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Sample records for sandy calcareous soil

  1. Organic matter dynamics in coarse sandy calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Reuler, van H.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in coarse sandy calcareous soils (beach sand) is thought to be much higher than in acid fine sandy soils but relatively little research is performed on these soils. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the release of soil carbon (C) is determined may overest

  2. Recharge in northern clime calcareous sandy soils: soil water chemical and carbon-14 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, E. J.; Mozeto, A. A.; Fritz, P.

    1980-11-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on soil water extracted from two cores taken from a sandy calcareous soil near Delhi, Ontario. Calcite saturation is attained within the unsaturated zone over short distances and short periods of time, whereas dolomite undersaturation persists to the groundwater table. The progressive dissolution of dolomite by soil water, within the unsaturated zone, after calcite saturation is reached results in calcite supersaturation. Deposition of iron and manganese oxyhydroxide phases occurs at the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary. This is a result of soil water neutralization due to carbonate dissolution during infiltration but may also reflect the increased rate of oxidation of dissolved ferrous and manganous ions at higher pH's. The role of bacteria in this process has not been investigated. The depth of the carbonate leached/unleached zone boundary in a calcareous soil has important implications for 14C groundwater dating. The depth of this interface at the study site (-2 m) does not appear to limit 14C diffusion from the root zone to the depth at which carbonate dissolution occurs. Thus, soil water achieves open system isotopic equilibrium with the soil CO 2 gas phase. It is calculated that in soils with similar physical properties to the study soil but with depths of leaching of 5 m or more, complete 14C isotopic equilibration of soil water with soil gas would not occur. Soil water, under these conditions would recharge to the groundwater exhibiting some degree of closed system 14C isotopic evolution.

  3. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system.

  4. Bio-chemical properties of sandy calcareous soil treated with rice straw-based hydrogels

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    Houssni El-Saied

    2016-06-01

    The results obtained show that, application of the investigated hydrogels positively affects bio-chemical properties of the soil. These effects are assembled in the following: (a slightly decreasing soil pH, (b increasing cation exchange capacity (CEC of the soil indicating improvement in activating chemical reactions in the soil, (c increasing organic matter (OM, organic carbon, total nitrogen percent in the soil. Because the increase in organic nitrogen surpassed that in organic carbon, a narrower CN ratio of treated soils was obtained. This indicated the mineralization of nitrogen compounds and hence the possibility to save and provide available forms of N to growing plants, (d increasing available N, P and K in treated soil, and (e improving biological activity of the soil expressed as total count of bacteria and counts of Azotobacter sp., phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB, fungi and actinomycetes/g soil as well as the activity of both dehydrogenase and phosphatase.

  5. Evidence For Different Reaction Pathways For Liquid And Granular Micronutrients In A Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of Mn and Zn fluid fertilizers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. We hypothesized that the differences in the effectiveness between granular and fluid Mn and Zn fertilizers is due to different Mn ...

  6. Evidence For Different Reaction Pathways For Liquid And Granular Micronutrients In A Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of Mn and Zn fluid fertilizers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. We hypothesized that the differences in the effectiveness between granular and fluid Mn and Zn fertilizers is due to different Mn ...

  7. Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

  8. Hardwood biochar influences calcareous soil physicochemical and microbiological status

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of biochar application to calcareous soils are not well documented. In a laboratory incubation study, a hardwood-based, fast pyrolysis biochar was applied (0, 1, 2, and 10% by weight) to a calcareous soil. Changes in soil chemistry, water content, microbial respiration, and microbial com...

  9. Boron and Zinc Transport Through Intact Columns of Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. MAHMOOD-UL-HASSAN; M. S. AKHTAR; G. NABI

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) can be significant in some pedomorphic conditions, which can cause contamination of shallow groundwater and economic losses. Boron and Zn adsorption and transport was studied using 8.4 cm diameter ×28 cm long intact columns from two calcareous soil series with differing clay contents and vadose zone structures:Lyallpur soil series, clay loam (fine-silty, mixed, hyperthermic Ustalfic Haplargid), and Sultanpur soil series, sandy loam (coarse-silty, mixed, hyperthermic Ustollic Camborthid). The adsorption isotherms were developed by equilibrating soil with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 aqueous solution containing varying amounts of B and Zn and were fitted to the Langmuir equation. The B and Zn breakthrough curves were fitted to the two-domain convective-dispersive equation. At the end of the leaching experiment, 0.11 L 10 g L-1 blue dye solution was also applied to each column to mark the flow paths.The Lyallpur soil columns had a slightly greater adsorption partition coefficient both for B and Zn than the Sultanpur soil columns. In the Lyallpur soil columns, B arrival was immediate but the peak concentration ratio (the concentration in solution at equilibrium/concentration applied) was lower than that in the Sultanpur soil columns. The breakthrough of B in the Sultanpur soil columns occurred after about 10 cm of cumulative drainage in both the columns; the rise in effluent concentration was fast and the peak concentration ratio was almost 1. Zinc leaching through the soil columns was very limited as only one column from the Lyallpur soil series showed Zn breakthrough in the effluent where the peak concentration ratio was only 0.05. This study demonstrates the effect of soil structure on B transport and has implications for the nutrient management in field soils.

  10. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  11. Mobile nickel content in calcareous black soils of Rajac

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    Đorđević Aleksandar R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of mobile Ni contents in various subtypes of calcareous black soils from the area of the mountain massif of Rajac, is given in the present paper. A hundred soil samples were analysed in all, originating from four subtypes of calcareous black soil (organogenic, organo-mineral, brownized and loessivized black soils. The extraction of mobile Ni was carried out with 1.0 N HCl and its content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The obtained results indicate that mobile Ni content in the investigated soils varies within a wide range, from 5.0 to 251.3 mg/kg that it is very seldom (only in 3% of the investigated samples within the range from 5 to 7 mg/kg, that in over 90% of the 100 investigated samples it is higher than 10 mg/kg, and in almost 3/5 of the samples it is higher than 20 mg/kg. Calcareous black soils of Rajac massif have much higher mobile Ni content than previously investigated black soils from calcareous massif of Rtanj, which is, by all means, only partly due to their more severe dealkalization and acidification. In addition, here is undoubtedly apparent the influence of the geological substrate, i.e. of serpentine rocks that border the calcareous massif of Rajac.

  12. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  13. Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

  14. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  15. Conservation of sandy calcareous grassland: what can be learned from the land use history?

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    Anja Madelen Ödman

    Full Text Available Understanding the land use history has proven crucial for the conservation of biodiversity in the agricultural landscape. In southern Sweden, very small and fragmented areas of the disturbance-dependent habitat xeric sand calcareous grassland support a large number of threatened and rare plants and animals. In order to find out if historical land use could explain variation in present-day habitat quality, the land use on eight such sites was traced back to the 18th century and compared with key factors such as the amount of bare sand, lime content and P availability. There was no support for the common explanation of the decline in xeric sand calcareous grassland being caused by abandonment of agricultural fields during the last century. Instead, fertilization history was the main explanation for the difference in depletion depth of CaCO3 seen between the sites. The decline in xeric sand calcareous grassland since the 18th century is most probably the result of the drastic changes in land use during the 19th century, which put an end to the extensive sand drift. Since cultivation was shown to have played an important role in the historical land use of xeric sand calcareous grassland, grazing alone may not be the optimal management option for these grasslands. Instead more drastic measures are needed to restore the high calcium content and maintain proper disturbance levels.

  16. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits...... in south-eastern Sweden covered by xeric sand calcareous grasslands (EU habitat directive 6120). Methods: Soil and vegetation were investigated in most of the xeric sand calcareous grasslands in the Scania region (136 sample plots distributed over four or five major areas and about 25 different sites...

  17. Silicomolybdenum Blue Colorimetric Determination of Available Si in Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUGUOHUA; ZHENGWENJUAN; 等

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of available Si content in calcareous soils with Mo blue colorimetric analysis method.The experimental results showed that two acid reagents of sodium acetate buffering solution (pH 4) and 0.025 mol/L citric acid generally had a strong ability of extracting soil available Si,and theri soil filtrates were colorless,On the contrary,two alkaline extractants of 20 mg/mL sodium carbonate and 0.5 mol/L sodium bicarbonate only got a relevantly lower soil avaiable Si and theri extracts appeared deep color of organic and other pigments,which could be decolorized by adding certain amounts of P-free activated charcoal (about 0.1g/g soil),Int the procedure of Mo blue colorimetry,adding proper amount of oxalic acid and K(SbO)C4H4O6 could eliminate the interference of P to Si and Si to P,respectively.The concentration of acids was not the major factor suppressing the interferences between P and Si in the colorimetric analysis.In the medium of 0.2-0.8mole H×+/L sulfuric acid,the intensity of the silicomolybdate blue color did not vary with acidity,no matter whether(NH4)2 Fe(SO4)2 or ascorbic acid was used as reductive reagent.About 10 minutes was needed to from a fully blue complex at 20-25°C,After 30 minutes,the blue color would slowly change into light one,and hence,the colorimetric process should be finished within a short time.

  18. The effect of elevated CO2 and N on decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous and non calcareous soils

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    S. Razavi Darbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of plant residue in soils is considered as an important agricultural practice for maintaining soil fertility in sustainable agricultural system. CO2 levels, nitrogen fertilization and plant residues are factors which highly affect decomposition of added organic matter to soil. In this research controlled chambers were used to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 vs. 760 CO2 ppm under two N fertilization levels (0 vs. 500 kg N ha-1 and two replicates on decomposition of wheat and alfalfa residues in two calcareous (32.66 % CaCO3 and non calcareous soils (3.4 % CaCO3 at 6 times (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 under laboratory condition. Soil moistures were adjusted at 70% of field capacity. The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased decomposition of residues in both calcareous and non calcareous soils. In the samples that received N fertilizer, decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues increased in both soils. From the obtained results, we concluded that in all treatments the amount of decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous soil were higher than non calcareous soils.

  19. Soil-water characteristics of sandy soil and soil cement with and without vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The use of soil cement as a growth medium was examined in this study. During the monitoring, green soil cement revealed diverse ecological values. The survival rates of plants in each soil conditions were higher than 80%,which was very promising. Furthermore, the survival rates dropped when the soil density reached95%, which means soil density might influence the survival rate of plant. Plant growth rates in sandy soil were higher than that in soil cement. In particular, low soil density faci...

  20. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

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    Kolesnikov S. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil. The study showed that the indicators used in the biological condition of the soil, could be recommended for use for diagnosis, monitoring, and regulation of chemical pollution of brown soil. According to the degree of resistance to chemical contamination, the brown soils of Russia form the following series: typical brown - brown carbonate - brown leached

  1. Screening of cellulose decomposing fungi in sandy dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoKun Wang; XueYong Zhao; XiaoAn Zuo; XinPing Liu; Hao Qu; Wei Mao; JianYing Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose decomposing fungi play an important role in litter decomposition and are decisive in nutrient cycling in sandy land ecosystems. Thirty-one strains were isolated to select efficient cellulose decomposers, and four efficient cellulose decomposing fungi (NM3-1, NM3-2, NM3-3, and NM3-4) were screened using a CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) carbon source in dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land. They were identified as Asperigillus calidoustus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Hypocrea lixii by rDNA-ITS molecular biological methods. Cloth decomposition rates were 15.71%, 15.89%, 17.29%, and 17.89%by the four efficient decomposers incubated for 30 days, respectively. Screening of efficient cellulose decomposers can not only increase the dune soil functional microbe bank, but can also accelerate litter decom-position and available nutrient input in the Horqin Sandy Land.

  2. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  3. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  4. The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. B.; Meixner, F. X.; Sun, Z. G.; Chen, X. B.; Mamtimin, B.

    2009-04-01

    There are about 160.9 Mha of sandy land in China, about 17.6% of total Chinese area, which mainly distributed in 35°-50° N. The western Songnen Plain, which located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern China, is one of the main sandy soil distribution regions. The changes of land use in sandy soil are accompanied by changes in biogeochemical cycles of nutrients, particularly of the air-surface exchange of trace gases like nitric oxide. Our study, based on results obtained by a laboratory incubation technique, focuses on (a) NO production and consumption in sandy soils from two types of land use as function of soil temperature and soil moisture, and (b) The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils in semi-arid region. At 25˚C, average NO production (in terms of mass of N) was 0.016,and 0.013 ng kg-1s-1 in sandy soils from soybean land (SL) and man-made forest (MF), re¬spectively. NO consumption rate constant ranged from 0.26×10-6 to 7.28×10-6 m3 kg-1s-1. At 25˚C and under optimum soil moisture conditions for NO production, the NO compensation point mixing ratio was about 266 and 161 ug m-3 (465,and 281 ppb) for soils of SL and MF, respectively. Statistically sound relationships have been observed between NO fluxes and soil moisture (optimum curves). NO fluxes also increased exponentially with soil temperature at any given soil moisture. The optimum soil moisture for which maximum NO flux was observed was independent of soil temperature. The maximum of NO flux potentials for SL and MF soils (at 25°C) were 59.6 and 36.5 ng m-2s-1 at water-filled pore space (%WFPS) of 26 and 24, respectively. The NO flux potential was about 2 times larger for cropland soil than for man-made forest soils, most likely due to fertilizer application to the cropland soils.

  5. Gravimetric Determination of Inorganic Carbon in Calcareous Soils Using the Carbonate-Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic carbon affects many important physical, chemical and microbiological soil properties. In calcareous soils, the inorganic carbon has to be measured and subtracted from the total carbon to obtain organic carbon. Our objective was to develop a gravimetric technique to quantify inorganic carbon ...

  6. A simple, gravimetric method to quantify inorganic carbon in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total carbon (TC) in calcareous soils has two components: inorganic carbon (IC) as calcite and or dolomite and organic carbon (OC) in the soil organic matter. The IC must be measured and subtracted from TC to obtain OC. Our objective was to develop a simple gravimetric technique to quantify IC. Th...

  7. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.

    1971-01-01

    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the LacustrinePlain, has highly calcareous clayey sedimen

  8. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  9. Estimation of the Biological Methods of Assessing Soil N-Supplying Capacity in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Fa-hui; LI Shi-qing; LU Hong-ling; LI Sheng-xiu

    2007-01-01

    Although many biological methods are used to determine soil nitrogen supplying capacity, there are certain differences in the results for different types of soils and various ways of measurement due to the complexity of soil N conformation, the high variance of soil and microorganism, and the difference of environment. Therefore, it is not clear about which biologic incubation method is better for calcareous soil. In this study, pot experiments were performed by using 25 different calcareous surface soil samples on the Loess Plateau and taking the N uptake of wheat and corn with leaching soil initial nitrate and without leaching in pot experiments as the control to investigate the difference of eight biological incubation methods for reflecting soil nitrogen supply capacity. The eight biological methods are waterlogged incubation, aerobic incubation for 2 weeks and for 4 weeks, dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation for 2 weeks, long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation (and N mineralization potential, N0), short-term leaching aerobic incubation, microbial biomass carbon (BC), and microbial biomass nitrogen (BN) method, respectively. Among these methods, the dry-wet alternation aerobic incubation and aerobic incubation for 4 weeks were the modification of the method of aerobic incubation for 2 weeks according to the actual farmland moisture. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between these methods and crop uptake N with leaching soil initial nitrate were 0.530, 0.700, 0.777, 0.768, 0.764 (and 0.790, N0), 0.650, 0.555, and 0.465, respectively (r0.05 = 0.369, r0.01 = 0.505). While without leaching soil initial nitrate, their coefficients were 0.351, 0.963, 0.962, 0.959, 0.825 (and 0.812, N0), 0.963, 0.289, and 0.095, respectively (r0.05=0.369, r0.01 =0.505). In conclusion,excluding the soil initial nitrate, the correlation coefficients between the eight methods and crop uptake N were, from high to low, N0, aerobic incubation for 4 weeks, dry

  10. Calcareous Sodic Soil Reclamation as Affected by Corn Stalk Application and Incubation:A Laboratory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fa-Hu; R.KEREN

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory lysimeter experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of forage corn (Zea mays L.) stalk application on the CO2 concentration in soil air and calcareous sodic soil reclamation.The experimental treatments tested were soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) levels of 1,11,and 19,added corn stalk contents of 0 to 36 g kg-1,and incubation durations of 30 and 60 days.The experimental results indicated that corn stalk application and incubation significantly increased CO2 partial pressure in soil profile and lowered pH value in soil solution,subsequently increased native CaCO3 mineral dissolution and electrolyte concentration of soil solution,and finally significantly contributed to reduction on soil sodicity level.The reclamation efficiency of calcareous sodic soils increased with the added corn stalk.When corn stalks were added at the rates of 22 and 34 g kg-1 into the soil with initial ESP of 19,its ESP value was decreased by 56% and 78%,respectively,after incubation of 60 days and the leaching of 6.5 pore volumes (about 48 L of percolation water) with distilled water.Therefore,crop stalk application and incubation could be used as a choice to reclaim moderate calcareous sodic soils or as a supplement of phytoremediation to improve reclamation efficiency.

  11. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  12. Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... applying sulphur at different rates of 10, 15 and 20% and inoculated with ... of measured parameters were obtained from biofertilizers with ... growth in calcareous and alkali soils is the use of acidify- .... Values followed by different letters are different (P = 0.05), using the .... Jones J, Wolf B, Mills HA (1991).

  13. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  14. Measured and Estimated Volatilisation of Naphthalene from a Sandy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of naphthalene from an artificially contaminated sandy soil at different water contents were measured in the laboratory, at 10°C. The soil contained 1.1% of organic carbon and the water content varied between 2.8 and 14% w/w. The diffusive flux of naphthalene from the ...... the fluxes by a factor of 1.5 to 6.4. The largest deviation between predicted and observed dynamic fluxes was found at high water contents. For the cover soil, half-life times of 1 to 2 days were estimated by the model for naphthalene degradation....

  15. Changes in soil CO2 efflux of organic calcaric soils due to disturbance by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Katzensteiner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Disturbances such as windthrow or insect infestations are supposed to have a significant influence on the soil carbon balance of affected forests. Increasing soil temperatures and changes in the soil moisture regime, caused by the removed tree layer, are expected to change soil CO2 efflux, also known as soil respiration. Beside an anticipated stimulation of the carbon mineralization, the main part of root allocated CO2 is offset due to the blown down trees. On mountain forest sites of the Northern Limestone Alps, where highly active organic soils above calcareous parent material are characteristic (Folic Histosols and Rendzic Leptosols), an increase of the mineralization rate of carbon may contribute to enormous humus losses. Serious site degradation can be the consequence, especially on south exposed slopes where extreme climatic conditions occur. The present study tries to give insights to disturbance induced changes in temporal and spatial behaviour of soil respiration for a montane mountain forest located in the Northern Limestone Alps of Upper Austria. Soil respiration, soil temperature and volumetric water content were measured on two windthrow areas (blow down dates were 2007 and 2009 respectively) as well as in an adjacent mature mixed forest during the vegetation periods of 2010 and 2011. Soil respiration in both years was mainly driven by soil temperature, which explained up to 90 % of the concerning temporal variation. Volumetric water content had a significant influence as additional temporal driver. After removing the temperature trend, significant differences in basal soil respiration rates were found for the disturbance area and the forest stand. Inter seasonal declines in soil respiration were ascertained for the mature stand as well as for the recent windthrow. Particular decreases are related to drought stress in summer 2011 and a proceeded decomposition of labile soil carbon components at the windthrow site. An interaction between soil type and

  16. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Y.; Cejas, C. M.; Barrois, R.; Dreyfus, R.; Durian, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and...

  17. Micronutrient Availability in Relation to Selected Soil Properties and landscape Position in Calcareous Soils of Golpayegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variety of soil reactions govern the distribution of metal micronutrients that includes complexation with organic and inorganic ligands, ion exchange, adsorption and desorption processes, precipitation and dissolution of solids and acid-based equilibria. The relative importance of these reactions depends on many factors such as soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and the nature of metal ions. Environmental factors such as climate, physiographic position, and soil development may affect variability of some soil properties and thereby nutrient availability. The present research was conducted to find relationships between Iron, manganese, zinc, and copper availability and some major soil properties, physiographic condition and soil development. Materials and Methods: Golpayegan region is located in northwest of Isfahan province in central Iran. The mean elevation of the studied area is 1790 above sea level. Annual precipitation was about 244mm and mean monthly temperature ranges from -6 in January to 34°C in August. The soils were developed on different physiographic conditions including piedmont plains, alluvial-fan, plateaus, and flood plains belonging to Entisols and Aridisols. Soil samples (0–60 cm were collected from 98 grid points with 2000m distance in the agricultural area of Golpayegan. Particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, available potassium and phosphorus of the soils were measured by SWRI standard methods. Available Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were determined by addition of 10 g soil to 20mL 0.005M diethylentriaminepentacetic‏. The solutions were shaken for 2 h at 25°C, centrifuged, filtered, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Discussion: Studied soils were developed on calcareous material and about 60% of samples have more than 20% of calcium carbonate. Available Fe ranged from 1.4 to 6.5 mg kg-1 (mean 15.8 mg kg-1

  18. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile.

  19. EDTA and HCl leaching of calcareous and acidic soils polluted with potentially toxic metals: remediation efficiency and soil impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2012-07-01

    The environmental risk of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in soil can be diminished by their removal. Among the available remediation techniques, soil leaching with various solutions is one of the most effective but data about the impact on soil chemical and biological properties are still scarce. We studied the effect of two common leaching agents, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a chelating agent (EDTA) on Pb, Zn, Cd removal and accessibility and on physico-chemical and biological properties in one calcareous, pH neutral soil and one non-calcareous acidic soil. EDTA was a more efficient leachant compared to HCl: up to 133-times lower chelant concentration was needed for the same percentage (35%) of Pb removal. EDTA and HCl concentrations with similar PTM removal efficiency decreased PTM accessibility in both soils but had different impacts on soil properties. As expected, HCl significantly dissolved carbonates from calcareous soil, while EDTA leaching increased the pH of the acidic soil. Enzyme activity assays showed that leaching with HCl had a distinctly negative impact on soil microbial and enzyme activity, while leaching with EDTA had less impact. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the ecological impact of remediation processes on soil in addition to the capacity for PTM removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Julie K. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Copenhagen Recycling Center, Selinevej 2, DK-2300 Kobenhavn S (Denmark)], E-mail: jje@life.ku.dk; Holm, Peter E. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Nejrup, Jens [Copenhagen Recycling Center, Selinevej 2, DK-2300 Kobenhavn S (Denmark); Larsen, Morten B. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Borggaard, Ole K. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2009-03-15

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber uptakes. Despite high concentrations of cadmium ({>=}80 mg/kg) and zinc ({>=}3000 mg/kg) in leaves of willow grown on strongly polluted soil with up to 18 mg Cd/kg, 1400 mg Cu/kg, 500 mg Pb/kg and 3300 mg Zn/kg, it is unsuited on strongly polluted soils because of poor growth. However, willow proved promising on moderately polluted soils (2.5 mg Cd/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg), where it extracted 0.13% of total Cd and 0.29% of the total Zn per year probably representing the most mobile fraction. Cu and Pb are strongly fixed in calcareous soils. - Willow is suited for remediation of moderately heavy metal polluted calcareous soils.

  1. Uptake of 137Cs by Leafy Vegetables and Grains from Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C; Kehl, S

    2004-04-19

    Cesium-137 was deposited on Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll in 1954 as a result of nuclear testing and has been transported and cycled in the ecosystem ever since. Atoll soils are of marine origin and are almost pure CaCO{sub 3} with high concentrations of organic matter in the top 40 cm. Data from previous experiments with mature fruit trees show very high transfer factors (TF's), [Bq g{sup -1} plant/ Bq g{sup -1} soil, both in dry weight] into fruits from atoll calcareous soil. These TF's are much higher than reported for continental, silica-based soils. In this report TF's for 5 types of leafy vegetable crops and 2 types of grain crops are provided for use in predictive dose assessments and for comparison with other data from other investigators working with other types of soil in the IAEA CRP ''The Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors of Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants''. Transfer factors for plants grown on calcareous soil are again very high relative to clay-containing soils and range from 23 to 39 for grain crops and 21 to 113 for leafy vegetables. Results from these experiments, in this unique, high pH, high organic content, low potassium (K) soil, provide a boundary condition for models relating soil properties to TF.

