicators. Also, a characterization of 18 present-day transitional environments (coastal lakes and ponds...

  11. Estimation of potential evapotranspiration of a coastal savannah environment; comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asare, D.K.; Ayeh, E.O.; Amenorpe, G.; Banini, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Six potential evapotranspiration models namely, Penman-Monteith, Hargreaves-Samani , Priestley-Taylor, IRMAK1, IRMAK2 and TURC, were used to estimate daily PET values at Atomic-Kwabenya in the coastal savannah environment of Ghana for the year 2005. The study compared PET values generated by six models and identified which ones compared favourably with the Penman-Monteith model which is the recommended standard method for estimating PET. Cross comparison analysis showed that only the daily estimates of PET of Hargreaves-Samani model correlated reasonably (r = 0.82) with estimates by the Penman-Monteith model. Additionally, PET values by the Priestley-Taylor and TURC models were highly correlated (r = 0.99) as well as those generated by IRMAK2 and TURC models (r = 0.96). Statistical analysis, based on pair comparison of means, showed that daily PET estimates of the Penman-Monteith model were not different from the Priestley-Taylor model for the Kwabenya-Atomic area located in the coastal savannah environment of Ghana. The Priestley-Taylor model can be used, in place of the Penman-Monteith model, to estimate daily PET for the Atomic-Kwabenya area of the coastal savannah environment of Ghana. The Hargreaves-Samani model can also be used to estimate PET for the study area because its PET estimates correlated reasonably with those of the Penman-Monteith model (r = 0.82) and requires only air temperature measurements as inputs. (au)

  12. 137Cs activity and associated dose in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, G.P.; Sharma, D.N.; Jha, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal marine environment is important for India since a considerable percentage of the human population resides in coastal areas. Fallout radionuclides as well as non-radioactive substances have polluted the coastal marine environment of India. The introduction of 137 Cs, a fallout radionuclide, considered as global pollutant, into marine environment has created the need for marine environmental data. The main objective is to provide data on the present level of 137 Cs which is important from the standpoint of radiological health and dose associated with it. Such database will also provide benchmark which will be helpful in assessing the impact of additional contribution to marine radioactivity in the future. The results confirm that the mean annual individual dose from 137 Cs in seafood (fish) for the Indian subcontinent is 0.03 μSv. The highest annual individual dose for 137 Cs due to the ingestion offish is in the age group of 40 to 59 years which is due to the reason that the Indian annual dietary intake of fish is highest in this age group

  13. Modeling global mangrove soil carbon stocks: filling the gaps in coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, A.; Twilley, R.

    2017-12-01

    We provide an overview of contemporaneous global mangrove soil organic carbon (SOC) estimates, focusing on a framework to explain disproportionate differences among observed data as a way to improve global estimates. This framework is based on a former conceptual model, the coastal environmental setting, in contrast to the more popular latitude-based hypotheses largely believed to explain hemispheric variation in mangrove ecosystem properties. To demonstrate how local and regional estimates of SOC linked to coastal environmental settings can render more realistic global mangrove SOC extrapolations we combined published and unpublished data, yielding a total of 106 studies, reporting on 552 sites from 43 countries. These sites were classified into distinct coastal environmental setting types according to two concurrent worldwide typology of nearshore coastal systems classifications. Mangrove SOC density varied substantially across coastal environmental settings, ranging from 14.9 ± 0.8 in river dominated (deltaic) soils to 53.9 ± 1.6 mg cm-3 (mean ± SE) in karstic coastlines. Our findings reveal striking differences between published values and contemporary global mangrove SOC extrapolation based on country-level mean reference values, particularly for karstic-dominated coastlines where mangrove SOC stocks have been underestimated by up to 50%. Correspondingly, climate-based global estimates predicted lower mangrove SOC density values (32-41 mg C cm-3) for mangroves in karstic environments, differing from published (21-126 mg C cm-3) and unpublished (47-58 mg C cm-3) values. Moreover, climate-based projections yielded higher SOC density values (27-70 mg C cm-3) for river-dominated mangroves compared to lower ranges reported in the literature (11-24 mg C cm-3). We argue that this inconsistent reporting of SOC stock estimates between river-dominated and karstic coastal environmental settings is likely due to the omission of geomorphological and geophysical

  14. Microseisms from Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufri, Oner; Koper, Keith D.; Burlacu, Relu; de Foy, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed and visualized the microseisms generated by Superstorm Sandy as recorded by the Earthscope Transportable Array (TA) during late October through early November of 2012. We applied continuous, frequency-dependent polarization analysis to the data and were able to track the course of Sandy as it approached the Florida coastline and, later, the northeastern coast of the U.S. The energy level of Sandy was roughly comparable to the background microseism level generated by wave-wave interactions in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. The maximum microseismic power and degree of polarization were observed across the TA when Sandy sharply changed its direction to the west-northwest (specifically, towards Long Island, New York) on October 29. The westward turn also briefly changed the dominant microseism period from 5 s to 8 s. We identified three other microseismic source regions during the 18 day observation period. In particular, peak-splitting in the double frequency band and the orientation of the 5 s and 8 s polarization vectors revealed two contemporaneous microseism sources, one in the North Atlantic and one in the Northeast Pacific, for the dates of November 3-4. Predictions of microseismic excitation based on ocean wave models showed consistency with the observed microseismic energy generated by Sandy and other storms.

  15. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2018-03-05

    Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

  16. Free-space optical channel characterization and experimental validation in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy; Park, Kihong; Alfaraj, Nasir; Guo, Yujian; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    Over the years, free-space optical (FSO) communication has attracted considerable research interest owing to its high transmission rates via the unbounded and unlicensed bandwidths. Nevertheless, various weather conditions lead to significant deterioration of the FSO link capabilities. In this context, we report on the modelling of the channel attenuation coefficient (β) for a coastal environment and related ambient, considering the effect of coastal air temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and dew point (TD) by employing a mobile FSO communication system capable of achieving a transmission rate of 1 Gbps at an outdoor distance of 70 m for optical beam wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm. For further validation of the proposed models, an indoor measurement over a 1.5 m distance utilizing 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1064 nm lasers was also performed. The first model provides a general link between T and β, while the second model provides a relation between β, RH as well as TD. By validating our attenuation coefficient model with actual outdoor and indoor experiments, we obtained a scaling parameter x and decaying parameter c values of 19.94, 40.02, 45.82 and 0.03015, 0.04096, 0.0428 for wavelengths of 1550, 1310, 1064 nm, respectively. The proposed models are well validated over the large variation of temperature and humidity over the FSO link in a coastal region and emulated indoor environment.

  17. Development of a fluorescent antibody method for the detection of Enterococcus faecium and its potential for coastal aquatic environment monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Monticelli, L S; Caruso, R; Bergamasco, A

    2008-02-01

    A direct, microscopic fluorescent antibody method was developed to detect the occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in coastal aquatic environments and was compared with the conventional membrane filtering method. The "in situ" application of the antibody-based protocol in the analysis of water samples collected from coastal polyhaline habitats demonstrated good sensitivity and ease of implementation. Data obtained with the microscopic technique were in agreement with those obtained from culture counts. The fluorescent antibody method proved to be a rapid and reliable technique for the detection of E. faecium. The advantages and limitations intrinsic to the method are discussed, highlighting the potential of this new technique for monitoring coastal aquatic environments.

  18. Advancing Sustainable Development through Understanding the Coastal Environment: The Garolim Bay in the West Coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal environment worldwide is increasingly more populated and developed in recent years. As a result, the natural coastal environment which often provides habitats for various plants and animals and nursery grounds for fishes has become scarce. However, it is well-known that the natural coastal environment is important for the well-being of the ecosystem including human. In addition, it may contribute to the local economy by attracting many visitors who like to appreciate and enjoy the nature. Although there may be efforts to preserve the natural coastal environment by governments and environmental groups, there may be also needs to develop the coastal environment. In order to preserve the natural environment without sacrificing the local economy, it would be important to appreciate the unique characteristics of the coastal environment that may contribute to attracting many visitors. In this study, we discuss some unique characteristics of the coastal environment located in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea. The Garolim Bay is a semi-enclosed bay with the narrow opening of about 2 km and the length of about 20 km, and has a spring tidal range over 6 m. It is well known for vast tidal flats and healthy ecosystems that supports high productive and diverse marine lives including spotted seals. The tidal wave propagates north along the eastern Yellow Sea and currents become strong off the Garolim Bay due to the promontory effect and mixing of the water column results in cooling of surface water. Due to its characteristic offshore environment, narrow opening and abrupt turning over 120 degrees in the midst of acceleration of strong currents, the Garolim Bay presents the unique physical and geological environment resulting in characteristic physical, biological and geological features. In fact, the name of the bay `Garolim' meaning 'Dew-induced Forest', may have resulted from these unique physical and geological characteristics of the bay.

  19. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  20. Aquaculture and mangrove ecosys of temproductivity in arid and semi-arid Balochistan coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of coastal shrimp-pond operations, and the structure and functioning of coastal mangrove forest ecosystems with particular reference to Ecuador, indicates that certain physical parameters may be good predictors of key biological processes. The most important factors are those associated with the regional water balance, tidal and surface water circulation patterns, and the physicochemical properties of the underlying soils. One important conclusion to emerge from the analyses is that at both regional and local levels, well-developed and productive mangrove forest areas often represent the least desirable sites for the construction and operation of commercial shrimp ponds. In certain regards semi-arid and arid coastal environments where mangroves are poorly developed, shrimp ponds that are constructed on barren mud flats and inland salt pans appear to have the potential to produce higher yields of shrimp with fewer management problems and at a relatively lower production cost. The data and research results from coast of Baluchistan and elsewhere are briefly summarized to suggest why productive mangrove ecosystems to not make the best areas in which to obtain maximum shrimp-pond yields. (author)

  1. Inputs and distributions of synthetic musk fragrances in an estuarine and coastal environment; a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Nicola R. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Science, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Guitart, Carlos, E-mail: guitart.carlos@gmail.co [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Fuentes, Gustavo [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia del Mar (IUTEMAR), Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Margarita Island (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Readman, James W. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Synthetic musks are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Compartmental distributions (dissolved, suspended particle associated and sedimentary) of the compounds throughout an axial estuarine transect and in coastal waters are reported. High concentrations of Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) (987-2098 ng/L and 55-159 ng/L, respectively) were encountered in final effluent samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) discharging into the Tamar and Plym Estuaries (UK), with lower concentrations of Celestolide (ADBI) (4-13 ng/L), Phantolide (AHMI) (6-9 ng/L), musk xylene (MX) (4-7 ng/L) and musk ketone (MK) (18-30 ng/L). Rapid dilution from the outfalls is demonstrated with resulting concentrations of HHCB spanning from 5 to 30 ng/L and those for AHTN from 3 to 15 ng/L. The other musks were generally not detected in the estuarine and coastal waters. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sedimentary profiles and compositions (HHCB:AHTN ratios) generally reflect the distribution in the water column with highest concentrations adjacent to sewage outfalls. - Synthetic musks were determined in coastal environmental compartments along an estuarine transect indicating their ubiquitous occurrence in transitional waters.

  2. Inputs and distributions of synthetic musk fragrances in an estuarine and coastal environment; a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, Nicola R.; Guitart, Carlos; Fuentes, Gustavo; Readman, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic musks are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Compartmental distributions (dissolved, suspended particle associated and sedimentary) of the compounds throughout an axial estuarine transect and in coastal waters are reported. High concentrations of Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) (987-2098 ng/L and 55-159 ng/L, respectively) were encountered in final effluent samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) discharging into the Tamar and Plym Estuaries (UK), with lower concentrations of Celestolide (ADBI) (4-13 ng/L), Phantolide (AHMI) (6-9 ng/L), musk xylene (MX) (4-7 ng/L) and musk ketone (MK) (18-30 ng/L). Rapid dilution from the outfalls is demonstrated with resulting concentrations of HHCB spanning from 5 to 30 ng/L and those for AHTN from 3 to 15 ng/L. The other musks were generally not detected in the estuarine and coastal waters. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sedimentary profiles and compositions (HHCB:AHTN ratios) generally reflect the distribution in the water column with highest concentrations adjacent to sewage outfalls. - Synthetic musks were determined in coastal environmental compartments along an estuarine transect indicating their ubiquitous occurrence in transitional waters.

  3. A new perspective of particle adsorption: Dispersed oil and granular materials interactions in simulated coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan

    2017-09-15

    This study, adsorption behaviors of dispersed oil in seawaters by granular materials were explored in simulation environment. We quantitatively demonstrated the dispersed oil adsorbed by granular materials were both dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPHs) and oil droplets. Furthermore, DPHs were accounted for 42.5%, 63.4%, and 85.2% (35.5% was emulsion adsorption) in the adsorption of dispersed oil by coastal rocks, sediments, and bacterial strain particles respectively. Effects of controlling parameters, such as temperature, particle size and concentration on adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbons were described in detail. Most strikingly, adsorption concentration was followed a decreasing order of bacterial strain (0.5-2μm)>sediments (0.005-0.625mm)>coastal rocks (0.2-1cm). With particle concentration or temperature increased, adsorption concentration increased for coastal rocks particle but decreased for sediments particle. Besides, particle adsorption rate of petroleum hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and PAHs) was different among granular materials during 60 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

    2004-06-01

    The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system.

  5. Environmental impact of condenser effluents into coastal marine environments: need for continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    Electric plants working on the principle of steam-water cycle require large amounts of water for condenser cooling purpose. Nuclear power plants require, on an average, about 3m 3 cooling water per minute per megawatt of electricity generated. Owning to the scarcity of large sources of freshwater for cooling, newer power plants, particularly in water-stressed parts of the world, tend to get located in coastal regions, where they can make use of the abundant seawater. However, this also poses a problem, in terms of the biofouling potential of coastal marine environments. Sessile benthic organism, which are generally present as part of the coastal marine ecosystem, extend their habitat into the cooling water system of the power plant. It is often observed that massive growth of such fouling organisms may endanger normal operation of the cooling water system, unless appropriate control measures are adopted. Presence of calcareous organisms such as mussels and barnacles in the pre-condenser sections of the power plant is a common sight; but these organisms, when lodged inside condenser tubes, can not only reduce the heat transfer efficiency but also can cause localized corrosion and tube leakage, leading of ingress of seawater into the steam-water system. It is, therefore, important that appropriate control measures are adopted to discourage the growth of the organisms. However, this needs to be done in an environmentally sustainable manner, as the cooling water is ultimately discharged back into the sea. The presentation aims to give and overview of the biofouling problems generally encountered in a typical tropical coastal power station operating in India and the chemical control measures adopted and their effectiveness. The talk also throws light on the more recent advances in biofouling control such as surface modification and use of nanotechnology which, in the foreseeable future, may provide more lasting and environmentally sustainable solutions. (author)

  6. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  7. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  8. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  9. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.L. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Obbard, J.P. [Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail esejpo@nus.edu.sg

    2006-07-15

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 {mu}m) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 {mu}m) and subsurface layer (1 m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping.

  10. Environmental behavior of organotin compounds in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhong; Hong Huasheng; Zhao Dongmei; Hong Liyu

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, organotins pollution were investigated in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China. Six species of organotin compounds including tributyltin, triphenyltin and their degradation compounds were quantified in the dissolved and particulate phases of the water, and in the sediment using GC-FPD. The concentrations of organotin compounds ranged from 2.2 to 160 ng (Sn) L -1 dissolved in the water, 0.14-6.7 ng (Sn) L -1 in suspended particulate matter and nd ∼ 26 ng (Sn) g -1 (dry weight) in the sediment. The highest concentration of total organotin or tributyltin in water was found in a shipyard and at a station near the inlet of the harbor, indicating fresh inputs of antifouling paints to Xiamen's coastal environment. Organotin speciation was performed on sediment cores to investigate contamination trends over the past ten years in the harbor. The results of 210 Pb dating indicated that Xiamen western harbor suffered contamination during 2000. The environmental behavior of organotins such as the enhancement of the microlayer, partitioning between water/suspended particulate matter and between water/sediment are also discussed in this paper

  11. Environmental behavior of organotin compounds in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xinhong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: xhwang@xmu.edu.cn; Hong Huasheng; Zhao Dongmei; Hong Liyu [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In 2006, organotins pollution were investigated in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China. Six species of organotin compounds including tributyltin, triphenyltin and their degradation compounds were quantified in the dissolved and particulate phases of the water, and in the sediment using GC-FPD. The concentrations of organotin compounds ranged from 2.2 to 160 ng (Sn) L{sup -1} dissolved in the water, 0.14-6.7 ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in suspended particulate matter and nd {approx} 26 ng (Sn) g{sup -1} (dry weight) in the sediment. The highest concentration of total organotin or tributyltin in water was found in a shipyard and at a station near the inlet of the harbor, indicating fresh inputs of antifouling paints to Xiamen's coastal environment. Organotin speciation was performed on sediment cores to investigate contamination trends over the past ten years in the harbor. The results of {sup 210}Pb dating indicated that Xiamen western harbor suffered contamination during 2000. The environmental behavior of organotins such as the enhancement of the microlayer, partitioning between water/suspended particulate matter and between water/sediment are also discussed in this paper.

  12. Structural strength deterioration of coastal bridge piers considering non-uniform corrosion in marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Anxin; Yuan, Wenting; Li, Haitao; Li, Hui

    2018-04-01

    In the aggressive marine environment over a long-term service period, coastal bridges inevitably sustain corrosion-induced damage due to high sea salt and humidity. This paper investigates the strength reduction of coastal bridges, especially focusing on the effects of non-uniform corrosion along the height of bridge piers. First, the corrosion initiation time and the degradation of reinforcement and concrete are analyzed for bridge piers in marine environments. To investigate the various damage modes of the concrete cover, a discretization method with fiber cells is used for calculating time-dependent interaction diagrams of cross-sections of the bridge piers at the atmospheric zone and the splash and tidal zone under a combination of axial force and bending moment. Second, the shear strength of these aging structures is analyzed. Numerical simulation indicates that the strength of a concrete pier experiences dramatic reduction from corrosion initiation to the spalling of the concrete cover. Strength loss in the splash and tidal zone is more significant than in the atmospheric zone when structures' service time is assumed to be the same.

  13. Olivine Dissolution in Seawater: Implications for CO2 Sequestration through Enhanced Weathering in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of (ultra)basic silicate rocks such as olivine-rich dunite has been proposed as a large-scale climate engineering approach. When implemented in coastal environments, olivine weathering is expected to increase seawater alkalinity, thus resulting in additional CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. However, the mechanisms of marine olivine weathering and its effect on seawater–carbonate chemistry remain poorly understood. Here, we present results from batch reaction experiments, in which forsteritic olivine was subjected to rotational agitation in different seawater media for periods of days to months. Olivine dissolution caused a significant increase in alkalinity of the seawater with a consequent DIC increase due to CO2 invasion, thus confirming viability of the basic concept of enhanced silicate weathering. However, our experiments also identified several important challenges with respect to the detailed quantification of the CO2 sequestration efficiency under field conditions, which include nonstoichiometric dissolution, potential pore water saturation in the seabed, and the potential occurrence of secondary reactions. Before enhanced weathering of olivine in coastal environments can be considered an option for realizing negative CO2 emissions for climate mitigation purposes, these aspects need further experimental assessment. PMID:28281750

  14. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  15. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  16. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2017-06-01

    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stanley

    Full Text Available During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  18. Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Deyoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

  19. An Overview of Biodegradation of LNAPLs in Coastal (Semi)-arid Environment.

    KAUST Repository

    Yadav, Brijesh Kumar

    2011-02-22

    Contamination of soil and water due to the release of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is a ubiquitous problem. The problem is more severe in arid and semi-arid coastal regions where most of the petroleum production and related refinery industries are located. Biological treatment of these organic contaminated resources is receiving increasing interests and where applicable, can serve as a cost-effective remediation alternative. The success of bioremediation greatly depends on the prevailing environmental variables, and their remediation favoring customization requires a sound understanding of their integrated behavior on fate and transport of LNAPLs under site-specific conditions. The arid and semi-arid coastal sites are characterized by specific environmental extremes; primarily, varying low and high temperatures, high salinity, water table dynamics, and fluctuating soil moisture content. An understanding of the behavior of these environmental variables on biological interactions with LNAPLs would be helpful in customizing the bioremediation for restoring problematic sites in these regions. Therefore, this paper reviews the microbial degradation of LNAPLs in soil-water, considering the influences of prevailing environmental parameters of arid and semi-arid coastal regions. First, the mechanism of biodegradation of LNAPLs is discussed briefly, followed by a summary of popular kinetic models used by researchers for describing the degradation rate of these hydrocarbons. Next, the impact of soil moisture content, water table dynamics, and soil-water temperature on the fate and transport of LNAPLs are discussed, including an overview of the studies conducted so far. Finally, based on the reviewed information, a general conclusion is presented with recommendations for future research subjects on optimizing the bioremediation technique in the field under the aforesaid environmental conditions. The present review will be useful to better understand the

  20. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  1. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  2. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  3. Eogenetic karst, glacioeustatic cave pools and anchialine environments on Mallorca Island: a discussion of coastal speleogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ginès

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal karst is characterized by special geomorphologic and hydrodynamic conditions as well as by peculiar sedimentary, geochemical, and biospeleological environments. Generally, the more distinctive karstic features produced near the coastline are strongly influenced by sea-level changes, which generate a broad set of interactions between littoral processes and karst development. The glacioeustatic rises and falls of sea level affected the littoral karst in different ways, namely: vertical and horizontal shifts in the shoreline position, changes in elevation of the local water table, and vertical displacements of the halocline. Most eogenetic karsts have been subjected over long time spans to repeated changes of a variety of vertically-zoned geochemical environments: vadose, phreatic meteoric-water, brackish mixing-waters and even marine water. Many coastal caves appear to be passively drowned by Holocene sea-level rise, and to contain glacioeustatic pools of varied size where the current water table intersects formerly air-filled chambers or passages. These coastal phreatic waters are controlled by sea level and fluctuate with tides. Significantly, features such as phreatic speleothems that are able to record ancient sea levels occur closely associated to the surface of the pools. The cave pools are brackish or even marine anchialine environments that contain remarkable communities of troglobitic stygofauna. All of these aspects can be studied in detail along the southern and eastern coast of Mallorca Island owing to the widespread outcrop of Upper Miocene calcarenites, in which the development of eogenetic karst features started approximately 6 Ma ago, at the end of Messinian times. Some outstanding coastal caves result and include the celebrated Coves del Drac (explored by E.A. Martel in 1896, the labyrinthine Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (more than 30 km in length and the recently explored Cova de sa Gleda (whose submerged passages exceed

  4. Coastal environment of the Beaufort Sea from field data and ERTS-1 imagery, summer 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An extensive field program during the spring and summer in the coastal Beaufort Sea test site has been completed using a wide variety of sensing techniques. Reduction of field data and ERTS-1 image analysis have shown the coastal environment to be complexly influenced by unique processes, most of which involve or are related to sea ice. Active sedimentologic processes along the Arctic coast are set in motion by the melting, flooding, and eventual overflow of rivers onto the sea ice. It is now apparent that only minor amounts of sediment are transported offshore at this stage; however, scouring of the bottom is significant beneath the strudels (drain holes) which develop in the fast ice canopy in the region of overflow. Areal salinity and turbidity patterns together with ERTS-1 imagery confirm a consistent influx of colder, clearer, saltier water towards the coast just east of the Colville River. Strong (up to 3 knots) bidirectional but intermittent currents often manifest themselves in imagery and aerial photographs as wakes behind grounded ice. Ice movement vectors generated from repetitive images indicate that ice drift is closely associated with wind direction, especially in shallow bays, and displacements of 4-22 kilometers were noted in 24 hours.

  5. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Sergi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: sdsqam@cid.csic.es; Lacorte, Silvia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Viana, Paula [Direcao Geral do Ambiente, Ministerio do Ambiente, Rua da Murgueira, Zambujal, 2720 Amadora (Portugal); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments.

  6. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Sergi; Lacorte, Silvia; Viana, Paula; Barcelo, Damia; Bayona, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L -1 (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 μg kg -1 (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 μg kg -1 (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments

  7. The Development of a Finite Volume Method for Modeling Sound in Coastal Ocean Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Wen; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-28

    : As the rapid growth of marine renewable energy and off-shore wind energy, there have been concerns that the noises generated from construction and operation of the devices may interfere marine animals’ communication. In this research, a underwater sound model is developed to simulate sound prorogation generated by marine-hydrokinetic energy (MHK) devices or offshore wind (OSW) energy platforms. Finite volume and finite difference methods are developed to solve the 3D Helmholtz equation of sound propagation in the coastal environment. For finite volume method, the grid system consists of triangular grids in horizontal plane and sigma-layers in vertical dimension. A 3D sparse matrix solver with complex coefficients is formed for solving the resulting acoustic pressure field. The Complex Shifted Laplacian Preconditioner (CSLP) method is applied to efficiently solve the matrix system iteratively with MPI parallelization using a high performance cluster. The sound model is then coupled with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for simulating sound propagation generated by human activities in a range-dependent setting, such as offshore wind energy platform constructions and tidal stream turbines. As a proof of concept, initial validation of the finite difference solver is presented for two coastal wedge problems. Validation of finite volume method will be reported separately.

  8. Assessment of Urbanization on the Integrated Land-Ocean-Atmosphere Environment in Coastal Metropolis in Preparation for HyspIRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequera, Pedro; McDonald, Kyle C.; Gonzalez, Jorge; Arend, Mark; Krakauer, Nir; Bornstein, Robert; Luvll, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The need for comprehensive studies of the relationships between past and projected changes of regional climate and human activity in comple x urban environments has been well established. The HyspIRI preparato ry airborne activities in California, associated science and applicat ions research, and eventually HyspIRI itself provide an unprecedented opportunity for development and implementation of an integrated data and modeling analysis system focused on coastal urban environments. We will utilize HyspIRI preparatory data collections in developing ne w remote sensing-based tools for investigating the integrated urban e nvironment, emphasizing weather, climate, and energy demands in compl ex coastal cities.

  9. Preliminary investigation of a sensitive biomarker of organotin pollution in Chinese coastal aquatic environment and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qunfang; Li Zhongyang; Jiang Guibin; Yang Ruiqiang

    2003-01-01

    A new sensitive biomarker can be potentially used to indicate the pollution status of organotin in oceanic environment. - In nine batches of sea bivalves collected from Chinese coastal cities during the year of 2000 to 2002, a special sample named Mya arenaria was found to have strong ability of butyltin accumulation compared with the other sampled bivalves in the corresponding batches. Tributyltin compound was the predominant pollutant with the detection rate high up to 100%. Special high levels of μg Sn/g were detected in some Mya arenaria samples. The results obtained showed that Mya arenaria was potentially a biomarker to indicate organotin pollution in coastal aquatic environment

  10. Reproductive phenology of Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae in a coastal restinga environment in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.

  11. Reproductive phenology of Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae) in a coastal restinga environment in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F N; Valente, R M; Rêgo, M M C; Esposito, M C

    2017-03-01

    The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.

  12. Study of 210Po and 210Pb in the riverine environments of coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Rajashekara, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured in soil and sediment samples collected from the major rivers Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi of Coastal Karnataka. The activity of these two radionuclides were determined by radiochemical separation of 210 Po and counting the activity using a ZnS(Ag) Alpha counter. The activity of 210 Pb was higher than that of 210 Po in the riverine environs. The 210 Po and 210 Pb content in sediment was found to increase with silt/clay and organic matter contents. However no significant correlation was found between the activity 210 Po and 210 Pb with pH in sediments. The activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb and influence of physico-chemical parameters on these radionuclides were studied and discussed in this paper.

  13. Multi-Temporal Analysis of Forestry and Coastal Environments Using UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Pádua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to strong improvements and developments achieved in the last decade, it is clear that applied research using remote sensing technology such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs can provide a flexible, efficient, non-destructive, and non-invasive means of acquiring geoscientific data, especially aerial imagery. Simultaneously, there has been an exponential increase in the development of sensors and instruments that can be installed in UAV platforms. By combining the aforementioned factors, unmanned aerial system (UAS setups composed of UAVs, sensors, and ground control stations, have been increasingly used for remote sensing applications, with growing potential and abilities. This paper’s overall goal is to identify advantages and challenges related to the use of UAVs for aerial imagery acquisition in forestry and coastal environments for preservation/prevention contexts. Moreover, the importance of monitoring these environments over time will be demonstrated. To achieve these goals, two case studies using UASs were conducted. The first focuses on phytosanitary problem detection and monitoring of chestnut tree health (Padrela region, Valpaços, Portugal. The acquired high-resolution imagery allowed for the identification of tree canopy cover decline by means of multi-temporal analysis. The second case study enabled the rigorous and non-evasive registry process of topographic changes that occurred in the sandspit of Cabedelo (Douro estuary, Porto, Portugal in different time periods. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the UAS constitutes a low-cost, rigorous, and fairly autonomous form of remote sensing technology, capable of covering large geographical areas and acquiring high precision data to aid decision support systems in forestry preservation and coastal monitoring applications. Its swift evolution makes it a potential big player in remote sensing technologies today and in the near future.

  14. Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) habitat preference in a heterogeneous, urban, coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Nardi; Miller, Cara; Seuront, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding the habitat preference of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in South Australian estuarine environments. The need to overcome this paucity of information is crucial for management and conservation initiatives. This preliminary study investigates the space-time patterns of habitat preference by the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin in the Port Adelaide River-Barker Inlet estuary, a South Australian, urbanised, coastal environment. More specifically, the study aim was to identify a potential preference between bare sand substrate and seagrass beds, the two habitat types present in this environment, through the resighting frequency of recognisable individual dolphins. Photo-identification surveys covering the 118 km2 sanctuary area were conducted over 2 survey periods May to August 2006 and from March 2009 to February 2010. Sighting frequency of recognisable individual Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins established a significant preference for the bare sand habitat. More specifically, 72 and 18% of the individuals sighted at least on two occasions were observed in the bare sand and seagrass habitats respectively. This trend was consistently observed at both seasonal and annual scales, suggesting a consistency in the distinct use of these two habitats. It is anticipated that these results will benefit the further development of management and conservation strategies.

  15. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  16. Methylamine as a nitrogen source for microorganisms from a coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Martin; Grob, Carolina; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Pratscher, Jennifer; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Richnow, Hans H; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2017-06-01

    Nitrogen is a key limiting resource for biomass production in the marine environment. Methylated amines, released from the degradation of osmolytes, could provide a nitrogen source for marine microbes. Thus far, studies in aquatic habitats on the utilization of methylamine, the simplest methylated amine, have mainly focussed on the fate of the carbon from this compound. Various groups of methylotrophs, microorganisms that can grow on one-carbon compounds, use methylamine as a carbon source. Non-methylotrophic microorganisms may also utilize methylamine as a nitrogen source, but little is known about their diversity, especially in the marine environment. In this proof-of-concept study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify microorganisms from a coastal environment that assimilate nitrogen from methylamine. SIP experiments using 15 N methylamine combined with metagenomics and metaproteomics facilitated identification of active methylamine-utilizing Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The draft genomes of two methylamine utilizers were obtained and their metabolism with respect to methylamine was examined. Both bacteria identified in these SIP experiments used the γ-glutamyl-methylamide pathway, found in both methylotrophs and non-methylotrophs, to metabolize methylamine. The utilization of 15 N methylamine also led to the release of 15 N ammonium that was used as nitrogen source by other microorganisms not directly using methylamine. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The socio-economic significance of the Turkish coastal environment for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy for sustainable development. There was no separate data base for the coastal zone so that the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy was not evaluated. In estimating the significance of Turkish coastal cities, indirect methods and the geographical information system were used. In conclusion, it was found that 61.09% of the total national gross domestic product and 50.75% of the national agricultural, 90.98% of the national fisheries, 68.19% of the national tourism and 71.82% of the national industrial gross domestic product came from the coastal zone. It was determined that while coastal cities of Turkey had 28.23% of the national surface area, the coastal district had 12.96%; in other words, 21.5 million (28.04%) of the national population lived in 101.5 thousand km(2) (12.96%) of the national surface area. Approximately 44% of the national gross domestic product comes from the top ten coastal cities. According to the contribution ratio to the national economy of each coastal city, these low-lying coastal cities have about $16 billion risk value. An analysis showed that the coastal zone is very important for the national economy of Turkey and also the pressure on the coastal zone is very high. At a time of increasing pressures on coastal resources of Turkey, the decision-makers need the most up-to-date information on the full range of values these resources provide in order to make decisions that best reflect the public interest.

  18. Evaluation of Virulence Factors In vitro, Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida tropicalis Isolated from the Coastal Environment of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; de Medeiros, Sayama S. T. Q.; de Souza, Luanda B. F. C.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Francisco, Elaine C.; de Araújo, Maria C. B.; Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G.; Neves, Rejane P.; Melo, Analy S. de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated. In general, environmental isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) than C. tropicalis ATCC13803 reference strain, and they also showed increased biofilm production. Most of the isolates presented wrinkled phenotypes on Spider medium (34 isolates, 54.8%). The majority of the isolates also showed higher proteinase production than control strains, but low phospholipase activity. In addition, 35 isolates (56.4%) had high hemolytic activity (hemolysis index > 0.55). With regard to C. tropicalis resistance to osmotic stress, 85.4% of the isolates were able to grow in a liquid medium containing 15% sodium chloride. The strains were highly resistant to the azoles tested (fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole). Fifteen strains were resistant to the three azoles tested (24.2%). Some strains were also resistant to amphotericin B (14 isolates; 22.6%), while all of them were susceptible for the echinocandins tested, except for a single strain of intermediate susceptibility to micafungin. Our results demonstrate that C. tropicalis isolated from the sand can fully express virulence attributes and showed a high persistence capacity on the coastal environment; in addition of showing high minimal inhibitory concentrations to several antifungal drugs used in current clinical practice, demonstrating that environmental isolates may

  19. Monitoring the drastic growth of ship breaking yards in Sitakunda: a threat to the coastal environment of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hasan Muhammad; Mahboob, M Golam; Banu, Mehmuna R; Seker, Dursun Zafer

    2013-05-01

    The vast coastal and marine resources that occur along the southern edge of Bangladesh make it one of the most productive areas of the world. However, due to growing anthropogenic impacts, this area is under considerable environmental pressure from both physical and chemical stress factors. Ship breaking, or the dismantling and demolition of out-of-service ocean-going vessels, has become increasingly common in many coastal areas. To investigate the extent of ship breaking activities in Bangladesh along the Sitakunda coast, various spatial and non-spatial data were obtained, including remote sensing imagery, statistical records and published reports. Impacts to coastal and marine life were documented. Available data show that ship breaking activities cause significant physical disturbance and release toxic materials into the environment, resulting in adverse effects to numerous marine taxonomic groups such as fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, plants, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. Landsat imagery illustrates that the negatively impacted coastal area has grown 308.7 % from 367 ha in 1989 to 1,133 ha in 2010. Physicochemical and biological properties of coastal soil and water indicate substantially elevated pollution that poses a risk of local, regional and even global contamination through sea water and atmospheric transport. While damage to the coastal environment of Bangladesh is a recognized hazard that must be addressed, the economic benefits of ship breaking through job creation and fulfilling the domestic demand for recycled steel must be considered. Rather than an outright ban on beach breaking of ships, the enterprise must be recognized as a true and influential industry that should be held responsible for developing an economically viable and environmentally proactive growth strategy. Evolution of the industry toward a sustainable system can be aided through reasonable and enforceable legislative and judicial action that takes a balanced

  20. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laane, R.W.P.M.; Slijkerman, D.M.E.; Vethaak, A.D.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention

  1. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  2. A spatial pattern analysis of the halophytic species distribution in an arid coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Nasem; Uria-Diez, J; Mateu, J; Youssef, Ali; Stal, Cornelis; El-Bana, Magdy; Magdy, Ahmed; Goossens, Rudi

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining information about the spatial distribution of desert plants is considered as a serious challenge for ecologists and environmental modeling due to the required intensive field work and infrastructures in harsh and remote arid environments. A new method was applied for assessing the spatial distribution of the halophytic species (HS) in an arid coastal environment. This method was based on the object-based image analysis for a high-resolution Google Earth satellite image. The integration of the image processing techniques and field work provided accurate information about the spatial distribution of HS. The extracted objects were based on assumptions that explained the plant-pixel relationship. Three different types of digital image processing techniques were implemented and validated to obtain an accurate HS spatial distribution. A total of 2703 individuals of the HS community were found in the case study, and approximately 82% were located above an elevation of 2 m. The micro-topography exhibited a significant negative relationship with pH and EC (r = -0.79 and -0.81, respectively, p < 0.001). The spatial structure was modeled using stochastic point processes, in particular a hybrid family of Gibbs processes. A new model is proposed that uses a hard-core structure at very short distances, together with a cluster structure in short-to-medium distances and a Poisson structure for larger distances. This model was found to fit the data perfectly well.