  2. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałachowski Lech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  3. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  4. Improving the relationship between soil characteristics and metal bioavailability by using reactive fractions of soil parameters in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; van Oort, Folkert; González, Concepción; Quintana, José R; Lafuente, Antonio L; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the nature instead of the total content of soil parameters relevant to metal bioavailability in lettuce was tested using a series of low-polluted Mediterranean agricultural calcareous soils offering natural gradients in the content and composition of carbonate, organic, and oxide fractions. Two datasets were compared by canonical ordination based on redundancy analysis: total concentrations (TC dataset) of main soil parameters (constituents, phases, or elements) involved in metal retention and bioavailability; and chemically defined reactive fractions of these parameters (RF dataset). The metal bioavailability patterns were satisfactorily explained only when the RF dataset was used, and the results showed that the proportion of crystalline Fe oxides, dissolved organic C, diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cu and Zn, and a labile organic pool accounted for 76% of the variance. In addition, 2 multipollution scenarios by metal spiking were tested that showed better relationships with the RF dataset than with the TC dataset (up to 17% more) and new reactive fractions involved. For Mediterranean calcareous soils, the use of reactive pools of soil parameters rather than their total contents improved the relationships between soil constituents and metal bioavailability. Such pool determinations should be systematically included in studies dealing with bioavailability or risk assessment.

  5. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE SANDY LOAM ON SULFURIC SOIL ACIDITY AND SULFIDIC SOIL OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Michael

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  In poor soils, addition of alkaline sandy loam containing an adequate proportion of sand, silt and clay would add value by improving the texture, structure and organic matter (OM for general use of the soils. In acid sulfate soils (ASS, addition of alkaline sandy would improve the texture and leach out salts as well as add a sufficient proportion of OM for vegetation establishment. In this study, addition of alkaline sandy loam into sulfuric soil effectively increased the pH, lowered the redox and reduced the sulfate content, the magnitude of the effects dependent on moisture content. Addition of alkaline sandy loam in combination with OM was highly effective than the effects of the lone alkaline sandy loam. When alkaline sandy was added alone or in combination with OM into sulfidic soil, the effects on pH and the redox were similar as in the sulfuric soil but the effect on sulfate content was variable. The effects under aerobic conditions were higher than under anaerobic conditions. The findings of this study have important implications for the general management of ASS where lime availability is a concern and its application is limited.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 42-54

  6. Trends in soil organic matter contents in Dutch grasslands and maize fields on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Hoffland, E.; Kuikman, P.J.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable concern in Europe that soil organic matter (SOM) contents are declining, which would threaten both agriculture and the environment. We performed a trend analysis of SOM contents in sandy soils, using historic data from routine agricultural soil analyses. Data were selected from

  7. XAS study of lead speciation in a central Italy calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaschi, Tatiana; Meneghini, Carlo; Businelli, Daniela; Mobilio, Settimio; Businelli, Mario

    2011-05-01

    The Pb absorption processes on a heavy textured calcareous soil, typical of central Italy, were studied using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in order to probe, at molecular scale, the structure and chemical nature of Pb in contaminated soils and achieve precise description of Pb ions localization into these contaminated soils. In order to distinguish the role of the different components of soils in Pb retention, samples were prepared from the original soils removing the carbonate fractions, the organic matter, the metal oxides, or selecting the clay fractions. Then these samples were fortified with Pb simulating the natural interactions processes of heavy metal solutions with soils. The quantitative analysis of near edge (XANES) as well extended (EXAFS) regions of Pb L(III) edge absorption spectra, in comparison with Pb XAS data of selected reference compounds, allowed the precise determination of local structure and chemical environment of Pb ions in these soil samples. Four components were individuated as the major responsible of Pb retention in calcareous soils: the carbonates, the metal oxide surfaces, the organic matter, and the colloidal inorganic surfaces containing clay components. The structural analysis suggests that, within these experimental conditions, the Pb adsorbed on the soil is generally present as Pb hydroxide with poor crystallization degree. However, the presence of carbonates (CaCO3) induces the co-precipitation of PbCO3-like phases with some degree of crystallinity.

  8. Effects of drought on cadmium accumulation in peanuts grown in a contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shenglan; Wang, Xvming; Su, Genqiang; Shi, Gangrong

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of drought stress on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in contaminated calcareous soils. Five peanut cultivars were grown in a calcareous soil spiked with 4 mg Cd kg(-1) soil (dry weight) under well-watered, mild drought, and severe drought conditions. The biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation in plant tissues were determined. The five cultivars significantly differed from each other in biomass production, gas exchange, spectral reflectance, and Cd accumulation. The effect of drought on Cd accumulation in peanuts varies with plant tissues, cultivars, and developmental stages. Drought decreased root Cd concentrations in seedlings of the two high Cd-accumulating cultivars (Haihua 1 and Zhenghong 3), which is associated with increasing leaf active Fe content. However, for the mature plants, drought stress caused an increase in Cd accumulation in roots, pod walls, and seeds depending on peanut cultivars. Negative correlations were found between seed Cd concentration and biomasses in both preflowering seedlings and mature plants. The seed Cd concentration in mature plants was also observed to be positively correlated with the shoot Cd concentration in preflowering seedlings. The increased Cd concentration in seeds of drought-stressed peanut plants grown in Cd-contaminated calcareous soils might be attributed to the drought-induced decrease of biomass production.

  9. Crop Yield and Soil Properties in the First 3 Years After Biochar Application to a Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Feng; LI Gui-tong; LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear whether biochar applications to calcareous soils can improve soil fertility and crop yield. A long-term ifeld experiment was established in 2009 so as to determine the effect of biochar on crop yield and soil properties in a calcareous soil. Five treatments were: 1) straw incorporation; 2) straw incorporation with inorganic fertilizer; 3), 4) and 5) straw incorporation with inorganic fertilizer, and biochar at 30, 60, and 90 t ha-1, respectively. The annual yield of either winter wheat or summer maize was not increased signiifcantly following biochar application, whereas the cumulative yield over the ifrst 4 growing seasons was signiifcantly increased. Soil pH, measured in situ, was increased by a maximum of 0.35 units after 2 yr following biochar application. After 3 yr, soil bulk density signiifcantly decreased while soil water holding capacity increased with adding biochar of 90 t ha-1. Alkaline hydrolysable N decreased but exchangeable K increased due to biochar addition. Olsen-P did not change compared to the treatment without biochar. The results suggested that biochar could be used in calcareous soils without yield loss or signiifcant impacts on nutrient availability.

  10. Wheat-Exuded Organic Acids Influence Zinc Release from Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. A. MAQSOOD; S. HUSSAIN; T. AZIZ; M. ASHRAF

    2011-01-01

    Rhizosphere drives plant uptake of sparingly soluble soil zinc (Zn).An investigation with three experiments was conducted to study organic acid exudation by two contrasting wheat genotypes (Sehar-06 and Vatan),Zn fractious in 10 different calcareous soils from Punjab,Pakistan,and release of different soil Zn fractions by organic acids.The two genotypes differed significantly in biomass production and Zn accumulation under deficient and optimum Zn levels in nutrient solution.At a deficient Zn level,Sehar-06 released more maleic acid in the rhizosphere than Vatan.Ten soils used in the present study had very different physicochemical properties; their total Zn and Zn distribution among different fractions varied significantly.Zinc release behaviour was determined by extracting the soils with 0.005 mol L-1 citric acid or maleic acid.The parabolic diffusion model best described Zn release as a function of time.Parabolic diffusion model fitting indicated more maleic acid-driven than citric acid-driven soil Zn mobility from different fractions.Cumulative Zn release in six consecutive extractions during 24 h ranged from 1.85 to 13.58 mg kg-1 using maleic acid and from 0.37 to 11.84 mg kg-1 using citric acid.In the selected calcareous soils,the results of stepwise linear regression indicated significant release of Fe-Mn oxide-bounded soil Zn by maleic acid and its availability to the Zn-efficient genotype.Hence,release of maleic acid by plants roots played an important role in phytoavailability of Zn from calcareous soils.

  11. Contribution of Iron Phosphate in Calcareous Paddy Soils to Phosphorus Nutrition of Rice Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOZHI-FEN; TUSHU-XIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    A study was carried out on contribution of iron phosphate to phosphorus nutrition of rice plant under waterlogged and moist conditions,respectively,by use of synthetic Fe32 PO4.nH2O,tagging directly the iron phophate in calcareous paddy soils.Results showed that under waterlogged condition,similar to iron phosphate in acidic paddy soils.that in clacareous paddy soils was an important source of phosphorus to rice plant ,and the amount of phosphorus originated from it generally constituted 30-65% of the total phosphorus absorbed by rice plant.

  12. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  13. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Soil Chemical Properties on Vineyard Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Karažija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are an important contribution of organic matter that modify the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil. The aim of investigation was to determine the effect of different organic fertilization on soil chemical properties on vineyard calcareous soil. Two-year fertilization trial was carried out in the Plešivica wine-growing region, in a 10-year old vineyard, cv. Sauvignon White grafted on Kobber 5BB rootstock, planted on soil with quite high pH for grapevine growing. The trial was performed according to randomize complete block design with 6 treatments (unfertilized, farmyard manure 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1, peat 20 000 L ha-1 and 40 000 L ha-1, NPK 5-20-30 500 kg ha-1+200 kg UREA ha-1 in 4 repetitions. Statistically significant differences in soil reaction (pH in plowing layer (0-30 cm were found among fertilization treatments in the second year of studies. In the plowing layer (0-30 cm in both years of the study significant differences between the values of average total nitrogen content and available phosphorus as well were found, while there were no significant differences in the subplowing layer (30-60cm. Regarding to average value of fertilization treatment, statistically significant difference in the content of available potassium in plowing layer were found in the both investigated years, while in subplowing layer statistical differences were found in the first year of investigation only. Therefore, fertilization with different organic fertilizers significantly influenced the most of studied chemical properties of the soil, especially in plowing layer (0-30 cm.

  14. Comparison of chemical fertilizer and sewage sludge application on some nutrients’ bioavailability in three textural classes of a calcareous soil after harvesting spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Boostani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS as a source of macro- and micro nutrients has been utilized in many countries for crop and vegetable production. To compare the influence of SS with chemical fertilizer on macro- and micro nutrients bioavailability in three textural classes of a calcareous soil after harvesting spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., a factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with two factors and three replications under glasshouse conditions. The first factor was SS levels (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg per kg soil and the second factor was soil textural classes (sandy, sandy loam, and clay loam. A chemical fertilizer treatment was used for comparison with the applied SS treatments. Results indicated that total nitrogen (N and available phosphorus (P was significantly higher in SS amended soils compared to fertilizer treatment. Effect of increasing soil potassium (K due to addition of SS was less than P and N, which is probably due to low content of K in SS. Soil DTPA extractable iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were significantly increased in SS treatments in all soil textures and were higher than fertilizer treatment. Based on nutrients’ bioavailability in soil after harvesting spinach, especially at high rates of SS, addition of most nutrients is not necessary for the next crop. Concentration of DTPA extractable cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was not detectable in all treatments. Therefore, because of low contents of Cd and Pb in the utilized SS, reaching to a toxic level of these elements in soil is unexpected. However, if high levels of SS are applied frequently, soil test is recommended for monitoring heavy metals concentration in amended soils. Prior to any SS recommendation, the results of this research need to be verified under field conditions.

  15. The chemical characteristics of soil which determine phosphorus partitioning in highly calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA TOPALOVIC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus fractions from three highly calcareous soils (average, 24.9 ± 4.8 %CO32- from sampling sites with aMediterranean climate were isolated by sequential extraction. In order to provide a more reliable basis for the definition of the obtained P-fractions, principal component analysis was applied and from the chemical characteristics of the 14 investigated soils, those characteristics which define the content and association features of the P-fractions were assessed. The soils are characterized by a relatively high pH (8.0 – 8.2 and by significantly differing contents of organic mater, acid-soluble Mg and total P. These differences affected the various association features of the P-fraction with the soil constituents. The NH4F–P fraction (isolated with 0.5 M NH4F, pH 8.2 is defined by the contents of the main metals of the oxide–hydroxide–clay associations (Al, Fe,Mn or by the the redox potential (Eh of Mn. The accumulation of NaOH–phosphorus (extractable with 0.1M NaOH depended on the constituents of the oxide–hydroxide–clay association, the humic substances and Eh-related factors. In those soils in whichNaOH–Pis defined by the oxide–hydroxide–clay assoiation, the participation of Fe as a bridge-forming metal is proposed. The main part of total P, i.e., DP = TP – (NH4F–P + NaOH–P is defined by the status of Mn– and Fe–humic complexes or by the concentration of hydroxyl-ions.

  16. Modification of the USLE K factor for soil erodibility assessment on calcareous soils in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali; Naderi, Mehdi; Dematte, Jose Alexandre M.; Kerry, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of soil erodibility (K) in the field is tedious, time-consuming and expensive; therefore, its prediction through pedotransfer functions (PTFs) could be far less costly and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop new PTFs to estimate the K factor using multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems, and artificial neural networks. For this purpose, K was measured in 40 erosion plots with natural rainfall. Various soil properties including the soil particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent, organic matter, permeability, and wet-aggregate stability were measured. The results showed that the mean measured K was 0.014 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1 and 2.08 times less than the estimated mean K (0.030 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1) using the USLE model. Permeability, wet-aggregate stability, very fine sand, and calcium carbonate were selected as independent variables by forward stepwise regression in order to assess the ability of multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems and artificial neural networks to predict K. The calcium carbonate equivalent, which is not accounted for in the USLE model, had a significant impact on K in multiple linear regression due to its strong influence on the stability of aggregates and soil permeability. Statistical indices in validation and calibration datasets determined that the artificial neural networks method with the highest R2, lowest RMSE, and lowest ME was the best model for estimating the K factor. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.81, n = 40, p < 0.05) between the estimated K from multiple linear regression and measured K indicates that the use of calcium carbonate equivalent as a predictor variable gives a better estimation of K in areas with calcareous soils.

  17. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M; Ouedraogo, T; Kumar, L; Sanou, S; van Langevelde, F; Kiema, A; van de Koppel, J; van Andel, J; Hearne, J; Skidmore, AK; de Ridder, N; Stroosnijder, L; Prins, HHT

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  18. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ouedraogo, T.; Kumar, L.; Sanou, S.; Langevelde, F. van; Kiema, A.; Koppel, J. van de; Andel, J. van; Hearne, J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  19. Nitrate leaching to groundwater at experimental farm "De Marke" and other Dutch sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on nitrate leaching to the groundwater as a result of the land use system of experimental farm 'De Marke', translated to other sandy soils in the Netherlands. The land use was extrapolated to five major sandy soil map units, selected from the 1: 50 000 Soil Map of the Netherlands,

  20. Release behavior of copper and zinc from sandy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-kui; XIA Yi-ping

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations and chemical forms of copper(Gu) and zinc(Zn) in surface soils directly influence the movement of Gu and Zn. In this study, thirteen sandy soil samples with a wide range of total Cu and Zn concentrations were collected for evaluating the relationships between Cu and Zn release and extraction time, ratio of soil to water, pH and electrolyte types. The results indicated that Cu released in batch extraction that represents long-term leaching was mainly from exchangeable, and carbonate bound Cu fractions, and Zn released in the batch extraction was mainly from its carbonate bound fraction. However, the Cu and Zn leached from the soils using the column leaching that represents short-term leaching were mainly from their exchangeable fractions. Soil column leaching at different pH values indicated that the amounts of leached Zn and Cu were greatly affected by pH. The Cu and Zn release experiments with varying extraction times and ratio of soil to water suggest that long-term water-logging in the soils after rain may increase contact time of the soils with water and the release of Cu and Zn to water from the soils, and total amounts of Cu or Zn released from the soils increase, but the Cu or Zn concentration in the surface runoff decrease with increasing rainfall intensity. The increased Ca concentration in soil solution increased stability of organic matter-mineral complexes and might decrease the dissolution of organic matter, and thus decreased the release of Cu-binding component of organic matter. However, high concentration of Na in the soil solution increased the dispersion of the organic matter-mineral complexes and increased dissolution of organic matter and the release of Cu from the soils.

  1. Effect of Additional Carbonates on CO2 Emission from Calcareous Soil During the Closed-Jar Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-Jie; CAI Miao; LIANG Bin; ZHOU Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The closed-jar incubation method is widely used to estimate the mineralization of soil organic C.There are two C pools (i.e.,organic and inorganic C) in calcareous soil.To evaluate the effect of additional carbonates on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation,three incubation experiments were conducted by adding different types (CaCO3 and MgCO3) and amounts of carbonate to the soil.The addition of carbonates significantly increased CO2 emission from the soil; the increase ranged from 12.0% in the CaCO3 amended soil to 460% in the MgCO3 amended soil during a 100-d incubation.Cumulative CO2 production at the end of the incubation was three times greater in the MgCO3 amended soil compared to the CaCO3 amended one.The CO2 emission increased with the amount of CaCO3 added to the soil.In contrast,CO2 emission decreased as the amount of MgCO3 added to the soil increased.Our results confirmed that the closed-jar incubation method could lead to an overestimate of organic C mineralization in calcareous soils.Because of its effect on soil pH and the dissolution of carbonates,HgC12 should not be used to sterilize calcareous soil if the experiment includes the measurement of soil CO2 production.

  2. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  3. Extraction Efficiency of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1991-10-01

    Numbers of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from sandy soils (91-92% sand) by sieving and centrifugation were only 40-55% of those extracted by sieving and incubation on a Baermann tray. Residues normally discarded at each step of the sieving plus Baermann tray extraction procedure were examined for nematodes to obtain estimates of extraction efficiencies. For third-stage and fourth-stage juveniles, males, and females, estimates of extraction efficiency ranged from 60 to 65% in one experiment and 73 to 82% in another. Estimated extraction efficiencies for second-stage juveniles were lower (33% in one experiment, 67% in another) due to losses during sieving. When sterilized soil was seeded with known numbers of B. longicaudatus, 60% of second-stage juveniles and 68-76% of other stages were recovered. Most stages of B. longicaudatus could be extracted from these soils by sieving plus Baermann incubation with an efficiency of 60-70%.

  4. Influence of perennial plants on chemical properties of arid calcareous soils in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, N.; Razmi, K. (Shiraz Univ. (Iran))

    1990-10-01

    The authors conducted a study in Bajgah to determine the influence of perennial plants on some selected properties of soils formed on the highly calcareous parent material. The major plant genera were determined to be Agropyron, Artemisia, Astragalus, Dianthus, Eryngium, Peganum, Polygonum, Stipa, and Thymus. Tops of plants genera were found to be significantly different in ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn, and Cu; the concentration of Fe was not significantly different. The authors found the plants to differ significantly in their influence on soil properties. Peganum caused an accumulation of organic matter (OM) as high as 7% in the soil, in an environment where the soils typically contain less than 1% OM. Soil concentrations of P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu were also found to vary significantly beneath different plant genera. They suggest these differences in OM accumulation were caused by plant litter. Concentration of Fe in the soils formed beneath different plant genera was statistically unchanged.

  5. Organic Carbon Stabilization of Soils Formed on Acidic and Calcareous Bedrocks in Neotropical Alpine Grassland, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songyu; Cammeraat, Erik; Jansen, Boris; Cerli, Chiara; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence shows that Neotropical alpine ecosystems are vulnerable to global change. Since soils in the alpine grasslands of the Peruvian Andean region have large soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, profound understanding of soil organic matter (OM) stabilization mechanisms will improve the prediction of the feedback between SOC stocks and global change. It is well documented that poor-crystalline minerals and organo-metallic complexes significantly contribute to the OM stabilization in volcanic ash soils, including those in the Andean region. However, limited research has focused on non-ash soils that also express significant SOC accumulation. A pilot study of Peruvian Andean grassland soils suggests that lithology is a prominent factor for such carbon accumulation. As a consequence of contrasting mineral composition and pedogenic processes in soils formed on different non-volcanic parent materials, differences in OM stabilization mechanisms may be profound and consequently may respond differently to global change. Therefore, our study aims at a further understanding of carbon stocks and OM stabilization mechanisms in soils formed on contrasting bedrocks in the Peruvian Andes. The main objective is to identify and compare the roles that organo-mineral associations and aggregations play in OM stabilization, by a combination of selective extraction methods and fractionations based on density, particle size and aggregates size. Soil samples were collected from igneous acidic and calcareous sedimentary bedrocks in alpine grassland near Cajamarca, Peru (7.17°S, 78.63°W), at around 3700m altitude. Samples were taken from 3 plots per bedrock type by sampling distinguishable horizons until the C horizons were reached. Outcomes confirmed that both types of soil accumulate large amounts of carbon: 405.3±41.7 t/ha of calcareous bedrock soil and 226.0±5.6 t/ha of acidic bedrock soil respectively. In addition, extremely high carbon contents exceeding 90g carbon per

  6. Isolation and identification of ferric reducing bacteria and evaluation of their roles in iron availability in two calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, N.; Lakzian, A.; Haghnia, G. H.; Karimi, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Iron is an essential element for all organisms which plays a crucial role in important biochemical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. Iron deficiency seems to be an important problem in many calcareous soils. Biological dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction increases iron availability through reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and evaluate some bacterial isolates for their abilities to reduce Fe(III) in two calcareous soils. Three bacterial isolates were selected and identified from paddy soils by using 16S rRNA amplification and then inoculated to sterilized and non-sterilized calcareous soils in the presence and absence of glucose. The results showed that all isolates belonged to Bacillus genus and were capable of reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II) in vitro condition. The amount of Fe(III) reduction in sterilized calcareous soils was significantly higher when inoculated with PS23 isolate and Shewanella putrefaciens ( S. putrefaciens) (as positive control) compared to PS16 and PS11 isolates. No significant difference was observed between PS11 and PS16 isolates in the presence of indigenous microbial community. The results also revealed that glucose had a significant effect on Fe(III) reduction in the examined calcareous soil samples. The amount of Fe(III) reduction increased two-fold when soil samples were treated with glucose and inoculated by S. putrefaciens and PS23 in non-sterilized soils.

  7. The biodegradability of EDDHA chelates under calcareous soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Hoffland, E.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    FeEDDHA (iron (3 +) ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(hydroxy phenyl acetic acid) products are commonly applied to mend or prevent Fe chlorosis in plants. In soil application, racemic and meso o,o-FeEDDHA are the effective components, while o,p-FeEDDHA tends to adsorb or react to o,p-CuEDDHA. Upon

  8. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of three Mediterranean species through calcareous and siliceous soils in natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, E.; Fernandez, C.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.; Greff, S.; Morin, E.; Robles, C.; Vila, B.; Bonin, G.

    Little is known about terpene emissions released by plants in response to abiotic factors, except for climate-related factors. Standard emissions ( ES) of monoterpenes ( ESM) and sesquiterpenes ( ESS) of Rosmarinus officinalis, Pinus halepensis and Cistus albidus in siliceous and calcareous sites were examined. Their dependency on some nutrients in these soils was also analyzed. The study was carried out in the south of France at the end of March, when C. albidus exhibited a leaf growth state, while the other two species exhibited a pre-budbreak state. The results revealed that ES of all major monoterpenes released by R. officinalis and ES of α-pinene and α-humulene of P. halepensis were higher in plants growing in calcareous soils. In contrast, for C. albidus, ESM and ES of β-bourbonene and α-humulene were higher in siliceous soils. ESM of all species was mainly correlated with nitrogen ( N) and available phosphorous (P A), while dependency on Ca 2+ or K + was variable. None of these nutrients was significantly correlated with ESS, suggesting that sesquiterpene synthesis pathway requires different nutrient supplies. While higher soil nutrient content stimulated ESM of R. officinalis and P. halepensis, it had a negative effect on ESM of C. albidus, probably because C. albidus exhibited a different phenological state. Considering the soil nature, and particularly N and P A as inputs in plant terpene inventories could hence contribute to obtain more accurate terpene estimates.