  3. Accelerated life assessment of coating on the radar structure components in coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Ming, ZhiMao

    2016-07-04

    This paper aimed to build an accelerated life test scheme and carry out quantitative analysis between accelerated life test in the laboratory and actual service for the coating composed of epoxy primer and polyurethane paint on structure components of some kind of radar served in the coastal environment of South China Sea. The accelerated life test scheme was built based on the service environment and failure analysis of the coating. The quantitative analysis between accelerated life test and actual service was conducted by comparing the gloss loss, discoloration, chalking, blistering, cracking and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the coating. The main factors leading to the coating failure were ultraviolet radiation, temperature, moisture, salt fog and loads, the accelerated life test included ultraviolet radiation, damp heat, thermal shock, fatigue and salt spray. The quantitative relationship was that one cycle of the accelerated life test was equal to actual service for one year. It was established that one cycle of the accelerated life test was equal to actual service for one year. It provided a precise way to predict actual service life of newly developed coatings for the manufacturer.

  4. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and Multispectral Scanner (MSS Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Charles Kerfoot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR, coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS, has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques.

  5. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  6. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  7. Wind direction dependent vertical wind shear and surface roughness parameter in two different coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagavathsingh, A.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.; Sardar Maran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface layer parameterizations are important prerequisites for air pollution dispersion analysis. The turbulent flow characteristics vary at coastal and inland sites where the nuclear facilities are situated. Many pollution sources and their dispersion occur within the roughness sub layer in the lower atmosphere. In this study analysis of wind direction dependence vertical wind shear, surface roughness lengths and surface layer wind condition has been carried out at a coastal and the urban coastal site for the different wind flow regime. The differential response of the near coastal and inland urban site SBL parameters (wind shear, roughness length, etc) was examined as a function of wind direction

  8. Resetting the bar: Establishing baselines for persistent contaminants after Hurricane Sandy in the coastal environments of New Jersey and New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.; Simmons, Dale L.

    2016-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of natural disasters, public health officials and other first responders engage in many activities to protect the public and ecosystems in the affected area. These activities include critical tasks designed to minimize adverse consequences resulting from chemical and microbial contaminant exposures, such as acute disease incidence and transmission. However, once these urgent priorities have been met and situations requiring immediate attention have been stabilized, questions regarding the potential longer term threats to humans and ecosystems associated with persistent contaminant exposures remain. Research conducted to address these questions is frequently challenged by the lack of available baseline contaminant information collected before the event for comparison and perspective. In addition, deployments of field crews and collection of environmental samples typically occur days, weeks, or months after the event. Consequently, during and in the aftermath of disasters, public health agencies commonly advise the public to disinfect water, avoid contact with disturbed infrastructure (such as sewer lines), and (or) refrain from use of recreational waters, with the general focus on acute health threats; however, the persisting effects of such releases on local recreational waters, fisheries, and other estuarine habitats are often undetermined.

  9. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Q.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Walsh, M.M.; Overton, E.B.; Portier, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m -2 . Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  10. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  11. Summary of other human activities in the coastal and marine environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) offers a wealth of opportunity for the profitable and beneficial use of coastal and marine resources – a prospect for a true ocean economy. These benefits are derived from a range of human activities in the coastal...

  12. The coastal environment affects lead and sodium uptake by the moss Hypnum cupressiforme used as an air pollution biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Marie; Leblond, Sébastien; Meyer, Caroline; Rose, Christophe; Lequy, Emeline

    2018-02-01

    Several studies suggest that potential competition exists between marine cations and heavy metals for binding sites on the cell wall of mosses. This competition would impact the heavy metal concentration measured in mosses by biomonitoring programs, which may underestimate air pollution by heavy metals in a coastal environment. In the present study, we aim to identify possible mechanisms affecting lead uptake by mosses in a coastal environment, specifically, the competition between lead (Pb 2+ ) and sodium (Na + ) for binding sites in Hypnum cupressiforme (Hc). We also compared the response of continental and coastal Hc populations to Pb 2+ exposure by immersing the moss samples in artificial solutions that comprised six experimental treatments and subsequently locating and quantifying Pb 2+ and Na + using the sequential elution technique and X-ray microanalyses with a scanning electron microscope. We demonstrated that high concentrations of Pb 2+ prevented Na + from binding to the cell wall. We also examined the effect of the salt acclimation of Hc on Pb 2+ and Na + accumulation. Coastal Hc populations accumulated more Na and less Pb than continental Hc populations in all treatments. Moreover, our results showed treatment effects on the intra/extracellular distribution of Na + , as well as site. This feedback on the influence of salt stress tolerance on Pb 2+ uptake by mosses requires further study and can be investigated for other heavy metals, leading to a better use of mosses as biomonitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mercury in contaminated coastal environments; a case study: the Gulf of Trieste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, M; Covelli, S; Faganeli, J; Logar, M; Mandić, V; Rajar, R; Sirca, A; Zagar, D

    1999-09-30

    Some general facts, uncertainties and gaps in current knowledge of Hg cycling in coastal and oceanic environments are given. As a case study the Gulf of Trieste is chosen. The Gulf is subject to substantial Hg pollution, originating from the Soca river, that drains the cinnabar deposits of the world's second largest Hg mining area, Idrija, Slovenia. The Gulf belongs to one of the most polluted areas in the Mediterranean. Apart from Hg problems, the Gulf is also a subject to industrial and sewage pollution. Due to deteriorating water quality in the Gulf there is a great concern that Hg can be remobilized from sediments to the water column as well as enhance methylation rates which may consequently increase already elevated Hg levels in aquatic organisms. The paper presents data from a recent study which aims to assess the extent of contamination of the Gulf of Trieste after the closure of the Hg mine. Mercury and methylmercury were measured in various environmental compartments (estuarine and marine waters, sediments, and organisms) during the period 1995-1997. Data obtained show that even 10 years after closure of the Hg mine, Hg concentrations in river sediments and water are still very high and did not show the expected decrease of Hg in the Gulf of Trieste. A provisional annual mercury mass balance was established for the Gulf of Trieste showing that the major source of inorganic mercury is still the River Soca (Isonzo) while the major source of methylmercury is the bottom sediment of the Gulf.

  14. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  15. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be

  16. Valuing the risk reduction of coastal ecosystems in data poor environments: an application in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, B. G.; Toimil, A.; Escudero, M.; Menendez, P.; Losada, I. J.; Beck, M. W.; Secaira, F.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal risks are increasing from both economic growth and climate change. Understanding such risks is critical to assessing adaptation needs and finding cost effective solutions for coastal sustainability. Interest is growing in the role that nature-based measures can play in adapting to climate change. Here we apply and advance a framework to value the risk reduction potential of coastal ecosystems, with an application in a large scale domain, the coast of Quintana Roo, México, relevant for coastal policy and management, but with limited data. We build from simple to use open-source tools. We first assess the hazards using stochastic simulation of historical tropical storms and inferring two scenarios of future climate change for the next 20 years, which include the effect of sea level rise and changes in frequency and intensity of storms. For each storm, we obtain wave and surge fields using parametrical models, corrected with pre-computed static wind surge numerical simulations. We then assess losses on capital stock and hotels and calculate total people flooded, after accounting for the effect of coastal ecosystems in reducing coastal hazards. We inferred the location of major barrier reefs and dune systems using available satellite imagery, and sections of bathymetry and elevation data. We also digitalized the surface of beaches and location of coastal structures from satellite imagery. In a poor data environment, where there is not bathymetry data for the whole of the region, we inferred representative coastal profiles of coral reef and dune sections and validated at available sections with measured data. Because we account for the effect of reefs, dunes and mangroves in coastal profiles every 200 m of shoreline, we are able to estimate the value of such ecosystems by comparing with benchmark simulations when we take them out of the propagation and flood model. Although limited in accuracy in comparison to more complex modeling, this approach is able to

  17. Current Measurements and Overwash Monitoring Using Tilt Current Meters in Three Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, N. S.; Sherwood, C. R.; Decarlo, T. M.; Grant, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCMs) provide accurate, cost effective measurements of near-bottom current velocities. Many studies in coastal environments require current measurements, which are frequently made with Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADPs). ADPs are expensive, however, and may not be suitable for locations where there is significant risk of damage, loss, or theft or where a large spatial array of measurements is required. TCMs, by contrast, are smaller, less expensive, and easier to deploy. This study tested TCMs in three sites to determine their suitability for use in research applications. TCMs are based on the drag-tilt principle, where the instrument tilts in response to current. The meter consists of a buoyant float with an onboard accelerometer, three-axis tilt sensor, three-axis magnetometer (compass), and a data logger. Current measurements are derived by post processing the tilt and compass values and converting them to velocity using empirical calibration data. Large data-storage capacity (4 GB) and low power requirements allow long deployments (many months) at high sample rates (16 Hz). We demonstrate the utility of TCM current measurements on a reef at Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, and in Vineyard Sound off Cape Cod, where the TCM performance was evaluated against ADP measurements. We have also used the TCM to record waves during an overwash event on a Cape Cod barrier beach during a winter storm. The TCM recorded waves as they came through the overwash channel, and the data were in agreement with the water-level record used as a reference. These tests demonstrate that TCMs may be used in a variety of near shore environments and have the potential to significantly increase the density of meters in future studies were current measurements are required.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of steroids, hormones and selected pharmaceuticals in South Florida coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simrat P; Azua, Arlette; Chaudhary, Amit; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L; Gardinali, Piero R

    2010-02-01

    The common occurrence of human derived contaminants like pharmaceuticals, steroids and hormones in surface waters has raised the awareness of the role played by the release of treated or untreated sewage in the water quality along sensitive coastal ecosystems. South Florida is home of many important protected environments ranging from wetlands to coral reefs which are in close proximity to large metropolitan cities. Because, large portions of South Florida and most of the Florida Keys population are not served by modern sewage treatment plants and rely heavily on the use of septic systems, a comprehensive survey of selected human waste contamination markers was conducted in three areas to assess water quality with respect to non-traditional micro-constituents. This study documents the occurrence and distribution of fifteen hormones and steroids and five commonly detected pharmaceuticals in surface water samples collected from different near shore environments along South Florida between 2004 and 2006. The compounds most frequently detected were: cholesterol, caffeine, estrone, DEET, coprostanol, biphenol-A, beta-estradiol, and triclosan. The concentration detected for estrone and beta-estradiol were up to 5.2 and 1.8 ng/L, respectively. Concentrations of caffeine (5.5-68 ng/L) and DEET (4.8-49 ng/L) were generally higher and more prevalent than were the steroids. Distribution of microconstituents was site specific likely reflecting a diversity of sources. In addition to chemical analysis, the yeast estrogen screen assay was used to screen the samples for estrogen equivalency. Overall, the results show that water collected from inland canals and restricted circulation water bodies adjacent to heavily populated areas had high concentrations of multiple steroids, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products while open bay waters were largely devoid of the target analytes.

  19. Landscape characteristics of Rhizophora mangle forests and propagule deposition in coastal environments of Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, R.; Middleton, B.; Yan, C.; Zuro, M.; Hartman, H.

    2005-01-01

    Field dispersal studies are seldom conducted at regional scales even though reliable information on mid-range dispersal distance is essential for models of colonization. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential distance of dispersal of Rhizophora mangle propagules by comparing deposition density with landscape characteristics of mangrove forests. Propagule density was estimated at various distances to mangrove sources (R. mangle) on beaches in southwestern Florida in both high-and low-energy environments, either facing open gulf waters vs. sheltered, respectively. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to identify source forests and to determine their landscape characteristics (forest size and distance to deposition area) for the regression analyses. Our results indicated that increasing density of propagules stranded on beaches was related negatively to the distance of the deposition sites from the nearest stands of R. mangle and that deposition was greatly diminished 2 km or more from the source. Measures of fragmentation such as the area of the R. mangle forests were related to propagule deposition but only in low-energy environments. Our results suggest that geographic models involving the colonization of coastal mangrove systems should include dispersal dynamics at mid-range scales, i.e., for our purposes here, beyond the local scale of the forest and up to 5 km distant. Studies of mangrove propagule deposition at various spatial scales are key to understanding regeneration limitations in natural gaps and restoration areas. Therefore, our study of mid-range propagule dispersal has broad application to plant ecology, restoration, and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  20. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  1. Measuring and building resilience after big storms: Lessons learned from Super-Storm Sandy for the Harvey, Irma, Jose, and Maria coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.; Penn, K. M.; Taylor, S. M.; Subramanian, B.; Bennett, R.

    2017-12-01

    As we recover from recent large storms, we need information to support increased environmental and socio-economic resilience of the Nation's coasts. Defining baseline conditions, tracking effects of mitigation actions, and measuring the uncertainty of resilience to future disturbance are essential so that the best management practices can be determined. The US Dept. of the Interior invested over $787 million dollars in 2013 to understand and mitigate coastal storm vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of the Northeast coast following Super-Storm Sandy. Several lessons-learned from that investment have direct application to mitigation and restoration needs following Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Jose and Maria. New models of inundation, overwash, and erosion, developed during the Sandy projects have already been applied to coastlines before and after these recent storms. Results from wetland, beach, back-bay, estuary, and built-environment projects improved models of inundation and erosion from surge and waves. Tests of nature-based infrastructure for mitigating coastal disturbance yielded new concepts for best-practices. Ecological and socio-economic measurements established for detecting disturbance and tracking recovery provide baseline data critical to early detection of vulnerabilities. The Sandy lessons and preliminary applications on the recent storms could help define best-resilience practices before more costly mitigation or restoration efforts are required.

  2. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms associated with monsoonal influences and coastal environments in the sea areas either side of the Indochina Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dan Ling; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shi, Ping; Takahashi, Wataru; Guan, Lei; Shimada, Teruhisa; Sakaida, Futoki; Isoguchi, Osamu

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) is a semienclosed sea on the west and southwest side of the Indochina Peninsula and connects with the near-coastal waters of the South China Sea (SCS) on the east and northeast side of the Malay Peninsula. The objective of the present study is to understand dynamic features of the phytoplankton biology in the GoT and the nearby SCS, on both sides of the Indochina Peninsula, using remote-sensing measurements of chlorophyll-a (Chl a), sea surface temperature (SST), and surface vector winds obtained during the period from September 1997 to March 2003. Results show that seasonal variations of the phytoplankton blooms are primarily controlled by the monsoonal winds and related coastal environments. The GoT and the near-coastal SCS have a peak in the averaged monthly Chl a in December and January, which is associated with the winter northeaster monsoon. The near-coastal SCS have another big peak in the averaged monthly Chl a in summer (July to September), which is associated with the summer southwest monsoon. The offshore bloom in the GoT occurs in its southern part and enhances the December-January peak of averaged monthly Chl a. By contrast, the offshore bloom in the nearby SCS is observed northeast of the Peninsula, and represents the primary source of the July-September peak Chl a. Here the coastal upwelling associated with the offshore Ekman transport caused by the coastal surface winds parallel to the Vietnam east coast gives physical conditions favorable to the development of offshore phytoplankton blooms. The Mekong River discharge waters flow in different directions, depending on the monsoon winds, and contributes to seasonal blooms on both sides of the Peninsula.

  3. Climate Change Anticipation on Supporting Capacity of Fishing Environment in the Coastal Area of Tanjungmas Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Indah Kurniasih Wahyu; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is no longer a debate about its existence but already a problem shared between communities, between agencies, between countries even global for handling serious because so many aspects of life and the environment is affected, especially for communities in coastal environments This climate change is a threat to the Earth, because it can affect all aspects of life and will damage the balance of life of Earth Climate change happens slowly in a fairly long period of time and it is a change that is hard to avoid. These Phenomena will give effect to the various facets of life. Semarang as areas located to Java and bordering the Java Sea are at high risk exposed to the impacts of climate change Also not a few residents of the city of Semarang who settled in the northern part of the city of Semarang and also have a livelihood as farmers/peasants and fishermen Many industrial centers or attractions that are prone to impacted by climate change. Thus, the anticipation of climate change on resources support neighborhood of fishermen in the coastal area of Tanjungmas Semarang interesting for further review. This study aims to find out more the influence of climate change on the environment of fishing identify potential danger due to the impacts of climate change on coastal areas of Tanjungmas Semarang The research was conducted through surveys, interviews and field observation without a list of questions to obtain primary and secondary data As for the analysis undertaken, namely the analysis of climate change on the coastal environment, the analysis of productivity of fishermen as well as the analysis of the likelihood of disaster risk at the coast due to climate change. From the results of the study the occurrence of sea rise as one of the indicators of climate change in the coastal City of Semarang to reach 0.8 mm/year and average soil degradation that ranged between 5 - 12 cm/year cause most coastal communities as well as the social life of the agricultural

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetlands classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification system for...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of South Florida classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for South...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains vector polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of South Florida classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  8. An Overview of Biodegradation of LNAPLs in Coastal (Semi)-arid Environment.

    KAUST Repository

    Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Hassanizadeh, S Majid

    2011-01-01

    environmental variables, and their remediation favoring customization requires a sound understanding of their integrated behavior on fate and transport of LNAPLs under site-specific conditions. The arid and semi-arid coastal sites are characterized by specific

  9. Changes of hydrological environment and their influences on coastal wetlands in the southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Sun, Hongxia; Xia, Dongxing

    2006-08-01

    The structure and function of the coastal wetland ecosystem in the southern Laizhou Bay have been changed greatly and influenced by regional hydrological changes. The coastal wetlands have degraded significantly during the latest 30 years due to successive drought, decreasing of runoff, pollution, underground saline water intrusion, and aggravating marine disasters such as storm tides and sea level rising. Most archaic lakes have vanished, while artificial wetlands have been extending since natural coastal wetlands replaced by salt areas and ponds of shrimps and crabs. The pollution of sediments in inter-tidal wetlands and the pollution of water quality in sub-tidal wetlands are getting worse and therefore "red tides" happen more often than before. The biodiversity in the study area has been decreased. Further studies are still needed to protect the degraded coastal wetlands in the area.

  10. Biomarkers of physiological responses of Octopus vulgaris to different coastal environments in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero-Ríos, J; Sureda, A; Capó, X; Oliver-Codorniú, M; Arechavala-Lopez, P

    2018-03-01

    The increase of pollutants in coastal seawater could produce several harmful biological effects on marine organisms related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing cellular and tissue damages through oxidative stress mechanisms. Common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) inhabiting coastal areas under high anthropogenic activity of Mallorca (W-Mediterranean Sea) have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant enzyme responses. Analyzing the digestive glands, octopuses from human-altered coastal areas showed higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to octopuses from non-influenced coastal waters (i.e. marine reserve area). Higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations and lack of malondialdehyde (MDA) variations also reflect adaptations of O. vulgaris to polluted areas. This is the first study assessing the levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers on O. vulgaris in the Mediterranean Sea, revealing their usefulness to assess diverse environmental pollution effects on this relevant ecological and commercial species.

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains vector lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Florida Panhandle, classified according to the Environmental...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), floating aquatic vegetation (FAV), and rare/sensitive coastal...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Southern...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Central...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Northern...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for New...

  17. Some observations on the state of coastal environment of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    Uring the 1980's than at present. However, extraction of river sand is very active in the rivers of north Goa in particular. 4. Infrastructure: Facilities such as laying of roads in sandy areas are common at many places where a former path existed as access... with no corresponding infrastructure facilities are being pushed. Attention is only paid to short term gains by ignoring long term effects. The result is seen in the form of large scale violations of CRZ regulations with consequent damage to ecosystems along the open...

  18. Development of multi-year land cover data to assess wildfire impacts to coastal watersheds and the nearshore environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D.

    In the Mediterranean ecosystems of coastal California, wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds that transport sediment and nutrients to the adjacent nearshore oceanic environment. We assess the impact of two wildfires that burned in 2008 on land cover and to the nearshore environment along the Big Sur coast in central California. We created a multi-year land cover dataset to assess changes to coastal watersheds as a result of fire. This land cover dataset was then used to model changes in nonpoint source pollutants transported to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire increases in percent export compared to pre-fire years and also link wildfire severity to the specific land cover changes that subsequently increase exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment. This approach is a replicable across watersheds and also provides a framework for including the nearshore environment as a value at risk terrestrial land management revolving around wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and other activities that change land cover at a landscape scale.

  19. Coastal Climate Change Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation in the Natural and Built Environments: Progress of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Herman, B.; Vernaza-Hernández, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Area Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership, funded by the National Science Foundation, seeks to develop new ways to educate citizens about global climate change. The core themes are sea level rise and impacts of climate change in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea. CACCE focuses on helping partners, educators, students, and the general public gain a fundamental and working understanding of the interrelation among the natural environment, built environment, and social aspects in the context of climate change in coastal regions. To this end, CACCE's objectives reported here include: 1) defining the current state of awareness, perceptions, and literacy about the impacts of climate change; and 2) testing a model of transdisciplinary research and learning as a means of training a new generation of climate professionals. Objective one is met in part by CACCE survey efforts that reveal Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers hold many non-scientific views about climate change and climate change science and provide inadequate instruction about climate change. Associated with objective two are five Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL) pilot projects underway in schools in Florida and Puerto Rico. In the CACCE Partnership the stakeholders include: students (K-16 and graduate); teachers and education researchers; informal science educators; scientists and engineers; business and industry; policy makers; and community members. CACCE combines interdisciplinary research with action research and community-based participatory research in a way that is best described as "transdisciplinary". Learning occurs in all spheres of interactions among stakeholders as they engage in scientific, educational, community and business activities through their legitimate peripheral participation in research communities of practice. We will describe the process of seeking and building partnerships, and call for a dialogue

  20. Can porosity affect the hyperspectral signature of sandy landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Kimmel, Bradley W.

    2017-10-01

    Porosity is a fundamental property of sand deposits found in a wide range of landscapes, from beaches to dune fields. As a primary determinant of the density and permeability of sediments, it represents a central element in geophysical studies involving basin modeling and coastal erosion as well as geoaccoustics and geochemical investigations aiming at the understanding of sediment transport and water diffusion properties of sandy landscapes. These applications highlight the importance of obtaining reliable porosity estimations, which remains an elusive task, notably through remote sensing. In this work, we aim to contribute to the strengthening of the knowledge basis required for the development of new technologies for the remote monitoring of environmentally-triggered changes in sandy landscapes. Accordingly, we employ an in silico investigation approach to assess the effects of porosity variations on the reflectance of sandy landscapes in the visible and near-infrared spectral domains. More specifically, we perform predictive computer simulations using SPLITS, a hyperspectral light transport model for particulate materials that takes into account actual sand characterization data. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive investigation relating porosity to the reflectance responses of sandy landscapes. Our findings indicate that the putative dependence of these responses on porosity may be considerably less pronounced than its dependence on other properties such as grain size and shape. Hence, future initiatives for the remote quantification of porosity will likely require reflectance sensors with a high degree of sensitivity.

  1. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  2. Benthic Foraminifera as bio-indicators of anthropogenic impacts in coastal environments: Acqua dei Corsari area case study (Palermo, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musco, Marianna; Cuttitta, Angela; Bicchi, Erica; Quinci, Enza Maria; Sprovieri, Mario; Tranchida, Giorgio; Giaramita, Luigi; Traina, Anna; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gherardi, Serena; Mercurio, Pietro; Siragusa, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2017-04-15

    This study investigates living benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of anthropogenic activities in a coastal area within the Gulf of Palermo (Sicily, Italy), affected by industrial and urban activities, and evaluates the environmental quality through the calibration of a Tolerant Species index (%TS std ). Sediments from 6 stations were sampled along a bathymetric transect from the coast to offshore. Sediment grain size, TOC, major, minor and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were compared to benthic foraminiferal assemblages and species at each station. Diversity and density of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were not affected by the presence of pollutants, while tolerant species increased with organic (TOC and PAHs) or chemical (As and Pb) concentrations. Moreover, the calibration of the %TS std formula to >125μm foraminiferal assemblage, gives a detailed description of environmental quality along the transect, representing a good and sensitive tool to evaluate marine coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on Polonium-210 and Lead-210 aspects in a near shore coastal environment at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to summarize the findings from a comprehensive research investigation, related to polonium-210 and lead-210 aspects in a confined near shore coastal marine environment at the site of Kalpakkam nuclear complex. The site hosts some major nuclear installations, the main units being a nuclear power station, fast breeder reactor units, reprocessing facilities and supporting facilities. These investigation have been carried out to evaluate the natural radiation exposures of the resident human population in the neighbourhood of the site complex, and compute the additional potential doses to the community, arising from operation of nuclear facilities. An added significance, surfaced during the study, was the presence of a higher natural radiation background in the study area, due to the occurrence of monazite - a thorium mineral - bearing beach sands in vast stretches of the coastal areas

  4. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  5. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  6. Evaluating Environment, Erosion and Sedimentation Aspects in Coastal Area to Determine Priority Handling (A Case Study in Jepara Regency, northern Central Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, S. I.; Adi, H. P.

    2018-04-01

    Many areas of the northern coastal in Central Java, Indonesia, have been suffering from damage. One of the areas is Jepara, which has been experiencing this kind of damage for 7.6 kilometres from total 72 kilometres long beach. All damages are mostly caused by coastal erosion, sedimentation, environment and tidal flooding. Several efforts have been done, such as replanting mangroves, building revetment and groins, but it still could not mitigated the coastal damage. The purposes of this study are to map the coastal damages, to analyze handling priority and to determine coastal protection model. The method used are by identifying and plotting the coastal damage on the map, assessing score of each variable, and determining the handling priority and suitable coastal protection model. There are five levels of coastal damage used in this study, namely as light damage, medium, heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy. Based on the priority assessment of coastal damage, it needs to be followed up by designing in detail and implementing through soft structure for example mangrove, sand nourishes and hard structure, such as breakwater, groins and revetment.

  7. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  8. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) in coastal environments of Southeast Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Botello, A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Rueda-Quintana, L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses to determine the presence and concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) were carried out in sediments and estuarine organisms (Crassostrea virginica) from five coastal lagoons of the Southeast Gulf of Mexico. The results of this study show high levels of POP's in sediments with high concentration of Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin and ppDDT, either in sediments or biological tissues. According to national regulations, the use and dispersion of these chemical have been severely restricted or totally prohibited in developed countries, however their presence in coastal areas indicate an extensive use and recent application of them. (author)

  9. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  10. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  11. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g −1 (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. -- Highlights: • Total and methylmercury in marine fish from estuarine and coastal ecosystems were compared. • Hg levels were generally low in the coastal wild fish in southern China. • Overfishing and decreased wetland coverage may be responsible for the low Hg concentration. • Stable isotopes signatures reveal that the two fish communities had contrasting trophic structures. -- Overfishing and habitat-specific geochemical properties are related to the low Hg concentrations in the wild fish

  12. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  13. Analysis of storm-tide impacts from Hurricane Sandy in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Hearn, Paul P.; Rahav, Ami N.; Behrens, Riley; Finkelstein, Jason S.; Monti, Jack; Simonson, Amy E.

    2015-07-21

    The hybrid cyclone-nor’easter known as Hurricane Sandy affected the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States during October 28-30, 2012, causing extensive coastal flooding. Prior to storm landfall, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network from Virginia to Maine to record the storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Sandy. This sensor network augmented USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) networks of permanent monitoring sites that also documented storm surge. Continuous data from these networks were supplemented by an extensive post-storm high-water-mark (HWM) flagging and surveying campaign. The sensor deployment and HWM campaign were conducted under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The need for hydrologic interpretation of monitoring data to assist in flood-damage analysis and future flood mitigation prompted the current analysis of Hurricane Sandy by the USGS under this FEMA mission assignment.

  14. Reactive and Organic Halogen Species in Three Different European Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, U.; Peters, C.; Pechtl, S.

    2005-12-01

    Within this contribution results of three field campaigns using active longpath DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) for the study of reactive halogen species (RHS) BrO, IO, OIO and I2 are presented. Two recent field campaigns took place in Spring 2002 in Dagebuell at the German North Sea Coast and 2003 in Lilia at the French Atlantic Coast of Brittany. Both sites represent coastal environments, characterized by extended intertidal zones and a moderately polluted atmosphere, with NO2 levels of up to 8 ppb. However, the sites show strong differences in their respective bioactivity. A great variety of macroalgae appeared over extended areas in Brittany, whereas algae were localized in small and rare spots at the German North Sea Coast. During these field campaigns volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) were determined by GC/ECD-ICPMS in air and water. Due to the spatial distribution of macroalgae at the German North Sea Coast clear evidence was for a connection between elevated levels of VHOCs and the appearance of macroalgae. Extraordinarily high concentrations of several VHOCs, specially CH3I and CH3Br of up to 1830 pptv and 875 pptv, respectively, were observed at the coast of Brittany, demonstrating the outstanding level of bioactivity there. CH2I2, an important source species for reactive iodine in the atmosphere due its short photolytic lifetime of only a few minutes, could be detected of up to 20 pptv. The IO mixing ratio reached up to 7.7±0.5 ppt (pmol/mol) during the day, in reasonable agreement with model studies designed to represent the meteorological and chemical conditions in Brittany. Since macroalgae under oxidative stress are suggested to be a further source for I2 in the marine boundary layer, spectra in the 500-600 nm range were re-analyzed taken during the 1998 PARFORCE campaign in Mace Head, Ireland, which had not previously been analyzed for I2. Molecular iodine could be clearly identified above the detection limit (~20

  15. Sand fences: An environment-friendly technique to restore degraded coastal dunes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    of prevailing winds (Matias et al. 2005). Our observations show that sand gets deposited 2 to 6 m downwind behind artificial barriers lying on the beach. A series of fences can therefore intercept wind-blown sand over a considerable area along the frontal beach..., but fashioned artificially; (e) Restoration of coastal dunes can be adopted wherever these features are damaged due to natural processes or human interference. Acknowledgements: The author is grateful to the Director, NIO, Goa, for permission to publish...

  16. Effect of urbanization in a coastal region on sea breeze and urban thermal environment

    OpenAIRE

    河原, 能久; 川又, 孝太郎; 玉井, 信行

    1994-01-01

    Effect of land use development in a coastal region on heat island phenomenon is studied numerically by an urban climate model that employs the k-e turbulence model and an eddy diffusivity model for the transport of momentum, temperature and moisture in the Eckman layer together with a heat balance model for the surface boundary layer and the soil layer. Numerical simulations are carried out for a simplified terrain which consists of sea and land. Changes in wind velocity, temperature and heat...

  17. Constrains in gamma spectrometry analysis of fallout 137Cs in coastal marine environment of Arabian sea in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartandel, S.J.; Jha, S.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an accurate faster gamma spectrometry method for measuring the low level activity concentrations of 137 Cs using in situ pre-concentration technique on copper ferrocyanide cartridge was standardized. Due to unavailability of reference standard in the copper ferrocyanide matrix, efficiency calibration curves were plotted using RGU and RGTh reference standards. To harmonize the difference in density of standard and sample the required density correction factors for photo peak efficiency were generated. The in situ pre-concentration technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was applied for activity determination in surface seawater from eight locations in the coastal marine environment of Arabian Sea. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs ranged between 0.71 and 0.91 Bq/m 3 . Higher activity concentrations were observed at location with latitude, longitude of 21.6 deg N, 69.57 deg E as compared to concentration observed at location with latitude, longitude 16.98 deg N, 73.25 deg E. The observed concentrations were found to be in range of data reported in Asia-Pacific Marine radioactive database (ASPARMARD). The results will fill up the gaps in the existing database. The generated data will be useful for monitoring fresh input of anthropogenic radionuclide into coastal marine environment for post Fukushima environmental assessment. (author)

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Subtidal Sediments from Polar and Subpolar Coastal Environments Highlights the Relevance of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Degradation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinola, Fernando J.; Dionisi, Hebe M.; Borglin, Sharon; Brislawn, Colin J.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mac Cormack, Walter P.; Carroll, Jolynn; Sjoling, Sara; Lozada , Mariana

    2018-01-02

    In this work, we analyzed the community structure and metabolic potential of sediment microbial communities in high-latitude coastal environments subjected to low to moderate levels of chronic pollution. Subtidal sediments from four low-energy inlets located in polar and subpolar regions from both Hemispheres were analyzed using large-scale 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing. Communities showed high diversity (Shannon’s index 6.8 to 10.2), with distinct phylogenetic structures (<40% shared taxa at the Phylum level among regions) but similar metabolic potential in terms of sequences assigned to KOs. Environmental factors (mainly salinity, temperature, and in less extent organic pollution) were drivers of both phylogenetic and functional traits. Bacterial taxa correlating with hydrocarbon pollution included families of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic lifestyle, such as Desulfuromonadaceae, Geobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae. In accordance, biomarker genes for anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation (bamA, ebdA, bcrA, and bssA) were prevalent, only outnumbered by alkB, and their sequences were taxonomically binned to the same bacterial groups. BssA-assigned metagenomic sequences showed an extremely wide diversity distributed all along the phylogeny known for this gene, including bssA sensu stricto, nmsA, assA, and other clusters from poorly or not yet described variants. This work increases our understanding of microbial community patterns in cold coastal sediments, and highlights the relevance of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in subtidal environments.

  19. Evolution of coastal and marine environments during the Holocene transgression. Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, F.; Pérez-Arlucea, M.; Méndez, G.; Francés, G.; Alejo, I.; González, D.; Nombela, M.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal deposits are not prominent in the Ria de Vigo, high cliffs dominate the coast line, but several well-preserved sedimentary areas are observed. Beach and aeolian sand dunes are preserved in protected bays along margins between low cliffs, as Playa America, Patos and Samil. Several rivers form prominent estuaries such as the Verdugo-Oitaven, the Minor and the Lagares. Tidal flats are well preserved in the San Simon embayment and small areas of tidal flats and marshes can be found elsewhere associated with estuaries and protected by sandy spits as the Ramallosa tidal Complex, Moaña and San Simón. Four sedimentary areas were selected to study vertical sediment distribution. 6 cores were obtained. Sediment thicknesses range between 4.0m and 26.0 m. Vertical sediment distributions show 6 different lithologic units from basal fluvial (A), estuarine (B), tidal flat and peat fens (C), muddy subtidal bay (D), estuarine (E) and beach barrier (F). 10 14C age determinations were obtained from the longest core (Ladeira N) located at the Ramallosa beach barrier-lagoon complex. The oldest sample located at 22 m yields an age of 8177 y. BP in unit (B) allowing to constrain most of sediment evolution in the holocene transgressive context. The lower unit (A) composed mainly of fluvial gravels, and deposited in a palaeovalley, is attributed to the Younger Dryas although the LST could be also represented in these deposits. Units B, C and D configure the TST showing an initial rapid increase in water depth at 8177 y. BP and subsequent shallowing conditions due to progressive aggradation until 4809 y BP. Units E and F mark the HST eustatic stage being characterised by progradational shallow marine conditions and beach barrier progressive enclosing of the complex. Sedimentation rates were calculated at 7 intervals. An upward decrease is observed from 8177 y BP to 2001 y. BP, followed by a strong sudden increase, mostly in the last 500 years. Hydrology and geomorphology of river

  20. 78 FR 48659 - Board on Coastal Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force and Hurricane Sandy Coastal Projects Performance Evaluation Study... Station, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199, phone 601-634-2513, or [email protected] fund requirements for the conduct of research and development of research projects in consonance with...

  1. Risks for marine coastal ecosystems from anthropogenic loading in the Leningrad NPP environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimina, L.; Zimin, V.; Shchukina, T.; Pomiluiko, G.; Ryabova, V.

    1998-01-01

    Data on conditions and variations in phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish communities, chlorophyll 'a' and hydrochemical parameters in the coastal waters of Koporskaya Bay (cooling water body of the Leningrad NPP) were analyzed. The most significant anthropogenic factors issued from the Leningrad nuclear power plant activity are of non-radioactive character, as it was recognized during long-time (20 years) ecological monitoring. Main factors influenced ecosystem of the NPP cooling water body are thermal water discharge and nutrient outflows from the bay catchment area. (authors)

  2. Evolution of mid-Atlantic coastal and back-barrier estuary environments in response to a hurricane: Implications for barrier-estuary connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Brian D.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.; Navoy, Anthony S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of coupled barrier island-estuary storm response are rare. Hurricane Sandy made landfall during an investigation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor estuary that included water quality monitoring, geomorphologic characterization, and numerical modeling; this provided an opportunity to characterize the storm response of the barrier island-estuary system. Barrier island morphologic response was characterized by significant changes in shoreline position, dune elevation, and beach volume; morphologic changes within the estuary were less dramatic with a net gain of only 200,000 m3 of sediment. When observed, estuarine deposition was adjacent to the back-barrier shoreline or collocated with maximum estuary depths. Estuarine sedimentologic changes correlated well with bed shear stresses derived from numerically simulated storm conditions, suggesting that change is linked to winnowing from elevated storm-related wave-current interactions rather than deposition. Rapid storm-related changes in estuarine water level, turbidity, and salinity were coincident with minima in island and estuarine widths, which may have influenced the location of two barrier island breaches. Barrier-estuary connectivity, or the transport of sediment from barrier island to estuary, was influenced by barrier island land use and width. Coupled assessments like this one provide critical information about storm-related coastal and estuarine sediment transport that may not be evident from investigations that consider only one component of the coastal system.

  3. Evaluation of reproductive endocrine status in hornyhead turbot sampled from Southern California's urbanized coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jesus A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Bay, Steven M; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Gully, Joseph R; Cash, Curtis; Baker, Michael; Stebbins, Timothy D; Hardiman, Gary; Kelley, Kevin M

    2012-12-01

    As part of a regionwide collaboration to determine the occurrence of contaminants and biological effects in coastal ecosystems offshore of urban southern California, the present study characterized the reproductive endocrinology of an indigenous flatfish, the hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis), and compared groups sampled from different study sites representing varying degrees of pollution to screen for potential endocrine disruptive effects. Turbot were sampled from locations near the coastal discharge sites of four large municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, USA, and were compared with fish sampled from three far-field reference locations in the region. Despite environmental presence of both legacy contaminants and contaminants of emerging concern and evidence for fish exposure to several classes of contaminants, both males and females generally exhibited coordinated seasonal reproductive cycles at all study sites. Patterns observed included peaks in sex steroids (17β-estradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) in the spring and low levels in the fall, changes corresponding to similarly timed gonadal changes and plasma vitellogenin concentrations in females. Comparisons between fish captured at the different study sites demonstrated some regional differences in plasma levels of estrogens and androgens, indicative of location-associated effects on the endocrine system. The observed differences, however, could not be linked to the ocean discharge locations of four of the largest WWTPs in the world. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. Modeling of Subsurface Lagrangian Sensor Swarms for Spatially Distributed Current Measurements in High Energy Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T. W.; Polagye, B. L.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ecosystems are characterized by spatially and temporally varying hydrodynamics. In marine renewable energy applications, these variations strongly influence project economics and in oceanographic studies, they impact accuracy of biological transport and pollutant dispersion models. While stationary point or profile measurements are relatively straight forward, spatial representativeness of point measurements can be poor due to strong gradients. Moving platforms, such as AUVs or surface vessels, offer better coverage, but suffer from energetic constraints (AUVs) and resolvable scales (vessels). A system of sub-surface, drifting sensor packages is being developed to provide spatially distributed, synoptic data sets of coastal hydrodynamics with meter-scale resolution over a regional extent of a kilometer. Computational investigation has informed system parameters such as drifter size and shape, necessary position accuracy, number of drifters, and deployment methods. A hydrodynamic domain with complex flow features was created using a computational fluid dynamics code. A simple model of drifter dynamics propagate the drifters through the domain in post-processing. System parameters are evaluated relative to their ability to accurately recreate domain hydrodynamics. Implications of these results for an inexpensive, depth-controlled Lagrangian drifter system is presented.

  5. Svalbard as a study model of future High Arctic coastal environments in a warming world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piskozub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard archipelago, a high latitude area in a region undergoing rapid climate change, is relatively easily accessible for field research. This makes the fjords of Spitsbergen, its largest island, some of the best studied Arctic coastal areas. This paper aims at answering the question of how climatically diverse the fjords are, and how representative they are for the expected future Arctic diminishing range of seasonal sea-ice. This study uses a meteorological reanalysis, sea surface temperature climatology, and the results of a recent one-year meteorological campaign in Spitsbergen to determine the seasonal differences between different Spitsbergen fjords, as well as the sea water temperature and ice ranges around Svalbard in recent years. The results show that Spitsbergen fjords have diverse seasonal patterns of air temperature due to differences in the SST of the adjacent ocean, and different cloudiness. The sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around Svalbard in recent years are similar to what is expected most of the Arctic coastal areas in the second half of this century. This makes Spitsbergen a unique field study model of the conditions expected in future warmer High Arctic.

  6. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  7. Spring molybdenum enrichment in scallop shells: a potential tracer of diatom productivity in coastal temperate environments (Brittany, NW France)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barats, A.; Amouroux, D.; Pécheyran, C.; Chauvaud, L.; Thébault, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2009-08-01

    Skeletal molybdenum/calcium ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratios were recently examined in bivalves. These ratios were determined by quantitative LA-ICP-MS analyses every third daily striae (i.e. a temporal resolution of 3 days) in 36 flat valves of the Great Scallop shells Pecten maximus (2-year old; 3 shells/year) collected in temperate coastal environments of Western Europe (42 to 49° N). Variations of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio were significant and reproducible for scallops from a same population, from different years (1998-2004) and from different coastal temperate locations. ([Mo]/[Ca])shell exhibits typical profiles characterized by a background content, below the method detection limit (<0.003 μmol/mol) for most of the shell growth period, which is punctuated by a significant transient enrichment (0.031-2.1 μmol/mol) mainly occurring from May to June. The Bay of Brest (France) was especially investigated because of long term observations on scallop communities, environmental variables, and high resolution analyses of dissolved Mo in bottom seawater in 2000. In 2000, dissolved Mo exhibited significant increasing concentration just preceding a maximum of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio. The environmental conditions preceding ([Mo]/[Ca])shell maximum events, both in 2000 and over the 7-year survey indicates a direct influence of the scallop environmental conditions at the sediment water interface subsequent to the intense and periodic spring bloom event. Spring maxima of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio were found to be specifically related to the dynamic of spring diatom blooms and to the extent of the subsequent silicate depletion. ([Mo]/[Ca])shell records reveal thus unexpected biogeochemical routes of Mo, potentially related to coastal spring productivity.

  8. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  9. GIS Assessment of Mass Tourism Anthropization in Sensitive Coastal Environments: Application to a Case Study in the Mar Menor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador García-Ayllón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the Mediterranean coast, the tourism activity which has developed since the 1950s has become a mass tourism industry in recent decades, cohabitating with natural spaces of high environmental value. These sensitive areas are thus subjected to a varied catalog of anthropizing actions (urbanization of the natural soil, modification of the dune balances by the construction of port infrastructures, alteration of marine ecosystems by recreational activities, etc.. All these inter-related elements are often difficult to analyze in a comprehensive way because of their diffuse nature. This paper proposes a methodology based on GIS analysis for the evaluation of diffuse anthropization associated to tourism in sensitive coastal environments. By using different indicators of territorial transformation, a complete method is proposed to establish the index of diffuse anthropization of a territory. This methodology, which is easily applicable in a generalized manner in different cases for developed countries, will be applied in the Mar Menor, a coastal lagoon area in the Mediterranean that has been suffering from mass tourism during recent decades. The results will show the important impact of several actions linked to tourism and the worrying inertia that the current trend can cause in the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  10. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112, Peru continental margin: Part 2, Sedimentary history and diagenesis in a coastal upwelling environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, E.; von Huene, R.

    1988-10-01

    On the shelf and upper slope off Peru the signal of coastal upwelling productivity and bottom-water oxygen is well preserved in alternately laminated and bioturbated diatomaceous Quaternary sediments. Global sea-level fluctuations are the ultimate cause for these cyclic facies changes. During late Miocene time, coastal upwelling was about 100 km west of the present centers, along the edge of an emergent structure that subsequently subsided to form the modern slope. The sediments are rich in organic carbon, and intense microbially mediated decomposition of organic matter is evident in sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. These processes are accompanied by the formation of diagenetic carbonates, mostly Ca-rich dolomites and Mg-calcites. The downhole isotopic signatures of these carbonate cements display distinct successions that reflect the vertical evolution of the pore fluid environment. From the association of methane gas hydrates, burial depth, and low-chloride interstitial fluids, we suggest an additional process that could contribute to the characteristic chloride depletion in pore fluids of active margins: release of interlayer water from clays without a mineral phase change. The shelf sediments also contain a subsurface brine that stretches for more than 500 km from north to south over the area drilled. The source of the brine remains uncertain, although the composition of the oxygen isotopes suggests dissolution of evaporites by seawater.

  11. Complex carbon cycling processes and pathways in a tropical coastal marine environment (Saco do Mamangua, RJ - Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgioni, M.; Jovane, L.; Millo, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Bertassoli, D. J., Jr.; Gamba Romano, R.; Pellizari, V.; Castillo Franco, D.; Krusche, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Saco do Mamangua is a narrow and elongated gulf located along the southeastern coast of Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). It is surrounded by high relieves, which form a peculiar environment called riá, with little river input and limited water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. These features make the Saco do Mamangua an ideal environment to study sedimentary carbon cycling under well-constrained boundary conditions in order to investigate if tropical coastal environments serve dominantly as potential carbon sinks or sources. In this work we integrate geochemical data from marine sediments and pore waters in the Saco do Mamangua with mapping of benthic microbial communities, in order to unravel the biogeochemical carbon cycling linked to the production of biogenic methane. Our results reveal that carbon cycling occurs in two parallel pathways. The Saco do Mamangua receives organic carbon both by surface runoff and by primary production in the water column. A large part of this organic carbon is buried within the sediment resulting in the production of biogenic methane, which gives rise to methane seepages at the sea floor. These methane seeps sustain methanotrophic microbial communities in the sediment pore water, but also escapes into the atmosphere by ebullition. Consequently, the sediments of Saco do Mamangua acts simultaneously as carbon sink and carbon source. Future work will allow us to accurately quantify the actual carbon fluxes and calculate the net carbon balance in the local environment.

  12. Numerical modeling of salt marsh morphological change induced by Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kelin; Chen, Qin; Wang, Hongqing; Hartig, Ellen K.; Orton, Philip M.

    2018-01-01

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate wave impacts during coastal storms, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. In this study, the Delft3D modeling suite was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy (2012) on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from rod Surface Elevation Tables and feldspar Marker Horizons (SET-MH) and hydrodynamic measurements during Hurricane Sandy were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model. The model results agreed well with in situ field measurements. The validated model was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Sandy across Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that the island-wide morphological changes in the bay's salt marshes due to Sandy were in the range of −30 mm (erosion) to +15 mm (deposition), and spatially complex and heterogeneous. The storm generated paired deposition and erosion patches at local scales. Salt marshes inside the west section of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the east section showed deposition from Sandy. The net sediment amount that Sandy brought into the bay is only about 1% of the total amount of reworked sediment within the bay during the storm. Numerical experiments show that waves and vegetation played a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Furthermore, without the protection of vegetation, the marsh islands of Jamaica Bay would experience both more erosion and less accretion in coastal storms.

  13. Taxonomic and functional distinctness of the fish assemblages in three coastal environments (bays, coastal lagoons and oceanic beaches) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Márcia Cristina Costa; Gomes-Gonçalves, Rafaela de Sousa; Mattos, Tailan Moretti; Uehara, Wagner; Guedes, Gustavo Henrique Soares; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2017-08-01

    Several species of marine fish use different coastal systems especially during their early development. However, these habitats are jeopardized by anthropogenic influences threatening the success of fish populations, and urgent measures are needed to priorize areas to protect their sustainability. We applied taxonomic (Δ+) and functional (X+) distinctiveness indices that represent taxonomic composition and functional roles to assess biodiversity of three different costal systems: bays, coastal lagoons and oceanic beaches. We hypothesized that difference in habitat characteristics, especially in the more dynamism and habitat homogeneity of oceanic beaches compared with more habitat diversity and sheltered conditions of bays and coastal lagoons results in differences in fish richness and taxonomic and functional diversity. The main premise is that communities phylogenetically and functionally more distinct have more interest in conservation policies. Significant differences (P PERMANOVA. Fish richness was higher in bays compared with the coastal lagoons and oceanic beaches. Higher Δ+ was found for the coastal lagoons compared with the bays and oceanic beaches, with the bays having some values below the confidence limit. Similar patterns were found for X+, although all values were within the confidence limits for the bays, suggesting that the absence of some taxa does not interfere in functional diversity. The hypothesis that taxonomic and functional structure of fish assemblages differ among the three systems was accepted and we suggest that coastal lagoons should be priorized in conservation programs because they support more taxonomic and functional distinctiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A bacterial community-based index to assess the ecological status of estuarine and coastal environments

    KAUST Repository

    Aylagas, Eva

    2016-10-23

    Biotic indices for monitoring marine ecosystems are mostly based on the analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Due to their high sensitivity to pollution and fast response to environmental changes, bacterial assemblages could complement the information provided by benthic metazoan communities as indicators of human-induced impacts, but so far, this biological component has not been well explored for this purpose. Here we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to analyze the bacterial assemblage composition of 51 estuarine and coastal stations characterized by different environmental conditions and human-derived pressures. Using the relative abundance of putative indicator bacterial taxa, we developed a biotic index that is significantly correlated with a sediment quality index calculated on the basis of organic and inorganic compound concentrations. This new index based on bacterial assemblage composition can be a sensitive tool for providing a fast environmental assessment and allow a more comprehensive integrative ecosystem approach for environmental management. © 2016.

  15. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  16. Chemicals in marine and coastal environments: the need for toxicological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.R.

    1982-04-01

    The tremendous increase in the number and amount of chemicals produced and transported in past years has resulted in increasing problems with accidental spills and uncontrolled waste sites involving these chemicals. The United States government has accordingly developed a mechanism for responding to such incidents. As part of that mechanism, the Hazardous Materials Response Project serves to coordinate scientific activities and facilitate in the gathering of scientific information needed for response to chemical spill or waste site emergencies involving coastal waters. Inevitably, much information of a toxicological nature is required to adequately evaluate potential hazards and appropriate responses. The Hazardous Materials Response Project is also able to provide a framework for significant progress in scientific understanding because it can bring together and encourage collaboration among experts in the various disciplines which are relevant to the environmental toxicological problems encountered.

  17. Current and historic mercury deposition to New Haven Harbor (CT, USA): Implications for industrial coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Heather F.; Benoit, Gaboury

    2009-01-01

    This study quantifies historic and current mercury contamination in New Haven Harbor (New Haven, Connecticut, USA) through the analysis of sediment cores. The mercury concentration measured in surface sediment ranged from 320 to 1640 μg kg -1 with an average of 530 μg kg -1 . The harbor is relatively small in area (6.6 km 2 ) but displays a large range in concentrations, illustrating the important methodological issue that a large number of samples may be necessary to capture the variability in even a small area. Depth profiles of mercury reflect sedimentation over a range of 20 to 200 years and indicate a complex history of contamination. Mercury depth profiles were compared with lead, copper, cadmium, and silver concentrations and the metals generally covary. This trend indicates that the sources of mercury and heavy metals are linked and that regionally specific sources dominate the historic input of metals rather than large-scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Results also show there are large differences in absolute concentrations of metals among sites in the harbor. Differences in the abundance of Fe-rich, fine-grained sediment likely control the level of metals in various parts of the harbor. Proximity to current sources and the long, diverse industrial history of the harbor also influence the distribution pattern. All of the cores can be modeled as mixing between pre-industrial sediments and either one or two pollution endmembers. This study demonstrates the importance of riverine sources in the mass balance of mercury delivered to coastal areas and of watershed management to preserve coastal ecosystems.

  18. Uncertainties in sandy shorelines evolution under the Bruun rule assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonéri eLe Cozannet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current practice of sandy shoreline change assessments, the local sedimentary budget is evaluated using the sediment balance equation, that is, by summing the contributions of longshore and cross-shore processes. The contribution of future sea-level-rise induced by climate change is usually obtained using the Bruun rule, which assumes that the shoreline retreat is equal to the change of sea-level divided by the slope of the upper shoreface. However, it remains unsure that this approach is appropriate to account for the impacts of future sea-level rise. This is due to the lack of relevant observations to validate the Bruun rule under the expected sea-level rise rates. To address this issue, this article estimates the coastal settings and period of time under which the use of the Bruun rule could be (invalidated, in the case of wave-exposed gently-sloping sandy beaches. Using the sedimentary budgets of Stive (2004 and probabilistic sea-level rise scenarios based on IPCC, we provide shoreline change projections that account for all uncertain hydrosedimentary processes affecting idealized coasts (impacts of sea-level rise, storms and other cross-shore and longshore processes. We evaluate the relative importance of each source of uncertainties in the sediment balance equation using a global sensitivity analysis. For scenario RCP 6.0 and 8.5 and in the absence of coastal defences, the model predicts a perceivable shift toward generalized beach erosion by the middle of the 21st century. In contrast, the model predictions are unlikely to differ from the current situation in case of scenario RCP 2.6. Finally, the contribution of sea-level rise and climate change scenarios to sandy shoreline change projections uncertainties increases with time during the 21st century. Our results have three primary implications for coastal settings similar to those provided described in Stive (2004 : first, the validation of the Bruun rule will not necessarily be

  19. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  20. Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Slijkerman, D.; Vethaak, A. D.; Schobben, J. H. M.

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds.

  1. Ostreococcus tauri Luminescent Reporter Lines as Biosensors for Detecting Pollution From Copper-Mine Tailing Effluents in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henríquez-Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton cells are excellent biosensors for environmental monitoring and toxicity assessments in different natural systems. Green algae, in particular, appear to be more responsive to copper (Cu disturbances. This is interesting considering that Cu pollution in coastal environments has increased over the last century, with enormous repercussions to marine ecosystems. Unfortunately, no high-throughput method exists for the environmental monitoring of Cu toxicity in seawater. To assess potential uses as biosensors of Cu pollution, high-throughput screening was performed on five luminescence reporter lines constructed in the green algae Ostreococcus tauri RCC745. The reporter line expressing the iron storage ferritin protein fused to luciferase (Fer-Luc was the most sensitive, responding to Cu concentrations in the μM range. Fer-Luc was also the most sensitive reporter line for detecting toxicity in mining-derived polluted seawater predominantly contaminated by soluble Cu. Nevertheless, the Cyclin-Dependent-Kinase A (CDKA reporter was most suitable for detecting the toxicity of copper-mine tailing effluents containing other metals (e.g., iron. These results highlight that Ostreococcus biosensors can serve as a reliable, inexpensive, and automated, high-throughput laboratory approach for performing seawater analyses of coastal areas subjected to metal disturbances. When challenged with Cu, O. tauri not only evidenced a rapid, transcriptional response for the tested genes, but also showed changes in a broad range of genes, especially as related to the stress response. Overall, the obtained results reinforce that a single biosensor is insufficient when dealing with complex mixtures of toxic compounds in natural environments.

  2. Biogeography of Anurans from the Poorly Known and Threatened Coastal Sandplains of Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ariane Lima; Guedes, Thaís Barreto; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2015-01-01

    The east coast of Brazil comprises an extensive area inserted in the Tropical Atlantic Domain and is represented by sandy plains of beach ridges commonly known as Restingas. The coastal environments are unique and house a rich amphibian fauna, the geographical distribution patterns of which are incipient. Biogeographical studies can explain the current distributional patterns and provide the identification of natural biogeographical units. These areas are important in elucidating the evolutionary history of the taxa and the areas where they occur. The aim of this study was to seek natural biogeographical units in the Brazilian sandy plains of beach ridges by means of distribution data of amphibians and to test the main predictions of the vicariance model to explain the patterns found. We revised and georeferenced data on the geographical distribution of 63 anuran species. We performed a search for latitudinal distribution patterns along the sandy coastal plains of Brazil using the non-metric multidimensional scaling method (NMDS) and the biotic element analysis to identify natural biogeographical units. The results showed a monotonic variation in anuran species composition along the latitudinal gradient with a break in the clinal pattern from 23°S to 25°S latitude (states of Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo). The major predictions of the vicariance model were corroborated by the detection of four biotic elements with significantly clustered distribution and by the presence of congeneric species distributed in distinct biotic elements. The results support the hypothesis that vicariance could be one of the factors responsible for the distribution patterns of the anuran communities along the sandy coastal plains of eastern Brazil. The results of the clusters are also congruent with the predictions of paleoclimatic models made for the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene, such as the presence of historical forest refugia and biogeographical patterns already detected

  3. Biogeography of Anurans from the Poorly Known and Threatened Coastal Sandplains of Eastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Lima Xavier

    Full Text Available The east coast of Brazil comprises an extensive area inserted in the Tropical Atlantic Domain and is represented by sandy plains of beach ridges commonly known as Restingas. The coastal environments are unique and house a rich amphibian fauna, the geographical distribution patterns of which are incipient. Biogeographical studies can explain the current distributional patterns and provide the identification of natural biogeographical units. These areas are important in elucidating the evolutionary history of the taxa and the areas where they occur. The aim of this study was to seek natural biogeographical units in the Brazilian sandy plains of beach ridges by means of distribution data of amphibians and to test the main predictions of the vicariance model to explain the patterns found. We revised and georeferenced data on the geographical distribution of 63 anuran species. We performed a search for latitudinal distribution patterns along the sandy coastal plains of Brazil using the non-metric multidimensional scaling method (NMDS and the biotic element analysis to identify natural biogeographical units. The results showed a monotonic variation in anuran species composition along the latitudinal gradient with a break in the clinal pattern from 23°S to 25°S latitude (states of Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo. The major predictions of the vicariance model were corroborated by the detection of four biotic elements with significantly clustered distribution and by the presence of congeneric species distributed in distinct biotic elements. The results support the hypothesis that vicariance could be one of the factors responsible for the distribution patterns of the anuran communities along the sandy coastal plains of eastern Brazil. The results of the clusters are also congruent with the predictions of paleoclimatic models made for the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene, such as the presence of historical forest refugia and biogeographical patterns

  4. Biogeography of Anurans from the Poorly Known and Threatened Coastal Sandplains of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Ariane Lima; Guedes, Thaís Barreto; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2015-01-01

    The east coast of Brazil comprises an extensive area inserted in the Tropical Atlantic Domain and is represented by sandy plains of beach ridges commonly known as Restingas. The coastal environments are unique and house a rich amphibian fauna, the geographical distribution patterns of which are incipient. Biogeographical studies can explain the current distributional patterns and provide the identification of natural biogeographical units. These areas are important in elucidating the evolutionary history of the taxa and the areas where they occur. The aim of this study was to seek natural biogeographical units in the Brazilian sandy plains of beach ridges by means of distribution data of amphibians and to test the main predictions of the vicariance model to explain the patterns found. We revised and georeferenced data on the geographical distribution of 63 anuran species. We performed a search for latitudinal distribution patterns along the sandy coastal plains of Brazil using the non-metric multidimensional scaling method (NMDS) and the biotic element analysis to identify natural biogeographical units. The results showed a monotonic variation in anuran species composition along the latitudinal gradient with a break in the clinal pattern from 23°S to 25°S latitude (states of Rio de Janeiro to São Paulo). The major predictions of the vicariance model were corroborated by the detection of four biotic elements with significantly clustered distribution and by the presence of congeneric species distributed in distinct biotic elements. The results support the hypothesis that vicariance could be one of the factors responsible for the distribution patterns of the anuran communities along the sandy coastal plains of eastern Brazil. The results of the clusters are also congruent with the predictions of paleoclimatic models made for the Last Glacial Maximum of the Pleistocene, such as the presence of historical forest refugia and biogeographical patterns already detected

  5. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  6. Modeling the impacts of wildfire on runoff and pollutant transport from coastal watersheds to the nearshore environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D; Kolden, Crystal A

    2015-03-15

    Wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds and affect the rate of sediment and nutrient transport to adjacent nearshore oceanic environments. Changes in runoff resulting from heterogeneous wildfire effects are not well-understood due to both limitations in the field measurement of runoff and temporally-limited spatial data available to parameterize runoff models. We apply replicable, scalable methods for modeling wildfire impacts on sediment and nonpoint source pollutant export into the nearshore environment, and assess relationships between wildfire severity and runoff. Nonpoint source pollutants were modeled using a GIS-based empirical deterministic model parameterized with multi-year land cover data to quantify fire-induced increases in transport to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire concentration increases in phosphorus by 161 percent, sediments by 350 percent and total suspended solids (TSS) by 53 percent above pre-fire years. Higher wildfire severity was associated with the greater increase in exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment, primarily resulting from the conversion of forest and shrubland to grassland. This suggests that increasing wildfire severity with climate change will increase potential negative impacts to adjacent marine ecosystems. The approach used is replicable and can be utilized to assess the effects of other types of land cover change at landscape scales. It also provides a planning and prioritization framework for management activities associated with wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and post-fire rehabilitation, allowing for quantification of potential negative impacts to the nearshore environment in coastal basins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  8. Effects of the Coastal Park Environment Attributes on Its Admission Fee Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Erda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effect of those recognized nature-and-activity-based attributes on the level of park’s admission fee charges using a panel data of 29 coastal recreation parks in Dalian city of China. A total of seven different Hedonic pricing model specifications are used in the estimating process. The results indicate that a numerous attributes have statistically significant effects (α≤ 0.10 on the level of park admission fee charges. In terms of the economic valuation, the marine sightseeing results in the highest value of Marginal Willingness to Pay (MWTP of $6.4 as its quality rank improves to a designated higher level. As expected that the park congestion has a negative effect on the MWTP (-$0.47 and overall park’s rankings have a positive effect ($0.05 on park’s MWTP. However, many recreation activities accommodated by the park sites exhibit a relatively weak effect on the park entrance fee charges. One possible reason is perhaps owing to the single admission package fee policy adopted by the park management..

  9. Mixing of Marine and Terrestrial Sources of Strontium in Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Saskia; Crowley, Quentin; Deegan, Eileen; Snoeck, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    87Sr/86Sr from bulk soils, soil extracts and plant material have been used to investigate and quantify the extent of marine-derived Sr in the terrestrial biosphere. Samples were collected along coastal transects and 87Sr/86Sr biosphere values (plant and soil) converge to marine values with increasing proximity to the coast. R2values indicate highly significant trends in certain regions. The National Soils Database (NSDB), TELLUS and TELLUS Border datasets, all of which are geochemical surveys have been employed to further test the extent of marine elemental contribution. Collectively these data cover all of Ireland and Northern Ireland, with varying degrees of sampling density. A strong spatial correlation exists between the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA; (Al2O3-(CaO*+Na2O)-K2O)) in topsoil (CIA <60; 27% n = 11651) and areas of blanket peat. The enrichment of Ca and Na in these regions would suggest a significant marine geochemical contribution. Topsoil CIA can therefore be used to identify areas likely to feature significant marine inputs and identify regions where the 87Sr/86Sr budget may deviate from bedrock values.

  10. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.

  11. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bakri, Dhia

    1996-10-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of coastal geomorphology can provide a sound basis for sustainable planning and management. Based on coastal landforms, sediments and processes, the coastline of Kuwait was divided into nine geomorphic zones. These zones were grouped into two main geomorphic provinces. The northern province is marked by extensive muddy intertidal flats and dominated by a depositional and low-energy environment. The southern geomorphic province is characterised by relatively steep beach profiles, rocky/sandy tidal flats and a moderate to high-energy environment. The study has demonstrated that pollution, benthic ecology and other environmental conditions of the coast are a function of coastline geomorphology, sedimentology and related processes. The geomorphological information was used to determine the coastal vulnerability and to assess the environmental impacts of development projects and other human activities. Several strategies were outlined to integrate the geomorphic approach into the management of the coastal resources.

  12. Spring molybdenum enrichment in scallop shells: a potential tracer of diatom productivity in temperate coastal environments (Brittany, NW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barats, A.; Amouroux, D.; Pécheyran, C.; Chauvaud, L.; Thébault, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal molybdenum/calcium ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratios were examined in shells of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus collected in temperate coastal environments of Western Europe (42 to 49° N). These ratios were determined by quantitative LA-ICP-MS analyses of daily striae taken every third day (i.e. a temporal resolution of 3 days) in 36 flat valves (2-years old; 3 shells/year). Variations of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratios were significant and reproducible for scallops from the same population, from different years (1998-2004) and temperate coastal locations (NW France). The [Mo]/[Ca])shell ratios exhibit typical profiles characterized by a background content, below the detection limit for this method (<0.003 μmol/mol) for most of the shell growth period, which is punctuated by a significant transient enrichment (0.031-2.1 μmol/mol) mainly occurring from May to June. The Bay of Brest (France) was investigated in particular because of its long term observations on scallop communities, environmental variables, and high resolution analyses of dissolved Mo in bottom seawater in 2000. In 2000, dissolved Mo exhibited a significant increase in concentration just preceding the maximum ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratio. Both the intense monitoring survey in 2000 and over the 7-year period indicates that the ([Mo]/[Ca])shell maximum is directly influenced by spring changes of environmental conditions at the sediment water interface (SWI), occurring subsequent to the intense and periodic spring bloom. Spring maxima of ([Mo]/[Ca])shell ratios are closely correlated to the extent of silicic acid and nitrate depletion in seawater between winter and late spring (r2=0.878 and 0.780, p<0.05, n=6) that reflects diatom uptake and productivity in the Bay of Brest. The Mo inputs in bottom waters and subsequent shell enrichment are thus suggested to be directly or indirectly influenced by such biogenic material input at the SWI. The [Mo]/[Ca])shell records thus reveal unexpected biogeochemical cycles of

  13. Economic Feasibility of Underwater Adduction of Rivers for Metropolises in Semiarid Coastal Environments: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Albiero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous proportions, and in many situations, there are no sustainable solutions, especially in times of global climate change. One hypothesis to try to mitigate this problem in coastal cities is the underwater adduction of rivers. The objective of this paper was to make the abstraction of drinking water in the mouths of great rivers near semi-arid regions. This water would be led by a pipeline below the water level and would follow the route of the seacoast, where the energy to move the water would be supplied by an axial hydraulic pump embedded in the pipeline by water-cooled electric motors driven by the energy generated from offshore wind turbines. Estimates have been made for the four metropolises in semi-arid regions: Fortaleza-Brazil, Dalian-China, Tel Aviv-Israel, and Gaza-Palestine, where it was possible to calculate economic viability through the Present Worth Value, the internal rate of return, and payback. The results indicated that Fortaleza had economic viability under restrictions. Dalian proved the ideal result. Tel Aviv and Gaza both had great economic viability, but only if Egypt agreed to supply water from the Nile. This paper proved that the management of the water supply for human consumption through the underwater adduction of rivers could be achieved with real clearance for any deficits in the volume of water that due to global climate change are becoming more frequent.

  14. Using Teleducation and Field Experiences to further the Understanding of Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T. A.; Shugart, H.

    2007-05-01

    This project is an outreach and education program with a partner in the K-12 schools at Accomack County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. It endeavors to build a community knowledgeable of the importance the ocean plays daily in our lives, and our own impact on the ocean. It is an program built in stages that: 1) Establish high speed live interactive classes (teleducation) linkages with the Eastern Shore High Schools with earth science teachers enabling them to remotely participate in University of Virginia classes in Oceanography (designed on a faculty development basis or acquire NSTA certification in Earth Science Education, as well as participation by seniors in the Accomack Schools; 2) Establish field experiences for teachers and selected students that involve travel to both the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR/LTER) Center, UVA to observe first- hand the science programs at those locations and participate in cutting edge coastal marine research efforts. These experiences improve student understanding of the ocean-atmosphere biogeophysical system and encourage students to explore the sciences as a field of study and possible vocation. Advanced high school students and science teachers from Accomack County Public Schools participated in an experience involving field and laboratory methods employed in a NSF-sponsored study of the coupled natural-human dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia over the past 500 years (NSF-Biocomplexity). Students and teachers worked with researchers of the VCR facility in Oyster, VA, collected sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay tributaries, and traveled to the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at UVA, in Charlottesville, VA to prepare and analyze samples for isotopic and palynological information. In a first of its kind connectivity, in June/July, 2006, using high speed internet connections, a summer class in Oceanography was live, interactively broadcast (teleducation) from UVA to Arcadia High School on

  15. Study of the behaviour of radioactive cobalt in the coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.M.

    1988-05-01

    Mineral surfaces play an important role in regulating the concentrations of dissolved radionuclides and other trace elements in natural water systems. In bulk sediments, the different minerals present may exhibit completely different uptake mechanisms, and compete simultaneously for the same radionuclide. This study examines the adsorption behaviour of radiocobalt in two natural sediments collected in the coastal area adjacent to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Site in Vera Cruz, Mexico. These sediment samples provided a complex substrate for trace metal removal, as shown by their different physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. Radiocobalt partitioning between these sediments and solution was determined using an isotope dilution technique, with Co-57 as the tracer. The uptake experiments were done under controlled conditions to determine the effects of pH, ionic strength, sediment binding site concentration, and mineral composition on Co adsorption. The experimental work included both time-dependent and equilibrium studies of Co partitioning. The time-dependent studies revealed two different rates (and hence processes) responsible for the removal of Co onto the sediments: a relatively fast initial reaction (complete within one week) which appears to be due to uptake on non-carbonate surface (perhaps oxide surfaces), and a slower rate of uptake (reaching equilibrium within 60 d or more) due to the formation of solid solutions of Co on calcite surfaces. The sorption of Co decreased as the ionic strength increased. In seawater, it appears that Mg ions suppress radiocobalt sorption (particularly during the fast uptake step), perhaps by decreasing the number of available binding sites on the sediments. The results of these uptake studies were modeled successfully using the triple layer-surface complexation model, which treats surface functional groups on the adsorbent as ligands capable of forming surface complexes with solution species. Refs, figs and

  16. Towards an integrated approach for characterization of sinkhole hazards in urban environments: the unstable coastal site of Casalabate, Lecce, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delle Rose, Marco; Leucci, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Sinkholes occur in many areas of the world, especially where carbonate rocks crop out. They are formed due to natural processes or caused by man's activities. In both cases, severe consequences have to be registered on the anthropogenic environment and related infrastructures. Knowledge of both the mechanism of the sinkhole formation and the localization of this subtle geohazard is therefore necessary for planners and decision makers to perform the most appropriate and suitable programs of land use and development. The Apulia region of southern Italy is characterized for most of its extension by carbonate rocks, which makes it one of the most remarkable examples of karst in the Mediterranean basin. The sinkhole formation in Apulia urban areas has recently produced severe damages, especially along its coastal planes, where different types of sinkholes occur. The detection of cavities, that could collapse and create a sinkhole, in an urban environment presents numerous difficulties (buried networks, reworked soils, etc). A methodology has been developed to respond to this need based on the integration of four complementary methods: geological analysis of outcrops and existing borehole descriptions, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The combination of these methods, applied to a test sector in the city of Casalabate, made it possible to locate the principal karstic conduits beneath the study area and identify a zone of high sinkhole geohazard associated with one such feature

  17. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Fazil, M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, H.A.; Sajjad, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  18. Single and combined metal contamination in coastal environments in China: current status and potential ecological risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Romana; Zhang, Tingwan; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Min; Pan, Jin-Fen; Wang, Zhumei; Zhang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, metal and metalloid pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems in China. Current contamination status of metals and metalloid and their potential ecological risks along China's coasts were reviewed in the present paper by a comprehensive study on metal contents in marine waters and sediments in the past few decades. The priority metals/metalloid cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), which were the target elements of the designated project "Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Heavy Metal Pollution" issued by the Chinese government in 2011, were selected considering their high toxicity, persistence, and prevalent existence in coastal environment. Commonly used environmental quality evaluation methods for single and combined metals were compared, and we accordingly suggest the comprehensive approach of joint utilization of the Enrichment Factor and Effect Range Median combined with Pollution Load Index and Mean Effect Range Median Quotient (EEPME); this battery of guidelines may provide consistent, internationally comparable, and accurate understanding of the environment pollution status of combined metals/metalloid and their potential ecological risk.

  19. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  20. What would happen to Superstorm Sandy under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  1. The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecology of sandy beaches in Natal. A.H. Dye, A. Mclachlan and T. Wooldridge. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. Data from an ecological survey of four sandy beaches on the. Natal coast of South Africa are presented. Physical para· meters such as beach profile, particle size, moisture, ...