  9. Maize productivity and mineral N dynamics following different soil fertility management practices on a depleted sandy soil in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.; Mapfumo, P.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for an improved understanding of nitrogen (N) dynamics in depleted sandy soils in southern Africa. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of different soil fertility improvement practices on a degraded granitic sandy soil in Zimbabwe. Legumes capable of accumula

  10. Spatial Variability and Geostatistical Prediction of Some Soil Hydraulic Coefficients of a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saturated hydraulic conductivity and the other hydraulic properties of soils are essential vital soil attributes that play role in the modeling of hydrological phenomena, designing irrigation-drainage systems, transportation of salts and chemical and biological pollutants within the soil. Measurement of these hydraulic properties needs some special instruments, expert technician, and are time consuming and expensive and due to their high temporal and spatial variability, a large number of measurements are needed. Nowadays, prediction of these attributes using the readily available soil data using pedotransfer functions or using the limited measurement with applying the geostatistical approaches has been receiving high attention. The study aimed to determine the spatial variability and prediction of saturated (Ks and near saturated (Kfs hydraulic conductivity, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of a calcareous soil. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on the soil series of Daneshkadeh located in the Bajgah Agricultural Experimental Station of Agricultural College, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (1852 m above the mean sea level. This soil series with about 745 ha is a deep yellowish brow calcareous soil with textural classes of loam to clay. In the studied soil series 50 sampling locations with the sampling distances of 16, 8 , and 4 m were selected on the relatively regular sampling design. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, near saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs, the power of Gardner equation (α, sorptivity (S, hydraulic diffusivity (D and matric flux potential (Фm of the aforementioned sampling locations was determined using the Single Ring and Droplet methods. After, initial statistical processing, including a normality test of data, trend and stationary analysis of data, the semivariograms of each studied hydraulic attributes were

  11. Young calcareous soil chronosequences as a model for ecological restoration on alkaline mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Adam T; Lambers, Hans

    2017-12-31

    Tailings are artificial soil-forming substrates that have not been created by the natural processes of soil formation and weathering. The extreme pH environment and corresponding low availability of some macro- and micronutrients in alkaline tailings, coupled with hostile physical and geochemical conditions, present a challenging environment to native biota. Some significant nutritional constraints to ecosystem reconstruction on alkaline tailings include i) predominant or complete absence of combined nitrogen (N) and poor soil N retention; ii) the limited bioavailability of some micronutrients at high soil pH (e.g., Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu); and iii) potentially toxic levels of biologically available soil phosphorus (P) for P-sensitive plants. The short regulatory time frames (years) for mine closure on tailings landforms are at odds with the long time required for natural pedogenic processes to ameliorate these factors (thousands of years). However, there are similarities between the chemical composition and nutrient status of alkaline tailings and the poorly-developed, very young calcareous soils of biodiverse regions such as south-western Australia. We propose that basic knowledge of chronosequences that start with calcareous soils may provide an informative model for understanding the pedogenic processes required to accelerate soil formation on tailings. Development of a functional, stable root zone is crucial to successful ecological restoration on tailings, and three major processes should be facilitated as early as possible during processing or in the early stages of restoration to accelerate soil development on alkaline tailings: i) acidification of the upper tailings profile; ii) establishment of appropriate and resilient microbial communities; and iii) the early development of appropriate pioneer vegetation. Achieving successful ecological restoration outcomes on tailings landforms is likely one of the greatest challenges faced by restoration ecologists and the

  12. Net transformation of phosphorus forms applied as inorganic and organic amendments to a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The forms of phosphorus (P) in animal manure composts are different from that of synthetic P fertilizers, and this could affect how soil P chemistry will be altered when they are used as P amendments. The objective of this study was to analyze the net changes in the nature and dynamics of plant available P forms applied either as inorganic P (KH2PO4) or turkey litter compost (TLC) in calcareous soil with and without plant growth. Forms of TLC-P were characterized by x-ray diffraction and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. The amounts of various P forms in soils were measured by a sequential fractionation method after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks incubation. Brushite (Ca-P) and newberyite (Mg-P) were the major forms of inorganic P, and phosphate monoester was the major form of organic P present in TLC. The addition of inorganic P fertilizer increased the labile/moderately labile P, whereas the compost increased the moderately labile P extractable with weak acid (pH 4.2). Even though the amount of the labile P fraction in the compost-treated soil was smaller than that in the fertilizer-treated soils, ryegrass growth and plant P uptake were greater. The net transformation of the labile/moderately labile P was slower in the compost-treated soil without plant growth, however it was faster with plant growth. This study showed that P applied either as an inorganic or an organic amendment was recovered in different P fractions in a calcareous soil, and therefore it is expected that the P source would affect soil P chemistry. A weak acid extractable inorganic P fraction should be considered as plant available P especially in the compost-treated soil, that is converted into plant available P through direct and/or indirect root-induced acidification in the rhizosphere.

  13. Dried gamma-irradiated sewage solids use on calcareous soils: crop yeilds and heavy metals uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaslin, B.D.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments designed to examine gamma-radiation effects on extractable and plant-available sludge elements and to examine the response of crops to sludge applications on two typical, calcareous soils in New Mexico are summarized. Information has been given indicating that the radiation process of reducing pathogens in sewage products being developed by Sandia Laboratories, does not significantly increase the chemical extractability and plant uptake of a broad range of nutrients and heavy metals. However, radiation treatment greatly facilitates handling sewage for experimentation, because pathogen contamination precautions are eliminated and weed seeds killed. Studies on the effects of sludge irradiation on plant nutrient uptake revealed no concentration increases, agreeing with results presented herein. Sewage products may have special potential for use on calcareous soils, such as in New Mexico. For instance, in New Mexico the lack of potassium in sewage products is not a problem and the naturally high pH of New Mexico soil greatly reduces plant availability of many problem heavy metals. Dramatic increases in yield are typified by the greenhouse and field results presented herein, especially for the known micronutrient deficient soils of New Mexico. Results indicate that sewage sludge is an excellent Zn and Fe fertilizer. More research needs to be done before the economics of sludge application can be calculated and more field information is needed before irradiated sewage products are used indiscriminately. (ERB)

  14. Physiological Responses of Some Iranian Grape Cultivars to Iron Chelate Application in Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron chlorosis is considered to be one of the most important nutritional disorders in grapevines, particularly in calcareous soils that under these conditions fruit yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year. Symptoms of iron chlorosis in orchards and vineyards are usually more frequent in spring when shoot growth is rapid and bicarbonate concentration in the soil solution buffers soil pH in the rhizosphere and root apoplast. Several native grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. genotypes, highly appreciated for their organoleptic characteristics and commercial potential, are widely cultivated in Iran. Cultivated plants differ as to their susceptibility to Fe deficiency in calcareous soils, some being poorly affected while others showing severe leaf chlorotic symptoms. Selection and the use of Fe-efficient genotypes is one of the important approaches to prevent this nutritional problem. In this research the response of three local grapevine cultivars was evaluated to iron chelate consumption in a calcareous soil (26% T.N.V. Materials and Methods: Well rooted woody cuttings of three autochthonous varieties (Rasha, Qezel uzum, Keshmeshi Qermez were cultivated in pots filled with a calcareous soil with iron chelate consumption at three rates (0, 7.5 and 15 mg Fe/ Kg soil. The study was conducted with two factors (cultivar and iron chelate and 3 replicates in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design. Plant parameters including vegetative growth, chlorophyll index and leaf area were monitored during the growth period. At the end of the treatment, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The concentrations of macro and micro elements in the leaves were assayed using an atomic absorption and spectrophotometer. One-way-ANOVA was applied comparing the behavior of the cultivars growing. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that chlorophyll

  15. Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wandruszka Ray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey of the interactions between phosphorus (P species and the components of calcareous soils shows that both surface reactions and precipitation take place, especially in the presence of calcite and limestone. The principal products of these reactions are dicalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, which may interconvert after formation. The role of calcium carbonate in P retention by calcareous soils is, however, significant only at relatively high P concentrations – non-carbonate clays play a more important part at lower concentrations. In the presence of iron oxide particles, occlusion of P frequently occurs in these bodies, especially with forms of the element that are pedogenic in origin. Progressive mineralization and immobilization, often biological in nature, are generally observed when P is added as a fertilizer. Manure serves both as a source of subsurface P and an effective mobilizing agent. Blockage of P sorption sites by organic acids, as well as complexation of exchangeable Al and Fe in the soil, are potential causes of this mobilization. Swine and chicken manure are especially rich P sources, largely due the practice of adding the element to the feed of nonruminants. Humic materials, both native and added, appear to increase recovery of Olsen P. In the presence of metal cations, strong complexes between inorganic P and humates are formed. The influence of humic soil amendments on P mobility warrants further investigation.

  16. Effect of phosphate fertilization on the bioavailability of iron in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is the most important nutritional problem in sensitive plant species cultivated in calcareous soils, its main symptoms being interveinal yellowing in the younger leaves due to lack of chlorophyll and reduced growth. Fe chlorosis has been related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil. The effect of other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), is, however, a matter of debate. In this work we examined whether fertilization with P alters the availability of Fe to sensitive plants growing in two different Fe chlorosis-inducing calcareous soils. Phosphate at rates of 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg P kg-1 soil was applied to pots where six-months-old olive trees cv. Arbequina were grown. The experiment lasted three years and took place in a shaded house. Chlorophyll concentration in the young leaves was estimated with the SPAD value (using a Minolta apparatus) three-four times per year. Furthermore, shoot length, dry weight of annual pruning and mineral element concentration were measured at the end of each year. In one of the soils, SPAD and leaf Fe concentration decreased with increasing P dose. However in the other soil, SPAD was not correlated with the rate of applied P. In both soils, potassium and zinc concentrations in plants fertilized with P were lower than those in the control plants. This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Projects: AGL 2005-06691-C02-01 and AGL 2008-05053-C02-02, and the European Regional Development Funds. ARSR acknowledges the finnancial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education as a fellow of the program "Training of University Teachers" (Formación del Profesorado Universitario, AP2008-04716)

  17. Effect of three Electron Shuttles on Bioreduction of Ferric Iron in two Acidic and Calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical processes which affect the availability of iron in soils. Ferric iron oxides are the most abundant forms of iron in soils and sediments. Ferric iron is highly insoluble at circumneutral pH. Present investigations have shown that the structural ferric iron bound in clay minerals is reduced by some microorganisms. Anaerobic bacteria reduce ferric iron which bound to soil clay minerals under anaerobic conditions. They have the ability to use ferric iron as a terminal electron acceptor. Many studies presented that dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB mediate the transfer of electrons from small organic molecules like acetate and glucose to various humic materials (electron shuttles which then pass electrons abiotically to ferric iron oxyhydroxide and phyllosilicate minerals. Electron shuttles like AQDS, a tricyclic quinone, increase the rate of iron reduction by iron reducing bacteria on sites of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. By increasing the rate of bioreduction of ferric iron, the solubility and availability of iron enhanced meaningfully. Royer et al. (2002 showed that bioreduction of hematite (common iron mineral in soils increased more than three times in the presence of AQDS and Shewanella putrefaciens comparedto control treatments. Previous works have mostly used synthetic minerals as electron acceptor in bioreduction process. Furthermore, the effect of quinones as electron acceptor for microorganisms were studied with poorly crystalline ferric iron oxides . The main objective of this study was to study the effect of AQS, humic acid and fulvic acid (as electron shuttle and Shewanella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, on bioreduction of native ferric iron in two acidic and calcareous soils. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications in vitro condition. The soil samples collected

  18. The Role of Organic Acids on the Release of Phosphorus and Zinc in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Nezami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn fixation by soil minerals and their precipitation is one of the major constraints for crop production in calcareous soils. Recent Studies show that root exudates are effective for the extraction of the large amounts of nutrients in calcareous soils. A part of the root exudations are Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids (LMWOAs. LMWOAs are involved in the nutrients availability and uptake by plants, nutrients detoxification, minerals weathering and microbial proliferation in the soil. At nutrients deficiency conditions citric and oxalic acids are released by plants root in large quantities and increase nutrient solubility like P, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in the rhizosphere. These components are the large portion of the carbon source in the soil after exudations are mineralized by microorganisms, quickly. In addition, soil surface sorption can affect their half-life and other behaviors in the soil. In order to study the effect of oxalic and citric organic acids on the extraction of phosphorus and zinc from a calcareous soil, an experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods: Studied soil was calcareous and had P and Zn deficiency. Soil sample was collected from A horizon (0-30 cm of Damavand region. 3 g of dried soil sample was extracted with 30 ml of oxalic and citric acids extraction solutions at different concentrations (0.1, 1 and 10 mM and different time periods (10, 60, 180 and 360 minutes on an orbital shaker at 200 rev min-1.The soil extracts then centrifuged for 10 minutes (16000g. After filtering, the pH of the extractions was recorded and then phosphorus, calcium and zinc amounts were determined. Soil extraction with distilled water was used as control. Each treatment was performed in 3 replications. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA test followed by the Bonferroni method significant level adjustments due to multiple comparisons. Results and Discussion: The results of variance analysis showed

  19. Biochar and manure effects on net nitrogen mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions from calcareous soil under corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few multiyear field studies have examined the impacts of a one-time biochar application on net N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated, calcareous soil; yet such applications are hypothesized as a means of sequestering atmospheric CO2 and improving soil quality. We fall-applie...

  20. [Effects of different tillage methods on phospholipid fatty acids and enzyme activities in calcareous cinnamon soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xue-Xia; Dang, Jian-You; Zhang, Ding-Yi; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    In order to study changes of physical and chemical characteristics and microbial activities in soil under different tillage methods, effects of four tillage methods, rotary tillage (RT), subsoil tillage (ST), conventional tillage (CT) with corn straw returned to soil, and rotary tillage with no corn straw returned to soil (CK), on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) characteristics and hydrolase enzymes activities in calcareous cinnamon soil were investigated. The results showed that soil hydrolase enzymes activities, nutrient contents, microbial diversity varied greatly with the different tillage methods. Returning corn straw to soil increased the kinds, amount of soil total PLFAs, bacteria PLFAs and actonomycetes PLFAs, while decreased the fungi PLFAs, indicating that fungi was more adaptable than bacteria to an infertile environment. ST and CT resulted in higher amounts of total PLFAs, which were 74.7% and 53.3% higher than that of CK, indicating they were more beneficial to the growth of plants. They could also improve soil physical and chemical properties, increase alk-phosphatase, protease and urease activities, which would provide a favorable soil condition for high and stable crop yields.

  1. Bacteria transport and retention in intact calcareous soil columns under saturated flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhian Firouzi Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of bacterial transport and retention in soil is important for various environmental applications such as groundwater contamination and bioremediation of soil and water. The main objective of this research was to quantitatively assess bacterial transport and deposition under saturated conditions in calcareous soil. A series of leaching experiments was conducted on two undisturbed soil columns. Breakthrough curves of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Cl were measured. After the leaching experiment, spatial distribution of bacteria retention in the soil columns was determined. The HYDRUS-1D one- and two-site kinetic models were used to predict the transport and deposition of bacteria in soil. The results indicated that the two-site model fits the observed data better than one-site kinetic model. Bacteria interaction with the soil of kinetic site 1 revealed relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment of bacteria from kinetic site 2 was fast. Fast attachment and slow detachment of site 1 can be attributed to soil calcium carbonate that has favorable attachment sites for bacteria. The detachment rate was less than 0.02 of the attachment rate, indicating irreversible attachment of bacteria. High reduction rate of bacteria was also attributed to soil calcium carbonate.

  2. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings.

  3. Phosphorus fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Eugênio Schmitt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P applications to vineyards can cause P accumulation in the soil and maximize pollution risks. This study was carried out to quantify the accumulation of P fractions in sandy soils of vineyards in southern Brazil. Soil samples (layers 0-5, 6-10 and 11-20 cm were collected from a native grassland area and two vineyards, after 14 years (vineyard 1 and 30 years (vineyard 2 of cultivation, in Santana do Livramento, southern Brazil, and subjected to chemical fractionation of P. Phosphorus application, especially to the 30-year-old vineyard 2, increased the inorganic P content down to a depth of 20 cm, mainly in the labile fractions extracted by anion-exchange resin and NaHCO3, in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH, and in the non-labile fraction extracted by 1 mol L-1 HCl, indicating the possibility of water eutrophication. Phosphorus application and grapevine cultivation time increased the P content in the organic fraction extracted by NaHCO3 from the 0-5 cm layer, and especially in the moderately labile fraction extracted by 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH, down to a depth of 20 cm.

  4. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Milani

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP and urea using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS. Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO42.2H2O and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4PO4 species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be

  5. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  6. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  7. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  8. Enhanced levels of nicotianamine promote iron accumulation and tolerance to calcareous soil in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozoye, Tomoko; Kim, Suyoen; Kakei, Yusuke; Takahashi, Michiko; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient in both plants and humans. Fe deficiency on calcareous soil with low Fe availability is a major agricultural problem. Nicotianamine (NA) is one of the Fe chelator in plants, which is involved in metal translocation into seeds, and serves as an antihypertensive substance in humans. In this study, soybean plants overexpressing the barley NA synthase 1 (HvNAS1) gene driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic soybean showed no growth defect and grew normally. The NA content of transgenic soybean seeds was up to four-fold greater than that of non-transgenic (NT) soybean seeds. The level of HvNAS1 expression was positively correlated with the amount of NA, and a high concentration of NA was maintained in the seeds in succeeding generations. The Fe concentration was approximately two-fold greater in transgenic soybean seeds than in NT soybean seeds. Furthermore, the transgenic soybeans showed tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. Our results suggested that increasing the NA content in soybean seeds by the overexpression of HvNAS1 offers potential benefits for both human health and agricultural productivity.

  9. Morphology of Rain Water Channeling in Systematically Varied Model Sandy Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuli; Cejas, Cesare M.; Barrois, Rémi; Dreyfus, Rémi; Durian, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different rain conditions using a quasi-2D experimental setup and systematically determine the impact of the soil grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the water channeling phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of the soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed rain condition, we combine the effects of the grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on the water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to the rain water channeling phenomenon, including prewetting sandy soils at different levels before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  10. Distributions of carbon in calcareous soils under different land uses in western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepahvand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Natural stable and unstable carbon in ecosystems have been used extensively to help to understand a wide range of soil processes and functions. This study was conducted to explore the effects of land use changes on different carbon fractions (F1, F2, F3 and F4, permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC, soil organic carbon (SOC and total organic carbon (TOC associated with soils in calcareous soils of western Iran. Four popular land uses in the selected site including natural forest, range land, dryland farming and irrigated farming systems were employed as the basis of soil sampling. The results showed a strong relationship between land use conversion and SOC stocks changes. The greatest mean values for carbon content and the least mean values of CaCO3 in bulk topsoil (0–15 cm in the forest land were observed. Dryland farming had the least both active and passive pools of C in comparison with the other land uses. The positive and significant correlations was observed between SOC, Total C and POXC contents and different C fractions. Taking C and POXC pools into account, a more definitive picture of the soil C is obtained than when only total C is measured. The influence of land use changes on overall soil carbon stocks could be helpful for making management decision for farmers and policy makers in the future, for enhancing the potential of C sequestration in western Iran.

  11. Free Oxide Distribution in Poorly and Well Drained Soils Developed on Calcareous Alluvial Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. K. MOUSTAKAS; P. E. BAROUCHAS

    2003-01-01

    A study on the distribution of free iron and manganese oxides was conducted in soils developed on calcareous alluvial deposits under subhumid climatic conditions, in Western Greece. Soil samples from two well drained soils and from two poorly drained soils, classified as Alfisols, were collected and used in this study. After certification of soil homogeneity the acid ammonium oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate methods were used to extract free iron and manganese oxides from the samples. Iron oxides extracted by the dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate method (Fed) were significantly higher than the iron oxides extracted by the ammonium oxalate method (Feo), indicating that a considerable fraction is present in crystalline forms,independent of drainage status. A confirmation of free iron oxides and fine clay was detected. The ratios Feo/Fed and (Fed-Feo)/total Fe (Fet) could not be used to distinguish the well drained soils from the poorly drained soils. Manganese movement in a soluble form is independent of the fine clay.

  12. Effects of Soil properties on phosphorus subsurface migration in sandy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-Kui

    2008-01-01

    The soil factors influencing the potential migration of dissolved and particulate phosphorus (P) from structurallyweak sandy subsoils were evaluated by means of soil column leaching experiments.Soil colloids were extracted from two types of soils to make the colloid-bound forms of P solution.Eight sandy soils with diverse properties were collected for packing soil columns.The effects of influent solutions varying in concentrations of colloids,P,and electrolyte,on the transport of P and quality of leachates were characterized.P migration in the soils was soil property-dependent.High soil electrical conductivity values retarded the mobility of colloids and transportability of colloid-associated P (particulate P).Soil electrical conductivity was negatively correlated with colloids and reactive particulate P (RPP) concentrations in the leachates,whereas,the total reactive P (TRP) and dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations in the leachates were mainly controlled by the P adsorption capacity and the P levels in the subsoil.The reactive particulate P in the leachates was positively correlated with the colloidal concentration.Increased colloidal concentration in the influent could significantly increase the colloidal concentration in the leachates.Elevated P concentration in the influent had little effect on P recovery in the leachates,but it resulted in significant increases in the absolute P concentration in the leachates.

  13. REMEDIATION OF POLLUTED SOILS BY UTILIZING HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED CALCAREOUS FLY ASHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Moutsatsou; V. Protonotarios

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates a treated fly ash to act as a synthetic zeolite to remediate soils polluted with heavy metals and metalloids (As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Mn). Four types of such 'zeolites' were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of a calcareous fly ash derived from Greek lignite-fired power plants: two with excess of sodium hydroxide in a a former mining site at Lavrion, Greece. Mobilization and transfer of metals to the retention agents was effected by using HCl aq 1M, with satisfactory results with respect to As, Pb, Cu, Mn and Cd. The great variety of metal complexes in soil was found to be of major importance for the effectiveness of the overall process. The final products were solidified either on their own, or by using additives such as lime and cement.

  14. Dynamics of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in a temperate calcareous forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morier, Isabelle; Guenat, Claire; Siegwolf, Rolf; Védy, Jean-Claude; Schleppi, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In temperate forest ecosystems, soil acts as a major sink for atmospheric N deposition. A (15)N labeling experiment in a hardwood forest on calcareous fluvisol was performed to study the processes involved. Low amounts of ammonium ((15)NH(4)(+)) or nitrate ((15)NO(3)(-)) were added to small plots. Soil samples were taken after periods ranging from 1 h to 1 yr. After 1 d, the litter layer retained approximately 28% of the (15)NH(4)(+) tracer and 19% of (15)NO(3)(-). The major fraction of deposited N went through the litter layer to reach the soil within the first hours following the tracer application. During the first day, a decrease in extractable (15)N in the soil was observed ((15)NH(4)(+): 50 to 5%; (15)NO(3)(-): 60 to 12%). During the same time, the amount of microbial (15)N remained almost constant and the (15)N immobilized in the soil (i.e., total (15)N recovered in the bulk soil minus extractable (15)N minus microbial (15)N) also decreased. Such results can therefore be understood as a net loss of (15)N from the soil. Such N loss is probably explained by NO(3)(-) leaching, which is enhanced by the well-developed soil structure. We presume that the N immobilization mainly occurs as an incorporation of deposited N into the soil organic matter. One year after the (15)N addition, recovery rates were similar and approximately three-quarters of the deposited N was recovered in the soil. We conclude that the processes relevant for the fate of atmospherically deposited N take place rapidly and that N recycling within the microbes-plants-soil organic matter (SOM) system prevents further losses in the long term.

  15. Phytoavailability of Copper, Zinc and Cadmium in Sewage Sludge-Amended Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiong; GUO Xue-Yan; XU Xing-Hua; ZUO Yu-Bao; WEI Dong-Pu; MA Yi-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of trace elements (TEs),such as copper (Cu),zinc (Zn),and cadmium (Cd),often restrict land application of sewage sludge (SS) and there was little information about soil-plant transfer of TEs in SS from field experiments in China.In this study pot and field experiments were carried out for 2 years to investigate the phytoavailability of TEs in calcareous soils amended with SS.The results of the pot experiment showed that the phytoavailability of Zn and Cu in the SS was equal to 53.4%-80.9% and 54.8%-91.1% of corresponding water-soluble metal salts,respectively.The results from the field experiment showed that the contents of total Zn,Cu,and Cd in the soils increased linearly with SS application rates.With increasing SS application rates,the contents of Zn and Cu in the wheat grains initially increased and then reached a plateau,while there was no significant change of Cd content in the maize grains.The bioconcentration factors of the metals in the grains of wheat and maize were found to be in the order of Zn > Cu > Cd,but for the straw the order was Cd > Cu > Zn.It was also found that wheat grains could accumulate more metals compared with maize grains.The results will be helpful in developing the critical loads of sewage sludge applied to calcareous soils.

  16. Heterogeneous water flow and pesticide transport in cultivated sandy soils : description of model concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample experimental evidence that complications in water flow and pesticide transport can occur in cultivated humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soils. As a result, pesticide leaching to groundwater and water courses can be higher than expected. We made an inventory of mechanistic/deterministic mod

  17. Movement of Phosphorus in a Calcareous Soil as Affected by Humic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhen-Yu; WANG Qing-Hua; LIU Fang-Chun; MA Hai-Lin; MA Bing-Yao; S.S.MALHI

    2013-01-01

    When humic acid (HA) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer are simultaneously applied to soil,HA may affect the movement of P.A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of a commercial HA product co-applied with monocalcium phosphate (MCP) on the distance of P movement and the concentration of P in various forms at different distances from the P fertilizer application site in a calcareous soil from northern China.Fertilizer MCP (at a rate equivalent to 26.6 kg P ha-1) was applied alone or in combination with HA (at 254.8 kg HA ha-1) to the surface of soil packed in cylinders (150 mm high and 50 mm internal diameter),and then incubated at 320 g kg-1 moisture content for 7 and 28 d periods.Extraction and analysis of each 2 mm soil layer in columns showed that the addition of HA to MCP increased the distance of P movement and the concentrations of water-extractable P,acid-extractable P and Olsen P in soil.The addition of HA to MCP could enhance P availability by increasing the distance of P movement and the concentration of extractable P in soil surrounding the P fertilizer.

  18. Impact of rock materials and biofertilizations on P and K availability for maize (Zea Maize) under calcareous soil conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-el-Seoud, I.I.; Abdel-Megeed, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work evaluated the synergistic effects of soil fertilization with rock P and K materials and co-inoculation with P and K-dissolving bacteria [PDB (Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum) and KDB (Bacillus mucilaginosus and B. subtilis)] on the improvement of P and K uptake, P and K availability and growth of maize plant grown under limited P and K soil conditions (calcareous soil). The experiment was establishment with eight treatments: without rock P and K materials or bacteria in...

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF SANDY SOIL WITH WATER-CONSERVING MEMBRANE AND ITS EFFECT ON CROP GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-jun; CUI Xiang-hao; LI Qu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Water-conserving membrane is a new material of improving sandy soil. It is based on the rule that a compound with organic and inorganic components can produce colloid after its integrating with Ca2+ in soil. The water-conserving membrane will obstruct capillary and increase viscidity of sandy soil, so as to decrease leakage and evaporation in sandy soil. The water-conserving membrane contains polyacrylic acid (PAA) and bentonite. When PAA concentration and Ph of solution are different, water-conserving membrane can be made in different depth of soil. This experiment shows that the solution with 0.2% PAA does not harm and poison the crops, on the contrary,promotes crop germination. The solution with 0.2% or 0.4% PAA can accelerate corn growth. Accordingly, different crops need the application of the different PAA concentrations in the cultivation. Therefore, on the basis of different vadose coefficient in sandy soil, the solution with different PAA concentration can improve sandy soil and increase its water-conserving competence very well. The solution can be used to improve sandy soil and control desert enlargement in arid, semi-arid and semi-humid areas.

  20. Effects of moisture and carbonate additions on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanJie DONG; Miao CAI; JianBin ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Calcareous soil contains organic and inorganic carbon (C) pools, which both contribute to CO2 emission during closed-jar incubation. The mineralization of organic C and dissolution of inorganic C are both related to soil moisture, but the exact effect of water content on CO2 emission from calcareous soil is unclear. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of soil water content (air-dried, 30%, 70%, and 100%water-holding capacity (WHC)), carbonate type (CaCO3 or MgCO3), and carbonate amount (0.0, 1.0%, and 2.0%) on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation. Soil CO2 emission increased significantly as the water content in-creased to 70%WHC, regardless of whether or not the soil was amended with carbonates. Soil CO2 emission re-mained the same or increased slowly as the soil water content increased from 70%WHC to 100%WHC. When the water content was≤30%WHC, soil CO2 emission from soil amended with 1.0%inorganic C was greater than that from unamended soil. When the soil water content was 70%or 100%WHC, CO2 emission from CaCO3 amended soil was greater than that from the control. Furthermore, CO2 emission from soil amended with 2.0%CaCO3 was greater than that from soil amended with 1.0%CaCO3. Soil CO2 emission was higher in the MgCO3 amended soil than from the unamended soil. Soil CO2 emission decreased as the MgCO3 content increased. Cumulative CO2 emission was 3-6 times higher from MgCO3 amended soil than from CaCO3 amended soil. There was significant interaction effect between soil moisture and carbonates on CO2 emission. Soil moisture plays an important role in CO2 emission from calcareous soil because it affects both biotic and abiotic processes during the closed-jar incu-bation.

  1. Effect of Straw Amendment on Soil Zn Availability and Ageing of Exogenous Water-Soluble Zn Applied to Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanlong; Cui, Juan; Tian, Xiaohong; Zhao, Aiqing; Li, Meng; Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Xiushaung; Jia, Zhou; Liu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents. However, adding exogenous Zn plus straw increased the DTPA-Zn abundance by about 5-fold and had the similar results to adding exogenous Zn alone, corresponding to the increased Zn fraction loosely bounded to organic matter, which had a more dominant presence in Zn reaction than soil other constituents such as carbonate and minerals in calcareous soil. The higher relative amount of ineffective Zn (~50%) after water soluble Zn addition also occurred, and at the days of 120–165 and 180–210when the natural temperature and rainfall changed mildly, the ageing process of exogenous Zn over time was well evaluated by the diffusion equation, respectively. Consequently, combining crop residues with exogenous water soluble Zn application is promising strategy to maximize the availability of Zn in calcareous soil, but the higher ageing rate of Zn caused by the higher Zn mobility should be considered. PMID:28081179

  2. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43- level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43- concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (PStructural equation modeling for example could be used to understand the practical importance of individual soil, management and hydrological potential predictors of groundwater PO4.

  3. Inhibiting water evaporation of sandy soil by the soil particles modified with Japanese wax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zeng-Zhi; WANG Hong-Juan; Li Cui-Lan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to resolve the problems of water conservation of sandy soil in desertification areas. The surface of soil particles was modified by molecules of natural Japanese wax through some specially screened surfactant. The modified particles were then well sprayed onto the sand, which was placed in an artificial climate box with simulating desert environment, to form a soil film with effect of suppressing water and gas-permeability. Structure of soil film was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectrometry (IR). And its mechanism of water inhibition was illustrated with DSC and TG curves. Its influence on grass-planting was tested through the instruments of water detector. The results show that sorbitol anhydride stearate(Span 80)could well disperse the Japanese wax and make it combine with the clay which is also dispersed. The pores among soil particles grew smaller and turned from hydrophilic into hydrophobic, in which way resistance to water penetrating through the film was increased. Experimental grass grows normally on sandy soil with the soil film in the artificial desert climate box, indicating that the soil particles modified with Japanese wax is an effective method to inhibit water evaporation.

  4. Improving phosphorus uptake and wheat productivity by phosphoric acid application in alkaline calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad; Yaqub, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hernandez, Vicente Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Low phosphorus (P) efficiency from existing granular fertilisers necessitates searching for efficient alternatives to improve wheat productivity in calcareous soil. Multi-location trials have shown that phosphoric acid (PA) produced 16% higher wheat grain over commercial P fertilisers, i.e. diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP). Methods of P application significantly influenced grain yield and the efficiency of methods was observed in the order: PA placement below seed > PA, DAP or TSP fertigation > DAP or TSP broadcast. The sub-surface application of PA produced highest grain yields (mean of all rates), i.e. 4669, 4158 and 3910 kg ha(-1) in Bagh, Bhalwal and Shahpur soil series, respectively. Phosphoric acid at 66 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) was found more effective in increasing gain yield over that of control. Trend in grain P uptake was found similar to that observed for grain yield. Maximum P uptake by grain was recorded at the highest P rate and the lowest at zero P. The significant increase in P uptake with P rates was generally related to the increase in yield rather than its concentration in grain. Phosphorus agronomic efficiency (PAE) and phosphorus recovery efficiency (PRE) were found higher at lower P rate (44 kg P2 O5 ha(-1) ) and decreased with P application. However, PA applied by the either method resulted in higher PAE and PRE compared to DAP and TSP. Phosphoric acid is suggested as an efficient alternative to commercial granular P fertilisers for wheat production in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Trade-offs between soil hydrology and plant disease effects after biochar amendment in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Silva, Flavio; Amaro, Antonio; Pinto, Gloria; Mesquita, Raquel; Jesus, Claudia; Alves, Artur; Keizer, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can affect multiple soil-based ecosystem services to varying extents, leading to trade-offs. Improvements in plant-available water have predominantly been found at high biochar application rates in sandy soils. Reductions in plant diseases after biochar application have been found in various horticultural plants, and trees such as maple and oak, mostly at relatively low biochar application rates. Serious damage to Eucalyptus globulus has been reported since 1999 when frequent and severe defoliation of young trees was observed, and eucalypts are the major tree species in commercial forestry plantations of Portugal, forming an important economic activity. Here we investigated simultaneous effects on plant available water and on disease suppression of eucalypt, in a completely randomised full factorial greenhouse pot experiment, using a range of woody feedstock biochar concentrations in sandy soil. Treatments included plant inoculation with the fungus Neofusicoccum kwambonambiense and cycles of acute drought stress. Preliminary results showed delayed wilting for plants treated with 3-6% biochar, but also increased stem lesion length. These results suggest a trade-off between effects on water availability and disease for Eucalyptus globulus plants in the selected sandy soil amended with this specific biochar, at the selected application rates.

  6. Quantitative Retrieval of Soil Nutrient in Sandy Land Based on BJ-1 Multispectral Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai; Wang, Bengyu; Bai, Lina; Sun, Bin; Li, Changlong; Ding, Xiangyuan

    2014-11-01

    To research an indicator for sandy information, this paper conducts a study on soil nutrient in sandy land. Firstly, the difference of soil nutrient between sandy land and the other was analyzed. Secondly, the correlation between soil nutrient index and band was studied. Then the best inversion band and model was determined and evaluated. Finally, the distribution of soil nutrient was obtained. As the result indicated that the divergence of total nitrogen in different land was the maximum among the three nutrient indicators. With the development of desertification, total nitrogen declined dramatically. The correlation coefficient between each band and total nitrogen was relatively higher, and it reached 0.6. In addition, taking the reciprocal for the sum of three bands as the independent variable was an excellent choice, it could reflect the sandy information better than the single band. The quantitative retrieval model was checked by independent sample, and RMSE was 0.0407.

  7. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazif, W. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Marzouk, E.R. [Division of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Agricultural Sciences, Suez Canal University, North Sinai 45516 (Egypt); Perveen, S. [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Crout, N.M.J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Young, S.D., E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with {sup 70}Zn{sup 2+}; comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO{sub 3} and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na{sub 2}-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1 + F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO{sub 3} was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO{sub 3}. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (PCO{sub 2} controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent ‘adsorption’ model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO{sub 3}. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn{sup 2+}) data, although the apparent value of log{sub 10} Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}). - Highlights: • Isotopically exchangeable Zn in the calcareous soils of Peshawar is extremely low. • There is no evidence of topsoil enrichment from the use of wastewater for irrigation. • Solubility

  8. Effect of Particle Size and Soil Compaction on Gas Transport Parameters in Variably Saturated, Sandy Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2009-01-01

    the water retention curve), both exhibiting similar and exponential relationships with D50. Under variably saturated conditions, higher Dp and ka in coarser sand (larger D50) were observed due to rapid gas diffusion and advection through the less tortuous large-pore networks. In addition, soil compaction......The soil gas diffusion coefficient (Dp) and air permeability (ka) and their dependency on soil air content ( ) control gas diffusion and advection in soils. This study investigated the effects of average particle size (D50) and dry bulk density ( b) on Dp and ka for six sandy soils under variably...... saturated conditions. Data showed that particle size markedly affects the effective diameter of the drained pores active in leading gas through the sample at –100 cm H2O of soil water matric potential (calculated from Dp and ka) as well as the average pore diameter at half saturation (calculated from...

  9. Time-Dependent Zinc Desorption in Some Calcareous Soils of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.BARANIMOTLAGH; M.GHOLAMI

    2013-01-01

    Desorption of zinc (Zn) from soil is an important factor governing Zn concentration in the soil solution and Zn availability to plants.Batch experiments were performed to study the kinetics of Zn desorption by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from 15 calcareous soil samples taken from Golestan Province in northern Iran.Soils were equilibrated with 0.005 mol L-1 DTPA solutions for 0.25 to 192 h.The results showed that the extraction process consisted of rapid extraction in the first 2 h followed by much slower extraction for the remainder of the experiment.Desorption kinetic data was fitted to pseudo-first-order kinetic model.The experimental data were found to deviate from the straight line of the pseudo-first-order plots after 2 h.The model of two first-order reactions was fitted to the kinetic data and allowed to distinguish two pools for Zn:a labile fraction (Q1),quickly extracted with a rate constant k1,and a slowly labile fraction (Q2),more slowly extracted with a rate constant k2.The applicability of pseudo-second-order model in describing the kinetic data of Zn desorption was also evaluated.

  10. The fate of fresh and stored 15N-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to a sandy and a sandy loam soil using different application strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    .), or it was applied to ryegrass one month after sowing. In a sandy loam soil, 62% of the incorporated urine N and 78% of the incorporated urea N was recovered in three cuts of herbage after 5 months. In a sandy soil, 51-53% of the labelled N was recovered in the herbage and the distribution of labelled N in plant...... and soil was not significantly different for incorporated urine and urea. Almost all the supplied labelled N was accounted for in soil and herbage in the sandy loam soil, whereas 33-34% of the labelled N was unaccounted for in the sandy soil. When the stored urine was applied to the soil surface, 20...... unaccounted for was probably mainly lost by ammonia volatilization. Significantly more urine- than urea-derived N (36 and 19%, respectively) was immobilized in the sandy loam soil, whereas the immobilization of N from urea and urine was similar in the sandy soil (13-16%). The distribution of urine N, whether...

  11. Solute leaching in a sandy soil with a water-repellent surface layer: a simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de G.H.; Vries, de P.

    1996-01-01

    Many sandy soils in the Netherlands have a water-repellent surface layer covering a wettable soil with a shallow groundwater table. Fingers form in the water-repellent surface layer and rapidly transport water and solutes to the wettable soil in which the streamlines diverge. Although several field

  12. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    for each rotation: mouldboard ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (MP); harrowing to a depth of 8–10 cm (H); and direct drilling (D) at two experimental sites with a sandy loam soil and different water budgets in Denmark. The Muencheberg soil quality rating (M-SQR) method and simpler soil quality indices (i...

  13. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R

  14. Phosphorus Changes and Sorption Characteristics in a Calcareous Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Sheng-Li; DANG Ting-Hui; HAO Ming-De

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of phosphorus (P) behavior in long-term fertilized soils is essential for programming fertilization practices and for sustaining environmental quality.The long-term (1984-1997) effects of various fertilization treatments on P changes and sorption isotherms as well as the relationship of soil properties to P sorption and P forms were evaluated in an Ustic Isohumisol,a calcareous soil,on the Loess Plateau,China.Compared to 1984,after 13 years of crop production,total soil P in the no-P treatments (control and N treatment) decreased by 5%-7%,but in the phosphorus fertilizer alone (P),nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in combination (NP),manure alone (M),and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and manure in combination (NPM) treatments,it increased by 22%,19%,28%,and 58%,respectively.Residual fertilizer P was found mainly in NH4Ac-soluble P (Cas-P),followed by NaHCO3-sohible P (NaHCO3-P),and NH4F-soluble P (Al-P).Phosphorus sorption in the soils with different fertilization practices fit the Langmuir equations.Phosphorus sorption capacity in the no-P treatments increased,whereas it decreased in the P-included treatments (P,NP,and NPM treatments).Phosphorus sorption maximum (Qm) was significantly and negatively correlated to inorganic P including Na4CO3-P,Cas-P,NaOH-Na2CO3-soluble P (Fe-P),and AI-P (P ≤ 0.01).Moreover,long-term fertilization increased soil organic carbon in the NP,M,and NPM treatments and decreased pH in the NP and NPM treatments.Thus,the ability of the soil to release sorbed P to the environment increased under long-term P fertilization.

  15. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...... in a greenhouse using soil samples from the field and vegetative and yield parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, and fruit yield), water productivity, and harvest index were evaluated. All compost types significantly increased soil total carbon, total nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity...

  16. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  17. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, W; Marzouk, E R; Perveen, S; Crout, N M J; Young, S D

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with (70)Zn(2+); comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO3 and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na2-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1+F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO3 was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO3. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 (PCO2 controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent 'adsorption' model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO3. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn(2+)) data, although the apparent value of log10 Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO3).

  18. Assessment of grass root effects on soil piping in sandy soils using the pinhole test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Vannoppen, Wouter; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Soil piping is a complex land degradation process, which involves the hydraulic removal of soil particles by subsurface flow. This process is frequently underestimated and omitted in most soil erosion studies. However, during the last decades several studies reported the importance of soil piping in various climatic zones and for a wide range of soil types. Compared to sheet, rill and gully erosion, very few studies focused on the factors controlling piping and, so far, there is no research study dealing with the effects of plant roots on piping susceptibility of soils having a low cohesion. The objective of this study is therefore to assess the impact of grass root density (RD) on soil piping in sandy soils using the pinhole test. The pinhole test involves a water flow passing through a hole of 1 mm diameter in a soil specimen (sampled using a metal ring with a diameter of 5 cm and a length of 8 cm), under varying hydraulic heads (50 mm, 180 mm, 380 mm and 1020 mm; Nadal-Romero et al., 2011). To provide a quantitative assessment piping susceptibility of the soil sample, the pipeflow discharge (cm3 s-1) and the sediment discharge (g s-1) were measured every minute during a five minute test. Bare and root-permeated samples were tested, using a sandy soil with a sand, silt, clay content of respectively, 94%, 4% and 2%. The root-permeated topsoil samples were taken in field plots sown with a mixture of grasses with fibrous roots. All soil samples were placed on a sandbox with a 100 mm head for 24 hours to ensure a similar water content for all samples. In total, 67 pinhole tests (lasting 5 minutes each) were conducted, i.e. 43 root-permeated soil samples with RD ranging from 0.01 to 0.93 kg m-3 and 24 root-free soil samples as a reference. Clear piping erosion could be observed in 65% of the root-free soil samples, whereas only 17% of rooted soil samples revealed clear piping erosion during the tests. Statistical analyses show that there is a negative correlation (-0

  19. Origin and Distribution of Methane Entrapped in Calcareous Alpine Proglacial Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biqing; Schroth, Martin H.; Henneberger, Ruth; Kübler, Manuel; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. The atmospheric methane concentration has been increasing in recent years, which is caused by imbalance between sources and sinks. Methane has been recently discovered to be entrapped in calcareous Swiss Alpine proglacial soil. This CH4 can be released upon mechanical impact and acidification. However, the amount, distribution and environmental fate of this entrapped CH4 in proglacial environment remain unknown. The entrapped CH4 in proglacial soil may be of modern or ancient origin. Modern origin includes ongoing or recent microbial CH4 production (methanogenesis) in subglacial or proglacial environments. An ancient origin mainly refers to CH4 produced thermogenically. This soil entrapped CH4 might be a common phenomenon along the entire glacial forefield, or it might only be present at few locations and depth. We present results of studies from two Swiss Alpine Glacier catchments, Wildstrubel Glacier (Canton Valais) and the Griessfirn Glacier (Canton Uri). Our main goals were 1) to assess the origin of CH4 entrapped in various glacial environments (subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial, soil and bedrocks) using geochemical and microbiological evidence; 2) to assess the spatial distribution of entrapped CH4. We performed geochemical analysis (CH4 content, gas wetness ([C1]/[C2-C3] alkane ratio), CH4 stable 13C- and 2H-isotopes, TOC) on subglacial, proglacial, and supraglacial soil samples collected from well-aerated and water-logged locations. Geochemical analysis was also selectively conducted on pore-water samples and on rock samples collected from different geological formations along the catchments. We also performed batch incubations on soil samples collected from subglacial, proglacial water-logged and supraglacial zones. In addition, for the aforementioned three types of samples, we also performed molecular analyses targeting the mcrA gene, which encodes the α-subunit of the enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase

  20. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eLópez-Rayo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing Fe, Mn, and Zn with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, EDDHAm or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, IDHA and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate. The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  1. Reactivity and effectiveness of traditional and novel ligands for multi-micronutrient fertilization in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Nadal, Paloma; Lucena, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of multi-micronutrient formulations containing iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) with traditional (EDTA, DTPA, HEEDTA, and EDDHAm) or novel chelates (o,p-EDDHA, S,S-EDDS, and IDHA) and natural complexing agents (gluconate and lignosulfonate). The stability and reactivity of the formulations were studied on batch experiments with calcareous soil and by speciation modeling. Formulations containing traditional ligands maintained higher Mn but lower Zn concentration in soil solution than the novel ligands. The gluconate and lignosulfonate maintained low concentrations of both Mn and Zn in soil solution. Selected formulations were applied into calcareous soil and their efficacy was evaluated in a pot experiment with soybean. The formulation containing DTPA led to the highest Zn concentration in plants, as well as the formulation containing S,S-EDDS in the short-term, which correlated with its biodegradability. The application of traditional or novel ligands in formulations did not result in sufficient plant Mn concentrations, which was related to the low Mn stability observed for all formulations under moderate oxidation conditions. The results highlight the need to consider the effect of metals and ligands interactions in multi-nutrient fertilization and the potential of S,S-EDDS to be used for Zn fertilization. Furthermore, it is necessary to explore new sources of Mn fertilization for calcareous soils that have greater stability and efficiency, or instead to use foliar fertilization.

  2. Response of Tomato on Calcareous Soils to Different Seedbed Phosphorus Application Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Sheng; LIAO Hong; CHEN Qing; P. CHRISTIE; LI Xiao-Lin; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted with five rates (0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 kg P2O5 ha-1) of seedbed P fertilizer application to investigate the yield of tomato in response to fertilizer P rate on calcareous soils with widely different levels of Olsen P (13-142 mg kg-1) at 15 sites in some suburban counties of Beijing in 1999. Under the condition of no P fertilizer application, tomato yield generally increased with an increase in soil test P levels, and the agronomic level for soil testing P measured with Olsen method was 50 or 82 mg kg-1 soil to achieve 85% or 95% of maximum tomato yield, respectively. With regard to marketable yield, in the fields where Olsen-P levels were < 50 mg kg-1, noticeable responses to applied P were observed. On the basis of a linear plateau regression, the optimum seedbed P application rate in the P-insufficient fields was 125 kg P2O5 ha-1 or about 1.5-2 times the P removal from harvested tomato plants. In contrast, in fields with moderate (50 < Olsen P < 90 mg kg-1) or high (Olsen P > 90 mg kg-1) available P, there was no marked effect on tomato fruit yield. Field survey data indicated that in most fields with conventional P management, a P surplus typically occurred. Thus, once the soil test P level reached the optimum for crop yield, it was recommended that P fertilizer application be restricted or eliminated to minimize negative environmental effects.

  3. Reclamation of highly calcareous saline-sodic soil using low quality water and phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Rusan, M. J.; Eltaif, N. I.; Shunnar, O. F.