  2. Oil spill sensing in marine and coastal environments using laser-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. E.; Fingas, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (LEAF) under development by the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada, which has the ability to detect and classify oil on water, land and conditions of snow and ice, real-time from an airborne platform, was described. Also under development are a scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) to detect and map oil in complex marine and shoreline environments where other nonspecific sensors are not effective, and a laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor, which is expected to provide a measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. Details of each of these remote sensing technologies are provided, along with a discussion of expected benefits to the oil spill response community. 12 refs

  3. Radionuclide sorption behavior in particulate matter in near coastal marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.M.; Ortega-Lara, V.; Leckie, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: In order to evaluate the migration behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium while transported from continental aquatic systems to marine environments, the sorption behaviors for these metals were evaluated in several different environments. Laboratory experiments using radioactive tracers, and equilibrium as well as time dependent modeling were used to evaluate and quantify the distribution of the two elements as a function of element chemistry, solid substrate characteristics and solution composition. The experimental conditions reflected salinities ranging from those found in rivers and lakes through estuaries to the ocean. Adsorption constants were obtained for strontium in natural sediments from these aquatic environments. The strontium specification was evaluated in solution as well as in the adsorbed state. Sorption of strontium occurred mainly as outer sphere complexes. Major cations, ligands (soluble and particulate), ionic strength, and pH were among parameters that affected the distribution of cesium and strontium between adsorbed and dissolved forms. Time-dependent sorption behaviors were observed under study dissolved salt and suspended sediment conditions. Desorption occurred to some degree for all sediment types. Cesium was exchanged with potassium and sodium in clay minerals and was therefore less desorbed than would be expected. The results allowed the description of migration behaviors of two important pollutants from the atomic energy industry

  4. Knowledge and power in integrated coastal management. For a political anthropology of the sea combined with the sciences of the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazé, Camille; Dahou, Tarik; Ragueneau, Olivier; Danto, Anatole; Mariat-Roy, Emilie; Raimonet, Mélanie; Weisbein, Julien

    2017-10-01

    This article presents an innovative collaborative approach, which aims to reinforce and institutionalize the field of the political anthropology of the sea combined with the natural sciences. It begins by relating the evolution in coastal areas, from integrated coastal zone management to the notion of adaptive co-management. It then sets out what contribution the social sciences of politics may bring to our understanding of the government/governance of the sea in terms of sustainable development, starting with political science and then highlighting the importance of a deep anthropological and socio-historical approach. Finally, it gives us a glimpse of the benefits of combining the human and social sciences with the natural sciences to produce a critical analysis of the categories of thought and action associated with the systemic management of the environment, especially the coastal areas.

  5. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Coastal Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data has been acquired and developed by the U.S. Corps of Engineers ST. Louis District to collect and deliver topographic elevation point data derived from...

  6. Effects of Biological and Photochemical Degradation on the Optical Properties of CDOM Exported to Coastal Marine Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moran, Mary

    2004-01-01

    .... This project quantitatively assessed the ability of coastal ocean bacteria to degrade and produce CDOM and investigated the synergistic interactions between bacterial degradation and photochemical...

  7. Holocene coastal paleoenvironmental record, Bay of Brest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernane, Assia; Gandouin, Emmanuel; Goslin, Jérôme; Penaud, Aurélie; Van Vliet lanoë, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Coastal areas are sensitive environments regarding the risk of submersion and the impact on biodiversity induced by salinity changes. These areas thus provide good palaeocecological archives to monitor palaeo sea level changes and the associated adaptation of different biological communities. The north-western coast of France has poorly been investigated regarding its Holocene palaeoecological signatures (Morzadec-Kerfourn, 1974; Naughton et al., 2007). Chironomids have been recognized to be an efficient tool for palaeoclimate and palaeosalinity reconstructions in lakes (Brooks, 2006), and more recently in river floodplains (Gandouin et al, 2006). In this study, environmental changes related to both climate processes and human disturbances, were reconstructed over the last 5000 years, based on pollen and chironomid assemblages from two coastal cores retrieved at Pors Milin (Brittany, NW France). The sedimentary sequences consist of terrestrial peaty layers interdigited with marine clastic deposits. The study area is composed by a sandy beach, truncating the peat, limited by a high sandy bar, and a back marsh developed at + 4 m NGF. Pollen and chironomid results reveal that anthropogenic factors would mainly control environmental changes that occurred in this sector. The disappearance of many chironomid taxa (inhabitants of main river channel) and the dramatic fall in diversity may have been induced by the development of the Merovingian forest clearance at Pors Milin. Indeed, we suggest that the development of agriculture, the river embankment and the draining of wetlands may explain the chironomid habitat loss and the subsequent fall of biodiversity. This change in faunal assemblages occurred synchronously with a decrease in the "arborean / non arborean" pollen ratio reflecting the land opening of the watershed. Several nitrophilous and anthropogenic pollen taxa reinforce our hypothesis concerning the development of agricultural and livestock farming activities at

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-02-24

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  9. Accumulation of butyl- and phenyltin compounds in starfish and bivalves from the coastal environment of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Won Joon [Southern Coastal Environment Research Division, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Jangmok-myon 391, Geoje 656-830 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: wjshim@kordi.re.kr; Yim, Un Hyuk [Southern Coastal Environment Research Division, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Jangmok-myon 391, Geoje 656-830 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sook [Southern Coastal Environment Research Division, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Jangmok-myon 391, Geoje 656-830 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang Hee [Southern Coastal Environment Research Division, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Jangmok-myon 391, Geoje 656-830 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae Ryoung [Southern Coastal Environment Research Division, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Jangmok-myon 391, Geoje 656-830 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Joong Kyun [Department of Marine Bioscience and Technology, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Okamura, Hideo [Laboratory of Marine Environment Management, Kobe University Mercantile Marine, Fukaeminami 5-1-1, Highshinada, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan)

    2005-02-01

    Triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were determined in two starfish species (Asteria pectinifera and Asterias amurensis), bivalves (Crassostrea gigas or Mytilus edulis), and seawater samples from sites around the coasts of Korea. Both TPT and TBT concentrations in starfish ranged from 8 to 1560 ng/g and from <2 to 797 ng/g as Sn on a dry weight basis, respectively. TPT concentration accounted for 75.4% and 86.4% of total phenyltin concentration in A. pectinifera and A. amurensis, respectively, while monobutyltin, a degradation product of TBT, accounted for 86.3% and 57.2% of total butyltin, respectively. Triphenyltin concentrations in A. pectinifera were significantly correlated to water and bivalve TPT concentrations, which implies that dietary uptake of TPT from contaminated prey as well as direct uptake from surrounding water contribute to TPT body residues in the starfish. Starfish could be target organisms for monitoring TPT compound in the marine environment, due to their high accumulation and low degradation capacity towards TPT. - Starfish are effective organisms for monitoring phenyltin contamination in the marine environment.

  10. Accumulation of butyl- and phenyltin compounds in starfish and bivalves from the coastal environment of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Oh, Jae Ryoung; Jeon, Joong Kyun; Okamura, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were determined in two starfish species (Asteria pectinifera and Asterias amurensis), bivalves (Crassostrea gigas or Mytilus edulis), and seawater samples from sites around the coasts of Korea. Both TPT and TBT concentrations in starfish ranged from 8 to 1560 ng/g and from <2 to 797 ng/g as Sn on a dry weight basis, respectively. TPT concentration accounted for 75.4% and 86.4% of total phenyltin concentration in A. pectinifera and A. amurensis, respectively, while monobutyltin, a degradation product of TBT, accounted for 86.3% and 57.2% of total butyltin, respectively. Triphenyltin concentrations in A. pectinifera were significantly correlated to water and bivalve TPT concentrations, which implies that dietary uptake of TPT from contaminated prey as well as direct uptake from surrounding water contribute to TPT body residues in the starfish. Starfish could be target organisms for monitoring TPT compound in the marine environment, due to their high accumulation and low degradation capacity towards TPT. - Starfish are effective organisms for monitoring phenyltin contamination in the marine environment

  11. Mugilid Fish Are Sentinels of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Coastal and Estuarine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Ortiz-Zarragoitia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects on fish reproduction can result from a variety of toxicity mechanisms first operating at the molecular level. Notably, the presence in the environment of some compounds termed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can cause adverse effects on reproduction by interfering with the endocrine system. In some cases, exposure to EDCs leads to the animal feminization and male fish may develop oocytes in testis (intersex condition. Mugilid fish are well suited sentinel organisms to study the effects of reproductive EDCs in the monitoring of estuarine/marine environments. Up-regulation of aromatases and vitellogenins in males and juveniles and the presence of intersex individuals have been described in a wide array of mullet species worldwide. There is a need to develop new molecular markers to identify early feminization responses and intersex condition in fish populations, studying mechanisms that regulate gonad differentiation under exposure to xenoestrogens. Interestingly, an electrophoresis of gonad RNA, shows a strong expression of 5S rRNA in oocytes, indicating the potential of 5S rRNA and its regulating proteins to become useful molecular makers of oocyte presence in testis. Therefore, the use of these oocyte markers to sex and identify intersex mullets could constitute powerful molecular biomarkers to assess xenoestrogenicity in field conditions.

  12. Variability of sediment transport in beach and coastal dune environments, Brittany, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnauld, Hervé; Louboutin, Roland

    2002-06-01

    On the coasts of Brittany (English Channel and Bay of Biscay), barrier systems were surveyed between 1995 and 2000. The beach profiles have a very high variability, which cannot be statistically explained by linear correlation with the wind, the waves, or the tides. The behaviour of the profile is represented on a phase diagram (speed of profile change: Y-axis, thickness of the profile: X-axis). The points in the center of the profile "rotate" around an average equilibrium which is seldom measured in the field. The seaward edge of the beaches oscillates between loss and gain, but with a net positive budget. The landward top of the beach displays a range of oscillations. The dunes always have a positive budget. The whole behaviour of the system is explained if the precise succession of anticyclonic and cyclonic winds is taken into account. Long periods of easterly winds (offshorewards) tend to produce a calm sea and to increase tidal sediment settling on the seafloor. If an onshore westerly storm occurs just after such a period, it hits a sediment-rich environment and produces a net accumulation on both the beach and the dunes. Periods of westerly calm to moderate winds do not help accumulation: a full going storm will hit a depleted environment and produce erosion. The speed of dune accretion and the budget of the beaches seem to partly depend on the ratio of cyclonic to anticyclonic conditions.

  13. Essential coastal habitats for fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraufvelin, Patrik; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Bergström, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Many coastal and offshore fish species are highly dependent on specific habitat types for population maintenance. In the Baltic Sea, shallow productive habitats in the coastal zone such as wetlands, vegetated flads/lagoons and sheltered bays as well as more exposed rocky and sandy areas are utili...

  14. Dispersal and assimilation of an aquaculture waste subsidy in a low productivity coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C A; Nichols, P D; Ross, D J; Dempster, T

    2017-07-15

    To understand dispersal and assimilation of aquaculture waste subsidies in a naturally low-productivity environment, we applied a novel, rapid transmethylation technique to analyse sediment and biota fatty acid composition. This technique was initially validated at Atlantic salmon farms in Macquarie Harbour, Australia, where sediments were collected at farm and control locations. Subsequently, sediment, benthic polychaete and zooplankton were sampled at sites 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000m distant from multiple cages. Results demonstrated an acute deposition zone up to 50m from cages and a diffuse zone extending 500m from cages. Changes in sediment concentration of linoleic acid, oleic acid and total fatty acids were effective tracers of farm deposition. Bacterial biomarkers indicated that aquaculture waste stimulates bacterial productivity in sediments, with elevated biomarker concentrations also detected in benthic polychaetes. Overall, fatty acid analysis was a sensitive technique to characterize the benthic footprint of aquaculture influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  16. In vitro biomonitoring of contamination by estrogenic compounds in coastal environments: comments on the use of M. galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Fenet, Hélène; Escande, Aurélie; Munaron, Dominique; Rosain, David; Maillot-Maréchal, Emmanuelle; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Casellas, Claude; Gomez, Elena

    2012-02-01

    The use of mussel extracts in in vitro bioassays which express the estrogen receptor could provide valuable information on the bioavailability of endocrine disruptors in coastal environments. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability of the estrogenic responses in bioassays in Mytilus galloprovincialis. A 6-month in situ experiment was conducted in order to follow the estrogenic activity on MELN cell line during the reproduction stages of mussels. Estradiol equivalents (EEQ) determined in mussels using the MELN cell lines ranged from 0.79 to 3.72 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) in males, from 0.42 to 2.33 ng/g d.w. in females and from 3.41 to 4.2 d.w. in undifferentiated bivalves. We observed an increase in EEQ values during the spawning stage for males, not for female. The maximal EEQ values were observed at the indifferent stage. We discuss these results in regards to the actual knowledge on mussels' reproductive cycle and to the possible impact of xeno-estrogens. Variations of E2 levels in mussels must be taken into account for further studies on xeno-estrogens monitoring using hER reporter cell-lines bioassays. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reconstruction of centennial-scale fluxes of chemical elements in the Australian coastal environment using seagrass archives

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar; Davis, Grace; Lavery, Paul S.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~. 100 years ago (AD ~. 1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~. 1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~. 1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~. 115 cal. years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements.

  18. Reconstruction of centennial-scale fluxes of chemical elements in the Australian coastal environment using seagrass archives

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2015-10-02

    The study of a Posidonia australis sedimentary archive has provided a record of changes in element concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, As, Cu, Ni and S) over the last 3000 years in the Australian marine environment. Human-derived contamination in Oyster Harbor (SW Australia) started ~. 100 years ago (AD ~. 1900) and exponentially increased until present. This appears to be related to European colonization of Australia and the subsequent impact of human activities, namely mining, coal and metal production, and extensive agriculture. Two contamination periods of different magnitude have been identified: Expansion period (EXP, AD ~. 1900-1970) and Establishment period (EST, AD ~. 1970 to present). Enrichments of chemical elements with respect to baseline concentrations (in samples older than ~. 115 cal. years BP) were found for all elements studied in both periods, except for Ni, As and S. The highest enrichment factors were obtained for the EST period (ranging from 1.3-fold increase in Cu to 7.2-fold in Zn concentrations) compared to the EXP period (1.1-fold increase for Cu and Cr to 2.4-fold increase for Pb). Zinc, Pb, Mn and Co concentrations during both periods were 2- to 7-fold higher than baseline levels. This study demonstrates the value of Posidonia mats as long-term archives of element concentrations and trends in coastal ecosystems. We also provide preliminary evidence on the potential for Posidonia meadows to act as significant long-term biogeochemical sinks of chemical elements.

  19. Seasonal and interannual study of volatile reduced sulfur compounds (VRSC) in coastal environment: the Bay of Quiberon (Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic-Houly, A.; Viollier, E.; Sarazin, G.; Knoery, J.

    2009-10-01

    Seasonal and annual variability of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), methane thiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) concentrations and supporting parameters (e.g., phytoplanktonic cells abundance) were investigated in a coastal marine environment, the Bay of Quiberon (Brittany, France) from July 2004 to August 2006. The sampling was conducted in the water column, within two meters of the sediment water interface (SWI). Minimum and maximum values were <0.1-1.6 nmol L-1 for H2S, <0.1-4.2 nmol L-1 for OCS, <0.1-7.8 nmol L-1 for MeSH, <0.1-17.5 nmol L-1 for DMS and <0.1-1.7 nmol L-1 for DMDS. Vertical carbonyl sulfide distribution showed seasonal variations with lower concentration near the SWI in winter and bottom enrichments near sediments in summer. Vertical sulfide distribution not seems to be influenced by the shallow sediments. The likely influence of Dinophyceae abundance on the MeSH, DMS and DMDS concentrations was evident for the 3-summer monitored period.

  20. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin Australia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Peter T.; Long, Charles N.; Protat, Alain

    2012-08-01

    The diurnal variation of convection and associated cloud and radiative properties remains a significant issue in global NWP and climate models. This study analyzes observed diurnal variability of convection in a coastal monsoonal environment examining the interaction of convective rain clouds, their associated cloud properties, and the impact on the surface radiation and corresponding boundary layer structure during periods where convection is suppressed or active on the large scale. The analysis uses data from the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) as well as routine measurements from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Both active monsoonal and large-scale suppressed (buildup and break) conditions are examined and demonstrate that the diurnal variation of rainfall is much larger during the break periods and the spatial distribution of rainfall is very different between the monsoon and break regimes. During the active monsoon the total net radiative input to the surface is decreased by more than 3 times the amount than during the break regime - this total radiative cloud forcing is found to be dominated by the shortwave (SW) cloud effects because of the much larger optical thicknesses and persistence of long-lasting anvils and cirrus cloud decks associated with the monsoon regime. These differences in monsoon versus break surface radiative energy contribute to low-level air temperature differences in the boundary layer over the land surfaces.

  1. The impact of onsite wastewater disposal systems on groundwater in areas inundated by Hurricane Sandy in New York and New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Irene; Phillips, Patrick J.; Colella, Kaitlyn; Fisher, Shawn C.; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) were inundated by Hurricane Sandy's storm tide. This study compares the shallow groundwater quality (nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) downgradient of OWDS before and after Hurricane Sandy, where available, and establishes a baseline for wastewater influence on groundwater in coastal communities inundated by Hurricane Sandy. Nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were detected in shallow groundwater downgradient of OWDS in two settings along the New Jersey and New York coastlines: 1) a single, centralized OWDS in a park; and 2) multiple OWDS (cesspools) in low-density residential and mixed-use/medium density residential areas. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were lidocaine (40%), carbamazepine (36%), and fexofenadine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, meprobamate, and tramadol (24–32%). Increases in the number and total concentration of pharmaceuticals after Hurricane Sandy may reflect other factors (seasonality, usage) besides inundation, and demonstrate the importance of analyzing for a wide variety of CECs in regional studies.

  2. Vulnerability of sandy coasts to climate change and anthropic pressures: methodology and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idier, D.; Poumadère, M.; Vinchon, C.; Romieu, E.; Oliveros, C.

    2009-04-01

    medium-term (decades), whereas the space scales range from several tens of meters to several tens of kilometers. The project is based on the study of representative coastal units: 4 sites characterised by low-lying linear sandy beaches but different, representative, hydrodynamic and socio-economic environments. These sites are located in: Mediterranean Sea (Lido of Sète), Atlantic coast (Truc Vert beach and Noirmoutier island) and English channel coast (Est of Dunkerque). Each of these sites is studied following the same methodology, on both the physical and socio-economic dimensions, the aim being to identify vulnerability indicators regarding climate change and anthropic pressure. 2 - METHODOLOGY The work is based on the following methodology, for every site: 1) The compartments of the unit are defined: shoreface, coastline, backshore, hinterland, from a physical and socio-economical point of view. 2) The available data are analysed in order to provide some information on the present trend of the coastal unit, regarding climate change and anthropic pressure, but also to support the model validation. 3) The vulnerability is studied. On one hand, the socio-economic dimension is assessed and, in a risk governance perspective, stake holders are identified and involved. This part of the project combines the study of social perceptions of dangers along with a deliberative workshop. On the other hand, numerical models of the physical behaviour of shoreface and coastline are applied. The selected models cover a time scale from short-term (storm time scale) to long-term (decades). Then, vulnerability can be studied: the vulnerability of coast/beach is defined and studied based on in-situ observations and model results. Most of these models needs some forcing conditions (waves at the boundary of the computational domains for instance). The present day conditions can be potentially modified by climate change. However, the model and literature review on climate change show that

  3. Durability Indicators Comparison for SCC and CC in Tropical Coastal Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Carlos; Camões, Aires; Monteiro, Eliana; Helene, Paulo; Barkokébas, Béda

    2015-03-27

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) demands more studies of durability at higher temperatures when subjected to more aggressive environments in comparison to the conventional vibrated concrete (CC). This work aims at presenting results of durability indicators of SCC and CC, having the same water/binder relations and constituents. The applied methodologies were electrical resistivity, diffusion of chloride ions and accelerated carbonation experiments, among others, such as microstructure study, scanning electron microscope and microtomography experiments. The tests were performed in a research laboratory and at a construction site of the Pernambuco Arena. The obtained results shows that the SCC presents an average electrical resistivity 11.4% higher than CC; the average chloride ions diffusion was 63.3% of the CC; the average accelerated carbonation penetration was 45.8% of the CC; and the average open porosity was 55.6% of the CC. As the results demonstrated, the SCC can be more durable than CC, which contributes to elucidate the aspects related to its durability and consequent prolonged life cycle.

  4. Durability Indicators Comparison for SCC and CC in Tropical Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Calado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC demands more studies of durability at higher temperatures when subjected to more aggressive environments in comparison to the conventional vibrated concrete (CC. This work aims at presenting results of durability indicators of SCC and CC, having the same water/binder relations and constituents. The applied methodologies were electrical resistivity, diffusion of chloride ions and accelerated carbonation experiments, among others, such as microstructure study, scanning electron microscope and microtomography experiments. The tests were performed in a research laboratory and at a construction site of the Pernambuco Arena. The obtained results shows that the SCC presents an average electrical resistivity 11.4% higher than CC; the average chloride ions diffusion was 63.3% of the CC; the average accelerated carbonation penetration was 45.8% of the CC; and the average open porosity was 55.6% of the CC. As the results demonstrated, the SCC can be more durable than CC, which contributes to elucidate the aspects related to its durability and consequent prolonged life cycle.

  5. Dependence of 210Po activity on organic matter in the reverine environs of coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Venunathan, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the distribution of 210 Po in the river bank soil samples of three major rivers namely Bharathapuzha, Periyar and Kallada river of Kerala. The dependence of 210 Po activity on organic matter content in the samples was also studied. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for 210 Po radionuclide using standard radiochemical analytical method. Activity of 210 Po increases with increase in organic matter content in samples. Along the Bharathapuzha river bank the 210 Po activity ranges from 2.96 to 12.48 Bq kg -1 with mean 5.62 Bq kg -1 . The organic matter percentage in the samples ranges from 0.4 to 2.8 and a good correlation with correlation coefficient 0.9 was found between activity and organic matter percentage. In the Periyar river environs 210 Po activity ranges from 3.47 to 13.39 Bq kg -1 with mean value 9.27 Bq kg -1 . Organic matter percentage in these samples ranges from 1.20 to 4.10 and the correlation coefficient between 210 Po activity and organic matter percentage was found to be 0.8 In the Kallada river bank soil samples 210 Po activity ranges from 4.46 to 6.45 Bq kg -1 . The organic matter percentage ranges from 1.4 to 3. The correlation coefficient between 210 Po activity and organic matter percentage in the samples was found to be 0.9. (author)

  6. Application of ERTS-1 data to the protection and management of New Jersey's coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunghans, R. S.; Feinberg, E. B.; Wobber, F. J.; Mairs, R. L. (Principal Investigator); Macomber, R. T.; Stanczuk, D.; Stitt, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Rapid access to ERTS data was provided by NASA GSFC for the February 26, 1974 overpass of the New Jersey test site. Forty-seven hours following the overpass computer-compatible tapes were ready for processing at EarthSat. The finished product was ready just 60 hours following the overpass and delivered to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. This operational demonstration has been successful in convincing NJDEP as to the worth of ERTS as an operational monitoring and enforcement tool of significant value to the State. An erosion/ accretion severity index has been developed for the New Jersey shore case study area. Computerized analysis techniques have been used for monitoring offshore waste disposal dumping locations, drift vectors, and dispersion rates in the New York Bight area. A computer shade print of the area was used to identify intensity levels of acid waste. A Litton intensity slice print was made to provide graphic presentation of dispersion characteristics and the dump extent. Continued monitoring will lead to the recommendation and justification of permanent dumping sites which pose no threat to water quality in nearshore environments.

  7. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  8. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV for High-Resolution Reconstruction of Topography: The Structure from Motion Approach on Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of high-resolution Digital Surface Models of coastal environments is of increasing interest for scientists involved in the study of the coastal system processes. Among the range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to produce such a dataset, this study tests the utility of the Structure from Motion (SfM approach to low-altitude aerial imageries collected by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The SfM image-based approach was selected whilst searching for a rapid, inexpensive, and highly automated method, able to produce 3D information from unstructured aerial images. In particular, it was used to generate a dense point cloud and successively a high-resolution Digital Surface Models (DSM of a beach dune system in Marina di Ravenna (Italy. The quality of the elevation dataset produced by the UAV-SfM was initially evaluated by comparison with point cloud generated by a Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS surveys. Such a comparison served to highlight an average difference in the vertical values of 0.05 m (RMS = 0.19 m. However, although the points cloud comparison is the best approach to investigate the absolute or relative correspondence between UAV and TLS methods, the assessment of geomorphic features is usually based on multi-temporal surfaces analysis, where an interpolation process is required. DSMs were therefore generated from UAV and TLS points clouds and vertical absolute accuracies assessed by comparison with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS survey. The vertical comparison of UAV and TLS DSMs with respect to GNSS measurements pointed out an average distance at cm-level (RMS = 0.011 m. The successive point by point direct comparison between UAV and TLS elevations show a very small average distance, 0.015 m, with RMS = 0.220 m. Larger values are encountered in areas where sudden changes in topography are present. The UAV-based approach was demonstrated to be a straightforward one and accuracy of the vertical dataset

  9. Frequent ultrafine particle formation and growth in Canadian Arctic marine and coastal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Douglas B.; Burkart, Julia; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Lizotte, Martine; Boivin-Rioux, Aude; Blais, Marjolaine; Mungall, Emma L.; Boyer, Matthew; Irish, Victoria E.; Massé, Guillaume; Kunkel, Daniel; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Papakyriakou, Tim; Bertram, Allan K.; Bozem, Heiko; Gosselin, Michel; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-11-01

    The source strength and capability of aerosol particles in the Arctic to act as cloud condensation nuclei have important implications for understanding the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. It has been shown in several Arctic regions that ultrafine particle (UFP) formation and growth is a key contributor to aerosol number concentrations during the summer. This study uses aerosol number size distribution measurements from shipboard expeditions aboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen in the summers of 2014 and 2016 throughout the Canadian Arctic to gain a deeper understanding of the drivers of UFP formation and growth within this marine boundary layer. UFP number concentrations (diameter > 4 nm) in the range of 101-104 cm-3 were observed during the two seasons, with concentrations greater than 103 cm-3 occurring more frequently in 2016. Higher concentrations in 2016 were associated with UFP formation and growth, with events occurring on 41 % of days, while events were only observed on 6 % of days in 2014. Assessment of relevant parameters for aerosol nucleation showed that the median condensation sink in this region was approximately 1.2 h-1 in 2016 and 2.2 h-1 in 2014, which lie at the lower end of ranges observed at even the most remote stations reported in the literature. Apparent growth rates of all observed events in both expeditions averaged 4.3 ± 4.1 nm h-1, in general agreement with other recent studies at similar latitudes. Higher solar radiation, lower cloud fractions, and lower sea ice concentrations combined with differences in the developmental stage and activity of marine microbial communities within the Canadian Arctic were documented and help explain differences between the aerosol measurements made during the 2014 and 2016 expeditions. These findings help to motivate further studies of biosphere-atmosphere interactions within the Arctic marine environment to explain the production of UFP and their growth to sizes

  10. A Community-Led Medical Response Effort in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushar, Matthew L; Rosenberg, Rebecca E

    2015-08-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the neighborhood of Red Hook in Brooklyn, New York. The massive tidal surge generated by the storm submerged the coastal area, home to a population over 11,000 individuals, including the largest public housing development in Brooklyn. The infrastructure devastation was profound: the storm rendered electricity, heat, water, Internet, and phone services inoperative, whereas local ambulatory medical services including clinics, pharmacies, home health agencies, and other resources were damaged beyond functionality. Lacking these services or lines of communication, medically fragile individuals became isolated from the hospital and 911-emergency systems without a preexisting mechanism to identify or treat them. Medically fragile individuals primarily included those with chronic medical conditions dependent on frequent and consistent monitoring and treatments. In response, the Red Hook community established an ad hoc volunteer medical relief effort in the wake of the storm, filling a major gap that continues to exist in disaster medicine for low-income urban environments. Here we describe this effort, including an analysis of the medically vulnerable in this community, and recommend disaster risk reduction strategies and resilience measures for future disaster events.

  11. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry • Impacts to coastal beaches and barriers

  12. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  13. Sandy a změna klimatu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecho, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 7 (2013), s. 408-411 ISSN 0042-4544 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : hurricanes * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.vesmir.cz/clanek/sandy-a-zmena-klimatu

  14. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  15. Measurement of biological oxygen demand sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of biological oxygen demand in a sandy beach using conventional .... counting the cells present in a sample of aged seawater and comparing this with .... This activity peaked at 71 % above the undisturbed level after 16 hours.

  16. Personal care products and steroid hormones in the Antarctic coastal environment associated with two Antarctic research stations, McMurdo Station and Scott Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emnet, Philipp; Gaw, Sally; Northcott, Grant; Storey, Bryan; Graham, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are a major source of micropollutants to the aquatic environment. Despite intense research on the fate and effects of PPCPs in temperate climates, there is a paucity of data on their presence in polar environments. This study reports the presence of selected PPCPs in sewage effluents from two Antarctic research stations, the adjacent coastal seawater, sea ice, and biota. Sewage effluents contained bisphenol-A, ethinylestradiol, estrone, methyl triclosan, octylphenol, triclosan, and three UV-filters. The maximum sewage effluent concentrations of 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor, benzophenone-1, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and octylphenol exceeded concentrations previously reported. Coastal seawaters contained bisphenol-A, octylphenol, triclosan, three paraben preservatives, and four UV-filters. The sea ice contained a similar range and concentration of PPCPs as the seawater. Benzophenone-3 (preferential accumulation in clams), estradiol, ethinylestradiol, methyl paraben (preferential accumulation in fish, with concentrations correlating negatively with fillet size), octylphenol, and propyl paraben were detected in biota samples. PPCPs were detected in seawater and biota at distances up to 25 km from the research stations WWTP discharges. Sewage effluent discharges and disposal of raw human waste through sea ice cracks have been identified as sources of PPCPs to Antarctic coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  18. Preliminary assessment of coastal erosion and local community adaptation in Sayung coastal area, central Java – Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Marfai, Muh Aris

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic environment in coastal area, especially due to coastal erosion process, has negative impact on human environment. Sayung coastal area, located in Central Java-Indonesia, has experienced severe impact of coastal erosion. As the result of the coastal erosion, hundreds of settlement located in coastal area has been destructed. Moreover, fishponds as the land use dominated in the coastal area also has been severely destroyed. Besides the coastal erosion, increasing of inundated area due t...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIL (ESI Shoreline Types - Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIL data set contains lines representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: ESIP (ESI Shoreline Types - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ESIP data set contains polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of the Upper Coast of Texas, classified according to the Environmental...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Upper...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the Hudson River, classified according to the Environmental...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats of Northern California, classified according to the Environmental...

  4. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bismuth in the coastal environment using three species of macroalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, James; Turner, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly defined. In this study, we exposed three different species of macroalga (the chlorophyte, Ulva lactuca, the phaeophyte, Fucus vesiculosus, and the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus) to different concentrations of Bi (up to 50 μg L −1 ) under controlled, laboratory conditions. After a period of 48-h, the phytotoxicity of Bi was measured in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and adsorption and internalisation of Bi determined by ICP after EDTA extraction and acid digestion, respectively. For all algae, both the internalisation and total accumulation of Bi were proportional to the concentration of aqueous metal. Total accumulation followed the order: F. vesiculosus > C. crispus > U. lactuca; with respective accumulation factors of about 4200, 1700 and 600 L kg −1 . Greatest internalisation (about 33% of total accumulated Bi) was exhibited by C. crispus, the only macroalga to display a phytotoxic response in the exposures. A comparison of the present results with those reported in the literature suggests that Bi accumulation by macroalgae is significantly lower than its accumulation by marine plankton (volume concentration factors of 10 5 to 10 7 ), and that the phytotoxicity of Bi is low relative to other heavy metals like Ag and Tl. - Highlights: • Very little is understood about the biogeochemistry of bismuth. • We exposed three species of coastal macroalga to variable concentrations of Bi. • Greatest accumulation was exhibited by Fucus vesiculosus. • Greatest internalisation was exhibited by Chondus crispus. • C. crispus was the only macroalga to display a toxic response. - Bismuth is accumulated by three species of marine macroalga but exhibits only moderate toxicity to the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus.

  5. Annual changes of bacterial mortality due to viruses and protists in an oligotrophic coastal environment (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras, Julia A; Sala, M Montserrat; Vázquez-Domínguez, Evaristo; Weinbauer, Markus G; Vaqué, Dolors

    2009-05-01

    The impact of viruses and protists on bacterioplankton mortality was examined monthly during 2 years (May 2005-April 2007) in an oligotrophic coastal environment (NW Mediterranean Sea). We expected that in such type of system, (i) bacterial losses would be caused mainly by protists, and (ii) lysogeny would be an important type of virus-host interaction. During the study period, viruses and grazers together were responsible for 50.6 +/- 40.1% day(-1) of bacterial standing stock losses (BSS) and 59.7 +/- 44.0% day(-1) of bacterial production losses (BP). Over the first year (May 2005-April 2006), protists were the principal cause of bacterial mortality, removing 29.9 +/- 20.4% day(-1) of BSS and 33.9 +/- 24.3% day(-1) of BP, whereas viral lysis removed 13.5 +/- 17.0% day(-1) of BSS and 12.3 +/- 12.3% day(-1) of BP. During the second year (May 2006-April 2007), viruses caused comparable bacterial losses (29.2 +/- 14.8% day(-1) of BSS and 40.9 +/- 20.7% day(-1) of BP) to protists (28.6 +/- 25.5% day(-1) of BSS and 32.4 +/- 20.0% day(-1) of BP). In 37% of cases higher losses of BP due to viruses than due to protists were found. Lysogenic infection was detected in 11 of 24 samplings. Contrary to our expectations, lytic infections dominated over the two years, and viruses resulted to be a significant source of bacterial mortality in this oligotrophic site.

  6. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economicv activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel

  7. Coastal sand dune ecosystem services in metropolitan suburbs: effects on the sake brewery environment induced by changing social conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Korehisa; Matsushima, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    Chiba Prefecture, Japan, lies very near Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. It borders the sea on three sides and is banded by coastal dunes. Several sake breweries are located near these dunes. Although there are records of sake brewing along the coast of Tokyo Bay since 1925, sake breweries have completely disappeared in several areas. We believe that sake brewing in these areas benefited from the ecosystem services afforded them by their proximity to the coastal ecosystem. We investigated potential environmental factors (e.g., landscape, soil, and groundwater), as well as conditions that could have driven sake brewers away from the coastal area. Many of the sake breweries that no longer exist were located on coastal dunes (i.e., sand, sandbanks, and natural levees) and obtained their water from a freshwater layer located 3-10 m below the surface. We speculate that these sake breweries benefited from using natural ingredients found in the coastal zone. We also investigated the following factors that may have negatively impacted the breweries, driving them out of business: (1) bankruptcies and reconstruction difficulties that followed the destructive 1923 Great Kanto earthquake, (2) industrial wartime adjustments during World War II (1939-1945), (3) development of coastal industries during the period from 1960 to 1975, and (4) increasing choices for other alcoholic drinks (e.g., beer, wine, and whiskey) from the 1960s to the present.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE SANDY LOAM ON SULFURIC SOIL ACIDITY AND SULFIDIC SOIL OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Michael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  In poor soils, addition of alkaline sandy loam containing an adequate proportion of sand, silt and clay would add value by improving the texture, structure and organic matter (OM for general use of the soils. In acid sulfate soils (ASS, addition of alkaline sandy would improve the texture and leach out salts as well as add a sufficient proportion of OM for vegetation establishment. In this study, addition of alkaline sandy loam into sulfuric soil effectively increased the pH, lowered the redox and reduced the sulfate content, the magnitude of the effects dependent on moisture content. Addition of alkaline sandy loam in combination with OM was highly effective than the effects of the lone alkaline sandy loam. When alkaline sandy was added alone or in combination with OM into sulfidic soil, the effects on pH and the redox were similar as in the sulfuric soil but the effect on sulfate content was variable. The effects under aerobic conditions were higher than under anaerobic conditions. The findings of this study have important implications for the general management of ASS where lime availability is a concern and its application is limited.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 42-54

  9. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D

    2015-11-01

    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior.

  10. Seawater quality assessment and identification of pollution sources along the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf (SE Tunisia): Evidence of industrial impact and implications for marine environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Ben Alaya, Mohsen; Daghbouj, Nabil; Castet, Sylvie; Besson, Philippe; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla; Courjault-Radé, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped by the Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT) seem to have continuously degraded the seawater quality in the study area. A rapid intervention is needed to stop the effects on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    .U. Haq and J.D. Milliman, (Eds.), Marine Geology and Oceanography ofArabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan. New York: Reinhold, pp. 339-350. PAFFENHOFER, G-A.; WESTER, B.T. and NICHO· LAS, W.O., 1984. Zooplankton abundance in rela- Journal of Coastal Research... Ocean. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, 94, 129-137. SMITH, S.L., 1982. The northwest Indian Ocean dur ing the monsoons of 1979: distribution, abundance and feeding of zooplankton. Deep-Sea Research, 29, 1331-1353. SMITH, S.L.; BOYQ, C...