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of two amendments in reclaiming saline sodic soil using moderately saline (EC) and moderate sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) canal water was investigated. Phosphogypsum (PG) and reagent grade calcium chloride were applied to packed sandy loam soil columns and leached with canal water (SAR = 4, and EC = 2.16 dS m-1). Phosphogypsum was mixed with top soil prior to leaching at application rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 40 Mg ha-1, whereas calcium chloride was dissolved directly in water at equivalent rates of 4.25, 8.5, 12.75, 17.0, 21.25, 29.75, and 34 Mg ha-1, respectively. Both amendments efficiently reduced soil salinity and sodicity. Calcium chloride removed 90 % of the total Na and soluble salts whereas PG removed 79 and 60 %, respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage was reduced by 90 % in both amendments. Results indicated that during cation exchange reactions most of the sodium was removed when effluent SAR was at maximum. Phosphogypsum has lower total costs than calcium chloride and as an efficient amendment an application of 30 Mg ha-1 and leaching with 4 pore volume (PV) of canal water could be recommended to reclaim the studied soil.

  4. Soil formation on reddish-brown calcareous till under herbaceous vegetation during forty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reintam, Loit

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A special experiment was established in 1963 and initiated in 1964 at Eerika, Tartu County, Estonia (58°22¢ N, 26°36¢ E to study pedogenesis and its continuous development under grass-herbaceous vegetation on reddish-brown calcareous till which was practically free from organic carbon (0.6 g kg–1 and nitrogen (0.2 g kg–1. The results of the study of three earlier decades have been discussed earlier. This paper deals with the processes of synchronous production and soil formation as well as with pedogenetic activity during the fourth decade of the experiment and during the total period of 40 years. An intensive humus-accumulative process, wavy and cyclic in intensity, has continued, accompanied by the breakdown of skeletal carbonates, partial leaching of products, formation and accumulation of amorphous and crystalline nonsiliceous products of weathering, progress of argillization in situ, and slight lessivage of fine silt and clay within the thin top of enriched humus solum. Net accumulation of organic carbon and nitrogen was obtained by nearly equivalent amounts of humifiable issues of the production process. As these are temporally dynamic, the temporal periodicity of mineralization and humification relationships is also characteristic of synchronous pedogenesis. The low C : N ratio indicates an excellent quality of the humus formed since the beginning of primary soil formation. Against the background of the decadewise dynamic fulvicity of the humus and evident decrease in its total solubility, the transformation of Ca-humates into humins and the formation of R2O3-humic-fulvic complexes at the expense of RO-humic-fulvic complexes already during the third decade were ascertained. Intensification of the bonds of the humic-fulvic complexes with inactive sesquioxides and clay minerals and decrease in the amount of fulvic acids in the interlayeral structure of clay progressed during the fourth decade. Due to the weathering of sand fractions

  5. Effects of Common Ions on Zn Sorption in Some Calcareous Soils of Western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. JALALI; N. AHMADI MOHAMMAD ZINLI

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential to plant growth and relatively mobile in soils.This study was conducted to assess the effect of common ions (Ca2+,K+,Na+,NH4+,Cl-,NO3-,and H2PO4-) on sorption of Zn in surface samples of ten calcareous soils from western Iran using 10 mmol L-1 KCl,KNO3,KH2PO4,Ca(NO3)2,NaNO3,and NH4NO3 solutions as background electrolytes.The results indicated that both NH4+,K+,and Ca2+ equally decreased Zn sorption as compared to Na+.Zinc sorption was decreased by H2PO4- as compared to NO3- and Cl-.The Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted closely to the sorption data of all ions.The Langmuir maximum,bonding energy constant,and Freundlich distribution coefficient for Zn sorption differed among the various ionic background electrolytes.Langmuir sorption parameters showed that the presence of H2PO4- decreased the maximum Zn adsorbed,but increased the bonding energy.Although K+ and NH4+ equally influenced maximum Zn adsorbed,they differed in their effect on the distribution coefficient of Zn in soils.Values of saturation index calculated using Visual MINTEQ indicated that at the low Zn concentration,Zn solubility was controlled by sorption reactions and at the high Zn concentration,it was mainly controlled by sorption and mineral precipitation reactions,such as precipitation of Zn3 (PO4)2·4H2O,Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2,and ZnCO3.For most ionic background electrolytes,soil pH,CaCO3,and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly correlated with sorption parameters.

  6. Improvement of Water Movement in an Undulating Sandy Soil Prone to Water Repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Dekker, L.W.; Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of water repellency in soils strongly influence water flow. We investigated the variability of soil water content in a slight slope on a sandy fairway exhibiting water-repellent behavior. A time domain reflectometry (TDR) array of 60 probes measured water contents at 3-h

  7. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y; Durian, D J

    2014-10-01

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  8. Contribution of individual sorbents to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    A multisurface model is used to evaluate the contribution of various sorption surfaces to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil samples at pH 3.7-6.1 with different sorbent contents. This multisurface model considers soil as a set of independent sorption surfaces, i.e. organic matter (NI

  9. Factors affecting N immobilisation/mineralisation kinetics for cellulose-, glucose- and straw-amended sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinten, A.J.A.; Whitmore, A.P.; Bloem, J.; Howard, R.; Wright, F.

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of nitrogen immobilization/mineralization for cellulose-, glucose- and straw-amended sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory incubations. Three Scottish soils expected to exhibit a range of biological activity were used: aloamy sand, intensively cropped horticultural soi

  10. Irrigation and nitrogen use efficiency of Thuja occidentalis grown on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A combined conifer growth - soil water and nitrogen balance model was calibrated to simulate dry mass production and partitioning, water and nitrogen demand and nitrogen losses for Thuja occidentalis grown for two years on a sandy soil. Light interception was successfully described by the row-of-cub

  11. Influence of flooding and metal immobilising soil amendments on availability of metals for willows and earthworms in calcareous dredged sediment-derived soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Bart, E-mail: bart.vandecasteele@ilvo.vlaanderen.b [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tack, Filip M.G. [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Soil amendments previously shown to be effective in reducing metal bioavailability and/or mobility in calcareous metal-polluted soils were tested on a calcareous dredged sediment-derived soil with 26 mg Cd/kg dry soil, 2200 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 220 mg Pb/kg dry soil, and 3000 mg Zn/kg dry soil. The amendments were 5% modified aluminosilicate (AS), 10% w/w lignin, 1% w/w diammonium phosphate (DAP, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}), 1% w/w MnO, and 5% w/w CaSO{sub 4}. In an additional treatment, the contaminated soil was submerged. Endpoints were metal uptake in Salix cinerea and Lumbricus terrestris, and effect on oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in submerged soils. Results illustrated that the selected soil amendments were not effective in reducing ecological risk to vegetation or soil inhabiting invertebrates, as metal uptake in willows and earthworms did not significantly decrease following their application. Flooding the polluted soil resulted in metal uptake in S. cinerea comparable with concentrations for an uncontaminated soil. - Some soil amendments resulted in higher metal uptake by earthworms and willows than when the polluted soil was not amended but submersion of the polluted soil resulted in reduced Cd and Zn uptake in Salix cinerea.

  12. Effect of Coated Urea with Humic-Calcium on Transformation of Nitrogen in Coastal Sandy Soil: A Soil Column Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakhudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Coated Urea with Humic-Calcium on Transformation of Nitrogen in Coastal Sandy Soil: A Soil ColumnMethod (Sulakhudin, A Syukur, D Shiddieq and T Yuwono: In coastal sandy soil, mainly nitrogen losses due toleaching resulted to low fertilizer efficiency. Slow-release N fertilizers are proposed to minimize these losses, andhumic-calcium coated urea has been examined. A soil column method was used to compare the effects of coated ureawith humic-calcium on transformation and leaching loss of N in coastal sandy soil. The experiment aid to compare twokinds sources of humic substances (cow manure and peat which mixed with calcium as coated urea on transformation,vertical distribution and leaching N in coastal sandy soil. The concentration of humic-calcium coated urea i.e.1%, 5%and 10% based on their weight. The results showed that urea coated with humic-calcium from cow manure (UCHMand humic-calcium from peat (UCHP increased the N total and available N in the soil and decreased leaching loss ofN from the soil column. Compared to UCHP, UCHM in all concentration showed N-nitrate higher than N-ammonium onincubation length 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The N leached from a costal sandy soil with application coated urea with UCHMranged from 21.18% to 23.72% of the total N added as fertilizer, for coated urea with UCHP they ranged between21.44% and 23.25%, whereas for urea (control reached 29.48%. Leaching losses of mineral N were lower when ureacoated with UCHM compared to urea coated with UCHP or urea fertilizer. The study concluded that the UCHM isbetter than UCHP in decreasing N leached from coastal sandy soil

  13. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... and significantly decreased bulk density, with no effect on plant available water compared to the control. Fresh and dry fruit weights were significantly increased after compost addition. Plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and total biomass did not significantly improve after compost addition. Spent mushroom...

  14. Phytoavailability and fractions of iron and manganese in calcareous soil amended with composted urban wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lara, Francisco; Azcón, Mariano; Polo, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of applying composted urban wastes on the phytoavailability and distribution of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) among chemical fractions in soil. In order to study this concern several experiments in pots containing calcareous soil were carried out. The received treatments by adding separately two rates (20 and 80 Mg ha-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and/or municipal solid waste and sewage sludge (MSW-SS) co-compost. The cropping sequence was a lettuce crop followed by a barley crop. It was observed that treatments amended with composted urban wastes tended to promote slight increases in lettuce yield compared to the control. The highest Fe levels in lettuce were found when higher rates of MSW-SS co-compost were applied; these values were significant compared to those obtained in the other treatments. In all cases, the application of organic materials increased the concentration and uptake of Mn in lettuce compared to the control; however, these increases were significant only when higher rates of MSW compost were applied. The organic amendments had beneficial delayed effects on barley yields, showing, in most cases, significant increases compared to the control. In this context, treatments with MSW compost were found to be more effective than the equivalent treatments amended with MSW-SS co-compost. Compared to the control, composted urban wastes increased Fe concentration in straw and rachis, and decreased Fe concentration in barley grain. Similarly, a decreased concentration of Mn in the dry matter of barley crop grown in soils treated with composted urban wastes was observed.

  15. Effects of Carboxymethylcelluloses (CMC) on Some Hydraulic Properties of Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRY Henintsoa; INOUE Mitsuhiro; MORITANI Shigeoki; UZOMA Kingsley Chinyere

    2010-01-01

    The property of hydrophilic polymers capable absorbing huge volumes of water led to many practical applications of these new materials in arid regions for improving the water retention in sandy soils. Effects of four carboxymethylcelluloses (CMC), mixed at various rates with the sandy soil, on the water-holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity (Ks) when leached with distilled water (simulating rain), tap water, and saline water were evaluated. The maximum water absorption of CMCs ranged between 80 and 100 kg. kg-1 of polymer; however, the absorbent swelling capacity decreased significantly with increasing the salt concentration in the solution. The water absorption capacity of CMCs decreased significantly when incorporated in the sandy soil compared to that of the absorbent alone. Application of CMC increased significantly the available water content up to 3 ±0.5 times. All soils treated with CMCs showed a significant lower in Ks compared to the control soil. Meanwhile, Ks was found increased with increasing the salt concentration in the leaching solution. This understanding of characteristics of the absorbents and the interactions among absorbents, soil, and irrigation water quality would be of help in water management of sandy soil.

  16. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduced by increasing SP rate, which effectively reduced water in a sandy soil leaking to a deeper layer under the plough layer. The effect of SP on water distribution was obviously to the up layer and very little to the following deeper layers. Considering both the effects on water retention and infiltration capacity, it is suggested that SP be used to the sandy soil at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.5%.

  17. Effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycrrhizal Fungi in Phytoremediation of Zinc Contaminated Calcareous Soil by Vetiver Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahraminia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in phytoremediation of zinc contaminated calcareous soil by vetiver grass. Experiment was a factorial arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Two factors consisted of Zn levels (10, 150, 300 and 600 mg kg-1 as ZnSO4.7H2O and AM fungi (control, Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme. Shoot and root dry weights decreased as Zn levels increased. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased those plant measured parameters compared to those of control. With increasing Zn levels, and mycorrhizal inoculation, Zn uptake of shoot and root increased. Root colonization with mycorrhizal inoculation increased, but decreased as Zn levels increased. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased zinc extraction, uptake and translocation efficiencies. Zinc translocation factor decreased as Zn levels increased, however inoculation with AM fungi increased it. Zinc extraction and uptake efficiencies of G. intraradices were more than G. versiforme,while zinc translocation efficiency and factor were vice versa.

  18. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization.

  19. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  20. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  1. Application of Wenner Configuration to Estimate Soil Water Content in Pine Plantations on Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the mean value of surface soil water content rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively, field investigations on soil electrical resistivity (SER) with the Yokogawa 324400 earth resistivity meter and the surface (0-150 cm) soil water content (SWC) with time domain reflectometry (TDR), together with the abiotic factors including soil texture, structure,and salinity concentrations were conducted in the Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations on a sandy land. The measurement of SER was based on the 4-probe Wenner configuration method. Relationships between the values of SWC and SER were obtained based on analysis of the abiotic factors of the research site, which play a key role in affecting the soil electrical resistivity. Results indicate that the SER meter could be used to estimate the mean value of SWC in the Mongolian pine plantations on the sandy land during the growing seasons. The bulky nature of the equipment simplified the cumbersome measurements of soil water content with the general methods. It must be noted that the Wenner configuration method could only provide the mean values of the SWC, and the soil texture, structure,temperature, and solute concentrations influenced the SER and further affected the estimation of the SWC by the SER meter. Therefore, the results of this study could be applied on a sandy land during the growing seasons only. However,the SWC of other soil types also may be obtained according to the individual soil types using the procedures of this study.

  2. Experiments on the movement of pesticides in sandy soils to groundwater : prospects of testing preferential transport models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2012-01-01

    Many agricultural areas with humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soils are used also for the extraction of water for drinking-water supply. Model concepts have been developed for the fast preferential transport of plant protection products (pesticides) in such soils, e.g. by fingered and funneled flow. An i

  3. Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in Southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-Hui; FAN Zhi-Ping; D.K.LEE

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, large areas of the Horqin sandy land were afforested to prevent desertification. Although the afforestation policy appears successful, many people now doubt whether it is suitable to plant trees with high density on the poor soils in semiarid regions. Little is known about the impacts of afforestation on the sandy soil properties, although the evaluation of these impacts is fundamental to judge the rationality of afforestation policy. Soil phosphorus (P) fractions, acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and other soil chemical properties were compared among five adjoining typical ecosystems on poor sandy soils in southeastern Horqin sandy land. The ecosystems studied are natural elm savanna, degraded grassland, Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica) plantation, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation, and mixed plantation of Mongolian pine and poplar (Populus simonii). The results showed that organic P dominated soil P (47%-65%) was the principal source of available P. The degradation of elm savanna to grassland significantly reduced soil pH and resulted in an overall reduction in soil fertility, although slightly increased labile inorganic P. Grassland afforestation had no significant influence on soil pH, organic carbon, and total N but significantly reduced total P. Impacts of grassland afforestation on soil P fractions depended on tree species. Natural elm savanna had higher soil P conserving ability than artificial plantations. Therefore, with the aim of developing a sustainable ecosystem, we suggested that vegetations with low nutrient demand (particularly P) and efficient nutrient cycling would be more suitable for ecosystem restoration in the semiarid region.

  4. Soil Inorganic Nitrogen and Microbial biomass Carbon and Nitrogen Under Pine Plantations in Zhanggutai Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-Yuan; CHEN Fu-Sheng; ZENG De-Hui; ZHAO Qiong; CHEN Guang-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen (NH+4-N and NO-3N) and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) under 30-year-old fenced Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SF), unfenced P. sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litvin (SUF), and unfenced Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. (DUF) plantations in the Zhanggutai sandy soil of China were studied during Apr. to Oct. 2004 by the in situ closed-top core incubation method. All mentioned C and N indices in each stand type fluctuated over time. The ranges of inorganic N, Cmic, and Nmic contents in the three stand types were 0.7-2.6, 40.0-128.9, and 5.4-15.2 μg g-1, respectively. The average contents of soil NH+4-N and Cmic under the three 30-year-old pine plantations were not different. However, soil NO-3-N and total inorganic N contents decreased in the order of SUF > SF > DUF, the Nmic content was in the order of SF = SUF > DUF, and the Cmic:Nmic ratio was in the order of SUF = DUF > SF. Seasonal variations were observed in soil inorganic N, microbial biomass, and plant growth. These seasonal variations had certain correlations with microbe and plant N use in the soil, and their competition for NH+4-N was mostly regulated by soil N availability. The influence of tree species on inorganic N and Nmic were mainly because of differences in litter quality. Lack of grazing decreased the Cmic:N ratio owing to decreased carbon output and increased the ability of soil to supply N. The soil N supply under the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantation was lower than under the P. densiflora plantation.

  5. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of fababean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Li, Haigang; Leffelaar, P.A.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of soil phosphorus (P) fractions were investigated, in the rhizosphere of fababean (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous and acid soils. Plants were grown in a mini-rhizotron with a thin (3 mm) soil layer, which was in contact with the root-mat, and considered as r

  6. Are phenolic compounds released from the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus responsible for changes in N cycling in siliceous and calcareous soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Castells; Josep Peñuelas; David W. Valentine

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effects of Cistus albidus leaf leachates on nitrogen-cycling processes in two siliceous soils (granite and schist) and one calcareous soil. We compared those effects with gross N-transformation rates in soils sampled underneath Cistus. Our results show that although phenolic compounds leached from green foliage...

  7. Distribution of transformed organic matter in structural units of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, B. M.; Yashin, M. A.; Semenov, V. M.; Avdeeva, T. N.; Markina, L. G.; Lukin, S. M.; Tarasov, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of land use types and fertilizing systems on the structural and aggregate composition of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil and the quantitative parameters of soil organic matter has been studied. The contribution of soil aggregates 2-1 mm in size to the total Corg reserve in the humus horizon is higher than the contributions of other aggregates by 1.3-4.2 times. Reliable correlations have been revealed between the contents of total (Corg), labile (Clab), and active (C0) organic matter in the soil. The proportion of C0 is 44-70% of Clab extractable by neutral sodium pyrophosphate solution. The contributions of each of the 2-1, 0.5-0.25, and humus horizon of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil, the active, slow, and passive pools contain 6-11, 34-65, and 26-94% of the total Corg, respectively.

  8. Plant functional diversity enhances associations of soil fungal diversity with vegetation and soil in the restoration of semiarid sandy grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Wang, Shaokun; Lv, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The trait-based approach shows that plant functional diversity strongly affects ecosystem properties. However, few empirical studies show the relationship between soil fungal diversity and plant functional diversity in natural ecosystems. We investigated soil fungal diversity along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semifixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rRNA and gene sequencing. We also examined associations of soil fungal diversity with plant functional diversity reflected by the dominant species' traits in community (community-weighted mean, CWM) and the dispersion of functional trait values (FD is). We further used the structure equation model (SEM) to evaluate how plant richness, biomass, functional diversity, and soil properties affect soil fungal diversity in sandy grassland restoration. Soil fungal richness in mobile dune and semifixed dune was markedly lower than those of fixed dune and grassland (P functional diversity explained nearly 70% variances of soil fungal richness. Strong association of soil fungal richness with the dominant species in the community supported the mass ratio hypothesis. Our results clearly highlight the role of plant functional diversity in enhancing associations of soil fungal diversity with community structure and soil properties in sandy grassland ecosystems.

  9. Assessment of physical and chemical indicators of sandy soil quality for sustainable crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2017-04-01

    Sandy soils are used in agriculture in many regions of the world. The share of sandy soils in Poland is about 55%. The aim of this study was to assess spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties affecting soil quality and crop yields in the scale of field (40 x 600 m) during three years of different weather conditions. The experimental field was located on the post glacial and acidified sandy deposits of low productivity (Szaniawy, Podlasie Region, Poland). Physical soil quality indicators included: content of sand, silt, clay and water, bulk density and those chemical: organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, acidity (pH). Measurements of the most soil properties were done at spring and summer each year in topsoil and subsoil layer in 150 points. Crop yields were evaluated in places close to measuring points of the soil properties. Basic statistics including mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis minimal, maximal and correlations between the soil properties and crop yields were calculated. Analysis of spatial dependence and distribution for each property was performed using geostatistical methods. Mathematical functions were fitted to the experimentally derived semivariograms that were used for mapping the soil properties and crop yield by kriging. The results showed that the largest variations had clay content (CV 67%) and the lowest: sand content (5%). The crop yield was most negatively correlated with sand content and most positively with soil water content and cation exchange capacity. In general the exponential semivariogram models fairly good matched to empirical data. The range of semivariogram models of the measured indicators varied from 14 m to 250 m indicate high and moderate spatial variability. The values of the nugget-to-sill+nugget ratios showed that most of the soil properties and crop yields exhibited strong and moderate spatial dependency. The kriging maps allowed identification of low yielding sub-field areas that

  10. CaCO3 and SrCO3 bioprecipitation by fungi isolated from calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Paton, Graeme Iain; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    The urease-positive fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum, isolated from calcareous soil, were examined for their properties of CaCO3 and SrCO3 biomineralization. After incubation in media amended with urea and CaCl2 and/or SrCl2 , calcite (CaCO3 ), strontianite (SrCO3 ), vaterite in different forms [CaCO3 , (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 ] and olekminskite [Sr(Sr,Ca)(CO3 )2 ] were precipitated, and fungal 'footprints' were observed on mineral surfaces. The amorphous precipitate mediated by Pestalotiopsis sp. grown with urea and equivalent concentrations of CaCl2 and SrCl2 was identified as hydrated Ca and Sr carbonates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid media experiments showed M. gramineum possessed the highest Sr(2+) removal ability, and ∼ 49% of supplied Sr(2+) was removed from solution when grown in media amended with urea and 50 mM SrCl2 . Furthermore, this organism could also precipitate 56% of the available Ca(2+) and 28% of the Sr(2+) in the form of CaCO3 , SrCO3 and (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 when incubated in urea-amended media and equivalent CaCl2 and SrCl2 concentrations. This is the first report of biomineralization of olekminskite and coprecipitation of Sr into vaterite mediated by fungi. These findings suggest that urease-positive fungi could play an important role in the environmental fate, bioremediation or biorecovery of Sr or other metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates.

  11. Irrigation initiation timing in soybean grown on sandy soils in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation initiation timing was evaluated in furrow-irrigated soybean field with sandy soils in Mississippi County, AR. A major objective of this 2015 study was to validate and expand irrigation timing recommendations that pair plant growth measures with weather cues including use of local weather ...

  12. Effects of DCD addition to slurry on nitrate leaching in sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Zwart, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of the addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to cattle slurry, applied in autumn to an arable sandy soil, were investigated in a three-year field experiment in the Netherlands. Treatments included application of slurry with DCD in November and December, application

  13. Transport of water and solutes in wettable and water repellent sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The research yielded the following conclusions and results: preferential flow can be expected in recently deposited, loosely packed, wettable dune sands; preferential flow is common in most water-repellent sandy soils; distribution flow in topsoils isa process of major importance, resulting in a

  14. OsIRO2 is responsible for iron utilization in rice and improves growth and yield in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Itai, Reiko N; Kobayashi, Takanori; Aung, May Sann; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-04-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency, a worldwide agricultural problem on calcareous soil with low Fe availability, is also a major human nutritional deficit. Plants induce Fe acquisition systems under conditions of low Fe availability. Previously, we reported that an Fe-deficiency-inducible basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, OsIRO2, is responsible for regulation of the genes involved in Fe homeostasis in rice. Using promoter-GUS transformants, we showed that OsIRO2 is expressed throughout a plant's lifetime in a spatially and temporally similar manner to the genes OsNAS1, OsNAS2 and TOM1, which is involved in Fe absorption and translocation. During germination, OsIRO2 expression was detected in embryos. OsIRO2 expression in vegetative tissues was restricted almost exclusively to vascular bundles of roots and leaves, and to the root exodermis under Fe-sufficient conditions, and expanded to all tissues of roots and leaves in response to Fe deficiency. OsIRO2 expression was also detected in flowers and developing seeds. Plants overexpressing OsIRO2 grew better, and OsIRO2-repressed plants showed poor growth compared to non-transformant rice after germination. OsIRO2 overexpression also resulted in improved tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soil. In addition to increased Fe content in shoots, the overexpression plants accumulated higher amounts of Fe in seeds than non-transformants when grown on calcareous soil. These results suggest that OsIRO2 is synchronously expressed with genes involved in Fe homeostasis, and performs a crucial function in regulation not only of Fe uptake from soil but also Fe transport during germination and Fe translocation to grain during seed maturation.