  12. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  13. Topobathymetric elevation model development using a new methodology: Coastal National Elevation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Tyler, Dean; Gesch, Dean B.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John

    2016-01-01

    During the coming decades, coastlines will respond to widely predicted sea-level rise, storm surge, and coastalinundation flooding from disastrous events. Because physical processes in coastal environments are controlled by the geomorphology of over-the-land topography and underwater bathymetry, many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require detailed knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. In this paper, an updated methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) Applications Project is presented for developing coastal topobathymetric elevation models (TBDEMs) from multiple topographic data sources with adjacent intertidal topobathymetric and offshore bathymetric sources to generate seamlessly integrated TBDEMs. This repeatable, updatable, and logically consistent methodology assimilates topographic data (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) into a seamless coastal elevation model. Within the overarching framework, vertical datum transformations are standardized in a workflow that interweaves spatially consistent interpolation (gridding) techniques with a land/water boundary mask delineation approach. Output gridded raster TBDEMs are stacked into a file storage system of mosaic datasets within an Esri ArcGIS geodatabase for efficient updating while maintaining current and updated spatially referenced metadata. Topobathymetric data provide a required seamless elevation product for several science application studies, such as shoreline delineation, coastal inundation mapping, sediment-transport, sea-level rise, storm surge models, and tsunami impact assessment. These detailed coastal elevation data are critical to depict regions prone to climate change impacts and are essential to planners and managers responsible for mitigating the associated risks and costs to both human communities and ecosystems. The CoNED methodology approach has been used to construct integrated TBDEM models

  14. Designing Tiban island as tourist destination and sustainable coastal in Bleder village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwanti, Sri; Setiawan, Agung

    2018-05-01

    This study is on tourism development process, which involves the function of local potential tourist attraction confronted to the needs for area natural conservation. The study location is a village called Bleder, or Kartika Jaya, in Patebon sub district, Kendal regency CentralJjava. The research unit is the management of a sandy island called “pulau tiban”or ‘suddenly appears island’, and village’s surrounding area. Qualitative methods approach is utilized in order to understand the village situation, community social economy activities toward the sandy island, and the meaning of thatt sandy island for the village sustainability. The study result shows that some problems have evident in the exploitation of natural potential for tourist attraction as confronted to environment conservation. Conflict of interests have also emerged among groups of people and group to group regarding the management of turism attraction. To deal with the problems, comprehensive program is proposed especially to increase community’s awareness on sustainable tourism, marine and coastal conservation, and the benefit and risk of ecotourism. For Bleder tourism development, the community need to concern to their village environmental safety more than on economic benefit purpose only. Introduction

  15. Coastal Dunes of the Baltic Sea Shores: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabuz Tomasz Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises results of studies conducted along the Baltic Sea sandy coasts by scientists involved in coastal dune research, and presents an attempt to describe the types and distribution of dune coasts. The Baltic Sea coasts feature lower and higher foredunes. The lowland behind the coastal dune belt is covered by wandering or stabilised inland dunes – transgressive forms, mainly parabolic or barchans. The source of sediment for dune development includes fluvioglacial sands from eroded coasts, river-discharged sand, and older eroded dunes. Due to the ongoing erosion and coastal retreat, many dunes have been eroded, and some are withdrawing onto the adjacent land. There are visible differences between the south-eastern, western, and northern parts of the Baltic Sea coast with respect to dune development. The entire southern and eastern coast abounds in sand, so the coastal dunes are large, formerly or currently wandering formations. The only shifting dunes are found at the Polish and the Russian–Lithuanian coasts on the Łebsko Lake Sandbar as well as on the Vistula and Curonian Spits. The very diverse shoreline of the south-western coast experiences a scarcity of larger sandy formations. Substantial parts of the Baltic Sea sandy coasts have been eroded or transformed by humans. The northern part of the Baltic Sea coast features mainly narrow and low sandy coasts (e.g. in Estonia. Further north, sandy dunes are virtually absent.

  16. Operational Group Sandy technical progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy made US landfall near Atlantic City, NJ on 29 October 2012, causing 72 direct deaths, displacing thousands of individuals from damaged or destroyed dwellings, and leaving over 8.5 million homes without power across the northeast and mid-Atlantic. To coordinate federal rebuilding activities in the affected region, the President established the cabinet-level Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force was charged with identifying opportunities for achieving rebuilding success while supporting economic vitality, improving public health and safety, protecting and enhancing natural and manmade infrastructure, bolstering resilience, and ensuring appropriate accountability.

  17. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  18. Coastal Modelling Environment version 1.0: a framework for integrating landform-specific component models in order to simulate decadal to centennial morphological changes on complex coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Payo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to model morphological changes on complex, multi-landform coasts over decadal to centennial timescales is essential for sustainable coastal management worldwide. One approach involves coupling of landform-specific simulation models (e.g. cliffs, beaches, dunes and estuaries that have been independently developed. An alternative, novel approach explored in this paper is to capture the essential characteristics of the landform-specific models using a common spatial representation within an appropriate software framework. This avoid the problems that result from the model-coupling approach due to between-model differences in the conceptualizations of geometries, volumes and locations of sediment. In the proposed framework, the Coastal Modelling Environment (CoastalME, change in coastal morphology is represented by means of dynamically linked raster and geometrical objects. A grid of raster cells provides the data structure for representing quasi-3-D spatial heterogeneity and sediment conservation. Other geometrical objects (lines, areas and volumes that are consistent with, and derived from, the raster structure represent a library of coastal elements (e.g. shoreline, beach profiles and estuary volumes as required by different landform-specific models. As a proof-of-concept, we illustrate the capabilities of an initial version of CoastalME by integrating a cliff–beach model and two wave propagation approaches. We verify that CoastalME can reproduce behaviours of the component landform-specific models. Additionally, the integration of these component models within the CoastalME framework reveals behaviours that emerge from the interaction of landforms, which have not previously been captured, such as the influence of the regional bathymetry on the local alongshore sediment-transport gradient and the effect on coastal change on an undefended coastal segment and on sediment bypassing of coastal structures.

  19. Fine organic particles in a sandy beach system (Puck Bay, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kotwicki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of over 550 samples of particulate organic matter (POM were obtained from swash and groundwater samples taken on a monthly basis from seven localities on the sandy shores of Puck Bay in 2002 and 2003. Sandy sediment cores from the swash zone were collected to assess the amount of POM in the pore waters. The mean annual concentrations of POM varied between localities from 20 to 500 mg in groundwater and from 6 to 200 mg dm-3 in swash water. The carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio in suspended matter was always higher in groundwater (annual mean 12 than in swash water (annual mean 7. The C/N ratio indicates a local, algal origin of POM in the shallow coastal zone.

  20. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  1. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  2. Sandy Hook : alternative access concept plan and vehicle replacement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This study addresses two critical issues of concern to the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National : Recreational Area: (1) options for alternative access to Sandy Hook during peak summer season, : particularly when the park is closed to private vehicles...

  3. Middle Holocene coastal environment and the rise of the Liangzhu City complex on the Yangtze delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Qianli; Thomas, Ian; Zhang, Li; Finlayson, Brian; Zhang, Weiguo; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2015-11-01

    The large prehistoric city of Liangzhu and its associated earthen dike emerged on the Yangtze delta-coast after two millennia of occupation in this area by scattered communities. Details of its development have been widely discussed in the literature. Our results reveal that the city was selectively built at the head of an embayment backed by hills, with close access to food, freshwater and timber, and with protection from coastal hazards. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating shows that it was built around 4.8-4.5 ka, and the earthen dike was constructed a little later at 4.1 ka. During this time, saltwater wetlands were changing to freshwater in response to rapid coastal progradation as the postglacial sea-level rise stabilized. This facilitated rice farming and furthered the development of the city with elaborate city planning. The younger large-scale earthen dike and artificial ponds possibly suggest increasing demand for flood mitigation and irrigation.

  4. The ecology of sandy beaches in Transkei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from an ecological survey of three sandy beaches in. Transkei and from Gulu beach on the eastern Cape coast,. South Africa, are presented. Physical parameters such as beach profile, sand particle size, Eh and carbonate content, as well as abundance, composition, biomass and distribution of the macrofauna and ...

  5. Lessons from Hurricane Sandy for port resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    New York Harbor was directly in the path of the most damaging part of Hurricane Sandy causing significant impact on many of the : facilities of the Port of New York and New Jersey. The U.S. Coast Guard closed the entire Port to all traffic before the...

  6. Transportation during and after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    "Hurricane Sandy demonstrated the strengths and limits of the transportation infrastructure in New York City and the surrounding region. As a result of the timely and thorough preparations by New York City and the MTA, along with the actions of city ...

  7. Impact of Superstorm Sandy on Medicare Patients' Utilization of Hospitals and Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckman, Benoit; Walsh, Lauren; Carr, Brendan G; Hupert, Nathaniel; Lurie, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    National health security requires that healthcare facilities be prepared to provide rapid, effective emergency and trauma care to all patients affected by a catastrophic event. We sought to quantify changes in healthcare utilization patterns for an at-risk Medicare population before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy's 2012 landfall in New Jersey (NJ). This study is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries impacted by Superstorm Sandy. We compared hospital emergency department (ED) and healthcare facility inpatient utilization in the weeks before and after Superstorm Sandy landfall using a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries continuously enrolled in 2011 and 2012 (N=224,116). Outcome measures were pre-storm discharges (or transfers), average length of stay, service intensity weight, and post-storm ED visits resulting in either discharge or hospital admission. In the pre-storm week, hospital transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNF) increased by 39% and inpatient discharges had a 0.3 day decreased mean length of stay compared to the prior year. In the post-storm week, ED visits increased by 14% statewide; of these additional "surge" patients, 20% were admitted to the hospital. The increase in ED demand was more than double the statewide average in the most highly impacted coastal regions (35% versus 14%). Superstorm Sandy impacted both pre- and post-storm patient movement in New Jersey; post-landfall ED surge was associated with overall storm impact, which was greatest in coastal counties. A significant increase in the number and severity of pre-storm transfer patients, in particular from SNF, as well as in post-storm ED visits and inpatient admissions, draws attention to the importance of collaborative regional approaches to healthcare in large-scale events.

  8. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ampuero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the potential degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (MCA-leu (1.2 to 182 nmol l−1 h−1 followed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUF-glu (0.08–61 nmol l−1 h−1 and 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobiose (MUF-cel (0.15–7 nmol l−1 h−1, with the highest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nmol l−1 h−1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nmol l−1 h−1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the EEA observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol g−1 dw h−1 was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 5.1 nmol g−1 dw h−1 and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol g−1 dw h−1. Moreover, hydrolysis in sediments was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to evaluate the potential capability of microbial processing of organic carbon in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata river discharge where the increase in primary production in the productive seasons is accompanied by the increase in hydrolysis of macromolecules.

  9. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  10. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  11. Lithogenic and biogenic particle deposition in an Antarctic coastal environment (Marian Cove, King George Island): Seasonal patterns from a sediment trap study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B. K.; Shim, J.; Yoon, H. I.; Kang, Y. C.; Jang, Y. H.

    2007-06-01

    Particulate suspended material was recovered over a 23-month period using two sediment traps deployed in shallow water (˜30 m deep) off the King Sejong Station located in Marian Cove of King George Island, West Antarctica. Variability in seasonal flux and geochemical characteristics of the sediment particles highlights seasonal patterns of sedimentation of both lithogenic (terrigenous) and biogenic particles in the coastal glaciomarine environment. All components including total mass flux, lithogenic particle flux and biogenic particle flux show distinct seasonal variation, with high recovery rates during the summer and low rates under winter fast ice. The major contributor to total mass flux is the lithogenic component, comprising from 88% during the summer months (about 21 g m -2 d -1) up to 97% during the winter season (about 2 g m -2 d -1). The lithogenic particle flux depends mainly on the amount of snow-melt (snow accumulation) delivered into the coastal region as well as on the resuspension of sedimentary materials. These fine-grained lithogenic particles are silt-to-clay sized, composed mostly of clay minerals weathered on King George Island. Biogenic particle flux is also seasonal. Winter flux is ˜0.2 g m -2 d -1, whereas the summer contribution increases more than tenfold, up to 2.6 g m -2 d -1. Different biogenic flux between the two summers indicates inter-annual variability to the spring-summer phytoplankton bloom. The maximum of lithogenic particle flux occurs over a short period of time, and follows the peak of biogenic particle flux, which lasts longer. The seasonal warming and sea-ice retreat result in change in seawater nutrient status and subsequent ice-edge phytoplankton production. Meanwhile, the meltwater input to Marian Cove from the coastal drainage in January to February plays a major role in transporting lithogenic particles into the shallow water environment, although the tidal currents may be the main agents of resuspension in this

  12. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi

    2017-04-01

    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  13. Metagenomics unveils the attributes of the alginolytic guilds of sediments from four distant cold coastal environments: Alginolytic guilds from cold sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Marina N. [Laboratorio de Microbiología Ambiental, Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR, CONICET), Puerto Madryn U9120ACD Argentina; Lozada, Mariana [Laboratorio de Microbiología Ambiental, Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR, CONICET), Puerto Madryn U9120ACD Argentina; Anselmino, Luciano E. [Laboratorio de Microbiología Ambiental, Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR, CONICET), Puerto Madryn U9120ACD Argentina; Musumeci, Matías A. [Laboratorio de Microbiología Ambiental, Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR, CONICET), Puerto Madryn U9120ACD Argentina; Henrissat, Bernard [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille 13288 France; INRA, USC 1408 AFMB, Marseille F-13288 France; Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 Saudi Arabia; Jansson, Janet K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Mac Cormack, Walter P. [Instituto Antártico Argentino, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, C1064ABR, Argentina; Instituto Nanobiotec, CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, C1113AAC, Argentina; Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Fram - High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, Tromsø NO-9296 Norway; CAGE - Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø N-9037 Norway; Sjöling, Sara [School of Natural Sciences and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge 141 89 Sweden; Lundgren, Leif [Stockholm University, Stockholm SE-106 91 Sweden; Dionisi, Hebe M. [Laboratorio de Microbiología Ambiental, Centro para el Estudio de Sistemas Marinos (CESIMAR, CONICET), Puerto Madryn U9120ACD Argentina

    2016-07-18

    Alginates are abundant polysaccharides in brown algae that constitute an important energy source for marine heterotrophic bacteria. Despite the key role of alginate assimilation processes in the marine carbon cycle, little information is available on the bacterial populations involved in these processes. The goal of this work was to gain insight into the structure and functional traits of the alginolytic communities from sediments of cold coastal environments. Sediment metagenomes from high-latitude regions of both Hemispheres were interrogated for alginate lyase gene homolog sequences and their genomic context. Sediments contained highly abundant and diverse bacterial assemblages with alginolytic potential, including members of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, as well as several poorly characterized taxa. Temperature and salinity were correlated to the variation in community structure. The microbial communities in Arctic and Antarctic sediments exhibited the most similar alginolytic profiles, whereas brackish sediments had a higher proportion of novel members. Examination of the gene context of the alginate lyase homologs revealed distinct patterns according to the phylogenetic origin of the scaffolds, with evidence of evolutionary relationships among lineages. This information is relevant for understanding carbon fluxes in cold coastal environments and provides valuable information for the development of biotechnological applications from brown algae biomass.

  14. Spatial patterns and natural recruitment of native shrubs in a semi-arid sandy land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Yang, Hongxiao

    2013-01-01

    Passive restoration depending on native shrubs is an attractive approach for restoring desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. We sought to understand the relationships between spatial patterns of native shrubs and their survival ability in sandy environments. Furthermore, we applied our results to better understand whether passive restoration is feasible for desertified landscapes in semi-arid sandy regions. The study was conducted in the semi-arid Mu Us sandy land of northern China with the native shrub Artemisia ordosica. We analyzed population structures and patterns of A. ordosica at the edges and centers of land patches where sand was stabilized by A. ordosica-dominated vegetation. Saplings were more aggregated than adults, and both were more aggregated at the patch edges than at the patch centers. At the patch edges, spatial association of the saplings with the adults was mostly positive at distances 0.3-6.6 m, and turned from positive to neutral, and even negative, at other distances. At the patch centers, the saplings were spaced almost randomly around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations. A greater number of A. ordosica individuals emerged at the patch edges than at the patch centers. Such patterns may have resulted from their integrative adjustment to specific conditions of soil water supply and sand drift intensity. These findings suggest that in semi-arid sandy regions, native shrubs that are well-adapted to local environments may serve as low-cost and competent ecological engineers that can promote the passive restoration of surrounding patches of mobile sandy land.

  15. Development of a Florida Coastal Mapping Program Through Local and Regional Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C. J.; Kramer, P. A.; Fetherston-Resch, E.; Baumstark, R.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States (2,170 km). The coastal zone is heavily populated and contains 1,900 km of sandy beaches that support economically important recreation and tourism. Florida's waters also host important marine mineral resources, unique ecosystems, and the largest number of recreational boats and saltwater fishermen in the country. There is increasing need and demand for high resolution data of the coast and adjacent seafloor for resource and habitat mapping, understanding coastal vulnerability, evaluating performance of restoration projects, and many other coastal and marine spatial planning efforts. The Florida Coastal Mapping Program (FCMP), initiated in 2017 as a regional collaboration between four federal and three state agencies, has goals of establishing the priorities for high resolution seafloor mapping of Florida's coastal environment, and developing a strategy for leveraging funds to support mapping priorities set by stakeholders. We began by creating a comprehensive digital inventory of existing data (collected by government, the private sector, and academia) from 1 kilometer inland to the 200 meter isobath for a statewide geospatial database and gap analysis. Data types include coastal topography, bathymetry, and acoustic data such as sidescan sonar and subbottom profiles. Next, we will develop appropriate proposals and legislative budget requests in response to opportunities to collect priority data in high priority areas. Data collection will be undertaken by a combination of state and federal agencies. The FCMP effort will provide the critical baseline information that is required for characterizing changes to fragile ecosystems, assessing marine resources, and forecasting the impacts on coastal infrastructure and recreational beaches from future storms and sea-level rise.

  16. Superstorm Sandy marine debris wash-ups on Long Island - What happened to them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Lwiza, Kamazima; Willig, Kaitlin; Morris, Kaitlin

    2016-07-15

    Superstorm Sandy generated huge quantities of debris in the Long Island, NY coastal zone. However, little appears to have been washed offshore to eventually be returned to Long Island's beaches as marine debris wash-ups. Information for our analysis includes debris collection statistics, very high resolution satellite images, along with wind and sea level data. Rigorous debris collection efforts along with meteorological conditions following the storm appear to have reduced the likelihood of debris wash-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  18. Organic pollutants in the coastal environment off San Diego, California. 2: Petrogenic and biogenic sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.; Yu, C.C.; Zeng, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The results from the measurements of aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons suggest that hydrocarbons in the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) effluents are mainly petroleum derived; those in the Tijuana River runoff have largely originated from terrestrial plants with visible petroleum contamination; and those in the sea surface microlayer, sediment traps, and sediments at various coastal locations off San Diego have mostly resulted from biogenic contributions with enhanced microbial products in the summer season. Rainfall in the winter season appeared to amplify the inputs from terrestrial higher plants to the coastal areas. The PLWTP discharged approximately 3.85 metric tons of n-alkanes (C 10 -C 35 ) in 1994, well below the level (136 metric tons) estimated in 1979. The input of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the Tijuana River was about 0.101 metric tons in 1994. Diffusion, solubilization, evaporation, and microbial degradation seemed partially responsible for the difference in the concentrations and compositions of aliphatic hydrocarbons in different sample media, although the relative importance of each mechanism cannot be readily discerned from the available data. The results from analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbon compositional indices are generally consistent with those of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  19. Combining L- and X-Band SAR Interferometry to Assess Ground Displacements in Heterogeneous Coastal Environments: The Po River Delta and Venice Lagoon, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tosi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From leveling to SAR-based interferometry, the monitoring of land subsidence in coastal transitional environments significantly improved. However, the simultaneous assessment of the ground movements in these peculiar environments is still challenging. This is due to the presence of relatively small built-up zones and infrastructures, e.g., coastal infrastructures, bridges, and river embankments, within large natural or rural lands, e.g., river deltas, lagoons, and farmland. In this paper we present a multi-band SAR methodology to integrate COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-PALSAR images. The method consists of a proper combination of the very high-resolution X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI, which achieves high-density and precise measurements on single structures and constructed areas, with L-band Short-Baseline SAR Interferometry (SBAS, properly implemented to raise its effectiveness in retrieving information in vegetated and wet zones. The combined methodology is applied on the Po River Delta and Venice coastland, Northern Italy, using 16 ALOS-PALSAR and 31 COSMO-SkyMed images covering the period between 2007 and 2011. After a proper calibration of the single PSI and SBAS solution using available GPS records, the datasets have been combined at both the regional and local scales. The measured displacements range from ~0 mm/yr down to −35 mm/yr. The results reveal the variable pattern of the subsidence characterizing the more natural and rural environments without losing the accuracy in quantifying the sinking of urban areas and infrastructures. Moreover, they allow improving the interpretation of the natural and anthropogenic processes responsible for the ongoing subsidence.

  20. Rebuilding Emergency Care After Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David C; Smith, Silas W; McStay, Christopher M; Portelli, Ian; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Husk, Gregg; Shah, Nirav R

    2014-04-09

    A freestanding, 911-receiving emergency department was implemented at Bellevue Hospital Center during the recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy to compensate for the increased volume experienced at nearby hospitals. Because inpatient services at several hospitals remained closed for months, emergency volume increased significantly. Thus, in collaboration with the New York State Department of Health and other partners, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and Bellevue Hospital Center opened a freestanding emergency department without on-site inpatient care. The successful operation of this facility hinged on key partnerships with emergency medical services and nearby hospitals. Also essential was the establishment of an emergency critical care ward and a system to monitor emergency department utilization at affected hospitals. The results of this experience, we believe, can provide a model for future efforts to rebuild emergency care capacity after a natural disaster such as Hurricane Sandy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  1. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  2. Study of heavy metal pollution in mangrove sediments reference to marine environment along the coastal areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.; Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu and Fe) in Mangrove sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu and Fe) were measured in different samples of in different Mangroves sediments along the coastal areas of Pakistan and was found that concentration of heavy metals in the Mangrove sediments near to Lyari and Malir river discharge points are at much higher level than the Mangrove sediments of Port Qasim area which are not according to WHO standard and are very are very serious health hazardous. In addition to point sources, possible reasons of non point sources were also discussed. (author)

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: Implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liangying; Wang Jizhong; Wei Gaoling; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ 18 PAH) were 27–224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ 18 PAH (28–224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28–109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. - Highlights: ► Coal and biomass combustion was the main origin of PAHs in coastal marine sediment of China. ► Fluvial transport was the main mode for transporting PAHs to the East China Sea inner shelf. ► Atmospheric deposition largely accounted for sediment PAHs in Yellow Sea and the South China Sea. ► Regional energy use pattern in China was responsible for the spatial distribution of PAHs in coastal marine sediment. - Sources, compositions and spatial distributions of PAHs in continental shelf sediments off China are analyzed to estimate anthropogenic influences.

  4. A Multi Size-Level Assessment of Benthic Marine Communities in a Coastal Environment: Are They Different Sides of the Same Coin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Claudia; Volpi, Marta; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Organism body size has been demonstrated to be a discriminating element in shaping the response of living beings to environmental factors, thus playing a fundamental role in community structuring. Despite the importance of studies elucidating relations among communities of different size levels...... have no (or very low) influence on the community composition at other size-levels. Moreover, each community responds in a different way to the environmental parameters and with a degree of sensitivity which seems to increase with organism size. Therefore, our data indicate that the characterization...... in ecosystems, the attempts that have been made in this sense are still very scarce and a reliable approach for these research still has to be defined. We characterized the benthic communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, meiofauna and macrofauna in a coastal environment, encompassing a 10000-fold...

  5. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  6. Enhancing the sustainability of the Marine Coastal Environment of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.

    2012-01-01

    This project enhances the national capabilities to monitor and assess contaminants in the marine environment that could be organic pollutants, radioactive materials and toxins. This will be very beneficial as, the monitoring processes and control of marine pollution is a very strategic important objective of the national institutes concerned with environmental protection and rehabilitation of the marine environment. (author)

  7. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eLing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of passive CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from ten depths ranging from 0-20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia. Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling.

  8. Management of the coastal biophysical environment in tropical Queensland under conditions of heavy developmental pressure: the case of tourist resorts and acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Erfurt-Haupt

    2008-09-01

    While the remarkable surface features of the tropical coastal environment such as the surf beaches, the unique dune lakes, and the coastal vegetation, as well as the prolific wildlife, are used as selling points for new settlement and above all tourism, little is known or apparently of major concern with respect to the long term environmental impact of coastal development. While the crowding effect of large numbers of visitors and their impact on the natural environment - through significant degradation, site hardening or lack of proper on-site management – has been identified as a particular problem in certain areas, there is little knowledge of impacts on the underlying coastal geomorphology. In particular, developmental choices are often made in ignorance of, or disregard of, the widespread existence of tropical acid sulfate soils in that coastal environment. Reactive soils such as these can, and do, greatly affect the biophysical outcomes of a development if they are exposed. This paper documents such impacts in the form of a case study of the acid sulfate soil problem in relation to the development of tourist resorts, and suggests that part of the solution is for the State Government to insist on enforceable standards relating to their development for tourism in the coastal zone. These would reduce the use by many resort owners of fancy golf course developments as an environmental cover up to make it look as if they put a lot of effort into protecting the environment ….

  9. Fracionamento do alumínio por técnicas de dissoluções seletivas em espodossolos da planície costeira do Estado de São Paulo Fractionation of aluminum by selective dissolution techniques of soils on the São Paulo State sandy coastal plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rizzato Coelho

    2010-08-01

    soils poorly studied, as the coastal plain regions and Spodosols of Brazil. The application of these techniques commonly used for characterization of spodic horizons and soil profiles for large amount horizons and soils studied in cronossequences are rare for those environments and become possible to establish comparisons with those intensively studied under boreal and temperate climatic. In spite of the recognized limitations of all selective dissolution techniques these used procedures were relatively selective and become possible (a the differentiation of the horizons, (b deduce mineralogical components of soil, and (c deduce pedogenetic process. The studied soils are situated in Bertioga, Cananeia and Ilha Comprida counties, São Paulo State, where were opened, make the morphological descriptions and sampled thirty-one pedons. The main results reached are: cold 0,5 M NaOH extracted in average 22 to 30 % more Al than dithionite-citrate (Al d, oxalate ammonium (Al o and Na pyrophosphate (Al o for all group of samples. In some well drained spodic horizons (Bs, Bhs and Bsm the chemical properties (pH and the relationship among the different techniques (Al n-Al o; Al o-Al p; Al p/Al o; Al p/Al d allowed to deduce about the formation and maintenance of low cristallinity Al minerals to the detriment of this element bounded to soil organic matter. This last form of Al predominates in the hidromorphic Spodosols.

  10. The Influence of Shoreline Curvature on Rates of Shoreline Change on Sandy Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. B.; Lauzon, R.; Cheng, S.; Liu, J.; Lazarus, E.

    2017-12-01

    The sandy, low-lying barrier islands which characterize much of the US East and Gulf coasts are popular spots to live and vacation, and are often heavily developed. However, sandy shorelines and barriers are also naturally mobile landforms, which are vulnerable to sea level rise and storms and can experience high rates of shoreline change. Many previous studies have attempted to understand and quantify the factors that contribute to those rates of shoreline change, such as grain size, underlying geology, sea level rise, and anthropogenic modification. Shoreline curvature has not been considered in such analyses, but previous research has demonstrated that subtle coastline curvature (and therefore alongshore variation in relative offshore wave angle) can result in gradients in net alongshore transport that cause significant shoreline erosion or accretion. Here we present the results of a spatially extensive analysis of the correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates for the sandy shorelines of the US East and Gulf coasts. We find that, for wave-dominated sandy coasts where nourishment and shoreline stabilization do not dominate the shoreline change signal (such as parts of Texas, North Carolina, and Florida), there is a significant negative correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates over 1 - 5 km and decadal to centurial space and time scales. This correlation indicates that a portion of the coastal erosion (and accretion) observed in these areas can be explained by the smoothing of subtle coastline curvature by gradients in alongshore transport, and suggests that shoreline curvature should be included in future attempts to understand historical and future rates of shoreline change. Shoreline stabilization, especially through beach nourishment, complicates the relationship between curvature and shoreline change. Beach construction during nourishment creates a seaward convex curvature in the part of the shoreline moves

  11. Season-dependent size distribution of aerosols over the tropical coastal environment of south-west India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryasree, S.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the size characteristics of aerosols at the tropical coastal site Thiruvananthapuram based on the in-situ measurements of size resolved aerosol number density using an aerosol spectrometer, covering a period of 28 months from September 2011 to December 2013. The diurnal pattern of aerosol number density is characterized by day time low and a two-fold increase during nighttime and these changes are closely associated with the strong mesoscale features namely the sea breeze and land breeze prevailing at the site. Aerosol Number Size Distribution (NSD) depicts a multi-modal nature with two prominent modes, one ≤0.1 μm and other ∼1 μm. Two other less pronounced modes are also observed in the NSD, one ∼0.3-0.5 μm and other ∼5-8 μm. The NSDs also exhibited strong seasonal changes linked with the synoptic meteorological feature of this region namely the South Asian monsoon. The seasonal NSDs were parameterized and analyzed. In addition to this, the effects of meteorological parameters temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and airflow patterns on aerosol number density as revealed by partial correlation analysis were found to be aerosol size dependent.

  12. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g⁻¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ∼10⁵-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl⁺ through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K⁺ ion channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustaining anti-littering behavior within coastal and marine environments: Through the macro-micro level lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeharry, Yashna Devi; Bekaroo, Girish; Bokhoree, Chandradeo; Phillips, Michael Robert; Jory, Neelakshi

    2017-06-30

    Being regarded as a problem of global dimensions, marine litter has been a growing concern that affects human beings, wildlife and the economic health of coastal communities to varying degrees. Due to its involvement with human behavior, marine littering has been regarded as a cultural matter encompassing macro and micro level aspects. At the micro or individual level, behavior and behavioral motivation of an individual are driven by perception of that person while at the macro or societal level, aspects including policies and legislations influence behavior. This paper investigates marine littering through the macro-micro level lenses in order to analyze and recommend how anti-littering behavior can be improved and sustained. Using Coleman's model of micro-macro relations, research questions are formulated and investigated through a social survey. Results showed important differences in perceptions among participating groups and to address key issues, potential actions are proposed along with a framework to sustain anti-littering behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Superstorm Sandy on Medicare Patients’ Utilization of Hospitals and Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stryckman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: National health security requires that healthcare facilities be prepared to provide rapid, effective emergency and trauma care to all patients affected by a catastrophic event. We sought to quantify changes in healthcare utilization patterns for an at-risk Medicare population before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy’s 2012 landfall in New Jersey (NJ. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries impacted by Superstorm Sandy. We compared hospital emergency department (ED and healthcare facility inpatient utilization in the weeks before and after Superstorm Sandy landfall using a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries continuously enrolled in 2011 and 2012 (N=224,116. Outcome measures were pre-storm discharges (or transfers, average length of stay, service intensity weight, and post-storm ED visits resulting in either discharge or hospital admission. Results: In the pre-storm week, hospital transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNF increased by 39% and inpatient discharges had a 0.3 day decreased mean length of stay compared to the prior year. In the post-storm week, ED visits increased by 14% statewide; of these additional “surge” patients, 20% were admitted to the hospital. The increase in ED demand was more than double the statewide average in the most highly impacted coastal regions (35% versus 14%. Conclusion: Superstorm Sandy impacted both pre- and post-storm patient movement in New Jersey; post-landfall ED surge was associated with overall storm impact, which was greatest in coastal counties. A significant increase in the number and severity of pre-storm transfer patients, in particular from SNF, as well as in post-storm ED visits and inpatient admissions, draws attention to the importance of collaborative regional approaches to healthcare in large-scale events.

  15. Impact of Superstorm Sandy on Medicare Patients’ Utilization of Hospitals and Emergency Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckman, Benoit; Walsh, Lauren; Carr, Brendan G.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Lurie, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Introduction National health security requires that healthcare facilities be prepared to provide rapid, effective emergency and trauma care to all patients affected by a catastrophic event. We sought to quantify changes in healthcare utilization patterns for an at-risk Medicare population before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy’s 2012 landfall in New Jersey (NJ). Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries impacted by Superstorm Sandy. We compared hospital emergency department (ED) and healthcare facility inpatient utilization in the weeks before and after Superstorm Sandy landfall using a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries continuously enrolled in 2011 and 2012 (N=224,116). Outcome measures were pre-storm discharges (or transfers), average length of stay, service intensity weight, and post-storm ED visits resulting in either discharge or hospital admission. Results In the pre-storm week, hospital transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNF) increased by 39% and inpatient discharges had a 0.3 day decreased mean length of stay compared to the prior year. In the post-storm week, ED visits increased by 14% statewide; of these additional “surge” patients, 20% were admitted to the hospital. The increase in ED demand was more than double the statewide average in the most highly impacted coastal regions (35% versus 14%). Conclusion Superstorm Sandy impacted both pre- and post-storm patient movement in New Jersey; post-landfall ED surge was associated with overall storm impact, which was greatest in coastal counties. A significant increase in the number and severity of pre-storm transfer patients, in particular from SNF, as well as in post-storm ED visits and inpatient admissions, draws attention to the importance of collaborative regional approaches to healthcare in large-scale events. PMID:29085534

  16. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... Zoology Department, Institute for Coastal Research, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box ... Oliff, Gardner, Turner & Sharp (1970) and later Dye, ... Wooldridge, Dye & ...... potential sources of food for interstitial organisms,.

  17. Epidemic gasoline exposures following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong K; Takematsu, Mai; Biary, Rana; Williams, Nicholas; Hoffman, Robert S; Smith, Silas W

    2013-12-01

    Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed. Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported. Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.

  18. Barrier-island and estuarine-wetland physical-change assessment after Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Passeri, Davina L.; Smith, Christopher G.; Bernier, Julie C.

    2018-04-03

    IntroductionThe Nation’s eastern coast is fringed by beaches, dunes, barrier islands, wetlands, and bluffs. These natural coastal barriers provide critical benefits and services, and can mitigate the impact of storms, erosion, and sea-level rise on our coastal communities. Waves and storm surge resulting from Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall along the New Jersey coast on October 29, 2012, impacted the U.S. coastline from North Carolina to Massachusetts, including Assateague Island, Maryland and Virginia, and the Delmarva coastal system. The storm impacts included changes in topography, coastal morphology, geology, hydrology, environmental quality, and ecosystems.In the immediate aftermath of the storm, light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys from North Carolina to New York documented storm impacts to coastal barriers, providing a baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The focus of much of the existing coastal change assessment is along the ocean-facing coastline; however, much of the coastline affected by Hurricane Sandy includes the estuarine-facing coastlines of barrier-island systems. Specifically, the wetland and back-barrier shorelines experienced substantial change as a result of wave action and storm surge that occurred during Hurricane Sandy (see also USGS photograph, http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/sandy/photo-comparisons/virginia.php). Assessing physical shoreline and wetland change (land loss as well as land gains) can help to determine the resiliency of wetland systems that protect adjacent habitat, shorelines, and communities.To address storm impacts to wetlands, a vulnerability assessment should describe both long-term (for example, several decades) and short-term (for example, Sandy’s landfall) extent and character of the interior wetlands and the back-barrier-shoreline changes. The objective of this report is to describe several new wetland vulnerability assessments based on the detailed physical changes

  19. Swashed away? Storm impacts on sandy beach macrofaunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Smale, Malcolm; Schoeman, David

    2011-09-01

    Storms can have a large impact on sandy shores, with powerful waves eroding large volumes of sand off the beach. Resulting damage to the physical environment has been well-studied but the ecological implications of these natural phenomena are less known. Since climate change predictions suggest an increase in storminess in the near future, understanding these ecological implications is vital if sandy shores are to be proactively managed for resilience. Here, we report on an opportunistic experiment that tests the a priori expectation that storms impact beach macrofaunal communities by modifying natural patterns of beach morphodynamics. Two sites at Sardinia Bay, South Africa, were sampled for macrofauna and physical descriptors following standard sampling methods. This sampling took place five times at three- to four-month intervals between April 2008 and August 2009. The second and last sampling events were undertaken after unusually large storms, the first of which was sufficiently large to transform one site from a sandy beach into a mixed shore for the first time in living memory. A range of univariate (linear mixed-effects models) and multivariate (e.g. non-metric multidimensional scaling, PERMANOVA) methods were employed to describe trends in the time series, and to explore the likelihood of possible explanatory mechanisms. Macrofaunal communities at the dune-backed beach (Site 2) withstood the effects of the first storm but were altered significantly by the second storm. In contrast, macrofauna communities at Site 1, where the supralittoral had been anthropogenically modified so that exchange of sediments with the beach was limited, were strongly affected by the first storm and showed little recovery over the study period. In line with predictions from ecological theory, beach morphodynamics was found to be a strong driver of temporal patterns in the macrofaunal community structure, with the storm events also identified as a significant factor, likely

  20. Androgenic and Estrogenic Response of Green Mussel Extracts from Singapore’s Coastal Environment Using a Human Cell-Based Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Leong, Yong Eu; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade, evidence of endocrine disruption in biota exposed to environmental pollutants has raised serious concern. Human cell-based bioassays have been developed to evaluate induced androgenic and estrogenic activities of chemical compounds. However, bioassays have been sparsely applied to environmental samples. In this study we present data on sex hormone activities in the green mussel, Perna viridis, in Singapore’s coastal waters. P. viridis is a common bioindicator of marine contamination, and this study is a follow-up to an earlier investigation that reported the presence of sex hormone activities in seawater samples from Singapore’s coastal environment. Specimens were collected from eight locations around the Singapore coastline and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals. Tissue extracts were then screened for activities on androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β) using a reporter gene bio-assay based on a HeLa human cell line. Mussel extracts alone did not exhibit AR activity, but in the presence of the reference androgenic hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), activities were up to 340% higher than those observed for DHT alone. Peak activities were observed in locations adjacent to industrial and shipping activities. Estrogenic activities of the mussel extract both alone and in the presence of reference hormone were positive. Correlations were statistically investigated between sex hormone activities, levels of pollutants in the mussel tissues, and various biological parameters (specimen size, sex ratio, lipid and moisture content). Significant correlations exist between AR activities, in the presence of DHT, and total concentration of POPs (r = 0.725, p < 0.05). PMID:15531429

  1. Qualitative assessment to determine internal and external factors influencing the origin of styrene oligomers pollution by polystyrene plastic in coastal marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Chung, Seon-Yong; Park, Seung-Shik; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the qualitative contribution of internal and external factors of the area contaminated by polystyrene (PS) in coastal marine environments. This study is based on the extensive results of monitoring the styrene oligomers (SOs) present in sand and seawater samples along various coastlines of the Pacific Ocean. Here, anthropogenic SOs is derived from PS during manufacture and use, and can provide clues about the origin of SOs by PS pollution. The monitoring results showed that, if the concentration of SOs in water is higher than those concentrations in beach sand, this area could be affected by PS plastic caused by an external factor. On the other hand, if the concentration of SOs is higher in the beach sand, the region can be mainly influenced by PS plastic derived from its own area. Unlike the case of an external factor, in this case (internal influence), it is possible to take policy measures of the area itself for the PS plastic problem. Thus, this study is motivated by the need of policy measures to establish a specific alternative to the problems of PS plastic pollution in ocean environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy , including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  3. Computer-aided analysis of LANDSAT data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments. [Pass Cavallo and Port O'Conner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, S. J. (Principal Investigator); Weismiller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The study areas were Pass Cavallo and Port O'Connor. The following terrestrial and aquatic environments were discriminated: alternating beach ridges, swales, sand dunes, beach birms, deflation surfaces, land-water interface, urban, spoil areas, fresh and salt water marshes, grass and woodland, recently burned or grazed areas, submerged vegetation, and waterways.

  4. Narrowing the gap between theory and practice? Interactive knowledge development in a coastal defense project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, Chris; van Tatenhove, J.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Otter, Henriëtte; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal defence projects intend to develop solutions in a highly dynamic environment. The coastal zone is characterized by expanding cities, rising flood risks, economic activity, and a threatened natural environment. Developing relevant knowledge for solutions in coastal defence projects is

  5. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  6. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, M; Adame, J A; Olmo, F J; Vilaplana, J M; Gil-Ojeda, M; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O3, SO2, CO and NO2) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2±4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2±1.7 cm(-3) s(-1), with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8±2.4 nm h(-1) with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM10 and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A long-term study of new particle formation in a coastal environment: Meteorology, gas phase and solar radiation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorribas, M., E-mail: sorribas@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain); Adame, J.A. [‘El Arenosillo’ — Atmospheric Sounding Station, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Mazagón, Huelva, 21130 (Spain); Olmo, F.J. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M.; Gil-Ojeda, M. [‘El Arenosillo’ — Atmospheric Sounding Station, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA), Mazagón, Huelva, 21130 (Spain); Alados-Arboledas, L. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA), University of Granada, 18006 (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    New particle formation (NPF) was investigated at a coastal background site in Southwest Spain over a four-year period using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). The goals of the study were to characterise the NPF and to investigate their relationship to meteorology, gas phase (O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, CO and NO{sub 2}) and solar radiation (UVA, UVB and global). A methodology for identifying and classifying the NPF was implemented using the wind direction and modal concentrations as inputs. NPF events showed a frequency of 24% of the total days analysed. The mean duration was 9.2 ± 4.2 h. Contrary to previous studies conducted in other locations, the NPF frequency reached its maximum during cold seasons for approximately 30% of the days. The lowest frequency took place in July with 10%, and the seasonal wind pattern was found to be the most important parameter influencing the NPF frequency. The mean formation rate was 2.2 ± 1.7 cm{sup −3} s{sup −1}, with a maximum in the spring and early autumn and a minimum during the summer and winter. The mean growth rate was 3.8 ± 2.4 nm h{sup −1} with higher values occurring from spring to autumn. The mean and seasonal formation and growth rates are in agreement with previous observations from continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. NPF classification of different classes was conducted to explore the effect of synoptic and regional-scale patterns on NPF and growth. The results show that under a breeze regime, the temperature indirectly affects NPF events. Higher temperatures increase the strength of the breeze recirculation, favouring gas accumulation and subsequent NPF appearance. Additionally, the role of high relative humidity in inhibiting the NPF was evinced during synoptic scenarios. The remaining meteorological variables (RH), trace gases (CO and NO), solar radiation, PM{sub 10} and condensation sink, showed a moderate or high connection with both formation and growth rates. - Highlights: • New

  8. Exploring the social dimension of sandy beaches through predictive modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tejo, Elianny; Metternicht, Graciela; Johnston, Emma L; Hedge, Luke

    2018-05-15

    Sandy beaches are unique ecosystems increasingly exposed to human-induced pressures. Consistent with emerging frameworks promoting this holistic approach towards beach management, is the need to improve the integration of social data into management practices. This paper aims to increase understanding of links between demographics and community values and preferred beach activities, as key components of the social dimension of the beach environment. A mixed method approach was adopted to elucidate users' opinions on beach preferences and community values through a survey carried out in Manly Local Government Area in Sydney Harbour, Australia. A proposed conceptual model was used to frame demographic models (using age, education, employment, household income and residence status) as predictors of these two community responses. All possible regression-model combinations were compared using Akaike's information criterion. Best models were then used to calculate quantitative likelihoods of the responses, presented as heat maps. Findings concur with international research indicating the relevance of social and restful activities as important social links between the community and the beach environment. Participant's age was a significant variable in the four predictive models. The use of predictive models informed by demographics could potentially increase our understanding of interactions between the social and ecological systems of the beach environment, as a prelude to integrated beach management approaches. The research represents a practical demonstration of how demographic predictive models could support proactive approaches to beach management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Although the benthic macrofauna of sandy environ- ments around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    the flood-tidal delta of the Nahoon Estuary and adjacent beach near East London on the south-east coast of South. Africa. Water content of sediments, temperature and exposure were identified as important .... Hermit crabs Diogenes brevi-.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of shoreline change of a 280-km high-energy disrupted sandy coast from 1950 to 2014: SW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Bruno; Guillot, Benoit; Marieu, Vincent; Chaumillon, Eric; Hanquiez, Vincent; Bujan, Stéphane; Poppeschi, Coline

    2018-01-01

    A dataset of 15 geo-referenced orthomosaics photos was generated to address long-term shoreline change along approximately 270 km of high-energy sandy coast in SW France between 1950 and 2014. The coast consists of sandy beaches backed by coastal dunes, which are only disrupted by two wide tidal inlets (Arcachon and Maumusson), a wide estuary mouth (Gironde) and a few small wave-dominated inlets and coastal towns. A time and spatially averaged erosion trend of 1.12 m/year is found over 1950-2014, with a local maximum of approximately 11 m/year and a maximum local accretion of approximately 6 m/year, respectively. Maximum shoreline evolutions are observed along coasts adjacent to the inlets and to the estuary mouth, with erosion and accretion alternating over time on the timescale of decades. The two inlet-sandspit systems of Arcachon and Maumusson show a quasi-synchronous behaviour with the two updrift coasts accreting until the 1970s and subsequently eroding since then, which suggests that shoreline change at these locations is controlled by allocyclic mechanisms. Despite sea level rise and the well-established increase in winter wave height over the last decades, there is no capture of significant increase in mean erosion rate. This is hypothesized to be partly the result of relevant coastal dune management works from the 1960s to the 1980s after a long period of coastal dune disrepair during and after the Second World War. This study suggests that long-term shoreline change of high-energy sandy coasts disrupted by inlets and/or estuaries is complex and needs to consider a wide range of parameters including, non-extensively, waves, tides, inlet dynamics, sea level rise, coastal dune management and coastal defences, which challenges the development of reliable long-term coastal evolution numerical models.

  11. A miniaturized UV/VIS/IR hyperspectral radiometer for autonomous airborne and underwater imaging spectroscopy of coastal and oceanic environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote sensing of optical properties of oceans and coastal waters provides essential information for various scientific questions and applications, including...

  12. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafayat A. Fakoya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gorean snapper, Lutjanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life - history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance of juveniles (<20cm and sub-adults (20-35cm which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean±SD; 16.19±3.73cm to the marine habitat samples (32.89±6.14cm indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous

  13. Correlation between landscape fragmentation and sandy desertification: a case study in Horqin Sandy Land, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaodong; Dong, Kaikai; Luloff, A E; Wang, Luyao; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Shiying; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The exact roles of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification are still not fully understood, especially with the impact of different land use types in spatial dimension. Taking patch size and shape into consideration, this paper selected the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index to establish a model that reveals the association between the area of bare sand land and the fragmentation of different land use types adjacent to bare sand land. Results indicated that (1) grass land and arable land contributed the most to landscape fragmentation processes in the regions adjacent to bare sand land during the period 1980 to 2010. Grass land occupied 54 % of the region adjacent to bare sand land in 1980. The Ratio of Patch Size of grass land decreased from 1980 to 2000 and increased after 2000. The Fractal Dimension Index of grass increased during the period 1980 to 1990 and decreased after 1990. Arable land expanded significantly during this period. The Ratio of Patch Size of arable land increased from 1980 to 1990 and decreased since 1990. The Fractal Dimension Index of arable land increased from 1990 to 2000 and decreased after 2000. (2) The Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were significantly related to the area of bare sand land. The role of landscape fragmentation was not linear to sandy desertification. There were both positive and negative effects of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification. In 1980, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were negatively related to the area of bare sand land, showing that the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the expansion of sandy desertification. In 1990, 2000, and 2010, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were mostly positively related to the area of bare sand land, showing the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the reversion of sandy desertification in this phase. The absolute values of

  14. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  15. Coastline evolution of Portuguese low-lying sandy coast in the last 50 years: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte Lira, Cristina; Nobre Silva, Ana; Taborda, Rui; Freire de Andrade, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Regional/national-scale information on coastline rates of change and trends is extremely valuable, but these studies are scarce. A widely accepted standardized methodology for analysing long-term coastline change has been difficult to achieve, but it is essential to conduct an integrated and holistic approach to coastline evolution and hence support coastal management actions. Additionally, databases providing knowledge on coastline evolution are of key importance to support both coastal management experts and users.The main objective of this work is to present the first systematic, national-scale and consistent long-term coastline evolution data of Portuguese mainland low-lying sandy coasts.The methodology used quantifies coastline evolution using a unique and robust coastline indicator (the foredune toe), which is independent of short-term changes.The dataset presented comprises (1) two polyline sets, mapping the 1958 and 2010 sandy beach-dune system coastline, both optimized for working at 1 : 50 000 scale or smaller; (2) one polyline set representing long-term change rates between 1958 and 2010, each estimated at 250 m; and (3) a table with minimum, maximum and mean of evolution rates for sandy beach-dune system coastline. All science data produced here are openly accessible at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.859136 and can be used in other studies.Results show beach erosion as the dominant trend, with a mean change rate of -0.24 ± 0.01 m year-1 for all mainland Portuguese beach-dune systems. Although erosion is dominant, this evolution is variable in signal and magnitude in different coastal sediment cells and also within each cell. The most relevant beach erosion issues were found in the coastal stretches of Espinho-Torreira and Costa Nova-Praia de Mira, Cova da Gala-Leirosa, and Cova do Vapor-Costa da Caparica. The coastal segments Minho River-Nazaré and Costa da Caparica adjacent to the coast exhibit a history of major human interventions

  16. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning

    1991-01-01

    of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors......Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...

  17. Modelling the morphology of sandy spits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The shape, dimensions and growth rate of an accumulating sandy spit is investigated by a theoretical and experimental study. The idealised case of a spit growing without change of form under a constant wave forcing is considered. The longshore wave-driven sediment transport is taken to be dominant...... that with this assumption the dimensions of the spit cannot be determined. The width and shape of a finite spit is therefore determined from simulations with an area model for the wave-driven current and sediment transport along the spit. In this case the curvature effects from the spit on the longshore sediment transport...... conducted in a wave tank an accumulating spit was formed at the down-drift end of a uniform stretch of coast exposed to waves approaching at an angle. The spit approached equilibrium dimensions when a constant wave climate was applied. The radius of curvature of the spit varied according to the height...

  18. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F.T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  19. Norfolk, Virginia—Planning to be the Coastal Community of the Future in a rising water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homewood, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Norfolk VA is the second most at-risk population center in North America from sea level rise while also being home to the world's largest naval base and one of the 3 largest east coast ports. Norfolk is one of the original cohort of cities in the 100 Resilient Cities effort pioneered by the Rockefeller Foundation and has changed its sea level adaptation strategy from "keep the water out" to "living with water" through a ground-breaking community visioning process. In Norfolk, this means, among other goals, finding co-benefits in public and private investments and interventions—these can be environmental, economic, social, recreational or other things we have not yet thought about—and it is in this area that the geosciences can benefit Norfolk's planning for a rising water environment.

  20. Taxonomic identification and lipid production of two Chilean Chlorella-like strains isolated from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mariela A.; Pröschold, Thomas; Palacios, Yussi; Aguayo, Paula; Inostroza, Ingrid; Gómez, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Chlorella was the first microalga to be massively cultured as food, feed and as a source of nutraceuticals. More recently, some species have been suggested as candidates for biodiesel production. One of the most difficult tasks in studying the systematics of green coccoids is the identification of species assigned to the genus Chlorella. In the context of several projects carried out by our research group we isolated two Chlorella-like strains from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment in Chile (Coliumo strain and Baker strain, respectively). The main objectives of this research were to identify these Chilean strains—at the species level—and determine and compare their lipid production when cultured under identical conditions. Cell size and shape, autospore number and sizes, and chloroplast and pyrenoid ultrastructure were considered as taxonomic descriptors, and 18S rDNA sequences and internal transcribed spacer ITS-1 + ITS-2 sequences and secondary structure were adopted as phylogenetic tools. The combined use of these morphological, ultrastructural and molecular attributes revealed that only the Baker strain belongs to the genus Chlorella (C. vulgaris), while the Coliumo strain corresponds to the recently amended genus Chloroidium (C. saccharophilum). Lipid characterization of the biomass obtained from these strains showed that Chlorella vulgaris (Baker strain) appears to be suitable as a raw material for biodiesel production, while Chloroidium saccharophilum (Coliumo strain) would be more appropriate for animal nutrition.

  1. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...

  2. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  3. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  4. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirty-eight antibiotics were systematically investigated in marine environment. • The distribution of antibiotics was significantly correlated with COD and NO 3 –N. • Untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics. • Fluoroquinolones showed a strong sorption capacity onto sediments. • Oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O indicated high risks. - Abstract: In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163 ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318 ng/L (erythromycin–H 2 O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184 ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O posed high risks to aquatic organisms

  5. Molecular diversity of fungal phylotypes co-amplified alongside nematodes from coastal and deep-sea marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punyasloke Bhadury

    Full Text Available Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99-100% and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%. BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

  6. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Roger D; Valdivia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Determining the effects of unpredictable disturbances on dynamic ecological systems is challenged by the paucity of appropriate temporal and spatial coverage of data. On 27 February 2010, an 8.8 Mw mega-earthquake and tsunami struck central Chile and caused coastal land-level changes, massive damage to coastal infrastructure, and widespread mortality of coastal organisms. Wave-exposed sandy beaches showed significant changes of species abundances from before to after the earthquake, but the highly dynamic biotic and abiotic conditions of these habitats make difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions from these patterns. Here, we analysed a beyond-BACI (Before-After Control-Impact) sampling design to test whether the effects of the Maule earthquake on sandy-shore species diversity, abundance, and structure were heterogeneous along the shore. Invertebrate species abundances were quantified before (i.e. February 2010) and after (i.e. March 2010, September 2010, and March 2011) the earthquake at three sandy shores randomly located within the earthquake rupture area and three sites within a "control" area located >400 km southward from epicentre. Immediately after the earthquake took place, the three sites located in the rupture area showed anomalous beach-profile uplifts that did not comply with the erosion (i.e. "negative" uplifts) that regularly occurs during late summer in the region. Species richness, abundance, and community structure significantly varied from before to after the strike, but these patterns of change varied among sites within both areas. Only the site with the strongest and persistent beach-profile uplift within the rupture area showed significant concomitant changes in species richness and community structure; after 13 months, this community showed a similar multivariate structure to the before-disturbance state. This site, in particular, was located in the section of the rupture area that received most of the impact of the after-earthquake tsunami

  7. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Determining the effects of unpredictable disturbances on dynamic ecological systems is challenged by the paucity of appropriate temporal and spatial coverage of data. On 27 February 2010, an 8.8 Mw mega-earthquake and tsunami struck central Chile and caused coastal land-level changes, massive damage to coastal infrastructure, and widespread mortality of coastal organisms. Wave-exposed sandy beaches showed significant changes of species abundances from before to after the earthquake, but the highly dynamic biotic and abiotic conditions of these habitats make difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions from these patterns. Here, we analysed a beyond-BACI (Before-After Control-Impact sampling design to test whether the effects of the Maule earthquake on sandy-shore species diversity, abundance, and structure were heterogeneous along the shore. Invertebrate species abundances were quantified before (i.e. February 2010 and after (i.e. March 2010, September 2010, and March 2011 the earthquake at three sandy shores randomly located within the earthquake rupture area and three sites within a "control" area located >400 km southward from epicentre. Immediately after the earthquake took place, the three sites located in the rupture area showed anomalous beach-profile uplifts that did not comply with the erosion (i.e. "negative" uplifts that regularly occurs during late summer in the region. Species richness, abundance, and community structure significantly varied from before to after the strike, but these patterns of change varied among sites within both areas. Only the site with the strongest and persistent beach-profile uplift within the rupture area showed significant concomitant changes in species richness and community structure; after 13 months, this community showed a similar multivariate structure to the before-disturbance state. This site, in particular, was located in the section of the rupture area that received most of the impact of the after

  8. Effects of salinity and flooding on post-hurricane regeneration potential in coastal wetland vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A

    2016-08-01

    The nature of regeneration dynamics after hurricane flooding and salinity intrusion may play an important role in shaping coastal vegetation patterns. The regeneration potentials of coastal species, types and gradients (wetland types from seaward to landward) were studied on the Delmarva Peninsula after Hurricane Sandy using seed bank assays to examine responses to various water regimes (unflooded and flooded to 8 cm) and salinity levels (0, 1, and 5 ppt). Seed bank responses to treatments were compared using a generalized linear models approach. Species relationships to treatment and geographical variables were explored using nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Flooding and salinity treatments affected species richness even at low salinity levels (1 and 5 ppt). Maritime forest was especially intolerant of salinity intrusion so that species richness was much higher in unflooded and low salinity conditions, despite the proximity of maritime forest to saltmarsh along the coastal gradient. Other vegetation types were also affected, with potential regeneration of these species affected in various ways by flooding and salinity, suggesting relationships to post-hurricane environment and geographic position. Seed germination and subsequent seedling growth in coastal wetlands may in some cases be affected by salinity intrusion events even at low salinity levels (1 and 5 ppt). These results indicate that the potential is great for hurricanes to shift vegetation type in sensitive wetland types (e.g., maritime forest) if post-hurricane environments do not support the regeneration of extent vegetation. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © Botanical Society of America (outside the USA) 2016.

  9. Pwani Yetu: Issue 4. April 1999.Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership

    1999-01-01

    The Newsletter of the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership - Pwani Yetu - 'our coast', is produced every other month in both Kiswahili and English and circulated to all coastal management partners from national level, coastal communities and the private sector. Pwani Yetu reports on coastal and marine activities, including issues on conservation, environment, and social economic development. 'Research Group' TCMP.

  10. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  11. Multi-scale variability of storm Ophelia 2017: The importance of synchronised environmental variables in coastal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek W T

    2018-07-15

    Low frequency, high magnitude storm events can dramatically alter coastlines, helping to relocate large volumes of sediments and changing the configuration of landforms. Increases in the number of intense cyclones occurring in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1970s is evident with more northward tracking patterns developing. This brings added potential risk to coastal environments and infrastructure in northwest Europe and therefore understanding how these high-energy storms impact sandy coasts in particular is important for future management. This study highlights the evolution of Storm (formally Hurricane) Ophelia in October 2017 as it passed up and along the western seaboard of Ireland. The largest ever recorded Hurricane to form in the eastern Atlantic, we describe, using a range of environmental measurements and wave modelling, its track and intensity over its duration whilst over Ireland. The impact on a stretch of sandy coast in NW Ireland during Storm Ophelia, when the winds were at their peak, is examined using terrestrial laser scanning surveys pre- and post-storm to describe local changes of intertidal and dune edge dynamics. During maximum wind conditions (>35 knots) waves no >2m were recorded with an oblique to parallel orientation and coincident with medium to low tide (around 0.8m). Therefore, we demonstrate that anticipated widespread coastal erosion and damage may not always unfold as predicted. In fact, around 6000m 3 of net erosion occurred along the 420m stretch of coastline with maximum differences in beach topographic changes of 0.8m. The majority of the sediment redistribution occurred within the intertidal and lower beach zone with some limited dune trimming in the southern section (10% of the total erosion). Asynchronous high water (tide levels), localised offshore winds as well as coastline orientation relative to the storm winds and waves plays a significant role in reducing coastal erosional impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity fluxes from coastal marine sediments: Model estimates for different shelf environments and sensitivity to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumins, V.; Gehlen, M.; Arndt, S.; Van Cappellen, P.; Regnier, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional reactive transport model to estimate benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity (AT) from coastal marine sediments. The model incorporates the transport processes of sediment accumulation, molecular diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation,

  13. Ecomorphology of crabs and swimming crabs (Crustacea DecapodaBrachyura from coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Zanetti Marochi

    Full Text Available Abstract Brachyuran crabs are one of the most diverse taxa of crustaceans, occurring in almost all coastal habitats. Due to their high morphological diversification, the authors sought to ascertain the existence of morphological patterns related to the habitat of coastal brachyuran crabs. We analyzed 17 species from mangrove forests, rocky shores, sandy beaches and exclusively aquatic marine/estuarine ecosystems. A total of 16 linear measurements of males and 17 of females were obtained for each habitat. We were able to discriminate three functional groups of crab species, based on their habitat: 1. Complex Substrates, 2. Semiterrestrial, 3. Exclusively Aquatic. The species belonging to the Complex Substrates group had long ambulatory legs, as well as being heteroquely related to uneven terrain. Semiterrestrial species showed ambulatory legs of different sizes, allowing them to walk easily on the terrestrial terrain due to the long fourth ambulatory leg, and long eyestalks which are important for visual communication. Exclusively Aquatic species showed the largest carapace widths and the shortest eyestalks. The presence of different crab lineages in the environments analyzed allows us to demonstrate the clear evolutionary convergence, by which the crabs adapted to their specific habitat and environment.

  14. Planktonic foraminiferal abnormalities in coastal and open marine eastern Mediterranean environments: A natural stress monitoring approach in recent and early Holocene marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakou, A.; Kontakiotis, G.; Zarkogiannis, S.; Mortyn, P. G.; Drinia, H.; Koskeridou, E.; Anastasakis, G.

    2018-05-01

    Marine environmental status can be assessed through the study of bio-indicator species. Here, we monitor natural environmental stress by the occurrence of morphologically abnormal planktonic foraminiferal specimens from a suite of surface sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. We also compare Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) abnormality observations from sapropel S1-derived sediments in the Aegean, Libyan and Levantine basins, since they provide a direct record of a natural stress experiment that took place over past time scales. At initial sapropel deposition levels, we observe increased growth asymmetry in Globigerinoides ruber twinned and twisted individuals, possibly associated with eutrophication and anoxia. In modern material, a range of malformations and aberrant morphologies from slight deformity with smaller or overdeveloped chambers to more severe deformity with abnormally protruding or misplaced chambers, distorted spirals, and double tests is also observed, as a result of the hypersaline, oligotrophic and oxygen-depleted nature of the Mediterranean Sea water column. Overall, we highlight the current use of the relative abundance of abnormal tests as a bio-indicator for monitoring natural stress, especially the occurrence of twin specimens as indicative of high-salinity stress conditions, and further illustrate the necessity to map both their spatial and temporal distribution for accurate paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Such an approach presents the advantage to rapidly provide information over wide spatial and temporal scales, extending our ability to monitor a wide variety of environments (from coastal to the open-sea). However, further investigations should extend this approach to test the robustness of our findings in a number of similar oceanic settings.

  15. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  16. Macrofauna and meiofauna of two sandy beaches at Mombasa, Kenya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macrofauna and meiofauna of 2 sandy beaches having medium and fine sand particles, respectively, were investigated, quantitatively Macrofauna density was highest around high water mark and progressively decreased towards low water mark Meiofauna...

  17. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  18. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Post Sandy (Long Island, NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Long Island New York Sandy LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G14PD00296 Woolpert...

  19. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  20. Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H

    2013-09-17

    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  1. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  2. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.

    2013-11-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  3. Storm impacts on a high energy sandy beach system, northwest Ireland: short (event) to long term (decadal) behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew; O'Connor, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Long-term monitoring of beach dynamics is an important element in risk prevention and management of both natural and human resources at the coast. The predicted intensification in storminess (frequency, duration and magnitude), partly associated with climate change, represents a pressing concern for coastal communities globally and has undoubtedly led to an improvement in available techniques and technologies for observation and analysis. Here we examine a high energy Atlantic beach system at Five Fingers strand (NW Ireland) to help understand hydrodynamic forcing on beach response under various wave energy scenarios. The system, which has been modally attuned to a large swell wave environment, periodically undergoes significant morphological changes over various spatial and temporal scales manifest in the development and movements of dynamic nearshore bars and a nearshore ebb-tide delta. A combination of field and laboratory techniques (GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) Instrumentation, Drone surveys) implemented from the shoreface to the beach, captures the response and evolution of the system over the short (event), medium (weeks to months) and long-term (multiyear) timescale. Numerical modelling of nearshore wave hydrodynamics (using SWAN wave simulation model) helps understanding wave forcing across shoreface area and is ran under a number of iterative time intervals. Here, we investigate the role of infrequent and sometimes extreme events in the system to understand the importance of clustering of storminess and the occurrence of single high-magnitude storm events that perturb the inlet-beach system and thus induce key morphodynamic changes. Preliminary results show that ultimately the configuration of the ebb-tide channel influences the geomorphic response of the system. In the short term, a storm induced erosion of the shoreface is observed, which also appears to lead to changes in the ebb-tide channel, and ultimately the welding of a nearshore bar

  4. Studying the urban thermal environment under a human-biometeorological point of view: The case of a large coastal metropolitan city, Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Georgiou, Giorgos K.; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment in modern cities has become potentially unfavorable and harmful for its residents, as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Exposure to these extreme thermal conditions increases the heat stress of people in cities considerably. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the urban thermal environment of the large coastal metropolitan city of Athens, in a human-biometeorologically significant way, utilizing the thermo-physiological assessment index PET. The analysis was based on three hour measurements derived from three-year datasets (2006-2009), at 12 monitoring sites located in the urban complex of Athens, on its boundaries and beyond them. The differences of PET values have been investigated in order to attribute urban and exurban thermal characteristics to the considered sites. The frequency and spatial distribution of PET as well as the urban/rural differences of PET have also been analyzed. Finally, a trend analysis has been applied in order to detect possible PET trends by employing long-term recording data (1985-2008). In terms of thermal human-biometeorological conditions, the analysis reveals that among the considered stations, those located inside the urban complex and the industrialized area present urban thermal characteristics, regardless the fact that they are installed either in a park and on a hill or at an open field. The spatial distribution of PET, at 0200 LST, shows a difference of about 3 to 4 °C, on the main axis of the city (SSW-NNE) in the summer period, while the difference exceeds 2.5 °C in the winter period. In general, cooler (less warm) thermal perception is observed at the north/northeast sites of the city as well as at the areas beyond the eastern boundaries of it. The PET differences between urban and rural sites hold a positive sign, except of those at 0500 LST and at 0800 LST. The highest differences are noted at 1400 LST and the most intense of them is noticed in the summer period

  5. Reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlin Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss shape, scale and superimposed types of sandy gravel bodies in sandy-gravel braided distributary channel. Lithofacies analysis, hierarchy bounding surface analysis and subsurface dense well pattern combining with outcrops method were used to examine reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channel based on cores, well logging, and outcrops data, and the reservoir architecture patterns of sandy gravel braided distributary channels in different grades have been established. The study shows: (1 The main reservoir architecture elements for sandy gravel braided channel delta are distributary channel and overbank sand, while reservoir flow barrier elements are interchannel and lacustrine mudstone. (2 The compound sand bodies in the sandy gravel braided delta distributary channel take on three shapes: sheet-like distributary channel sand body, interweave strip distributary channel sand body, single strip distributary channel sand body. (3 Identification marks of single distributary channel include: elevation of sand body top, lateral overlaying, “thick-thin-thick” feature of sand bodies, interchannel mudstone and overbank sand between distributary channels and the differences in well log curve shape of sand bodies. (4 Nine lithofacies types were distinguished in distributary channel unit interior, different channel units have different lithofacies association sequence.

  6. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  7. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  8. Respirable dust and quartz exposure from three South African farms with sandy, sandy loam, and clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Andrew J; Kromhout, Hans; Jinnah, Zubair A; Portengen, Lützen; Renton, Kevin; Gardiner, Kerry; Rees, David

    2011-07-01

    To quantify personal time-weighted average respirable dust and quartz exposure on a sandy, a sandy loam, and a clay soil farm in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa and to ascertain whether soil type is a determinant of exposure to respirable quartz. Three farms, located in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa, had their soil type confirmed as sandy, sandy loam, and clay; and, from these, a total of 298 respirable dust and respirable quartz measurements were collected between July 2006-November 2009 during periods of major farming operations. Values below the limit of detection (LOD) (22 μg · m(-3)) were estimated using multiple 'imputation'. Non-parametric tests were used to compare quartz exposure from the three different soil types. Exposure to respirable quartz occurred on all three farms with the highest individual concentration measured on the sandy soil farm (626 μg · m(-3)). Fifty-seven, 59, and 81% of the measurements on the sandy soil, sandy loam soil, and clay soil farm, respectively, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 25 μg · m(-3). Twelve and 13% of respirable quartz concentrations exceeded 100 μg · m(-3) on the sandy soil and sandy loam soil farms, respectively, but none exceeded this level on the clay soil farm. The proportions of measurements >100 μg · m(-3) were not significantly different between the sandy and sandy loam soil farms ('prop.test'; P = 0.65), but both were significantly larger than for the clay soil farm ('prop.test'; P = 0.0001). The percentage of quartz in respirable dust was determined for all three farms using measurements > the limit of detection. Percentages ranged from 0.5 to 94.4% with no significant difference in the median quartz percentages across the three farms (Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.91). This study demonstrates that there is significant potential for over-exposure to respirable quartz in

  9. Measuring storm tide and high-water marks caused by Hurricane Sandy in New York: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Amy E.; Behrens, Riley

    2015-01-01

    In response to Hurricane Sandy, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary network of storm-tide sensors from Virginia to Maine. During the storm, real-time water levels were available from tide gages and rapid-deployment gages (RDGs). After the storm, USGS scientists retrieved the storm-tide sensors and RDGs and surveyed high-water marks. These data demonstrate that the timing of peak storm surge relative to astronomical tide was extremely important in southeastern New York. For example, along the south shores of New York City and western Suffolk County, the peak storm surge of 6–9 ft generally coincided with the astronomical high tide, which resulted in substantial coastal flooding. In the Peconic Estuary and northern Nassau County, however, the peak storm surge of 9 ft and nearly 12 ft, respectively, nearly coincided with normal low tide, which helped spare these communities from more severe coastal flooding.

  10. Shallow Water Habitat Mapping in Cape Cod National Seashore: A Post-Hurricane Sandy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, M.; Smith, T.; Legare, B.; Mittermayr, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy had a dramatic impact along coastal areas in proximity to landfall in late October 2012, and those impacts have been well-documented in terrestrial coastal settings. However, due to the lack of data on submerged marine habitats, similar subtidal impact studies have been limited. This study, one of four contemporaneous studies commissioned by the US National Park Service, developed maps of submerged shallow water marine habitats in and around Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. All four studies used similar methods of data collection, processing and analysis for the production of habitat maps. One of the motivations for the larger study conducted in the four coastal parks was to provide park managers with a baseline inventory of submerged marine habitats, against which to measure change after future storm events and other natural and anthropogenic phenomena. In this study data from a phase-measuring sidescan sonar, bottom grab samples, seismic reflection profiling, and sediment coring were all used to develop submerged marine habitat maps using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). Vessel-based acoustic surveys (n = 76) were conducted in extreme shallow water across four embayments from 2014-2016. Sidescan sonar imagery covering 83.37 km2 was collected, and within that area, 49.53 km2 of co-located bathymetric data were collected with a mean depth of 4.00 m. Bottom grab samples (n = 476) to sample macroinvertebrates and sediments (along with other water column and habitat data) were collected, and these data were used along with the geophysical and coring data to develop final habitat maps using the CMECS framework.

  11. Perceptions of severe storms, climate change, ecological structures and resiliency three years post-hurricane Sandy in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Global warming is leading to increased frequency and severity of storms that are associated with flooding, increasing the risk to urban, coastal populations. This study examined perceptions of the relationship between severe storms, sea level rise, climate change and ecological barriers by a vulnerable environmental justice population in New Jersey. Patients using New Jersey's Federally Qualified Health Centers were interviewed after Hurricane [Superstorm] Sandy because it is essential to understand the perceptions of uninsured, underinsured, and economically challenged people to better develop a resiliency strategy for the most vulnerable people. Patients ( N = 355) using 6 centers were interviewed using a structured interview form. Patients were interviewed in the order they entered the reception area, in either English or Spanish. Respondents were asked to rate their agreement with environmental statements. Respondents 1) agreed with experts that "severe storms were due to climate change", "storms will come more often", and that "flooding was due to sea level rise", 2) did not agree as strongly that "climate change was due to human activity", 3) were neutral for statements that " Sandy damages were due to loss of dunes or salt marshes". 4) did not differ as a function of ethnic/racial categories, and 5) showed few gender differences. It is imperative that the public understand that climate change and sea level rise are occurring so that they support community programs (and funding) to prepare for increased frequency of storms and coastal flooding. The lack of high ratings for the role of dunes and marshes in preventing flooding indicates a lack of understanding that ecological structures protect coasts, and suggests a lack of support for management actions to restore dunes as part of a coastal preparedness strategy. Perceptions that do not support a public policy of coastal zone management to protect coastlines can lead to increased flooding, extensive property

  12. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  13. Coastal microbial mats: the physiology of a small-scale ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal inter-tidal sandy sediments, salt marshes and mangrove forests often support the development of microbial mats. Microbial mats are complex associations of one or several functional groups of microorganisms and their formation usually starts with the growth of a cyanobacterial population on a

  14. Documentation and hydrologic analysis of Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey, October 29–30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suro, Thomas P.; Deetz, Anna; Hearn, Paul

    2016-11-17

    higher than the previously recorded period-of-record maximum. A comparison of peak storm-tide elevations to preliminary FEMA Coastal Flood Insurance Study flood elevations indicated that these areas experienced the highest recurrence intervals along the coast of New Jersey. Analysis showed peak storm-tide elevations exceeded the 100-year FEMA flood elevations in many parts of Middlesex, Union, Essex, Hudson, and Bergen Counties, and peak storm-tide elevations at many locations in Monmouth County exceeded the 500-year recurrence interval.A level 1 HAZUS (HAZards United States) analysis was done for the counties in New Jersey affected by flooding to estimate total building stock losses. The aggregated total building stock losses estimated by HAZUS for New Jersey, on the basis of the final inundation verified by USGS high-water marks, was almost $19 billion. A comparison of Hurricane Sandy with historic coastal storms showed that peak storm-tide elevations associated with Hurricane Sandy exceeded most of the previously documented elevations associated with the storms of December 1992, March 1962, September 1960, and September 1944 at many coastal communities in New Jersey. This scientific investigation report was prepared in cooperation with FEMA to document flood processes and flood damages resulting from this storm and to assist in future flood mitigation actions in New Jersey.