  15. Biochar and Mill Ash Use as Soil Amendments to Grow Sugarcane in Sandy Soils of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Campos, O.; Lang, T. A.; Bhadha, J. H.; McCray, M.; Gao, B.; Glaz, B.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The use of agricultural and urban organic residues as amendments provides an option to improve sugarcane production in sandy soils located northwest of the Everglades Agricultural Area, while reducing waste. This study was conducted to determine the effect of mill ash and three biochars on sugarcane yield and sandy soil properties. Mill ash and biochars produced from hardwood yard waste (HY), barn shavings with horse manure (HM), and rice hulls (RH) were incorporated at 1% and 2% (by weight) to sandy soils in a lysimeter experiment. A control without amendment and an often-used commercial practice of mill ash applied at 6% (AS6) were also included. Results showed that RH2 and AS6 produced greater biomass and sucrose yield compared with the control. According to critical nutrient level analysis, RH and AS amendments also resulted in the highest silicon content, which had a positive correlation with increasing sugarcane yield. In addition, RH2 and AS6 increased total phosphorus, Mehlich-3 phosphorus, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared with the control. While CEC remained constant with AS2 and AS6 applications, CEC significantly increased over time with RH2. Moreover, higher amendment applications increased soil organic matter compared with the control and did not decrease over time, which suggests a positive influence for long term carbon sustainability and nutrient cycling in sandy soils. Overall, RH2 and AS6 have the most potential to be used as amendments in sandy soils of South Florida due to their positive effects on soil properties, which improved sugarcane yield. However, no negative consequences were found with the application of any other amendment in terms of sugarcane growth and soil quality. Future research should focus on the use of RH and AS amendments on long-term field-scale studies, and the economic feasibility of a single year application on plant and ratoon cane yields.

  16. Temporal stability of electrical conductivity in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Brevik, Eric C.; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of soil spatial variability is needed to delimit areas for precision agriculture. Electromagnetic induction sensors which measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity reflect soil spatial variability. The objectives of this work were to see if a temporally stable component could be found in electrical conductivity, and to see if temporal stability information acquired from several electrical conductivity surveys could be used to better interpret the results of concurrent surveys of electrical conductivity and soil water content. The experimental work was performed in a commercial rainfed olive grove of 6.7 ha in the `La Manga' catchment in SW Spain. Several soil surveys provided gravimetric soil water content and electrical conductivity data. Soil electrical conductivity values were used to spatially delimit three areas in the grove, based on the first principal component, which represented the time-stable dominant spatial electrical conductivity pattern and explained 86% of the total electrical conductivity variance. Significant differences in clay, stone and soil water contents were detected between the three areas. Relationships between electrical conductivity and soil water content were modelled with an exponential model. Parameters from the model showed a strong effect of the first principal component on the relationship between soil water content and electrical conductivity. Overall temporal stability of electrical conductivity reflects soil properties and manifests itself in spatial patterns of soil water content.

  17. Retention of pesticides in sandy soil columns modified with a wood barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Martin, M. J.; Rodriguez-Cruz, M. S.; Ordax, J. M.; Arienzo, M.

    2009-07-01

    Wood residues can be used as low-cost potential sorbents of hydrophobic pesticides in technologies aimed to prevent soil and water contamination and reduce the risk of environmental pollution produced by point pollution sources of these compounds. The objective of this work was to study the effect of a pine or oak sawdust barrier on the retention of Iinuron, alachlor and metalaxyl, with different hydrophobic character, in a sandy soil. (Author)

  18. Parameters of the occurrence of internal erosion processes in salty-sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić Grozdana

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed at defining the conditions of the occurrence of internal erosion in silty-sandy soils. The susceptibility of this soil to internal erosion depends on the porosity, particle-size composition and hydro-geo-mechanical parameters. Internal erosion stability was analyzed by the introduction of the coefficient of particle composition as the critical particle-size condition, which is in fact the coefficient of internal erosion (Kue). Based on the study results, mathematical model...

  19. Fire impacts on water repellency of sandy soils in SW Spanish coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdá, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Although water repellency of sandy soils from dune areas and their consequences (irregular wetting front, preferential flow pathways) are well studied, there is not much information about the effect of fire on hydrophobicity and its consequences in these areas. In this paper we study the in-depth variation of water repellency of burnt sandy soils from south-western Spain. Generally, it was observed that water repellency from unburnt forest soils is relatively higher than in shrublands and grasslands (where the lowest values were observed). However, the impact of fire caused a strong increase of hydrophobicity in the first two cases, with no major differences between them. This study confirms the presence of natural water repellency in sandy soils, as well as some of its consequences (irregular infiltration or increased surface water flow) depending on the type of vegetation, although the differences observed in burnt soils suggest that, although the composition of vegetation is important in the formation of natural water repellency, organic matter content is much more important in the case of burnt soils.

  20. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Bruun, Esben; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    of wood-based biochar on soil respiration, water contents, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), arylsulfatase activity (ASA), and crop yields at two temperate sandy loam soils under realistic field conditions. In situ soil respiration, PAO, and ASA were not significantly different in quadruplicate field......, it was found that soil pH, rather than biochar rates, was a driving environmental variable. For ASA, the methodological approach was challenged by product sorption, but results did not suggest that biochar significantly stimulated the enzyme activity. Crop yields of maize in field experiments with 10–100 Mg...

  1. Sustainable long-term intensive application of manure to sandy soils without phosphorus leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asomaning, Samuel K.; Abekoe, Mark K.; Dowuona, G.N.N.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of manure to sandy soils to ensure high crop productivity may lead to phosphorus (P) leaching, which, in turn, may deteriorate the quality of recipient waters because of eutrophication. The risk of P leaching depends on contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides...... soils, whereas in the deepest soil layers the P contents in the cultivated and uncultivated soils were almost the same indicating very limited downward P transport despite long-term manure application. This was supported by comparable P concentrations in groundwater taken under cultivated...

  2. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms ( were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1 were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with . Moreover, at all the levels of , P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  3. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation.

  4. Impact of biochar addition on thermal properties of a sandy soil: modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Lukowski, Mateusz; Bis, Zbigniew; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    Adding biochar can alter soil thermal properties and increase the water holding capacity and reduce the mineral soil fertilization. Biochar in the soil can determine the heat balance on the soil surface and the temperature distribution in the soil profile through changes in albedo and the thermal properties. Besides, amendment of soil with biochar results in improvement of water retention, fertility and pH that are of importance in sandy and acid soils, widely used in agriculture. In this study we evaluated the effects of wood-derived biochar (0, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1) incorporated to a depth of 0-15 cm on the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and porosity in sandy soil under field conditions. In addition, soil-biochar mixtures of various percentages of biochar were prepared to determine the thermal properties in function of soil water status and density in laboratory. It was shown that a small quantity of biochar added to the soil does not significantly affect all the thermal properties of the soil. Increasing biochar concentration significantly enhanced porosity and decreased thermal conductivity and diffusivity with different rate depending on soil water status. The soil thermal conductivity and diffusivity varied widely and non-linearly with water content for different biochar content and soil bulk density. However, the heat capacity increased with biochar addition and water content linearly and was greater at higher than lower soil water contents. The measured and literature thermal data were compared with those obtained from the analytic model of Zhang et al. (2013) and statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2016) based on soil texture, biochar content, bulk density and water content.

  5. Soil erosion rates by wind-driven rain from a sandy soil in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, W.; Kuhn, N. J.; Itin, N.; Tesch, S.; Heckrath, G.; Ries, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind and water is able to cause severe soil loss from agricultural fields. Laboratory studies in recent years have shown that wind most probably has an increasing effect on soil erosion rates by water. However, field studies have so far not been able to quantify and proof this assumption explicitly. Especially the differentiation between the influence of windless and wind-driven erosion seems to be the major issue. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to explicitly investigate the importance of wind-driven rain in relation to erosion rates without the effect of wind by applying a newly developed Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS) that is able to simulate the processes both separately and simultaneously. The PWRS was used on bare sandy soil near Viborg, Denmark. Prior to simulation the soil was ploughed and after consolidation harrowed to create surface structures and roughness representing typical conditions after seed bed preparation. To facilitate the separation of specific influences by wind-driven rain and to avoid systematic errors a defined order of four consecutive test runs was established: 0) single wind test run for 10 min, 1) single rainfall test run on dry soil, 2) single rainfall test run on moist soil, 3) simultaneous wind and rainfall test run (wind-driven rainfall). Each rainfall simulation lasted for 30 minutes with a 30 min break in between to allow for initial drainage of the soil and for remounting sediment catchers. By utilizing a gutter in combination with wedge-shaped sediment traps it was possible to separate between splash and runoff erosion from the 2.2 m2 plot. The results show a wide range of soil detachment raging from zero up to more than 500 g m-2 in 30 minutes. Five out of nine test sequences support the theory that wind-driven rain causes more erosion than windless rain. The relation between the two processes is therefore not as clear as expected and seems to be dominated by the natural variability

  6. Vertical distribution of soil moisture and surface sandy soil wind erosion for different types of sand dune on the southeastern margin of the Mu Us Sandy Land, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChaoFeng Fu; JingBo Zhao; FanMin Mei; TianJie Shao; Jun Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture is a critical state affecting a variety of land surface and subsurface processes. We report investigation results of the factors controlling vertical variation of soil moisture and sand transport rate of three types of dunes on the south-eastern margin of the Mu Us Sandy Land. Samples were taken from holes drilled to a depth of 4 m at different topographic sites on the dunes, and were analyzed for soil moisture, grain-size distribution and surface sediment discharge. The results show that: (1) The average soil moisture varies in different types of dunes, with the following sequences ordered from highest to lowest: in the shrubs-covered dunes and the trees-covered dunes the sequence is from inter-dunes lowland to windward slope to leeward slope. The average moisture in the bare-migratory sand dunes is sequenced from inter-dunes lowland to leeward slope to windward slope. (2) Vegetation form and surface coverage affect the range of soil moisture of different types of dunes in the same topographic position. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture for shrubs-covered dunes is higher than that of other types of dune. (3) The effect of shrubs on dune soil moisture is explained in terms of the greater ability of shrubs to trap fine-grained atmospheric dust and hold moisture. (4) The estimated sand transport rates over sand dunes with sparse shrubs are less than those over bare-migratory dunes or sand dunes with sparse trees, indi-cating that shrubs are more effective in inhibiting wind erosion in the sandy land area.

  7. Evaluation of chemical indices of soil Pb availability in calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Afifi, M.A. [Dept. of Plant Production, Coll. of Agricultural Science, United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this study was to compure six soil test (1 M KNO{sub 3}, 1 M NH{sub 4}OAC, 0.005 M DTPA, 0.1 M EDTA, 1 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.025 M Ca DTPA B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) as extractants for soil Pb and as predictors of plant available Pb for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the greenhouse. The soils received 0, 200 and 400 mg Pb kg{sup -1} as Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and are referred to as Pb{sub 0}, Pb{sub 1} and Pb{sub 2} treatments respectively. Of the six soil extractants, 1 M HNO{sub 3} was the most effective extractant for Pb from Pb{sub 0} treatment whereas 0.1 M EDTA and 0.025 M Ca DTPA-B{sub 4}O{sub 7} were the best and equally effective in their ability to extract Pb from Pb{sub 1} and Pb{sub 2} treatments. Regression analysis was used to develop two variable models for predicting Pb uptake by wheat as a function of extractable Pb and selected soil properties. The 0.025 M Ca DTPA-B{sub 4}O{sub 7} extractant was the best in predicting uptake by wheat in Pb{sub 0} (r=0.791*** significant at p=0.001) and Pb{sub 1} (r=0.726***) and Pb{sub 2} (r=0.942***) treatments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war der Vergleich von 6 Methoden (a) 1 M KNO{sub 3}, (b) 1 M NH{sub 4} OAC, (c) 0.25 M Ca DTPA-B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, (d) 0.005 M DTPA, (e) 0.1 M EDTA, (f) 1 M HNO{sub 3} zur Charakterisierung des fuer Pflanzen verfuegbaren Boden-Pb. Proben (0-15 cm) von 22 kalkhaltigen Boeden wurden mit 0 (=Pb{sub 0}), 200 (=Pb{sub 1}), bzw. 400 (=Pb{sub 2}) mg Pb kg{sup -1} als Pb (NO{sub 3}){sub 2} versetzt und im Gefaessversuch mit Weizen kultiviert. Methode (f) extrahierte am meisten aus Pb{sub 0}, (c) und (e) brachten mehr aus Pb{sub 1} und Pb{sub 2}, (c) korrelierte am besten mit dem Pflanzenentzug (Pb{sub 0} r=0,791*** bei p=0.001; Pb{sub 1} 0.726***, Pb{sub 2} 0.942***). (orig.)

  8. Parameters of the occurrence of internal erosion processes in salty-sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Grozdana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at defining the conditions of the occurrence of internal erosion in silty-sandy soils. The susceptibility of this soil to internal erosion depends on the porosity, particle-size composition and hydro-geo-mechanical parameters. Internal erosion stability was analyzed by the introduction of the coefficient of particle composition as the critical particle-size condition, which is in fact the coefficient of internal erosion (Kue. Based on the study results, mathematical models and the functional correlation between water regime and resistant characteristics of silty-sandy soils, we defined the parameters of the occurrence of initial internal erosion and analyzed the effects of the practical application of the study results.

  9. Competition between n-alkane-assimilating yeasts and bacteria during colonization of sandy soil microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, C; Goebel, I; Wagner, S; Vomberg, A; Klinner, U

    2000-07-01

    An n-alkane-assimilating strain of Candida tropicalis was selected in sandy soil inoculated with microorganisms from contaminated sites. Competition experiments with n-alkane utilizers from different strain collections confirmed that yeasts overgrow bacteria in sandy soil. Acidification of the soil is one of the colonization factors useful for the yeasts. It can be counteracted by addition of bentonite, a clay mineral with high ion exchange capacity, but not, however, by kaolin. Strains of different yeast species showed different levels of competitiveness. Strains of Arxula adeninivorans, Candida maltosa, and Yarrowia lipolytica overgrew strains of C. tropicalis, C. shehatae or Pichia stipitis. Two strains of C. maltosa and Y. lipolytica coexisted during several serial transfers under microcosm conditions.

  10. Volatilisation of o-Xylene from Sandy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Brun, Adam

    1994-01-01

    The diffusive release of o-xylene from two soils with different contents of organic carbon (1.1 % and 0.11 % TOC) and with two different water contents (app. 5 % w/w and 15 % w/w was studied in the laboratory. The soils were spiked with o-xylene in the laboratory. The fluxes were measured over...

  11. Fit-for-purpose phosphorus management: do riparian buffers qualify in catchments with sandy soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David; Summers, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope runoff and leaching studies, catchment-scale water quality measurements and P retention and release characteristics of stream bank and catchment soils were used to better understand reasons behind the reported ineffectiveness of riparian buffers for phosphorus (P) management in catchments with sandy soils from south-west Western Australia (WA). Catchment-scale water quality measurements of 60 % particulate P (PP) suggest that riparian buffers should improve water quality; however, runoff and leaching studies show 20 times more water and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more P are transported through leaching than runoff processes. The ratio of filterable reactive P (FRP) to total P (TP) in surface runoff from the plots was 60 %, and when combined with leachate, 96 to 99 % of P lost from hillslopes was FRP, in contrast with 40 % measured as FRP at the large catchment scale. Measurements of the P retention and release characteristics of catchment soils (bank soil (bank soils suggest that catchment soils contain more P, are more P saturated and are significantly more likely to deliver FRP and TP in excess of water quality targets than stream bank soils. Stream bank soils are much more likely to retain P than contribute P to streams, and the in-stream mixing of FRP from the landscape with particulates from stream banks or stream beds is a potential mechanism to explain the change in P form from hillslopes (96 to 99 % FRP) to large catchments (40 % FRP). When considered in the context of previous work reporting that riparian buffers were ineffective for P management in this environment, these studies reinforce the notion that (1) riparian buffers are unlikely to provide fit-for-purpose P management in catchments with sandy soils, (2) most P delivered to streams in sandy soil catchments is FRP and travels via subsurface and leaching pathways and (3) large catchment-scale water quality measurements are not good indicators of hillslope P mobilisation and transport

  12. Use of dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers to reduce phosphorus leaching from sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G C; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Yang, X E; Yu, S; Calvert, D

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing concern over P leaching from sandy soils applied with water-soluble P fertilizers. Laboratory column leaching experiments were conducted to evaluate P leaching from a typical acidic sandy soil in Florida amended with DPR fertilizers developed from dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) and N-Viro soil. Ten leaching events were carried out at an interval of 7 days, with a total leaching volume of 1,183 mm equivalent to the mean annual rainfall of this region during the period of 2001-2003. Leachates were collected and analyzed for total P and inorganic P. Phosphorus in the leachate was dominantly reactive, accounting for 67.7-99.9% of total P leached. Phosphorus leaching loss mainly occurred in the first three leaching events, accounting for 62.0-98.8% of the total P leached over the whole period. The percentage of P leached (in the total P added) from the soil amended with water-soluble P fertilizer was higher than those receiving the DPR fertilizers. The former was up to 96.6%, whereas the latter ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. These results indicate that the use of N-Viro-based DPR fertilizers can reduce P leaching from sandy soils.

  13. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  14. Phosphorus leaching from a sandy soil in the presence of modified and un-modified adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharami, Somayeh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from a sandy soil was investigated in the presence of modified and unmodified clay minerals and nanoparticles (NPs). Compared with control soil, amended soil with NPs had the highest percentage of P retention than amended soil with clay minerals. Among the adsorbents used, the highest percentage of P retention was produced by Al₂O₃-chitosan while the lowest percentage of P retention was by zeolite. Data measured for P leaching after using adsorbents were used to predict P leaching using transport model. PHREEQC model was able to model P leaching from control and amended soil. After leaching, P values in control and amended soil were fractionated by a sequential extraction procedure. Concentration of P in Ca-bound fraction (HCl-P) after application of modified and unmodified clay minerals and NPs (except TiO₂ and Al₂O₃) increased and decreased, respectively. Saturation indices (SIs) and P speciation were assessed using the Visual MINTEQ version 2.3 program. According to the SIs, leaching P from control and amended soil with different adsorbent was controlled by dissolution of hydroxyapatite. The results indicated that used adsorbents can reduce P leaching from the sandy soil. Thus, retention of P by amended soil reduced a risk in terms of groundwater contamination with P.

  15. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility. PMID:27589265

  16. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility.

  17. Plant functional diversity enhances associations of soil fungal diversity with vegetation and soil in the restoration of semiarid sandy grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Wang, Shaokun; Lv, Peng; Zhou, Xin; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The trait‐based approach shows that plant functional diversity strongly affects ecosystem properties. However, few empirical studies show the relationship between soil fungal diversity and plant functional diversity in natural ecosystems. We investigated soil fungal diversity along a restoration gradient of sandy grassland (mobile dune, semifixed dune, fixed dune, and grassland) in Horqin Sand Land, northern China, using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 18S rRNA and gen...

  18. Using humic acid for remediation of sandy soils contaminated by heavy metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new remediation technology for contaminated sandy soil using humic acid (HA). Distribution of amount of Cr (VI) in the aqueous or solid system containing humic acid and sandy soil, was studied using batch experiments, es-pecially for effects of reaction time, pH, concentrations, temperature and irradiation on the reduction of Cr (VI), and the optimum reaction conditions. The results indicated a significant increase of the adsorption of Cr (VI) because of the complexion reaction between HA and Cr (VI) that occurred under acidic condition. The reaction mechanisms of HA with chromium on sand surfaces were certified. Thus it came to a conclusion that HA could be used effectively on remediation of Cr (VI)-contaminated soil and groundwater in a wide range of pH, with or without sunlight. These results suggest that the organic-inorganic complex-such as sandy soils coated with humic substances-is important as a metal reservoir in the environment.

  19. Soil pH management by calcareous and siliceous minerals: effect on N2O yield in nitrification and denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Amelioration of soil pH by liming is necessary and common practice in vast areas of crop production. It is well known that pH is one of the most pervasive factors controlling rates and product stoichiometries in microbially mediated N transformations, including N2O emissions. While liming of acid soils appears to increase N2O reductase activity in denitrification (resulting in less N2O relative to N2), sudden pH raise may boost nitrification and hence N2O emission from ammonia oxidation. Thus, the net effect of liming on N2O emissions is not straightforward, which probably explains why soil pH management has not been embraced as a strategy for mitigating N2O emissions so far. Here we report laboratory incubations in which we determined potential rates and N2O yields in soils from an ongoing field experiment, comparing traditional calcareous limes (calcite, dolomite) with mafic minerals (olivine, different types of plagioclase). The experiment is in its second year, and shows strong pH increase (0.7-1.5, units) in plots with calcareous limes, a weak pH increase (~ 0.2 unit) in the olivine treatment and no measurable pH increase with the plagioclases. Potential nitrification rates correlated positively with effective soil pH as did the N2O yield, measured as N2O accumulation rate over NO2- + NO3- accumulation rate. The N2O yield increased in the order, control automated field flux robot (using fast box technique) in the same liming experiment.

  20. Spatial patterns of wetting characteristics in grassland sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfánus Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In grasslands where organic and inorganic resources are alternating at scales of individual plants, the transient character is given to certain wetting properties of soil, which then become highly variable both in space and in time. The objective of presented study was to study wetting pattern within two soil horizons at 5-cm and 10-cm depths respectively and to examine how the wetting patterns relate to hydraulic conductivity determined by Minidisc infiltrometer at suction −2 cm, K(−2 cm. This characteristics is implicitly independent on antecedent soil water content (SWC since it relates to steady infiltration phase but can be influenced by present soil water repellency (SWR. Field measurements were performed on July 27–28, 2010 on the grassland experimental site located near the village Sekule in Southwest Slovakia. The water drop penetration time (WDPT, SWC and tension Minidisc infiltration measurements were carried out on the 0.64 m2 plot in a regular 8 × 8 grid. The results showed that SWR and SWC influence each other and cause correlation between spatial patterns of studied soil wetting characteristics and between characteristics measured at the two soil depths. Further, it was found out, that calculation of K(−2 cm according to Zhang may cause apparent correlation of K(−2 cm with antecedent SWC, which is the artificial effect of sorptivity parameter in the equation on steady stage of infiltration process. This pseudocorrelation has disappeared after adopting of Minasny and McBratney (2000 approaches by calculation of K(−2 cm.

  1. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of contaminated calcareous soils: heavy metal bioavailability, extractability, and uptake by maize and sesbania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Vishandas; Memon, Kazi Suleman; Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Natural and chemically enhanced phytoextraction potentials of maize (Zea mays L.) and sesbania (Sesbania aculeata Willd.) were explored by growing them on two soils contaminated with heavy metals. The soils, Gujranwala (fine, loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Udic Haplustalf) and Pacca (fine, mixed, hyperthermic Ustollic Camborthid), were amended with varying amounts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelating agent, at 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mM kg(-1) soil to enhance metal solubility. The EDTA was applied in two split applications at 46 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The plants were harvested at 75 DAS. Addition of EDTA significantly increased the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in roots and shoots, uptake, bioconcentration factor, and phytoextraction rate over the control. Furthermore, addition of EDTA also significantly increased the soluble fractions of Pb and Cd in soil over the controls; the maximum increase of Pb and Cd was 13.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, with addition of 5.0 mM EDTA kg(-1)soil. Similarly, the maximum Pb and Cd root and shoot concentrations, translocation, bioconcentration, and phytoextraction efficiency were observed at 5.0 mM EDTA kg(-1) soil. The results suggest that both crops can successfully be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated calcareous soils.

  2. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  3. Influence of organic amendments on diuron leaching through an acidic and a calcareous vineyard soil using undisturbed lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenot, M. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)], E-mail: mathieu.thevenot@u-bourgogne.fr; Dousset, S. [UMR 5561 Biogeosciences, CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Rousseaux, S. [EA 4149 Laboratoire de Recherche en Vigne et Vin, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, rue Claude Ladrey, 21000 Dijon (France); Andreux, F. [UMR 1229 Microbiologie et Geochimie des Sols, CMSE, INRA - Universite de Bourgogne, UFR des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2008-05-15

    The influence of different organic amendments on diuron leaching was studied through undisturbed vineyard soil columns. Two composts (A and D), the second at two stages of maturity, and two soils (VR and Bj) were sampled. After 1 year, the amount of residues (diuron + metabolites) in the leachates of the VR soil (0.19-0.71%) was lower than in the Bj soil (4.27-8.23%), which could be explained by stronger diuron adsorption on VR. An increase in the amount of diuron leached through the amended soil columns, compared to the blank, was observed for the Bj soil only. This result may be explained by the formation of mobile complexes between diuron and water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) through the Bj soil, or by competition between diuron and WEOM for the adsorption sites in the soil. For both soils, the nature of the composts and their degree of maturity did not significantly influence diuron leaching. - The application of organic amendments increased diuron leaching through a sandy-loam soil, in contrast to a clay-loam soil.

  4. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L.) to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saad Drissi; Abdelhadi Aït Houssa; Ahmed Bamouh; Mohamed Benbella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn) fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions...

  5. Leaching behaviour of azoxystrobin in sandy loam soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr HMM Mzimela

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... harmful pesticide residues on the crops and in the soil. Recent studies have ... roots and translocate to stems and leaves via xylem, or through leaf ... Analysis of azoxystrobin was carried out on gas liquid chromatograph (GLC) ...

  6. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU ASTIKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Astiko W, Fauzi MT, Sukartono. 2016. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 66-70. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on maize in sandy soil is expected to have positive implications for the improvement of AMF population and nutrient uptake. However, how many increases in the AMF population and nutrient uptake in the second cycle of a certain cropping system commonly cultivated by the farmers after growing their corn crop have not been examined. Since different cropping systems would indicate different increases in the populations of AMF and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to determine the population AMF and nutrient uptake on the second cropping cycle of corn-based cropping systems which utilized indigenous mycorrhizal fungi on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For that purpose, an experiment was conducted at the Akar-Akar Village in Bayan Sub-district of North Lombok, designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design, with four replications and six treatments of cropping cycles (P0 = corn-soybean as a control, in which the corn plants were not inoculated with AMF; P1 = corn-soybean, P2 = corn-peanut, P3 = corn-upland rice, P4 = corn-sorghum, and P5 = corn-corn, in which the first cycle corn plants were inoculated with AMF. The results indicated that the mycorrhizal populations (spore number and infection percentage were highest in the second cycle sorghum, achieving 335% and 226% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control. Increased uptake of N, P, K and Ca the sorghum plants at 60 DAS of the second cropping cycle reached 200%; 550%; 120% and 490% higher than in the control. The soil used in this experiment is rough-textured (sandy loam, so it is relatively low in water holding capacity and high porosity.

  7. Effect of Corn Residue Biochar on the Hydraulic Properties of Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has an ability to alter the biological, chemical, and physical properties of soil due to its physicochemical properties such as surface area, porosity, nutrient retention ability, available nutrient contents, aromaticity, etc. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of physical properties and application rate of biochar on the hydraulic properties of a sandy loam soil in the short term. Biochar was produced at 500 °C from dried corn residue (BC500. The BC500 was incorporated at the rates of 0, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10% (w·w−1 into the sandy loam soil and filled up to a height of 4 cm, in cores having 5 cm diameter and height. Each treatment was performed in triplicate and equilibrated for 30 days. Then saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat, water holding capacity (WHC, and bulk density were determined in each sample after four days of saturation at room temperature in a water bath. The BC500 particle size distribution, pores, and surface functional groups were assessed. The Ksat exhibited a highly significant exponential reduction from 0% to 7.5% of BC500 application and approached an asymptote at 10% BC500. Bulk density showed a significant negative correlation to biochar application rate. The WHC and BC500 application rate illustrated a strong positive relationship. Biochar surface was free from hydrophobic functional groups. The addition of BC500 has a positive influence on soil hydraulic properties, primarily due to the increased soil porosity. The BC500 is composed of a microporous structure and hydrophilic surface that retain water in sandy textured soils. The application of BC500 would be a wise investment to maximize the water use efficiency in soils for agricultural production.

  8. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  9. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FOLSOMIA CANDIDA IN A NATURAL SANDY LOAM SOIL ECBC-TR-1272 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini Jan E...SUBTITLE Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) Folsomia candida octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) 2,6-dinitrotoluene

  10. Effect of pore-size distribution on the collapse behaviour of anthropogenic sandy soil deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baille Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the former open-pit mines of the Lusatian region in Germany, several liquefaction events have occurred during the recent years in the anthropogenic deposits made of very loose sandy soils. These events are related to the rising ground water table after the stop of controlled ground water lowering. The very loose state is due to the formation of sand aggregates (pseudo-grains during the deposition process. The pseudo-grains enclose larger voids of dimension greater than the single sand grain. Wetting induced collapse of the pseudo-grains is presumed to be one of the possible mechanisms triggering liquefaction. In the present study, the effect of larger voids on the wetting induced deformation behaviour of sandy soils is experimentally investigated by laboratory box tests. The deformation field in the sample during wetting was measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique. The results show that the observed deformations are affected by the pore size distribution, thus the amount of voids between the pseudo-grains (macro-void ratio and the voids inside the pseudo-grains (matrix void ratio. The global void ratio of a sandy soil is not sufficient as single state parameter, but the pore size distribution has to be taken into account, experimentally as well as in modelling.

  11. Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-11-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  12. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  13. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbain Fifi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb, copper (Cu and Cadmium (Cd during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti. Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax, the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  14. Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Organic Nitrogen Forms in a Calcareous Alluvial Soil on the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to illustrate the change of nitrogen (N) supply capacity after long-term application of manure and chemical fertilizer, as well as to properly manage soil fertility through fertilizer application under the soil-climatic conditions of the North China Plain, organic N forms were quantified in the topsoil with different manure and chemical fertilizer treatments in a 15-year fertilizer experiment in a Chinese calcareous alluvial soil Soil total N (TN) and various organic N forms were significantly influenced by long-term application of chemical fertilizer and manure. TN, total hydrolysable N, acid-insoluble N, amino acid N and ammonium N in the soil increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing manure and fertilizer N rates, but were not influenced by increasing P rates. Also, application of manure or N fertilizer or P fertilizer did not significantly influence either the quantity of amino sugar N or its proportion of TN. Application of manure significantly increased (P < 0.05) hydrolysable unknown N, but adding N or P did not. In addition, application of manure or N fertilizer or P fertilizer did not significantly influence the proportions of different soil organic N forms.

  15. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2010-07-01

    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.

  16. [Effects of land use and management on soil quality of Heerqin sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongzhong; Zhao, Halin

    2003-10-01

    The changes of soil physical, chemical and biological properties under different land use and management lasted for 14 years were investigated on the Heerqin sandy land. The results showed that among various land use systems marked differences exhibited in soil quality indicators, including soil particle composition, porosity distribution, bulk density, water-holding capacity, organic matter and nutrient contents, pH, and enzyme activities. Most of these soil quality indicators were the highest in the orchard intercropped with crops and perennial grass (agroforestry systems), intermediate in the well-management irrigated farmland, and the lowest in the less-management dry farmland. Compared to the primary grassland soil, although some soil properties, including porosity distribution, water-holding capacity, phosphorus content, and enzyme activities, were improved in the well-management systems, soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were significantly lower. It suggested that a long-term input of organic matter was needed for the restoration and reestablishment of soil carbon and nitrogen pools in the seriously degraded ecosystem. Inappropriate land use and management could rapidly worsen soil quality, and hence, from a perspective of soil resource conservation, a preferable way for preventing soil degradation and achieving sustainable land use should be to give up the cultivation of degraded dry farmlands, and to adopt more effective and appropriate soil management and cultivation practices.

  17. Assessment of Fate of Thiodicarb Pesticide in Sandy Clay Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bajeer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study the fate of thiodicarb pesticide in sandy clay loam soil was investigated through its adsorption and leaching using HPLC. Experimental results revealed that thiodicarb follows first order kinetic with rate constant value of 0.711 h-1 and equilibrium study showed that Freundlich model was best fitted with multilayer adsorption capacity 3.749 mol/g and adsorption intensity 1.009. Therefore, adsorption of thiodicarb was multilayer, reversible and non-ideal. Leaching study has indicated intermediate mobility of thiodicarb with water due to its solubility, while field study showed the non-leacher nature. However both adsorption and leaching were heavily affected by soil characteristics. As the soil taken was sandy clay loam hence due to clay texture adsorption was higher because of vacant sites existing and greater surface area. For this the pesticide has remained adsorbed in above 20 cm soil layer as clearly seen from field study, minor amount was recorded in third layer of soil having 21-30 cm depth. The leached amount of thiodicarb in first and last part of water was 1.075 and 0.003 ng/µl. The general trend observed for adsorption in column and field soil was decreased downwards from 2.027 to 0.618 and 5.079 to 0.009 ng/µl.

  18. Gas diffusion-derived tortuosity governs saturated hydraulic conductivity in sandy soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masis Melendez, Federico; Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is essential for the development of better distributed hydrological models and area-differentiated risk assessment of chemical leaching. The saturated hydraulic conductivity is often estimated from basic soil properties such as particle...... size distribution or, more recently, soil-air permeability. However, similar links to soil gas diffusivity (Dp/Do) have not been fully explored even though gas diffusivity is a direct measure of connectivity and tortuosity of the soil pore network. Based on measurements for a coarse sandy soil....../Do model to measured data, and subsequently linked to the cementation exponent of the wellestablished Revil and Cathles predictive model for saturated hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, a two-parameter model, analogue to the Kozeny-Carman equation, was developed for the Ksat - Dp/Do relationships. All 44...

  19. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    properties of soils, especially on water retention at low matric potentials. To overcome this knowledge gap, the effects of combined BC (0 to 100 Mg ha-1) and manure (21 and 42 Mg ha-1) applications on water vapor sorption and specific surface area was investigated for a sandy loam soil. In addition......, potential impacts of BC aging were evaluated. All considered BC-amendment rates led to a distinct increase of water retention, especially for low matric potentials. The observed increases were attributed to a significant increase of soil organic matter contents and specific surface areas in BCamended soils......Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical...

  20. Effect of pH on bacteriophage transport through sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takashi; Bales, Roger C.; Maguire, Kimberley M.; Gerba, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of pH and hydrophobicity on attachment and detachment of PRD-1 and MS-2 in three different sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory-column experiments. Concentrations of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 decreased 3–4 orders of magnitude during passage through the 10–15-cm-long columns. Attachment of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 was insensitive to pH and was apparently controlled by hydrophobic interactions in soil media. The less-hydrophobic phage MS-2 acted conservatively; it was not removed in the columns at pH's 5.7–8.0. The sticking efficiency (α) in a colloid-filtration model was between 0.1 and 1 for PRD-1, indicating a relatively high removal efficiency. Phage attachment was reversible, but detachment under steady-state conditions was slow. An increase in pH had a moderate effect on enhancing detachment. Still, these soils should continue to release phage to virus-free water for days to weeks following exposure to virus-containing water. In sandy soils with a mass-fraction organic carbon as low as a few hundredths of a percent, pH changes in the range 5.7–8.0 should have little effect on retention of more-hydrophobic virus (e.g., PRD-1), in that retardation will be dominated by hydrophobic effects. Sharp increases in pH should enhance detachment and transport of virus previously deposited on soil grains. A more hydrophilic virus (e.g., MS-2) will transport as a conservative tracer in low-carbon sandy soil.

  1. Mobilization and Mobility of Colloidal Phosphorus in Sandy Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ilg, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    erschienen in: Journal of Environmental Quality. - 2005(34)3, S. 926-935; Soil Science Society of America Journal. - 2007(71)2, S. 298-305 Die Auswaschung von Phosphor (P) trägt zur Verlagerung von P aus terrestrischen in aquatische Ökosysteme bei. Neben der gelösten Form kann P im Sickerwasser auch an Kolloide gebunden auftreten. Die Sorption von P an potentiell dispergierbare Bestandteile der Bodenmatrix, z.B. Eisen- und Aluminiumoxide und -hydroxide, beeinflusst deren Oberflächenladung ...

  2. Relationships between water infiltration and oil spill migration in sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Avner; Rubin, Hillel

    1987-06-01

    This article summarizes a study directed towards the prediction of oil spill migration in sandy soils. Such a prediction is needed for the design of remedial measures against soil and groundwater contamination. The geneal approach in this study is to convert available data concerning water infiltration into equivalent unknown data concerning oil spillage. This information is then fed into a numerical model by which the oil spill migration is simulated. Laboratory measurements including retention curve, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate, were made separately for water and kerosene in order to evaluate and confirm the suggested approach.

  3. Effects of organic amendments and irrigation waters on the physical and chemical properties of two calcareous soils in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, E; Grieve, I C; Madany, I M

    1994-04-01

    The present investigation studies the effects of cow and chicken manure and sewage sludge at different rates of addition and with two irrigation waters of different salinities on two major calcareous soils in Bahrain. The aim was to quantify potential improvements in soil quality, the accumulation of trace metals, and quality of leachates.From the pot experiments it was found that soil waterholding capacity did not change significantly after addition of organic amendments, except in the case of sewage sludge. Total organic carbon and total Kjeldhal nitrogen content increased in the 0-5 cm layer. Low salinity water and sewage applications improved aggregate stability. Extractable phosphorus was enhanced by the chicken manure treatment more than others. Addition of different organic amendments did not affect exchangeable cations. pH values did not show appreciable changes and soils were neutral. Trace metals studied were present at non-toxic levels in the 0-5 cm layer. Zinc and copper were the only metal showing a tendency to leach to the lower soil layer. In all cases metal levels in the surface layer were proportional to the quantities added in the amendments and their levels in the leachate were very low.

  4. Phosphate solubilization and promotion of maize growth in a calcareous soil by penicillium oxalicum P4 and aspergillus niger P85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative tactics for improving phosphorus nutrition in crop production are needed in China and elsewhere as the over-application of phosphatic fertilizers can adversely impact agricultural sustainability. Penicillium oxalicum P4 and Aspergillus niger P85 were isolated from a calcareous soil in C...

  5. Effect Comparison of Three Different Types of Nitrification Inhibitors (DCD, DMPP and Nitrapyrin) in Calcareous Soils%三种硝化抑制剂在石灰性土壤中的应用效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 梁永超; 褚贵新; 马丹; 刘倩; 王健

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors can increase N fertilizer use efficiency and decrease the potential N pollution. Incubation experiment was conducted in sandy and clay calcareous soils incubated in growth chamber at 25°C in dark condition in order to compare the effect of three different types of nitrification inhibitors (NI), namely, dicyandiamide (DCD), 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and Nitrapyrin on (NH4)2SO4 nitrification inhabitation. During 30 days incubation tine, an obvious nitrification inhibitions were observed after nitrification inhibitors applied, soil NH+4-N contents were improved by 228.45 - 244.85 mg/kg and 209.75 - 254.79 mg/kg in sandy and clay soil respectively, while soil NO3'-N contents were reduced by 93.85% - 94.99% and 91.82% - 95.38% in sandy soil and clay soil respectively. Significant nitrifications were occurred, soil apparent nitrification rates under control condition (CK) were increased by 86.00% and 80.89% while were only improved by 1.28% - 2.09% and 2.72% - 8.40% in sandy soil and clay soil respectively after nitrification inhibitors added. From above results the conclusion can be made that DCD, DMPP and Nitrapyrin all three nitrification inhibitors exert an obviously nitrification inhibition effect, nitrification rate in sandy soil were higher than that in clay soil, the order of inhibition effects were as follow: DMPP>Nitrapyrin>DCD.%在人工气候室内采用25℃黑暗培养法研究双氰胺(DCD)、3,4-二.甲基吡唑磷酸(DMPP)及2-氯-6-三氯甲基吡啶(Nitrapyrin)在石灰性土壤中的硝化抑制效果.结果表明:施用DCD、DMPP、Nitrapyrin的土壤NH4+-N含量较单施硫酸铵的土壤(对照)分别提高228.45~244.85 mg/kg(砂土)、209.75~254.79 mg/kg(黏土),NO3--N含量较对照分别降低93.85%~94.99%(砂土)、91.82%~95.38%(黏土).表观硝化率随培养进程增加缓慢,培养期间只增加了1.28%~2.09%(砂土)、2.72%~8.40%(黏土),而对照增加了86.00%(砂

  6. CO2 efflux from a calcareous Mojave Desert soil: isotopic results from a laboratory and field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, P.; Stevenson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) represents a substantial C pool in arid ecosystems. The contribution of the SIC pool to net ecosystem C flux is poorly understood but has gained attention because there have been reports of anomalous C fluxes in some arid environments. In the context of climate change, altered precipitation patterns and changes in soil pCO2 values (from changes in vegetation density, plant water use efficiency, and belowground respiration) could potentially affect SIC storage in some ecosystems. The stable carbon isotope values of organic and inorganic carbon (e.g. carbonates) can differ substantially and may be useful in determining whether PIC influences C fluxes. However, variable rates of heterotrophic and root respiration and diffusion of atmospheric CO2 into the soil as well as the variation and complexity of the CaCO3-CO2-H2O system at different soil depths can complicate interpretation of isotopic data. We monitored soil CO2 concentrations and CO2 efflux from irrigated and non-irrigated plots in a calcareous soil at the Mojave Global Change Facility (MGCF). The site is on the northern part of the Mojave Desert with a mean annual precipitation of 71 mm and vegetation characterized by a Larrea tridentata, Lycium spp., Ambrosia dumosa plant community. We used a Keeling plot approach to determine source δ13C values from effluxed CO2-13C in a laboratory incubation experiment and from direct field measurements of soil CO2-13C. Data from the laboratory incubation experiment suggested that there was a contribution of PIC on effluxed CO2-13C in a closed system, but results from the field measurements were much more difficult to interpret and did not support a large contribution of SIC to CO2 fluxes in these soils. We discuss the usefulness of isotopic measure of CO2 on CO2 efflux in the context of the MGCF experiment.

  7. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  8. Influence of biochar on the physical, chemical and retention properties of an amended sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; De Pasquale, Claudio; Parrino, Francesco; Crescimanno, Giuseppina

    2017-04-01

    Soil porosity plays an important role in soil-water retention and water availability to crops, potentially affecting both agricultural practices and environmental sustainability. The pore structure controls fluid flow and transport through the soil, as well as the relationship between the properties of individual minerals and plants. Moreover, the anthropogenic pressure on soil properties has produced numerous sites with extensive desertification process close to residential areas. Biochar (biologically derived charcoal) is produced by pyrolysis of biomasses under low oxygen conditions, and it can be applied for recycling organic waste in soils and increase soil fertility, improving soil structure and enhancing soil water storage and soil water movement. Soil application of biochar might have agricultural, environmental and sustainability advantages over the use of organic manures or compost, as it is a porous material with a high inner surface area. The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the possible application of biochar from forest residues, derived from mechanically chipped trunks and large branches of Abies alba M., Larix decidua Mill., Picea excelsa L., Pinus nigra A. and Pinus sylvestris L. pyrolysed at 450 °C for 48h, to improve soil structural and hydraulic properties (achieving a stabilization of soil). Different amount of biochar were added to a desertic sandy soil, and the effect on soil porosity water retention and water available to crops were investigated. The High Energy Moisture Characteristic (HEMC) technique was applied to investigate soil-water retention at high-pressure head levels. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of N2 on external surfaces were also determined in order to investigate micro and macro porosity ratio. Both the described model of studies on adsorption-desorption experiments with the applied isotherms model explain the increasing substrate porosity with a particular attention to the macro and micro

  9. Transfer of cadmium from a sandy acidic soil to man: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staessen, J.A.; Celis, H.G.; Fagard, R.H.; Lijnen, P.J.; Thijs, L.B.; Amery, A.K. (Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)); Vyncke, G. (Ministry of the Flemish Community, Hasselt (Belgium)); Lauwerys, R.R.; Roels, H.A. (Univ. of Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)); Claeys, F. (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Brussels (Belgium)); Dondeyne, F. (Ministry of the Flemish Community, Brussels (Belgium)); Ide, G. (LISEC Research Centre for Ecology and Forestry, Genk (Belgium)); Rondia, D.; Sartor, F. (Univ. of Liege, (Belgium))

    1992-06-01

    This population study included 230 subjects (age range 20-83 years) who consumed vegetables grown in kitchen gardens on a sandy acidic soil (mean pH {approximately}6.3). The study investigated the association between the Cd (cadmium) levels in blood and urine and the Cd concentration in the soil (range 0.2-44 ppm). Seventy-six subjects were current smokers and 122 participants lived in a district with known Cd pollution. Urinary Cd in the 230 subjects averaged 8.7 nmole/24 hr, (range 1.3 to 47 nmole/24 hr) after age adjustment positively correlated with the Cd level in the soil; a twofold increase of the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 7% rise in urinary Cd in men and by a 4% rise in women. Blood Cd averaged 11.5 nmole/liter (range 1.8-41 nmole/liter) and was negatively associated with the Cd level in the soil. After adjustment for significant covariates (smoking and serum {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase in both sexes, and age and serum ferritin in women), a twofold increase in the Cd concentration in the soil was accompanied by a 6% decrease in blood Cd in men and by a 10% decrease in women. In conclusion, in a rural population, consuming vegetables grown on a sandy acidic soil, 2 to 4% of the variance of urinary Cd was directly related to the Cd level in the soil. The negative correlation with blood Cd, a measure of more recent exposure, was biased by the implementation of preventive measures in the polluted district.

  10. Toluene removal from sandy soils via in situ technologies with an emphasis on factors influencing soil vapor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  11. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of bioventing (BV and soil vapor extraction (SVE appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5% of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  12. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater. PMID:24587723

  13. Zeolite and Hucalcia as Coating Material for Improving Quality of NPK Fertilizer in Costal Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakhudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he growth and yield of plants are mainly a function of the quantity of fertilizer and water. In coastal sandy soil, nutrient losses and dry soils are seriously problems. The objective of the research was to study effect of zeolite and hucalci concentrations as NPK coating materials on NPK qualities i.e. water adsorption and release of N, P and K. The research used a coastal sandy soil as media. It was conducted in a laboratory of Soil Science Department, Gadjah Mada University from July to August 2009. Experimental design used was a factorial in a completely randomized design. The first factor was hucalci concentration, consisted of 10% (H1, 20% (H2, and 30% (H3. The second factor was zeolite concentration, consisted of 25% (Z1, 50% (Z2, 75% (Z3, and 100% (Z4. NPK fertilizer (without coating used as a control. The results showed that hucalci and zeolite had a capability to increase water adsorption and to retard the release of N, P, K. The coated NPK with hucalci 30% and zeolite 100% had the highest quality in water absorption, water retention and release of nutrients.

  14. Response of the microbial community to copper oxychloride in acidic sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, K R; Botha, A; Joubert, L; Bester, R; Conradie, W J; Wolfaardt, G M

    2005-01-01

    Determining the response of different microbial parameters to copper oxychloride in acidic sandy loam soil samples using cultivation-dependent and direct microscopic techniques. Culturable microbial populations were monitored for 245 days in a series of soil microcosms spiked with different copper oxychloride concentrations. Microbial populations responded differently to additional Cu. Protistan numbers and soil metabolic potential decreased. Experiments with more soil samples revealed that metabolic potential was not significantly affected by protista was noted in soil containing only 15 mg kg(-1) EDTA-extractable Cu. The negative impact on protistan numbers was less severe in soils with a higher phosphorous and zinc content. Bacterial populations responded differently, and protista were most sensitive to elevated Cu levels. Protistan numbers in soil from uncultivated land were higher and seemed to be more sensitive to additional Cu than the numbers of these organisms in soil originating from cultivated land. Protistan sensitivity to small increases in Cu levels demonstrates the vulnerability of the soil ecosystem to Cu perturbations, especially when the importance of protista as link in the flow of energy between trophic levels is considered.