  15. Relação solo-relevo-substrato geológico nas restingas da planície costeira do estado de São Paulo Relationship between soil, landscape and geological substrate of the sandy coastal plain of São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rizzato Coelho

    2010-06-01

    São Paulo State, Brazil: Bertioga, Cananéia, and Ilha Comprida. The objective was to provide evidence to elucidate the main processes of the genesis of Spodosols. This approach, which is unusual in research concerned with Brazilian Quaternary coastal plains, resulted in the following interpretations: (a relief, hydrologic conditions and time were the main soil formation factors responsible for the spatial differentiation of the Spodosols in marine terraces; (b The horizon morphologic features of the most aged and well-drained Spodosols are highly variable and diverse. On the other hand, poorly drained Spodosols (old or young are more homogeneous; (c the oldest Spodosols, when well-drained, are in an advanced degradation stage while the poorly drained are well-preserved. This suggests that the genesis and permanence of the Spodosols on the landscape depend on the relief features controlling the hydrologic dynamics; (d the most aged and developed Spodosols with orstein horizons can be considered lithostratigraphic indicators of marine deposits of the Pleistocene age in the Cananéia Formation; (e the orstein horizon genesis took place under ancient topographic and hydrologic conditions that differ from the current. This indicates that such Spodosols are polygenetic or paleosols.

  16. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  17. Hurricane Sandy beach response and recovery at Fire Island, New York: Shoreline and beach profile data, October 2012 to October 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre Henderson, Rachel E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.

    2015-04-30

    In response to the forecasted impact of Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a substantial data-collection effort to assess the morphological impacts to the beach and dune system at Fire Island, New York. Global positioning system (GPS) field surveys of the beach and dunes were conducted just prior to and after landfall and these data were used to quantify change in several focus areas. In order to quantify morphologic change along the entire length of the island, pre-storm (May 2012) and post-storm (November 2012) lidar and aerial photography were used to assess changes to the shoreline and beach.As part of the USGS Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Fire Island Study, the beach is monitored periodically to enable better understanding of post-Sandy recovery. The alongshore state of the beach is recorded using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) to collect data around the mean high water (MHW; 0.46 meter North American Vertical Datum of 1988) to derive a shoreline, and the cross-shore response and recovery are measured along a series of 10 profiles.Overall, Hurricane Sandy substantially altered the morphology of Fire Island. However, the coastal system rapidly began to recover after the 2012­–13 winter storm season and continues to recover in the form of volume gains and shoreline adjustment.

  18. Toward a Global Classification of Coastal Anthromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli D. Lazarus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given incontrovertible evidence that humans are the most powerful agents of environmental change on the planet, research has begun to acknowledge and integrate human presence and activity into updated descriptions of the world’s biomes as “anthromes”. Thus far, a classification system for anthromes is limited to the terrestrial biosphere. Here, I present a case for the consideration and validity of coastal anthromes. Every coastal environment on Earth is subject to direct and indirect human modification and disturbance. Despite the legacy, ubiquity, and pervasiveness of human interactions with coastal ecosystems, coastal anthromes still lack formal definition. Following the original argument and framework for terrestrial anthromes, I outline a set of coastal anthrome classifications that dovetail with terrestrial and marine counterparts. Recognising coastal environments as complex and increasingly vulnerable anthropogenic systems is a fundamental step toward understanding their modern dynamics—and, by extension, realising opportunities for and limits to their resilience.

  19. Legal Considerations for Health Care Practitioners After Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Tina Batra; Van Nostrand, Elizabeth; Sood, Rishi K; Potter, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    During disaster response and recovery, legal issues often arise related to the provision of health care services to affected residents. Superstorm Sandy led to the evacuation of many hospitals and other health care facilities and compromised the ability of health care practitioners to provide necessary primary care. This article highlights the challenges and legal concerns faced by health care practitioners in the aftermath of Sandy, which included limitations in scope of practice, difficulties with credentialing, lack of portability of practitioner licenses, and concerns regarding volunteer immunity and liability. Governmental and nongovernmental entities employed various strategies to address these concerns; however, legal barriers remained that posed challenges throughout the Superstorm Sandy response and recovery period. We suggest future approaches to address these legal considerations, including policies and legislation, additional waivers of law, and planning and coordination among multiple levels of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:518-524).

  20. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    soil; a number of nationally red-listed species showed a similar pattern. Plant species diversity and number of red-listed species increased with slope. Where the topsoil had been acidified, limestone was rarely present above a depth of 30 cm. The presence of limestone restricts the availability......Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits......). Environmental variables were recorded at each plot, and soil samples were analysed for exchangeable P and N, as well as limestone content and pH. Data were analysed with regression analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results: Plant species richness was highest on weakly acid to slightly alkaline...

  1. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Gillezeau, Christina N; Liu, Bian; Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-08-24

    Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130). There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = -0.33, p Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  2. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  4. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  5. Visualizing Coastal Erosion, Overwash and Coastal Flooding in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Morse, R.; Shyka, T.

    2017-12-01

    Powerful East Coast storms and their associated storm tides and large, battering waves can lead to severe coastal change through erosion and re-deposition of beach sediment. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has modeled such potential for geological response using a storm-impact scale that compares predicted elevations of hurricane-induced water levels and associated wave action to known elevations of coastal topography. The resulting storm surge and wave run-up hindcasts calculate dynamic surf zone collisions with dune structures using discrete regime categories of; "collision" (dune erosion), "overwash" and "inundation". The National Weather Service (NWS) recently began prototyping this empirical technique under the auspices of the North Atlantic Regional Team (NART). Real-time erosion and inundation forecasts were expanded to include both tropical and extra-tropical cyclones along vulnerable beaches (hotspots) on the New England coast. Preliminary results showed successful predictions of impact during hurricane Sandy and several intense Nor'easters. The forecasts were verified using observational datasets, including "ground truth" reports from Emergency Managers and storm-based, dune profile measurements organized through a Maine Sea Grant partnership. In an effort to produce real-time visualizations of this forecast output, the Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (NERACOOS) and the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (GMRI) partnered with NART to create graphical products of wave run-up levels for each New England "hotspot". The resulting prototype system updates the forecasts twice daily and allows users the ability to adjust atmospheric and sea state input into the calculations to account for model errors and forecast uncertainty. This talk will provide an overview of the empirical wave run-up calculations, the system used to produce forecast output and a demonstration of the new web based tool.

  6. Noctiluca and copepods grazing on the phytoplankton community in a nutrient-enriched coastal environment along the southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunpandi, N; Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L; Gireeshkumar, T R; Karnan, C; Naqvi, S W A

    2017-07-01

    The relative grazing impact of Noctiluca scintillans (hereafter referred only Noctiluca) and copepods (Acrocalanus gracilis, Paracalanus parvus, Acartia danae and Oithona similis) on the phytoplankton community in an upwelling-mudbank environment along the southwest coast India is presented here. This study was carried out during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April-May) to the Late Southwest Monsoon (August) period in 2014. During the sampling period, large hydrographical transformation was evident in the study area (off Alappuzha, Southwest coast of India); warmer Pre-Southwest Monsoon water column condition got transformed into cooler and nitrate-rich hypoxic waters during the Southwest Monsoon (June-August) due to intense coastal upwelling. Copepods were present in the study area throughout the sampling period with a noticeable increase in their abundance during the Southwest Monsoon. On the other hand, the first appearance of Noctiluca in the sampling location was during the Early Southwest Monsoon (mid-June) and thereafter their abundance increased towards the Peak Southwest Monsoon. The grazing experiments carried out as per the food removal method showed noticeable differences in the feeding preferences of Noctiluca and copepods, especially on the different size fractions of phytoplankton. Noctiluca showed the highest positive electivity for the phytoplankton micro-fraction (av. 0.49 ± 0.04), followed by nano-fraction (av. 0.17 ± 0.04) and a negative electivity for the pico-fraction (av. -0.66 ± 0.06). In total ingestion of Noctiluca, micro-fraction contribution (83.7%) was significantly higher compared to the nano- (15.7%) and pico-fractions (0.58%). On the other hand, copepods showed the highest positive electivity for the phytoplankton nano-fraction (av. 0.38 ± 0.04) followed by micro- (av. -0.17 ± 0.05) and pico-fractions (av. -0.35 ± 0.05). Similarly, in total ingestion of copepods, nano-fraction (69.7%) was the highest followed by micro

  7. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  8. Human threats to sandy beaches: A meta-analysis of ghost crabs illustrates global anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Connolly, Rod M.; Peterson, Charles H.; Gilby, Ben L.; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D.; Walker, Simon J.; Leon, Javier X.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Weston, Michael A.; Turra, Alexander; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Holt, Rebecca A.; Schoeman, David S.

    2016-02-01

    Beach and coastal dune systems are increasingly subjected to a broad range of anthropogenic pressures that on many shorelines require significant conservation and mitigation interventions. But these interventions require reliable data on the severity and frequency of adverse ecological impacts. Such evidence is often obtained by measuring the response of 'indicator species'. Ghost crabs are the largest invertebrates inhabiting tropical and subtropical sandy shores and are frequently used to assess human impacts on ocean beaches. Here we present the first global meta-analysis of these impacts, and analyse the design properties and metrics of studies using ghost-crabs in their assessment. This was complemented by a gap analysis to identify thematic areas of anthropogenic pressures on sandy beach ecosystems that are under-represented in the published literature. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a broad geographic reach, encompassing studies on shores of the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as the South China Sea. It also reveals what are, arguably, two major limitations: i) the near-universal use of proxies (i.e. burrow counts to estimate abundance) at the cost of directly measuring biological traits and bio-markers in the organism itself; and ii) descriptive or correlative study designs that rarely extend beyond a simple 'compare and contrast approach', and hence fail to identify the mechanistic cause(s) of observed contrasts. Evidence for a historically narrow range of assessed pressures (i.e., chiefly urbanisation, vehicles, beach nourishment, and recreation) is juxtaposed with rich opportunities for the broader integration of ghost crabs as a model taxon in studies of disturbance and impact assessments on ocean beaches. Tangible advances will most likely occur where ghost crabs provide foci for experiments that test specific hypotheses associated with effects of chemical, light and acoustic pollution, as well as the consequences of climate change (e

  9. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  10. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  11. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  12. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  13. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  14. Structural stability and hydraulic conductivity of Nkpologu sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vincent

    mean weight diameter (MWD), water dispersible silt (WDSi), aggregate size distributions (> 2 mm, 1-0.5 mm and < 0.25 ... above sea level. ... and red to brownish red and derived from sandy ... where Q = steady state volume of outflow from the.

  15. Aggregations of the sandy-beach isopod, Tylos granulatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lives as a scavenger in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches on the west coast of South Africa. Individuals emerge with the receding tide leaving exit holes, then forage for about two hours before returning to the vicinity of the high-water mark where they aggregate to bury themselves, leaving behind cone-shaped mounds.

  16. effect of tractor forward speed on sandy loam soil physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Ilorin on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the effect of the imposition of different .... of the blade is 10.5cm. ... arranged in an inverted cone shape with ... replicates were taken for each speed run. The ..... Thakur, T. C; A. Yadav; B. P. Varshney and.

  17. Structural Stability and Hydraulic Conductivity Of Nkpologu Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted in the runoff plots at the University of Nigeria Nsukka Teaching and Resesarch Farm in 2010 and 2011 to monitor the changes in structural stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of Nkpologu sandy loam soil under different cover management practices. The management practices were ...

  18. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  19. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    57: 134-136. BROWN, AC. & WEBB, S.c. 1994. Organisms associated \\.,.,ith burrowing whelks of the genus Bullia. S Afr. 1. Zool. 29: 144-151. BROWN, A.C., STENTON-DOZEY, J.~.E. & TRUEMAN, E.R.. 1989. Sandy-beach bivalves and gastropods; a comparison between Donax serra and Ruilia digitalis. Adv. mar. Bioi. 25:.

  20. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  1. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    Distribution coe�cients (Kd) were measured for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in laboratory batch experiments for 17 sandy aquifer materials at environmentally relevant solute concentrations (Cu: 5±300 mg/l, Zn: 20±3100 mg/l). The Kd values ranged two to three orders of magnitude (Cu: 70±10,800 l/ kg...

  2. The sandy beach meiofauna and free-living nematodes from De Panne (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Gheskiere, T.; Hoste, E.; Kotwicki, L.; Degraer, S.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Vincx, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite their rather barren and arid appearance, European sandy beaches harbour a highly diverse fauna and flora and some of them are even highly productive. In contrast to tropical sandy beaches little is known about the structural and functional diversity of the different benthic components. This study aims to investigate the structural diversity of the meiobenthos, emphasizing on free-living marine nematodes on a Belgian sandy beach.The samples were collected on the sandy beach of De Panne...

  3. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  4. The Development of Coastal and Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Widjojo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning and development process of oastaland marine resources tends centralized and adopted top down policy, without any active participations from coastal and marine communities. In order to reach integrated and sustainable development in coastaland marine areas, people should have both complete and up to date information, so that planning and decision making for all aspect of the environment can be done easily. People should give a high attention of surveis, mappings, as well as science and technology of coastal and marine sectors, in order to change the paradigm of development from inland to coastal and marine. Moreover, people should give high attention of potential resources of coastal and marine areas.

  5. Study of Maowusu Sandy Land Vegetation Coverage Change Based on Modis Ndvi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q.; Liu, H.; Lin, Y.; Han, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper selected 2006-2016 MODIS NDVI data with a spatial resolution of 500m and time resolution of 16d, got the 11 years' time series NDVI data of Maowusu sandy land through mosaicking, projection transformation, cutting process in batch. Analysed the spatial and temporal distribution and variation characteristics of vegetation cover in year, season and month time scales by maximum value composite, and unary linear regression analysis. Then, we combined the meteorological data of 33 sites around the sandy area, analysed the response characteristics of vegetation cover change to temperature and precipitation through Pearson correlation coefficient. Studies have shown that: (1) The NDVI value has a stable increase trend, which rate is 0.0075 / a. (2) The vegetation growth have significantly difference in four seasons, the NDVI value of summer > autumn > spring > winter. (3) The NDVI value change trend is conformed to the gauss normal distribution in a year, and it comes to be largest in August, its green season is in April, and yellow season is in the middle of November, the growth period is about 220 d. (4) The vegetation has a decreasing trend from the southeast to the northwest, most part is slightly improved, and Etuokeqianqi improved significantly. (5) The correlation indexes of annual NDVI with temperature and precipitation are -0.2178 and 0.6309, the vegetation growth is mainly affected by precipitation. In this study, a complete vegetation cover analysis and evaluation model for sandy land is established. It has important guiding significance for the sand ecological environment protection.

  6. Fit-for-purpose phosphorus management: do riparian buffers qualify in catchments with sandy soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David; Summers, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope runoff and leaching studies, catchment-scale water quality measurements and P retention and release characteristics of stream bank and catchment soils were used to better understand reasons behind the reported ineffectiveness of riparian buffers for phosphorus (P) management in catchments with sandy soils from south-west Western Australia (WA). Catchment-scale water quality measurements of 60 % particulate P (PP) suggest that riparian buffers should improve water quality; however, runoff and leaching studies show 20 times more water and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more P are transported through leaching than runoff processes. The ratio of filterable reactive P (FRP) to total P (TP) in surface runoff from the plots was 60 %, and when combined with leachate, 96 to 99 % of P lost from hillslopes was FRP, in contrast with 40 % measured as FRP at the large catchment scale. Measurements of the P retention and release characteristics of catchment soils (bank soil (bank soils suggest that catchment soils contain more P, are more P saturated and are significantly more likely to deliver FRP and TP in excess of water quality targets than stream bank soils. Stream bank soils are much more likely to retain P than contribute P to streams, and the in-stream mixing of FRP from the landscape with particulates from stream banks or stream beds is a potential mechanism to explain the change in P form from hillslopes (96 to 99 % FRP) to large catchments (40 % FRP). When considered in the context of previous work reporting that riparian buffers were ineffective for P management in this environment, these studies reinforce the notion that (1) riparian buffers are unlikely to provide fit-for-purpose P management in catchments with sandy soils, (2) most P delivered to streams in sandy soil catchments is FRP and travels via subsurface and leaching pathways and (3) large catchment-scale water quality measurements are not good indicators of hillslope P mobilisation and transport

  7. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  8. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  9. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory regime in controlling the effects of oil pollution on Kenya's coastal and marine environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohowa, Boaz Ogola

    2004-01-01

    The Kenya coast is part of the major tanker route that stretches along the East African coast, running from the Middle East round the Hom of Africa to other parts of the world. The major Kenyan port, Mombasa, handles a substantial number of ocean-going ships (including oil tankers) and other smaller vessels, in addition to having other installations that deal with oil such as refineries and power generators. This raises the prospect of chronic oil pollution in the coastal and marine environme...

  11. Extent and severity of groundwater contamination based on hydrochemistry mechanism of sandy tropical coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Noorain Mohd; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin Wan

    2012-11-01

    Small islands are susceptible to anthropogenic and natural activities, especially in respect of their freshwater supply. The freshwater supply in small islands may be threatened by the encroachment of seawater into freshwater aquifers, usually caused by over pumping. This study focused on the hydrochemistry of the Kapas Island aquifer, which controls the groundwater composition. Groundwater samples were taken from six constructed boreholes for the analysis and measurement of its in-situ and major ions. The experimental results show a positive and significant correlation between Na-Cl (r=0.907; paquifer bedrock. About 76% of collected data (n=108) were found to be in the dissolution process of carbonate minerals. Moreover, the correlation between total CEC and Ca shows a positive and strong relationship (r=0.995; pchemical composition. The output of this research explains the chemical mechanism attributed to the groundwater condition of the Kapas Island aquifer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16±55.35ind./m² belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae, Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a representative group in suprabenthos. Samples showed low correlations between suprabenthos and environmental variables. A somewhat stronger correlation could be established between water characteristics and dragged material abundance. The studied suprabenthos assemblage was found to have high taxa richness and very dynamic behaviour at spatial and temporal scale. Further analysis suggested that there is no evident pattern of distribution and that causality can not be directly attributed to temporal variation only. Possibly there is an influence of a synergy of environmentals or biological factors, rather than a single variable. The species Americamysis bahia and Americamysis taironana are reported for the first time in Venezuela. This study represents the first ecological research of the suprabenthos in the Caribbean region.

  13. 2012 Post-Superstorm Sandy Lidar Elevation Data, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — These files contain classified topographic and bathymetric lidar data as unclassified valid topographic data (1), and valid topographic data classified as ground...

  14. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-03-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  15. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-04-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  16. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Humic Acids in Coastal Spodosols from Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Martin-Neto, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study on humic acids (HAs) of podzol horizons from the southeastern region of Brazil investigated the accumulation and degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) in warm-climate podzols. Humic acids from sandy coastal Spodosols (Histic Alaquod and Arenic Alorthod) from Cardoso Island in Sao Paulo

  17. Human resources training in coastal science

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayaraghavan, S.

    The paper stresses the importance of training and education to the development and application of knowledge on the coastal marine environment and its resources. Present status of human resources training in India is discussed and changes...

  18. Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) is a Lagrangian...currents and waves. The Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) supports the PTM with the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ), which provides coupled wave...and current forcing for PTM simulations. CMS -PTM is implemented in the Surface-water Modeling System, a GUI environment for input development

  19. Productivity and water use by rain-fed early maturing Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties grown at different plant densities in a coastal savannah environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanor, Emmanuel Nartey

    2016-06-01

    The production of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under rain-fed conditions at the Kwabenya-Atomic area in the coastal savannah environment is constrained by low and erratic rainfall events. Improving cassava production in the area requires the use of cassava varieties which are efficient in the use of limited soil moisture. The objective of the study was to evaluate the response of two early maturing cassava varieties to three (3) planting densities to TDM, RY, and WUE. The actual evapotranspiration was also partitioned into crop transpiration and soil evaporation using LAI data. The field experiment was conducted at Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) research farm, Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Kwabenya-Atomic in 2015. The split plot design in three replicates was used. The two (2) cassava varieties, Bankye Hemaa and Capevars Bankye, were assigned to the main plots and three (3) planting densities: 10,000, 13,333 and 20,000 plants ha"-1 to the subplots. Plants were sampled each month and moisture in the 120 cm soil profile monitored every two weeks using the neutron probe (CPN 503 Hydroprobe). Soil moisture data were used to estimate actual evapotranspiration (AET) using the water balance approach. Root yield (RY) for Bankye Hemaa and Capevars Bankye, ranged from 2.8 to 15.1 t/ha"-1 for the 10,000 plants ha"-1, 4.2 to 18.1 t/ha"-1 for the 13,333 plants ha"-1 and 5.1 to 21.3 t/ha"-1 for the 20,000 plants ha"-1. Additionally, water use efficiency in term of total dry matter (WUETDM ) for the two cassava varieties ranged from 1.7 to 11.6, 2.3 to 12.8 and 3.7 to 12.4 kg ha"-1 mm"-1 for the 10,000, 13,333 and 20,000 plants ha"-1 planting density, respectively. Bankye Hemaa grown at 20,000 plants ha"-1 produced the highest root yield of 21.3 t/ha"-1 and WUETDM of 12.4 kg ha"-1 mm"-1, because of the comparatively lower soil evaporation which led to increased available soil water for crop use and higher crop transpiration, leading to

  20. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  1. A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Jochen; Nicholls, Robert J.; Tol, Richard S. J.; Wang, Zheng B.; Hamilton, Jacqueline M.; Boot, Gerben; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; McFadden, Loraine; Ganopolski, Andrey; Klein, Richard J. T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the global effects of climate-induced sea-level rise on the erosion of sandy beaches, and its consequent impacts in the form of land loss and forced migration of people. We consider direct erosion on open sandy coasts and indirect erosion near selected tidal inlets and estuaries, using six global mean sea-level scenarios (in the range of 0.2-0.8 m) and six SRES socio-economic development scenarios for the 21st century. Impacts are assessed both without and with adaptation in the form of shore and beach nourishment, based on cost-benefit analysis that includes the benefits of maintaining sandy beaches for tourism. Without nourishment, global land loss would amount to about 6000-17,000 km2 during the 21st century, leading to 1.6-5.3 million people being forced to migrate and migration costs of US 300-1000 billion (not discounted). Optimal beach and shore nourishment would cost about US 65-220 billion (not discounted) during the 21st century and would reduce land loss by 8-14%, forced migration by 56-68% and the cost of forced migration by 77-84% (not discounted). The global share of erodible coast that is nourished increases from about 4% in 2000 to 18-33% in 2100, with beach nourishment being 3-4 times more frequent than shore nourishment, reflecting the importance of tourism benefits. In absolute terms, with or without nourishment, large countries with long shorelines appear to have the largest costs, but in relative terms, small island states appear most impacted by erosion. Considerable uncertainty remains due to the limited availability of basic coastal geomorphological data and models on a global scale. Future work should also further explore the effects of beach tourism, including considering sub-national distributions of beach tourists.

  2. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  3. Inner-shelf ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Safak, Ilgar; Liste, Maria; Baldwin, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history, making landfall on the New Jersey coast on October 30, 2012. Storm impacts included several barrier island breaches, massive coastal erosion, and flooding. While changes to the subaerial landscape are relatively easily observed, storm-induced changes to the adjacent shoreface and inner continental shelf are more difficult to evaluate. These regions provide a framework for the coastal zone, are important for navigation, aggregate resources, marine ecosystems, and coastal evolution. Here we provide unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics based on both observations and numerical modeling over time scales associated with these types of large storm events. Oceanographic conditions and seafloor morphologic changes are evaluated using both a coupled atmospheric-ocean-wave-sediment numerical modeling system that covered spatial scales ranging from the entire US east coast (1000 s of km) to local domains (10 s of km). Additionally, the modeled response for the region offshore of Fire Island, NY was compared to observational analysis from a series of geologic surveys from that location. The geologic investigations conducted in 2011 and 2014 revealed lateral movement of sedimentary structures of distances up to 450 m and in water depths up to 30 m, and vertical changes in sediment thickness greater than 1 m in some locations. The modeling investigations utilize a system with grid refinement designed to simulate oceanographic conditions with progressively increasing resolutions for the entire US East Coast (5-km grid), the New York Bight (700-m grid), and offshore of Fire Island, NY (100-m grid), allowing larger scale dynamics to drive smaller scale coastal changes. Model results in the New York Bight identify maximum storm surge of up to 3 m, surface currents on the order of 2 ms-1 along the New Jersey coast, waves up to 8 m in height, and bottom stresses

  4. Inner-shelf ocean dynamics and seafloor morphologic changes during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Schwab, William C.; List, Jeffrey; Safak, Ilgar; Liste, Maria; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most destructive hurricanes in US history, making landfall on the New Jersey coast on Oct 30, 2012. Storm impacts included several barrier island breaches, massive coastal erosion, and flooding. While changes to the subaerial landscape are relatively easily observed, storm-induced changes to the adjacent shoreface and inner continental shelf are more difficult to evaluate. These regions provide a framework for the coastal zone, are important for navigation, aggregate resources, marine ecosystems, and coastal evolution. Here we provide unprecedented perspective regarding regional inner continental shelf sediment dynamics based on both observations and numerical modeling over time scales associated with these types of large storm events. Oceanographic conditions and seafloor morphologic changes are evaluated using both a coupled atmospheric-ocean-wave-sediment numerical modeling system and observation analysis from a series of geologic surveys and oceanographic instrument deployments focused on a region offshore of Fire Island, NY. The geologic investigations conducted in 2011 and 2014 revealed lateral movement of sedimentary structures of distances up to 450 m and in water depths up to 30 m, and vertical changes in sediment thickness greater than 1 m in some locations. The modeling investigations utilize a system with grid refinement designed to simulate oceanographic conditions with progressively increasing resolutions for the entire US East Coast (5-km grid), the New York Bight (700-m grid), and offshore of Fire Island, NY (100-m grid), allowing larger scale dynamics to drive smaller scale coastal changes. Model results in the New York Bight identify maximum storm surge of up to 3 m, surface currents on the order of 2 ms-1 along the New Jersey coast, waves up to 8 m in height, and bottom stresses exceeding 10 Pa. Flow down the Hudson Shelf Valley is shown to result in convergent sediment transport and deposition along its axis

  5. TURISMO E AMBIENTES COSTEIROS NOS DOIS LADOS DO ATLÂNTICO: POTENCIALIDADES E IMPLICAÇÕES / TOURISM AND COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS IN TWO SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC: POTENTIAL AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cerqueira Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho resultou das pesquisas realizadas para o desenvolvimento da tese de doutoramento em Geografia, na Universidade de Coimbra. O objetivo principal foi fazer uma análise comparativa sobre a inserção do turismo em duas áreas costeiras, localizadas em pontos diferenciados do Oceano Atlântico, no caso Jaguaripe, no Recôncavo Baiano, e Mira, na Região Centro de Portugal. Os principais resultados obtidos estão relacionados com as diferenças e/ou similitudes encontradas nos dois territórios, resultantes tanto das condições físicas e bióticas, quanto da dinâmica cultural. Palavras-chave: Turismo, ambiente costeiro, Jaguaribe-BA, Mira-Portugal. ABSTRACT This work resulted from research carried out for the development of the doctoral thesis in Geography at the University of Coimbra. The main objective was to make a comparative analysis of the insertion of tourism in two coastal areas, located in different parts of the Atlantic Ocean in Jaguaripe if the Reconcavo Baiano, and Mira, in the Central Region of Portugal. The main results are related to the differences and / or similarities found in the two territories, linked to both the physical and biotic conditions, as to the cultural dynamics. Keywords: Tourism, coastal environment, Jaguaribe-BA, Mira-Portugal.

  6. Assessing sandy beach macrofaunal patterns along large-scale environmental gradients: A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzeda, Fabio; Zangrilli, Maria Paola; Defeo, Omar

    2016-06-01

    A Fuzzy Naïve Bayes (FNB) classifier was developed to assess large-scale variations in abundance, species richness and diversity of the macrofauna inhabiting fifteen Uruguayan sandy beaches affected by the effects of beach morphodynamics and the estuarine gradient generated by Rio de la Plata. Information from six beaches was used to estimate FNB parameters, while abiotic data of the remaining nine beaches were used to forecast abundance, species richness and diversity. FNB simulations reproduced the general increasing trend of target variables from inner estuarine reflective beaches to marine dissipative ones. The FNB model also identified a threshold value of salinity range beyond which diversity markedly increased towards marine beaches. Salinity range is suggested as an ecological master factor governing distributional patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. However, the model: 1) underestimated abundance and species richness at the innermost estuarine beach, with the lowest salinity, and 2) overestimated species richness in marine beaches with a reflective morphodynamic state, which is strongly linked to low abundance, species richness and diversity. Therefore, future modeling efforts should be refined by giving a dissimilar weigh to the gradients defined by estuarine (estuarine beaches) and morphodynamic (marine beaches) variables, which could improve predictions of target variables. Our modeling approach could be applied to a wide spectrum of issues, ranging from basic ecology to social-ecological systems. This approach seems relevant, given the current challenge to develop predictive methodologies to assess the simultaneous and nonlinear effects of anthropogenic and natural impacts in coastal ecosystems.

  7. Building Ecological and Community Resilience and Measuring Success of the Department of Interior Hurricane Sandy Resilience Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. M.; Worman, S. L.; Bennett, R.; Bassow, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) partnered with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to administer an external funding competition to support coastal resilience projects in the region affected by Hurricane Sandy. The projects complement the DOI Bureau-led projects, but are led by state and local governments, universities, non-profits, community groups, tribes, and other non-Federal entities. In total, the Hurricane Sandy Resilience Program invested over $750 million in approximately 180 projects to repair damage and improve the resilience of habitats, communities and infrastructure to future storms and sea level rise. Project activities include waterway connection and opening, living shoreline, marsh restoration, community resilience planning, data/mapping/modeling, and beach and dune restoration. DOI and NFWF initiated a resilience assessment in 2015 to evaluate the impact of this investment. The assessment began by clarifying the program's resilience goals and the development of ecological and socio-economic metrics across the project activities. Using these metrics, the evaluation is assessing the ecological and community outcomes, cost effectiveness of activities, improved scientific understanding, and temporal and spatial scaling of benefits across resilience activities. Recognizing the unique opportunity afforded by the scale and distribution of projects, NFWF and DOI have invested in monitoring through 2024 to better understand how these projects perform over time. This presentation will describe the evaluation questions, approach, long-term monitoring, online metrics portal, and findings to date.

  8. Disentangling the influences of habitat structure and limnological predictors on stream fish communities of a coastal basin, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    Full Text Available In stream environments habitat structure and limnological factors interact regulating patterns of energy and material transfer and affecting fish communities. In the coastal basins of Southeastern Brazil, limnological and structural characteristics differ between clear and blackwaters streams. The former have a diversity of substrate types, higher water velocities, and lower water conductivity, while the latter have sandy substrate, tea-colored and acidic waters, and low water velocities. In this study, we verified the relative importance of habitat structure and limnological variables in predicting patterns of variation in stream fish communities. Eight first to third order streams were sampled in the coastal plain of Itanhaém River basin. We captured 34 fish species and verified that community structure was influenced by physical habitat and limnology, being the former more important. A fraction of the variation could not be totally decomposed, and it was assigned to the joint influence of limnology and habitat structure. Some species that were restricted to blackwater streams, may have physiological and behavioral adaptations to deal with the lower pH levels. When we examined only the clearwater streams, all the explained variation in fish community composition was assigned to structural factors, which express specific preferences for different types of habitats.

  9. Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-- A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Haines, John W.; Hainly, Robert A.; Hippe, Daniel J.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    n late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection And Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term network and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors reported on river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. This science plan was developed immediately following Hurricane Sandy to coordinate continuing USGS activities with other agencies and to guide continued data collection and analysis to ensure support for recovery and restoration efforts. The data, information, and tools that are produced by implementing this

  10. From comprehensive planning to the integration of both, territory and landscape: the State and the creation of touristic areas in coastal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Francisco Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the apparent spontaneity, the transformation of coastal areas influenced by tourism development is also marked by the completion of planning efforts by national or local governments. Since first European interventions in the 1950s, with the provision of infrastructure, equipments and accommodations disconnected from the existing settlements, to the current efforts for qualification of previously developed areas, a great deal was achieved and gradually new variables were incorporated. This paper analyses some of these experiences in order to demonstrate how territory values, environmental issues and distinct urban morphologies have been incorporated intoTerritorial Planning of touristic areas. The sample includes cases of Languedoc Roussillon in France and FONATUR accomplishments in Mexico, examples of comprehensive Stateplanning, as well as planning interventions implemented from the 1990s in Spain, which synthesizes contemporary searches for qualification of touristic settlements developed in last decades.

  11. Sorption and Migration Mechanisms of 237 Np through Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraprachoom, Nanthavan; Tanaka, Tadao

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste into a shallow land burial, the sorption characteristic and migration behavior of 237 Np through sandy soil was studied. Two experimental methods were performed by using batch and column systems. The distribution coefficients (K d ) obtained from the adsorption and desorption process are rather small about 16 and 21 cm 3 /g respectively. Size distribution of 237 Np species in the influent solution was measured by ultra-filtration technique. Migration mechanism of 237 Np was studied by column experiments. The experimental condition was the influence of volume of eluting solution; 100, 300, 500, 1000 and 2000 ml respectively. The result from five column experiments confirm that the sorption characteristics of 237 Np are mainly controlled by a reversible ion-exchange reaction and the migration of 237 Np in the sandy soil can be estimated by using the K d concept

  12. Superstorm Sandy and the Verdant Power RITE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corren, D.; Colby, J.; Adonizio, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 29, 2012 Superstorm Sandy (formerly Hurricane Sandy) made landfall in New Jersey. One of the deadliest, and second-costliest hurricane in US history, Sandy was the largest Atlantic hurricane on record, with a diameter of 1,800 km. It was this unprecedented size, extreme central low pressure, and full-moon timing that created a storm surge which inundated New York City with record-breaking water levels, resulting in tremendous destruction of buildings and infrastructure. At its RITE (Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy) Project in New York City's East River, Verdant Power has been installing demonstration and commercial turbine systems since 2005, along with performing related environmental monitoring and measurements. The RITE site is located in the East Channel of the East River, on the east side of Roosevelt Island. All along the East River, large areas of the adjacent boroughs were impacted by Sandy, including flooding of the subway tunnels under the river. When Sandy struck, Verdant had recently concluded a two-week in-water test at RITE of a new rotor for its Gen5 KHPS (Kinetic Hydropower System) turbine, with funding assistance by partners NYSERDA and the US Department of Energy. While the turbine had already been removed from its mounting in the river bottom in September, Verdant continued to operate two water measurement instruments in the river. These acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) measure the 3-D water velocity at various heights in the water column, and are also equipped to provide water level data. Verdant is interested in the effects such an extreme storm could have on turbines and other equipment installed in this river reach, as is planned by Verdant under a 10-year commercial pilot project licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for up to 30 turbines. Associated equipment includes navigational aids (buoys and signage), which Verdant is required to maintain to exclude vessels from the project boundaries. The East

  13. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-11-01

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive ``digital traces'' of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  14. New technologies for the detection of natural and anthropic features in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Del Monte, Maurizio; Paci, M.; Valentini, Emiliana

    2015-01-01

    Some results of the sub project GE.RI.N (Natural Resources Management) conducted in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (Western Sicily) are presented. Coastal and sea floor morphology has been investigated integrating different data sources and using remote sensing data acquired by the Ministry of Environment during the MAMPIRA Project. This approach allowed us to recognize the real extent and distribution of several rocky outcrops emerging from the sandy bottom, south of Favignana Island (known as I Pali ) , and the anthropogenic features generated by the effects of traps, trawling and anchor on the 'Posidonia oceanica' meadow that, within the Egadi Archipelago, is the largest in the Mediterranean Sea (www.ampisoleegadi.it). Unpublished and detailed characterization of the seafloor and assessment of human impacts are the main results of the present study, which demonstrate how remote sensing technologies have a great potential and relevant management implication for Marine Protected Areas and the preservation of emerged and submerged environment [it

  15. How hydrological factors initiate instability in a model sandy slope

    OpenAIRE

    Terajima, Tomomi; Miyahira, Ei-ichiro; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Hattori, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of rain-induced shallow landslides can improve the prediction of their occurrence and mitigate subsequent sediment disasters. Here, we examine an artificial slope's subsurface hydrology and propose a new slope stability analysis that includes seepage force and the down-slope transfer of excess shear forces. We measured pore water pressure and volumetric water content immediately prior to a shallow landslide on an artificial sandy slope of 32°: The direction of the ...

  16. Sandy lower Gotherivian reservoirs in the south central Turkmeniya. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavyyev, N.Ch.; Nedirov, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Composition and capacitance-filtering properties of sandy rocks of the early Gotherivian age developed on the fields of Karadzhaulak and Cirili within the northeast slope of the Predkopetdag marginal trough and on areas of Dengli Bakharadok of the Bakharadok monocline are studied. These rocks are viewed as analogs of the gas-bearing Shatlyk level of the Murgabskiy Basin. They can be considered the main potential source of hydrocarbons on the studied territory. In the upper part of the lower Gotherivian, a level of sandy rocks is traced. Rocks represented by small-and average-grained red and light grey differences in sandstones of polymictic composition. The porosity of the sandstones is 20-22%, permeability is 200-500 mdarcy. Not only a similar stratigraphic position of the described sandstones in the lower Gotherivian was found, but also lithological common nature of the rocks. In the south central Turkmeniya one can isolate age analogs of the Shatlyk level, the main productive level of southeast Turkmeniya. The thickness of the sandy beds is from 17 to 45 m. The sandstones of the Karadzhaulak area have the best capacitance-filtering properties. Post sedimentation changes depend on the quantity and composition of the cement, influence of formation waters, and possibly thermobaric conditions of rock formation. The presence of sandy rocks with high collector properties in the cross section of the lower Gotherivian deposits in south central Turkmeniya should be considered in determining the objects for further prospecting and exploration. The areas of Kumbet and Karadzhaulak are primary.

  17. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beaches with rdkctive and dissip:1tive characteristics (sensu. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ay u n der licen ce gran ted by th e P u blish er (dated 2009). ... beach intertidal communities WaS reviewed, (b) location of len sam.!y beaches studied in south-central Chile, imd (c) location of two sandy beaches studied on the ...

  18. Introduction to the Special Issue: Coastal GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nyerges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the ISPRS International Journal of Geographic Information about “Coastal GIS” is motivated by many circumstances. More than one-half of the world’s human population lives in coastal areas (within 200 kilometers of coast as of 2000 [1]. The trend toward coastal habitation is expected to continue in the US with the total being 75 percent by 2025, meaning that coastal human–environment interactions will likely increase and intensify [2]. Geographic information systems (GIS are being developed and used by technical specialists, stakeholder publics, and executive/policy decision makers for improving our understanding and management of coastal areas, separately and together as more organizations focus on improving the sustainability and resilience of coastal systems. Coastal systems—defined as the area of land closely connected to the sea, including barrier islands, wetlands, mudflats, beaches, estuaries, cities, towns, recreational areas, and maritime facilities, the continental seas and shelves, and the overlying atmosphere—are subject to complex and dynamic interactions among natural and human-driven processes. Coastal systems are crucial to regional and national economies, hosting valued human-built infrastructure and providing ecosystem services that sustain human well-being. This special issue of IJGI about coastal GIS presents a collection of nine papers that address many of the issues mentioned above. [...

  19. Morphosedimentary evolution of carbonate sandy beaches at decadal scale : case study in Reunion Island , Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabot, Marie-Myriam; Pennober, Gwenaelle; Suanez, Serge; Troadec, Roland; Delacourt, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Global change introduce a lot of uncertainties concerning future trajectory of beaches by directly or indirectly modifying major driving factors. An improved understanding of the past shoreline evolution may help for anticipate future coastline response. However, in tropical environment, studies concerning carbonate beaches dynamics are scarce compared to open sandy beaches. Consequently, coral reef protected beaches morphological adjustment is still poorly understood and long-term evolution rate are poorly quantified in these specific environment. In this context, La Reunion Island, insular department of France located in Indian Ocean, constitute a favoured laboratory. This high volcanic island possesses 25 km of carbonate beaches which experience hydrodynamic forcing specific from tropical environment: cyclonic swell during summer and long period swell during winter. Because of degraded coral reef health and high anthropogenic pressure, 50% of the beaches are in erosion since 1970s. Beach survey has been conducted since 1990s by scientist and are now encompassed as pilot site within a French observatory network which guarantee long-term survey with high resolution observational techniques. Thus, La Reunion Island is one of the rare carbonate beach to be surveyed since 20 years. This study aims to examined and quantify beach response at decadal scale on carbonate sandy beaches of Reunion Island. The study focus on 12 km of beaches from Cap Champagne to the Passe de Trois-Bassins. The analyze of 15 beach profile data originated from historical and DGPS beach topographic data confirm long term trend to erosion. Sediment lost varies between 0.5 and 2 m3.yr-1 since 1998. However longshore current have led to accretion of some part of beach compartment with rate of 0.7 to 1.6 m3.yr-1. Wave climate was examined from in-situ measurement over 15 years and show that extreme waves associated with tropical cyclones and long period swell play a major role in beach dynamics

  20. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  1. Testing model parameters for wave‐induced dune erosion using observations from Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.; Long, Joseph W.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    Models of dune erosion depend on a set of assumptions that dictate the predicted evolution of dunes throughout the duration of a storm. Lidar observations made before and after Hurricane Sandy at over 800 profiles with diverse dune elevations, widths, and volumes are used to quantify specific dune erosion model parameters including the dune face slope, which controls dune avalanching, and the trajectory of the dune toe, which controls dune migration. Wave‐impact models of dune erosion assume a vertical dune face and erosion of the dune toe along the foreshore beach slope. Observations presented here show that these assumptions are not always valid and require additional testing if these models are to be used to predict coastal vulnerability for decision‐making purposes. Observed dune face slopes steepened by 43% yet did not become vertical faces, and only 50% of the dunes evolved along a trajectory similar to the foreshore beach slope. Observations also indicate that dune crests were lowered during dune erosion. Moreover, analysis showed a correspondence between dune lowering and narrower beaches, smaller dune volumes, and/or longer wave impact.

  2. Testing model parameters for wave-induced dune erosion using observations from Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, J. R.; Long, J. W.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2017-01-01

    Models of dune erosion depend on a set of assumptions that dictate the predicted evolution of dunes throughout the duration of a storm. Lidar observations made before and after Hurricane Sandy at over 800 profiles with diverse dune elevations, widths, and volumes are used to quantify specific dune erosion model parameters including the dune face slope, which controls dune avalanching, and the trajectory of the dune toe, which controls dune migration. Wave-impact models of dune erosion assume a vertical dune face and erosion of the dune toe along the foreshore beach slope. Observations presented here show that these assumptions are not always valid and require additional testing if these models are to be used to predict coastal vulnerability for decision-making purposes. Observed dune face slopes steepened by 43% yet did not become vertical faces, and only 50% of the dunes evolved along a trajectory similar to the foreshore beach slope. Observations also indicate that dune crests were lowered during dune erosion. Moreover, analysis showed a correspondence between dune lowering and narrower beaches, smaller dune volumes, and/or longer wave impact.

  3. Environmental literacy in agriculture and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujianti, N.; Munandar, A.; Surakusumah, W.

    2018-05-01

    This research aim to investigate the environmental literacy of junior high school students in agricultural and coastal areas in Subang based on knowledge, cognitive skill and attitudes toward to environment. This research used descriptive method. The subjects of the research were 7 grade students of junior high school and involved 62 participants in agriculture area and 64 participants in coastal area. The instrument of environment literacy adapted from Middle School Environment Literacy Survey (MSELS) and adapted to the context of agricultural and coastal area. The results showed that: environmental literacy in agricultural areas is 169.30 with moderate category and environmental literacy in the coastal area is 152.61 in the moderate category.

  4. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  5. USACE National Coastal Mapping Program Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) formed in 1998 to support the coastal mapping and charting requirements of the USACE, NAVO, NOAA and USGS. This partnership fielded three generations of airborne lidar bathymeters, executed operational data collection programs within the U.S. and overseas, and advanced research and development in airborne lidar bathymetry and complementary technologies. JALBTCX executes a USACE Headquarters-funded National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). Initiated in 2004, the NCMP provides high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation and imagery data along the sandy shorelines of the U.S. on a recurring basis. NCMP mapping activities are coordinated with Federal mapping partners through the Interagency Working Group on Ocean and Coastal Mapping and the 3D Elevation Program. The NCMP, currently in it's third cycle, is performing operations along the East Coast in 2017, after having completed surveys along the Gulf Coast in 2016 and conducting emergency response operations in support of Hurricane Matthew. This presentation will provide an overview of JALBTCX, its history in furthering airborne lidar bathymetry technology to meet emerging mapping requirements, current NCMP operations and data products, and Federal mapping coordination activities.

  6. REVIEW OF COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON SAND DEPOSITS IN CILACAP CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineable iron sand deposits in Cilacap – southern coastal area of Central Java have certain coastal characteristics that need to be studied in order to understand its depositional environment. With the knowledge of such environment, it can be applied to look for other places prospective of iron sand deposits that have the same characteristics especially recently when Cilacap’s deposits were almost depleted. Coastal characteristics of iron sand deposit in Cilacap is shown by successive sandy beach ridges separated by marshy valleys typical of prograded coasts and by dunes of sand elongated parallel to the shore line with elevation varies from 0 m to 15 m above sea level. The iron sand deposit was derived from denudation of andesite and “Old Andesite Formation” enriched in magnetite and ilmenite minerals in the steep elevated and deeply weathered rock hinterlands of Cilacap. High sediment loads of Serayu Basin in the hinterland (3,500-4,500 ton/km2/year; Citarum River basin only 800-1,200 ton/km2/year was causing extensive deposition of iron sand in the coastal zone. Key words: coast, characteristic, iron sand, Cilacap Endapan pasir besi yang dapat ditambang di Cilacap – pesisir selatan Jawa Tengah memiliki karakteristik pantai tertentu yang perlu dikaji agar dapat dipahami lingkungan pengendapannya. Dengan pengetahuan tentang lingkungan pengendapan tersebut, dapat diterapkan untuk mencari daerah-daerah lain prospek endapan pasir besi yang memiliki karakteristik yang sama terutama pada akhir-akhir ini ketika endapan Cilacap akan habis. Karakteristik pantai endapan pasir besi di Cilacap dicirikan oleh urutan pematang pantai berpasir yang dipisahkan oleh lembah-lembah berawa khas pantai maju dan oleh gumuk-gumuk pasir memanjang sejajar dengan garis pantai dengan ketinggian bervariasi dari 0 m hingga 15 m dari muka laut. Endapan pasir besi di daerah ini berasal dari proses denudasi andesit dan “Formasi Andesit

  7. Effect of NPK fertiliser on growth, flowering and yield of fonio (Digitaria exilis) in a coastal agro-ecological environment of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amekli, Yayra

    2013-07-01

    Fonio (Digitaria spp) is neglected and underutilised crop traditionally grown in the Sahelian savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana for its grain which is rich in crude protein, fibre and has medicinal properties. Decline in the production of the crop is attributed to poor agronomic and yield characteristics and changing agro-climatic conditions as a result of clobal warming which has rendered traditional growing areas too dry to surport cultivation of the crop. There is the need to explore the possibility of growing the crop in new agro-ecologies to sustain the production. The study was therefore conducted in Kwabenya-Atomic area which is located in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana, to evaluate the adaptability of three fonio landraces (Yadema, Nomber and Nvoni) to the coastal zone, their growth and response to NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser treatment, apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery (AFNR) as well as presence basic elements in the grains. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 during the major cropping season, using three fonio landraces grown at a planting distance of 0.05m x 0.45m. The experiment design used was the split plot in three replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the growing season. Grain yield (GY) and its associated apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery were significantly different (P≤ 0.05) among the fonio landraces during the cropping season with the landrace Nvoni producing the highest grain yield of 96 kg ha - 1 at NPK fertiliser rate of 60 kg ha - 1 and with a AFNR of 33.1%. The study also establised a positive correlation between biomass accumulation and grain yield. The efficiency of grain production per unit of fertiliser nitrogen (FN) increased, but at a diminishing rate with each traditional unit of FN. Additionally, ten essentials mineral elements (Na,Mg, K, Ca, I, CI, Cu, AI, Mn, and V) were detected among the grain of the three fonio landrace using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA

  8. Conceptual model of a coastal hydrosystem in a semi-arid environment subjected to the climate change: the case of Lavrion, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliaris, Christos; Schumann, Philipp; Danneberg, Nils-Christian; Foglia, Laura; Kallioras, Andreas; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater management in arid areas has become a major issue worldwide, and it is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Low annual precipitation and high evaporation potential are the key features of these areas, with additional pressure added to the system due to abstractions for irrigation and water supply purposes. Typical example of such scenarios exist in the Mediterranean area, where drought and water scarcity, especially in the warm period of the hydrological year, give rise to major management issues in coastal areas. Among the different solutions, the implementation of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes have been suggested in the EU FP7 project MARSOL (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought). In the project, different sites across the Mediterranean are tested for investigating the viability of various MAR techniques in different hydrological systems facing qualitative and quantitative deterioration of their groundwater resources. The coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion was selected due to its typical Mediterranean characteristics (climatic, hydrologic, hydrogeological, geological etc.); all within a rather small area of extent ( mining and metallurgical activities The modelling approach will include the development of three distinct models that will be integrated. The aim is to depict how systems with characteristics like the ones mentioned above perform and, which different scenarios can be applied, aiming at identifying the most viable (with respect to water budget) MAR strategy for the specific area. Meteorological data, field data and site investigations provide the input data for all the different models. The field activities already conducted included: an inventory of all existing pumping wells; the development of a monitoring network for qualitative and quantitative environmental data acquisition at different scales and hydrologic zones; installation of multi-level piezometers for tailored

  9. International cooperation for integrated management of coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosc, E.; Houlbreque, F.; Boisson, F.; Scholten, J.; Betti, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal zones which comprise < 20% of the earth surface are one of the most dynamic areas of the world. Housing more than 50% of the earth's population, the coastal zones are affected by natural and anthropogenic induced pressures which challenge the sustainability of the coastal environment and its resources. Most of the environmental pressures originate from outside the coastal zones thus requiring an inter-regional approach for coastal environmental assessments. It is one of the missions of the Marine Environment Laboratories (MEL) of the International Atomic Energy Agency to assist Member States in coastal zone management by applying nuclear and isotopic techniques. These techniques are used in many ways at MEL to enhance the understanding of marine ecosystems and to improve their management and protection. The article gives an overview of MEL's current marine coastal projects and research activities. (author)

  10. Restructuring of the Aquatic Bacterial Community by Hydric Dynamics Associated with Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nikea; Rosenberger, Abigail; Brislawn, Colin; Wright, Justin; Kessler, Collin; Toole, David; Solomon, Caroline; Strutt, Steven; McClure, Erin; Lamendella, Regina

    2016-06-15

    Bacterial community composition and longitudinal fluctuations were monitored in a riverine system during and after Superstorm Sandy to better characterize inter- and intracommunity responses associated with the disturbance associated with a 100-year storm event. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess microbial community structure within water samples from Muddy Creek Run, a second-order stream in Huntingdon, PA, at 12 different time points during the storm event (29 October to 3 November 2012) and under seasonally matched baseline conditions. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to track changes in bacterial community structure and divergence during and after Superstorm Sandy. Bacterial community dynamics were correlated to measured physicochemical parameters and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. Bioinformatics analyses of 2.1 million 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant increase in bacterial diversity in samples taken during peak discharge of the storm. Beta-diversity analyses revealed longitudinal shifts in the bacterial community structure. Successional changes were observed, in which Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased in 16S rRNA gene relative abundance, while the relative abundance of members of the Firmicutes increased. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequences matching pathogenic bacteria, including strains of Legionella, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter, as well as bacteria of fecal origin (e.g., Bacteroides), exhibited an increase in abundance after peak discharge of the storm. This study revealed a significant restructuring of in-stream bacterial community structure associated with hydric dynamics of a storm event. In order to better understand the microbial risks associated with freshwater environments during a storm event, a more comprehensive understanding of the variations in aquatic bacterial diversity is warranted. This study investigated the bacterial

  11. Linear alkylbenzenes in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) and their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Lu Fenghui; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng; Luo Xianlin; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2008-01-01

    The average concentrations of ΣLABs (sum of C 10 -C 13 -LABs) in runoff samples collected from the eight major riverine outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China ranged from 1.4 to 6124 ng/L in the dissolved phase and from 0.01 to 11.4 μg/g dry weight in the particulate phase during March 2005-February 2006. The annual riverine flux of ΣLABs from the PRD to the coastal ocean was estimated at approximately 14 tons/yr. The inventories of ΣLABs in agricultural lands of Guangdong Province ranged from 313 to 1825 kg/yr. The early and late rice fields were the major sink of LABs, accounting for approximately 68% of total LABs inventory in agricultural lands. The social-economically estimated annual discharge of LABs from household detergents in the PRD was ∼696 tons/yr, more than an order of magnitude higher than that estimated from field measurements (about 14 tons/yr), which was attributed to several factors. - Occurrence of LABs in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) was examined

  12. Spatial distribution and mobility of organic carbon (POC and DOC) in a coastal Mediterranean environment (Saronikos Gulf, Greece) during 2007-2009 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Florou, Heleny

    2013-08-01

    Particulate (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important parameter for the pollution assessment of coastal marine systems, especially those affected by anthropogenic, domestic, and industrial activities. In the present paper, a similar marine system (Saronikos Gulf) located in the west-central Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was examined, in terms of the temporal and spatial distribution of organic carbon (POC and DOC), with respect to marine sources and pathways. POC was maximum in winter in the Saronikos Gulf, due to the bloom of phytoplankton, whereas in the Elefsis Bay (located in the north side of the Saronikos Gulf) in summer, since phytoplankton grazes in the Bay in the end of summer (except for winter). Approximately 60 % of the bulk DOC of the water column was estimated as non-refractory (labile and semi-labile), due to the major anthropogenic, domestic, and industrial effects of the region and the shallow depths. The spatial distribution of POC and DOC mainly affects the northeastern section of the Gulf, since that region has been accepted major organic discharges for a long time period, in connection to the relatively long renewal times of its waters.

  13. Sandy berm and beach-ridge formation in relation to extreme sea-levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Mette; Clemmensen, Lars B; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    The formation of berms and their transformation into beach ridges in a micro-tidal environment is coupled to wave run-up and overtopping during extreme sea levels. A straight-forward comparison between extreme sea levels due to storm-surges and active berm levels is impossible in the semi...... prograding spit on the south-eastern Baltic shores of Zealand, Denmark. The modern, sandy beach at this location consists of a beachface with a shallow incipient berm, a mature berm, and a dune-covered beach ridge. It borders a beach-ridge plain to the west, where more than 20 N–S oriented beach ridges...... and swales are present. Measured water-level data from 1991 to 2012 and topographical observations, carried out during fair weather period and during a storm event, provided the basis for a conceptual model exhibiting berm formation and transformation into the local beach-ridge system. The character...

  14. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, "Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate" provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...... such as deltas, estuaries and wetlands, where many large cities and industrial areas are located. Integrated risk assessment tools for considering the effects of climate change and related uncertainties. Presents latest insights on coastal engineering defenses. Provides integrated guidelines for setting up...

  15. Mobilization And Characterization Of Colloids Generated From Cement Leachates Moving Through A SRS Sandy Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  16. Preparation of Sandy Soil Stabilizer for Roads Based on Radiation Modified Polymer Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahas, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation modified polymer composite (RMPC) was studied to build an extremely durable sandy road, construct a trail or bath, or control dust and erosion. A dilute solution of composite binds sandy soil fines through a coagulation bonding process. The result is a dense soil structure that has superior resistance to cracks and water penetration and can also solve erosion control problems. In erosion control applications, diluted composite is merely sprayed into sandy soil without compaction, effectively sealing the surface to prevent air-born dust or deterioration from erosion. The prepared composite has an elastic and melt-able film formation that imparts thermal compacting to the stabilized sandy soil after full dryness for sandy road leveling, repairing and restoration processes. The prepared composite is environmentally economical when compared with traditional sandy soil stabilizing (SSS) or sealing methods.

  17. Using science to strengthen our Nation's resilience to tomorrow's challenges: understanding and preparing for coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Dale L.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Dean, Teresa A.; Focazio, Michael J.; Fulton, John W.; Haines, John W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Young, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused unprecedented damage across some of the most densely populated coastal areas of the northeastern United States. The costly, landscape-altering destruction left in the wake of this storm is a stark reminder of our Nation’s need to become more resilient as we inevitably face future coastal hazards. As our Nation recovers from this devastating natural disaster, it is clear that accurate scientific information is essential as we seek to identify and develop strategies to address trends in coastal landscape change and reduce our future vulnerability to major storm events. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received $43.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to conduct the scientific research needed to guide response, recovery, and rebuilding activities and to develop effective strategies for protecting coastal communities and resources in the future. This fact sheet describes how the USGS is combining interdisciplinary science with state-of-the-art technologies to achieve a comprehensive understanding of coastal change caused by Hurricane Sandy. By assessing coastal change impacts through research and by developing tools that enhance our science capabilities, support coastal stakeholders, and facilitate effective decision making, we continue to build a greater understanding of the processes at work across our Nation’s complex coastal environment—from wetlands, estuaries, barrier islands, and nearshore marine areas to infrastructure and human communities. This improved understanding will increase our resilience as we prepare for future short-term, extreme events as well as long-term coastal change.

  18. A 700 year record of combustion-derived pollution in northern Spain: Tools to identify the Holocene/Anthropocene transition in coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leorri, Eduardo; Mitra, Siddhartha; Irabien, María Jesús; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Blake, William H.; Cearreta, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    There is an uneven geographical distribution of historic records of atmospheric pollutants from SW Europe and those that exist are very limited in temporal extent. Alternative data source is required to understand temporal trends in human impacts on atmospheric pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metal content and stable Pb isotopic ratios in a sediment core from a salt marsh in northern Spain were used to reconstruct the regional history of contaminant inputs over the last 700 years. Pre-1800s concentrations of Pb and PAHs represented baseline concentrations, i.e. pre-Industrial, conditions. During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution, 1800s to 1860s, PAH concentrations increased by a factor of about two above baseline levels in the sediment column. By the 1930s, PAH levels reached ca. 10 times pre-Industrial levels and, along with Pb, reached a peak at ca. 1975 CE. Since then, sedimentary PAH and Pb concentrations decreased significantly. A combination of PAH isomer and Pb stable isotope ratios suggests that the contaminant sources are regional, likely derived partially from wood, but mainly coal used by the metallurgic industry in the Basque country since the 1800s and until the 1970s when leaded petrol saw increased use. This chronology of regional atmosphere-derived pollution expands current southwest Europe emission records and shows coastal salt marsh sediments to be useful in reconstructing the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Historic records of atmospheric pollutant emissions in SW Europe are needed. • PAH and Pb concentrations and ratios from a north Spain salt marsh core were used. • Atmosphere emissions mainly from regional coal burning increased in the early 1800s. • Emissions associated with leaded gasoline peaked in 1975 CE. • The results suggest 1800 CE as the Holocene/Anthropocene transition

  19. Performance and specificity of the covalently linked immunomagnetic separation-ATP method for rapid detection and enumeration of enterococci in coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Ferguson, Donna; Jay, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    The performance and specificity of the covalently linked immunomagnetic separation-ATP (Cov-IMS/ATP) method for the detection and enumeration of enterococci was evaluated in recreational waters. Cov-IMS/ATP performance was compared with standard methods: defined substrate technology (Enterolert; IDEXX Laboratories), membrane filtration (EPA Method 1600), and an Enterococcus-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (EPA Method A). We extend previous studies by (i) analyzing the stability of the relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and culture-based methods at different field sites, (ii) evaluating specificity of the assay for seven ATCC Enterococcus species, (iii) identifying cross-reacting organisms binding the antibody-bead complexes with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluating specificity of the assay to five nonenterococcus species, and (iv) conducting preliminary tests of preabsorption as a means of improving the assay. Cov-IMS/ATP was found to perform consistently and with strong agreement rates (based on exceedance/compliance with regulatory limits) of between 83% and 100% compared to the culture-based Enterolert method at a variety of sites with complex inputs. The Cov-IMS/ATP method is specific to five of seven different Enterococcus spp. tested. However, there is potential for nontarget bacteria to bind the antibody, which may be reduced by purification of the IgG serum with preabsorption at problematic sites. The findings of this study help to validate the Cov-IMS/ATP method, suggesting a predictable relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and traditional culture-based methods, which will allow for more widespread application of this rapid and field-portable method for coastal water quality assessment.

  20. Development of a solid-phase microextraction-based method for sampling of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in an urbanized coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Eddy Y; Tsukada, David; Diehl, Dario W

    2004-11-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been used as an in situ sampling technique for a wide range of volatile organic chemicals, but SPME field sampling of nonvolatile organic pollutants has not been reported. This paper describes the development of an SPME-based sampling method employing a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated (100-microm thickness) fiber as the sorbent phase. The laboratory-calibrated PDMS-coated fibers were used to construct SPME samplers, and field tests were conducted at three coastal locations off southern California to determine the equilibrium sampling time and compare the efficacy of the SPME samplers with that of an Infiltrex 100 water pumping system (Axys Environmental Systems Ltd., Sidney, British Columbia, Canada). p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE were the components consistently detected in the SPME samples among 42 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and 17 chlorinated pesticidestargeted. SPME samplers deployed attwo locations with moderate and high levels of contamination for 18 and 30 d, respectively, attained statistically identical concentrations of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE. In addition, SPME samplers deployed for 23 and 43 d, respectively, at a location of low contamination also contained statistically identical concentrations of p,p'-DDE. These results indicate that equilibrium could be reached within 18 to 23 d. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, or p,p'-DDD obtained with the SPME samplers and the Infiltrex 100 system were virtually identical. In particular, two water column concentration profiles of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE acquired by the SPME samplers at a highly contaminated site on the Palos Verdes Shelf overlapped with the profiles obtained by the Infiltrex 100 system in 1997. The field tests not only reveal the advantages of the SPME samplers compared to the Infiltrex 100 system and other integrative passive devices but also indicate the need to improve the sensitivity of the SPME-based sampling technique.

  1. A 700 year record of combustion-derived pollution in northern Spain: Tools to identify the Holocene/Anthropocene transition in coastal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leorri, Eduardo, E-mail: leorrie@ecu.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, East Carolina University, Graham Building 103B, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Mitra, Siddhartha, E-mail: mitras@ecu.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, East Carolina University, Graham Building 103B, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Irabien, María Jesús, E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Zimmerman, Andrew R., E-mail: azimmer@ufl.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, P.O. Box 112120, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Blake, William H., E-mail: william.blake@plymouth.ac.uk [Consolidated Radioisotope Facility, University of Plymouth, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Cearreta, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.cearreta@ehu.es [Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    There is an uneven geographical distribution of historic records of atmospheric pollutants from SW Europe and those that exist are very limited in temporal extent. Alternative data source is required to understand temporal trends in human impacts on atmospheric pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metal content and stable Pb isotopic ratios in a sediment core from a salt marsh in northern Spain were used to reconstruct the regional history of contaminant inputs over the last 700 years. Pre-1800s concentrations of Pb and PAHs represented baseline concentrations, i.e. pre-Industrial, conditions. During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution, 1800s to 1860s, PAH concentrations increased by a factor of about two above baseline levels in the sediment column. By the 1930s, PAH levels reached ca. 10 times pre-Industrial levels and, along with Pb, reached a peak at ca. 1975 CE. Since then, sedimentary PAH and Pb concentrations decreased significantly. A combination of PAH isomer and Pb stable isotope ratios suggests that the contaminant sources are regional, likely derived partially from wood, but mainly coal used by the metallurgic industry in the Basque country since the 1800s and until the 1970s when leaded petrol saw increased use. This chronology of regional atmosphere-derived pollution expands current southwest Europe emission records and shows coastal salt marsh sediments to be useful in reconstructing the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Historic records of atmospheric pollutant emissions in SW Europe are needed. • PAH and Pb concentrations and ratios from a north Spain salt marsh core were used. • Atmosphere emissions mainly from regional coal burning increased in the early 1800s. • Emissions associated with leaded gasoline peaked in 1975 CE. • The results suggest 1800 CE as the Holocene/Anthropocene transition.

  2. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E McNamara

    Full Text Available Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  3. Climate Adaptation and Policy-Induced Inflation of Coastal Property Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E.; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D.; Murray, A. Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities. PMID:25806944

  4. Climate adaptation and policy-induced inflation of coastal property value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Dylan E; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Smith, Martin D; Murray, A Brad

    2015-01-01

    Human population density in the coastal zone and potential impacts of climate change underscore a growing conflict between coastal development and an encroaching shoreline. Rising sea-levels and increased storminess threaten to accelerate coastal erosion, while growing demand for coastal real estate encourages more spending to hold back the sea in spite of the shrinking federal budget for beach nourishment. As climatic drivers and federal policies for beach nourishment change, the evolution of coastline mitigation and property values is uncertain. We develop an empirically grounded, stochastic dynamic model coupling coastal property markets and shoreline evolution, including beach nourishment, and show that a large share of coastal property value reflects capitalized erosion control. The model is parameterized for coastal properties and physical forcing in North Carolina, U.S.A. and we conduct sensitivity analyses using property values spanning a wide range of sandy coastlines along the U.S. East Coast. The model shows that a sudden removal of federal nourishment subsidies, as has been proposed, could trigger a dramatic downward adjustment in coastal real estate, analogous to the bursting of a bubble. We find that the policy-induced inflation of property value grows with increased erosion from sea level rise or increased storminess, but the effect of background erosion is larger due to human behavioral feedbacks. Our results suggest that if nourishment is not a long-run strategy to manage eroding coastlines, a gradual removal is more likely to smooth the transition to more climate-resilient coastal communities.

  5. Morphodynamic Impacts of Hurricane Sandy on the Inner-shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; DuVal, C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Through the careful execution of precision high-resolution acoustic sonar surveys over the period of October 2012 through July 2013, we have obtained a unique set of high-resolution before and after storm measurements of seabed morphology and in situ hydrodynamic conditions (waves and currents) capturing the impact of the storm at an inner continental shelf field site known as the 'Redbird reef' (Raineault et al., 2013). Understanding the signature of this storm event is important for identifying the impacts of such events and for understanding the role that such events have in the transport of sediment and marine debris on the inner continental shelf. In order to understand and characterize the ripple dynamics and scour processes in an energetic, heterogeneous inner-shelf setting, a series of high-resolution geoacoustic surveys were conducted before and after Hurricane Sandy. Our overall goal is to improve our understanding of bedform dynamics and spatio-temporal length scales and defect densities through the application of a recently developed fingerprint algorithm technique (Skarke and Trembanis, 2011). Utilizing high-resolution swath sonar collected by an AUV and from surface vessel multibeam sonar, our study focuses both on bedforms in the vicinity of manmade seabed objects (e.g. shipwrecks and subway cars) and dynamic natural ripples on the inner-shelf in energetic coastal settings with application to critical military operations such as mine countermeasures. Seafloor mapping surveys were conducted both with a ship-mounted multibeam echosounder (200 kHz and 400 kHz) and an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) configured with high-resolution side-scan sonar (900 and 1800 kHz) and a phase measuring bathymetric sonar (500 kHz). These geoacoustic surveys were further augmented with data collected by in situ instruments placed on the seabed that recorded measurements of waves and currents at the site before, during, and after the storm. Multibeam echosounder map of

  6. Metrics to assess ecological condition, change, and impacts in sandy beach ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Jones, Alan R; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Defeo, Omar; Peterson, Charles H; Weston, Michael A; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D; Scapini, Felicita; Nel, Ronel; Harris, Linda R; Lucrezi, Serena; Lastra, Mariano; Huijbers, Chantal M; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-11-01

    Complexity is increasingly the hallmark in environmental management practices of sandy shorelines. This arises primarily from meeting growing public demands (e.g., real estate, recreation) whilst reconciling economic demands with expectations of coastal users who have modern conservation ethics. Ideally, shoreline management is underpinned by empirical data, but selecting ecologically-meaningful metrics to accurately measure the condition of systems, and the ecological effects of human activities, is a complex task. Here we construct a framework for metric selection, considering six categories of issues that authorities commonly address: erosion; habitat loss; recreation; fishing; pollution (litter and chemical contaminants); and wildlife conservation. Possible metrics were scored in terms of their ability to reflect environmental change, and against criteria that are widely used for judging the performance of ecological indicators (i.e., sensitivity, practicability, costs, and public appeal). From this analysis, four types of broadly applicable metrics that also performed very well against the indicator criteria emerged: 1.) traits of bird populations and assemblages (e.g., abundance, diversity, distributions, habitat use); 2.) breeding/reproductive performance sensu lato (especially relevant for birds and turtles nesting on beaches and in dunes, but equally applicable to invertebrates and plants); 3.) population parameters and distributions of vertebrates associated primarily with dunes and the supralittoral beach zone (traditionally focused on birds and turtles, but expandable to mammals); 4.) compound measurements of the abundance/cover/biomass of biota (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates) at both the population and assemblage level. Local constraints (i.e., the absence of birds in highly degraded urban settings or lack of dunes on bluff-backed beaches) and particular issues may require alternatives. Metrics - if selected and applied correctly - provide

  7. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  8. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  9. Constraining Depositional Slope From Sedimentary Structures in Sandy Braided Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynds, R. M.; Mohrig, D.; Heller, P. L.

    2003-12-01

    Determination of paleoslopes in ancient fluvial systems has potentially broad application to quantitatively constraining the history of tectonics and paleoclimate in continental sequences. Our method for calculating paleoslopes for sandy braided streams is based upon a simple physical model that establishes depositional skin-frictional shear stresses from assemblages of sedimentary structures and their associated grain size distributions. The addition of a skin-frictional shear stress, with a geometrically determined form-drag shear stress results in a total boundary shear stress which is directly related to water-surface slope averaged over an appropriate spatial scale. In order to apply this model to ancient fluvial systems, it is necessary to measure the following: coarsest suspended sediment size, finest grain size carried in bed load, flow depth, dune height, and dune length. In the rock record, suspended load and bed load can be accurately assessed by well-preserved suspended load deposits ("low-energy" ripples) and bed load deposits (dune foresets). This model predicts an average slope for the North Loup River near Taylor, Nebraska (modern case study) of 2.7 x 10-3. The measured reach-averaged water surface slope for the same reach of the river is 1.37 x 10-3. We suggest that it is possible to calculate the depositional slope of a sandy fluvial system by a factor of approximately two. Additionally, preliminary application of this model to the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation throughout the Colorado Plateau provides a promising and consistent evaluation of paleoslope in an ancient and well-preserved, sandy braided stream deposit.

  10. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  11. The River Mondego terraces at the Figueira da Foz coastal area (western central Portugal): Geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of a terrace staircase affected by differential uplift and glacio-eustasy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Anabela M.; Cunha, Pedro P.; Cunha, Lúcio. S.

    2012-01-01

    A geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of the River Mondego terraces in the Figueira da Foz coastal area, Portugal, is presented. The relief is dominated by a Pliocene a marine sandy unit ~ 10–15 m thick, reaching ~ 250 m a.s.l., that covers a shore platform surface. The River...... of terrace genesis in this coastal area should be dominated by glacio-eustasy whereby episodic valley incision would have been determined by periods of very low sea-level, probably at ~ 460–410 ka (T3/T4; MIS12), ~ 200–125 ka (T4/T5; MIS6) and 100–14 ka (T5/Recent alluvial infill; late MIS5, MIS4, MIS3......-gravels and silts, but also some colluvium at the top of each terrace. The younger terraces (T3, T4 and T5) show better developed sedimentary structures and less sedimentary matrix; the sedimentary features are indicative of both fluvial and coastal environments (estuary and beach, as nowadays). Under conditions...