  15. Does thermal carbonization (Biochar of organic material increase more merits for their amendments of sandy soil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials (e.g. furfural residue are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar have been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC content and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and enhanced the available phosphorus (P in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5–0.8 (soil pH: 8.3–8.6, while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25–0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, 5% of the furfural addition increased available P content by 4–6 times in comparison to 2–5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar addition at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar have different amendments depending on soil properties: furfural was more effectively to decrease pH and to increase available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  16. Behavior of zinc from six organic fertilizers applied to a navy bean crop grown in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, D; Obrador, A; Alvarez, J M

    2007-08-22

    The objective of this study was to compare the mobility, leaching, availability, and relative effectiveness of Zn from Zn-polyhydroxyphenylcarboxilate (Zn-PHP), Zn-HEDTA (Zn-N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate), Zn-EDDHSA [Zn-ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate)], Zn-EDTA (Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate), Zn-S,S-EDDS (Zn-ethylenediaminedisuccinate), and Zn-EDTA-HEDTA sources by applying different Zn rates (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) to a calcareous soil under greenhouse conditions. A lysimeter experiment was carried out for 60 days and using navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as an indicator plant. The Zn available to the plant and easily leachable Zn were determined in soil by different single extractions, while the distribution of Zn in the soil was assessed by sequential speciation. The utilization of applied Zn by the navy bean was greatest when the Zn treatments were Zn-EDTA, Zn-EDTA-HEDTA, Zn-HEDTA, and Zn-EDDHSA. Both total Zn in the plants and soluble Zn in the plant dry matter (extracted with 1 mM 2-morpholino-ethanesulfonic acid) were positive and significantly correlated with the following: the amounts of Zn extracted with the three single extractions used to estimate soil available Zn and the amounts of Zn in the water soluble plus exchangeable and organically complexed fractions. The Zn-HEDTA, Zn-EDDHSA, Zn-EDTA-HEDTA, Zn-S,S-EDDS, and Zn-EDTA sources significantly increased the mobility of micronutrients through the soil with respect to the control and Zn-PHP source. The maximum Zn concentration obtained in the leachate fractions was 65 mg L(-1) (13% of Zn applied) for the Zn-S,S-EDDS chelate applied at a rate of 10 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. In the course of the crop, the soil pH + pe parameter increased significantly with experimental time.

  17. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zongqiang; LI Peijun; B.M.Wilke; Kassem Alef

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soft for a remediation purpose, with some of the oft remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soft was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soft properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soft, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth ofA. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oft addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oft in the soils was proved by the soft organic carbon content.

  18. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils.

  19. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-01-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg−1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg−1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems. PMID:28155886

  20. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg‑1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg‑1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  1. Sorption, desorption, and speciation of Cd, Ni, and Fe by four calcareous soils as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahervand, Samaneh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    The sorption, desorption, and speciation of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe) in four calcareous soils were investigated at the pH range of 2-9. The results indicated that sorption of Fe by four soils was higher than 80 % at pH 2, while in the case of Cd and Ni was less than 30 %. The most common sequence of metal sorption at pH 2-9 for four soils was in the order of Fe ≫ Ni > Cd. Cadmium and Ni sorption as a function of pH showed the predictable trend of increasing metal sorption with increase in equilibrium pH, while the Fe sorption trend was different and characterized by three phases. With regard to the order of Cd, Ni, and Fe sorption on soils, Cd and Ni showed high affinity for organic matter (OM), whereas Fe had high tendency for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Results of metal desorption using 0.01 M NaCl demonstrated that metal sorption on soils containing high amounts of CaCO3 was less reversible in comparison to soils containing high OM. In general, Cd and Ni desorption curves were characterized by three phases; (1) the greatest desorption at pH 2, (2) the low desorption at pH 3-7, and (3) the least desorption at pH > 7. The MINTEQ speciation solubility program showed that the percentage of free metals declined markedly with increase of pH, while the percentage of carbonate and hydroxyl species increased. Furthermore, MINTEQ predicted that saturation index (SI) of metals increased with increasing pH.

  2. A Bioassay Technique to Study Clomazone Residues in Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioassay test was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley toclomazone residues in sandy loam soil. Clomazone was applied at different rates from 0.12 to12 mg a.i./kg of soil. The parameters measured 14 days after treatment were: shoot height, freshand dry weight, and content of pigments (carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Theresults showed that the lowest clomazone concentration caused a significant reduction in allmeasured parameters for barley and sunflower shoots. Fresh weight of maize shoots was notsensitive to clomazone residual activity in soil while the other parameters were highly inhibited.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  3. Estimation of nitrogen pools in irrigated potato production on sandy soil using the model SUBSTOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Prasad

    Full Text Available Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations--a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha(-1 N of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha(-1 N. The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha(-1 N and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn. The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses.

  4. Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, Andre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-10-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2 to 7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322 to 30090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 microfocused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from {approx}20% to {approx}80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn ({approx}30% to {approx}80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} followed by 1 M NH{sub 4}-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

  5. Transport of humic and fulvic acids in relation to metal mobility in a copper-contaminated acid sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Fest, E.P.M.J.; Filius, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The transport of inorganic and organic pollutants in water and soil can be strongly influenced by the mobility of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this paper, the transport of a humic acid (HA) and a fulvic acid (FA) in a copper-contaminated acid sandy soil was studied. The data showed

  6. A Leguminous Shrub (Caragana microphylla) in Semiarid Sandy Soils of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong-Hui; SU Yong-Zhong; CUI Jian-Yuan; ZHANG Zhi-Hui; CHANG Xue-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Caragana microphylla Lam., a pioneer leguminous shrub species for vegetation re-establishment, is widely distributed in the semi-fixed and fixed sandy lands of the Horqin region. Some soil chemical and physical properties were measured under the canopy of C. microphylla and in the adjacent open areas to determine the effects of individual shrubs on soil properties. The influence of isolated C. microphylla on chemical and physical properties of the topsoil was significantly different between plots under the shrub canopy and in the shrub interspaces. Beneath the shrub canopy greater amounts of fine particle fractions, a higher water-holding capacity, and a lower bulk density, as well as higher aboveground and belowground litter biomass were found. Soil organic C and total N concentrations were 23%-31.6% and 14%-27.2% higher under the shrub canopies than in the shrub interspaces, respectively, giving rise to "islands of fertility". In a desertified sandy grassland ecosystem, C. microphylla was believed to play a major role in organic C sequestration, N accumulation, and the hydrologic cycle. Additionally, it has been found to be of ecological importance for vegetative restoration and reversal of desertification.

  7. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  8. Contribution of individual sorbents to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, L; Temminghoff, E J; Van Riemsdijk, W H

    2001-11-15

    A multisurface model is used to evaluate the contribution of various sorption surfaces to the control of heavy metal activity in sandy soil samples at pH 3.7-6.1 with different sorbent contents. This multisurface model considers soil as a set of independent sorption surfaces, i.e. organic matter (NICA-Donnan), clay silicate (Donnan), and iron hydroxides (DDL, CD-MUSIC). The activities of Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and Pb2+ in equilibrium with the soil have been measured using a Donnan membrane technique. The metal activities predicted by the model agree with those measured reasonably well over a wide concentration range for all the metals of interest except for Pb. The modeling results suggest that soil organic matter is the most important sorbent that controls the activity of Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ in these sandy soils. When metal loading is high in comparison with soil organic matter content, the contribution of clay silicates to metal binding becomes more important. Adsorption to iron hydroxides is found not significant in these samples for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni. However, for Pb the model estimates strong adsorption on iron hydroxides. The model predicts that acidification will not only lead to increased solution concentrations but also to a shift toward more nonspecific cation-exchange type binding especially for the metals Cd, Zn, and Ni. Lowering the pH has led to a loss of 56% of Cd, 69% of Zn, and 66% of Ni during 16 years due to increased leaching.

  9. Influence of manganese fertilizer on efficiency of grapes on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batukaev A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the studies, there has been obtained new information about the manganese influence on productivity of grape plantations, on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic. Manganese fertilizing of 4 kg active ingredient per 1 ha, against the background of nitrogen 90 kg, phosphorus 90 kg and potassium 90 kg/ha, made it into a phase of grape sap flow, which contributes to higher yields, increase of the sugar content of the berries and a significant decrease in juice acidity, in comparison with other options.

  10. Effect of pore-size distribution on the collapse behaviour of anthropogenic sandy soil deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Baille Wiebke; Jebeli Alireza; Schanz Tom

    2016-01-01

    In the former open-pit mines of the Lusatian region in Germany, several liquefaction events have occurred during the recent years in the anthropogenic deposits made of very loose sandy soils. These events are related to the rising ground water table after the stop of controlled ground water lowering. The very loose state is due to the formation of sand aggregates (pseudo-grains) during the deposition process. The pseudo-grains enclose larger voids of dimension greater than the single sand gra...

  11. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nitroglycerin in a natural sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Kuperman, Roman G; Dodard, Sabine G; Sarrazin, Manon; Savard, Kathleen; Paquet, Louise; Hawari, Jalal; Checkai, Ronald T; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2011-11-15

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is widely used for the production of explosives and solid propellants, and is a soil contaminant of concern at some military training ranges. NG phytotoxicity data reported in the literature cannot be applied directly to development of ecotoxicological benchmarks for plant exposures in soil because they were determined in studies using hydroponic media, cell cultures, and transgenic plants. Toxicities of NG in the present studies were evaluated for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) exposed to NG in Sassafras sandy loam soil. Uptake and degradation of NG were also evaluated in ryegrass. The median effective concentration values for shoot growth ranged from 40 to 231 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG freshly amended in soil, and from 23 to 185 mg kg(-1) in studies with NG weathered-and-aged in soil. Weathering-and-aging NG in soil did not significantly affect the toxicity based on 95% confidence intervals for either seedling emergence or plant growth endpoints. Uptake studies revealed that NG was not accumulated in ryegrass but was transformed into dinitroglycerin in the soil and roots, and was subsequently translocated into the ryegrass shoots. The highest bioconcentration factors for dinitroglycerin of 685 and 40 were determined for roots and shoots, respectively. Results of these studies will improve our understanding of toxicity and bioconcentration of NG in terrestrial plants and will contribute to ecological risk assessment of NG-contaminated sites.

  12. Variation in soil water content to rainfall under Caragana microphylla shrub in Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of soil water content to rainfall under Caragana microphylla shrub in Horqin Sandy Land,a plot of 25 m × 25 m,where there were 6 shrub canopies of C. microphylla,was sited for measuring soil water content at two soil layers of 0-20 cm (top layer) and 20-40 cm (lower layer). Soil water content was measured on the 1st,5th,10th and 15th day after a 42 mm rainfall in Naiman of Inner Mongolia. The results showed that soil water contents at both layers under C. microphylla shrub were gradually decreased after the rain. Soil water content at the top layer outside the shrub canopy was higher than that inside the shrub canopy within 5 days,and became similar inside and outside the shrub canopy on the 10th day after the 42 mm rainfall,and it was lower outside than that inside the shrub canopy on the 15th day. The soil water content at lower layer in the area without shrubs was higher than that under shrub canopy all along. All the measured values of soil water content can be fitted to a variogram model. There was significant autocorrelation of the values of soil water content between top layer and lower layer,except for the fourth measured values of soil water content at top layer. The range and spatial dependence of soil water content at top layer were lower than that at lower layer.

  13. Different Behavior of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Clay and Sandy Soils after Biofertilization with Swine Digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C.; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2017-01-01

    Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling. PMID:28197137

  14. Modeling the effect of flow homogeneity on the fate of Cd, Pb and Zn in a calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassabatere, Laurent; Spadini, Lorenzo; Delolme, Cécile; Galvez, Rosa; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    The fate of pollutants in the vadose zone depends on flow pathways. It is generally assumed that homogeneous flow will allow pollutants to reach most of the sorption sites, whereas preferential flow will transport pollutants through restricted zones and prohibit pollutants to reach sorption sites in more stagnant water (e.g. Lassabatere et al., 2004). However, this hypothesis has so far not been validated nor experimentally nor numerically. Experimental validation would require, in a unique soil, to establish heterogeneous and homogeneous flow conditions for the similar hydric (water content) and hydraulic (flow rate) conditions, which is almost impossible to achieve. Eventually, variations in flow heterogeneity may be obtained by varying hydric and hydraulic conditions. But straightforward conclusions on flow heterogeneity cannot be expected from such multi-variable experimental assets. This study investigates numerically the effect of flow heterogeneity on the fate of three heavy metals in calcareous environments. The solute transport code considers MIM model (mobile-immobile model) for describing flow heterogeneity. Water is divided into mobile water and immobile water fractions. Solutes are transported by convection and dispersion in mobile water and diffuse at the interfaces between mobile and immobile water fractions. The speciation code considers metal dissolution/precipitation of carbonates, and complexation on calcite surfaces and cationic exchange on Fe-oxyhydroxides particles (clay). The numerical code is applied to the experimental results obtained for a calcareous soil in contact with three trace elemental cations (Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II)) under both static (batch experiments) and dynamic conditions (column experiments) (Lassabatere et al., 2007). The model reconstructs accurately the experimental results and then simulates varying contact times (in batches), injection flow rates (in columns), and concentration conditions. Then, the model is used to

  15. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required.

  16. Pyrite and pyritic mill tailing as a source of iron in a calcareous iron-deficient soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrau, E.M.; Berg, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mill wastes from ore processing, particularly acid-forming pyrites, often pose disposal problems. This greenhouse study evaluated pyrite and a pyritic mill tailing as Fe sources on an Fe-deficient calcareous soil. Pyrite and tailing <0.1 mm in diameter were applied at rates of 45 and 135 metric ton/ha. Controls, 200 and 600 ppM Fe as Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ and 5 and 15 ppM Fe as FeEDDHA, were used as standards. The treatments were seeded with sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare sudanense) and six successive crops were harvested. Sudangrass yields increased 160 to 200% with pyrite and tailing treatments; these yields were significantly greater than the control and were comparable to yields from the other Fe sources. The 5 ppM FeEDDHA treatment, however, increased yield for only the first two crops. Plant-available soil Fe measured by DTPA extraction increased with all Fe treatments, while the levels of DTPA-extractable Zn and Mn remained the same or increased slightly. DTPA-extractable Cu doubled with the high rate of pyrite addition. The concentration of Fe in the plants remained the same or increased slightly with the Fe treatments, while concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn all decreased.

  17. Linkage between N2O emission and functional gene abundance in an intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ju, Xiaotang

    2017-02-01

    The linkage between N2O emissions and the abundance of nitrifier and denitrifier genes is unclear in the intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soils of the North China Plain. We investigated the abundance of bacterial amoA for nitrification and narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ for denitrification by in situ soil sampling to determine how the abundance of these genes changes instantly during N fertilization events and is related to high N2O emission peaks. We also investigated how long-term incorporated straw and/or manure affect(s) the abundance of these genes based on a seven-year field experiment. The overall results demonstrate that the long-term application of urea-based fertilizer and/or manure significantly enhanced the number of bacterial amoA gene copies leading to high N2O emission peaks after N fertilizer applications. These peaks contributed greatly to the annual N2O emissions in the crop rotation. A significant correlation between annual N2O emissions and narG, nirS, and nirK gene numbers indicates that the abundance of these genes is related to N2O emission under conditions for denitrification, thus partly contributing to the annual N2O emissions. These findings will help to draw up appropriate measures for mitigation of N2O emissions in this ‘hotspot’ region.

  18. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae—Mediated Uptake and Translocation of P and Zn by Wheat in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TUSHIHUA; T.B.GOH; 等

    1997-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal(VMA) fungi have been credited with improving the growth and mineral nutritons of many host plants but these effects are moderated by soil factors and nutrient balance.The combined effects of VAM,Zn and P application on the growth and translocation of nutrients in wheat were investigated using a calcareous soil marginal in P and Zn concentrations.Wheat was grown in a growth chamber under various combinations of VAM,P and Zn with measurements done at heading stage and maturity,Vegetative dry matter accumlation was increased by P application and reduced by VAM treatments.Both P and VAM increased grain yield.Zince oncentration and uptake were generally reduced by P addition and VAM infection,There were no antagonistic effects of Zn on P acquisition in the plant,The role of VAM in enhancing the translocation of Zn and P from root to grain would be beneficial to seed setting and yield.

  19. Field application of mycorrhizal bio-inoculants affects the mineral uptake of a forage legume (Hedysarum coronarium L.) on a highly calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, S; Jeddi, F Ben; Tisserant, B; Yousfi, M; Sanaa, M; Dalpé, Y; Sahraoui, A Lounès-Hadj

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of two mycorrhizal bio-inoculants on the mineral uptake during the growth stages of a Mediterranean forage legume sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) was studied in the field on a highly calcareous soil. The first inoculum (Mm) was made up of a mixture of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from calcareous soils: Septoglomus constrictum, Funneliformis geosporum, Glomus fuegianum, Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus sp. The second was a commercial inoculum (Mi) containing one AMF species: R. irregularis. Both mycorrhizal inoculants increased total and arbuscular colonization of sulla roots. Inoculation with Mm showed a positive effect on sulla shoot dry weight (SDW) when compared to Mi and non-inoculated plants (control). Mineral contents (P, Mg, Mn, Fe) were higher in the shoots of sulla plants cultivated on mycorrhiza-inoculated plots compared to non-inoculated ones. This enhancement was observed during the flowering stage for P, Mg and Mn and during the rosette stage for Fe. An increase in P content of 50 % in plants inoculated with Mm compared to non-inoculated ones may be explained by the induction of root alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Higher efficiency of native AMF species adapted to calcareous soils opens the way towards the development of mycorrhiza bio-fertilizers targeted to improve sustainable fertilization management in such soils.

  20. Recurring fingered flow pathways in a water repellent sandy field soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Ritsema

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of finger formation and reformation during Successive rain events over an eight months' observation period from June 1994 until January 1995 is presented. Fingered flow pathways were monitored in a no-tilled, grass-covered water repellent sandy field soil using an automated, stand-alone TDR device. Within a 2 m long and 0.7 m deep transect, 98 three-wire probes were installed horizontally at depths of 4, 12, 20, 30, 40, 55, and 70 cm. The horizontal distance between two adjacent probes was IS cm. Finger formation occurred during distinct rainy periods and was most pronounced under heavy rainfall with initially wet topsoil conditions. The percentage of water infiltrated and transported preferentially through the fingers to the deep subsoil varied between 0 and 80%, depending on the wetting history of the soil and the rainfall characteristics.

  1. Influence of tebuconazole and copper hydroxide on phosphatase and urease activities in red sandy loam and black clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    B. Anuradha; Rekhapadmini, A.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of two selected fungicides i.e., tebuconazole and coppoer hydroxide, was conducted experiments in laboratory and copper hydroxide on the two specific enzymes phosphatase and urease were determined in two different soil samples (red sandy loam and black clay soils) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from cultivated fields of Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh. The activities of the selected soil enzymes were determined by incubating the selected fungicides-treated (1.0, 2.5, 5....

  2. Temporal stability of the apparent electrical conductivity measured in seasonally dry sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, Aura; Brevik, Eric C.; Giráldez, Juan V.; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Soil is spatially heterogeneous due to differences in parent material, climate, topography, time and management practices. The use of non-invasive and non-contact geophysical methods facilitates the exploration of natural landscapes or cropped areas. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors which measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) express soil spatial variability in terms of spatial soil ECa variability. In an agricultural context, knowledge and understanding of the soil spatial variability will allow us to delimit areas where precision agriculture techniques could be used to improve management practices. These practices enhance soil and water conservation, especially for sandy soils in Mediterranean climates where soils are dry for substantial periods of time. The first objective of this work was to apply principal component analysis (PCA) to see if a temporally stable component could be found. The second objective was to see if temporal stability information acquired from several ECa surveys could be used to better interpret results of a single survey in terms of relationships between ECa and soil water content (SWC). The experimental catchment, "La Manga", is located in SW Spain and covers 6.7 ha of a rainfed olive orchard. Soil profile samples were collected at 41 locations on a pseudo-regular grid. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for soil texture, stone content, and bulk density (ρb). The catchment was sampled for gravimetric SWC at the 0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m depth intervals at the same 41 locations on 18 occasions. At the same 41 locations ECa was measured during 9 of the 18 SWC surveys using a DUALEM-21S EMI sensor. In addition, 7 field-wide ECa surveys were conducted. Soil ECa values were used to delimit three areas in the orchard, based on the spatial distribution of the first principal component (PC), which represented the spatial ECa pattern. Soil properties were studied within each area, and using analysis of variance

  3. Validation of water sorption-based clay prediction models for calcareous soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle size distribution (PSD), particularly the active clay fraction, mediates soil engineering, agronomic and environmental functions. The tedious and costly nature of traditional methods of determining PSD prompted the development of water sorption-based models for determining the clay...

  4. Retention and transport of mecoprop on acid sandy-loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo Núñez, Remigio; Conde Cid, Manuel; Abad, Elodie Martin; Fernández Calviño, David; Nóvoa Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias Estévez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Interaction with soil components is one of the key processes governing the fate of agrochemicals in the environment. In this work, we have studied the adsorption/desorption and transport of mecoprop in four acid sandy-loam soils with different organic matter contents. Kinetics of adsorption and adsorption/desorption at equilibrium have been studied in batch experiments, whereas transport was studied in laboratory columns. Adsorption and desorption are linear or nearly-linear. The kinetics of mecoprop adsorption are relatively fast in all cases (less than 24 h). Adsorption and desorption were adequately described by the linear and Freundlich models, with KF values that ranged from 0.7 to 8.8 Ln µmol1-n kg-1 and KD values from 0.3 to 3.6 L kg-1. High desorption percentages (>50%) were found, indicative of a high reversibility of the adsorption process. The results of the transport experiments showed that the retention of mecoprop by soil was very low (less than 6.2%). The retention of mecoprop by the soils in all experiments increased with organic matter content. Overall, it was observed that mecoprop was weakly adsorbed by the soils, what would result in a high risk of leaching of this compound.

  5. [Effects of degraded sandy grassland afforestation on soil quality in semi-arid area of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-lin; Zeng, De-hui; Fan, Zhi-ping; Ai, Gui-yan

    2007-11-01

    By the methods of field survey and incubation test, this paper studied the effects of degraded sandy grassland afforestation with Mongolian pine on the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in 0-10 cm layer on Keerqin sandy land. The results showed that after 32 years afforestation, soil organic C, total N and total P decreased by 21%, 42% and 45%, respectively. In May and November, soil NH4+ -N content was significantly higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland (P = 0.001; P = 0.019), but in May, August and November, soil NO3- -N content was in adverse (P soil C mineralization rate was higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland, but the difference in N mineralization rate was not significant (P > 0.05). In May and August, soil microbial biomass C under Mongolian pine plantation and grassland had little difference, but in November, it was significantly higher under Mongolian pine plantation than under grassland. Soil nutrients- and moisture contents were the important factors affecting soil microbial biomass C. Soil urease and invertase activities decreased but catalase activity increased under Mongolian pine plantation, compared with those under grassland. It was suggested that 32 years afforestation of degraded sandy grassland with Mongolian pine on Keerqin sandy land led to a definite degradation of soil quality. Owing to the changes of vegetation, the test indicators of soil quality had different seasonal dynamic characteristics under Mongolian pine plantation and grassland. As a means of degraded ecosystem restoration in semi-arid area of Northern China, afforestation had its definite limitations.

  6. Imazaquin degradation and metabolism in a sandy loam soil amended with farm litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Imazaquin applied in legume crops has a long residual time in soil,which often impacts safety of the susceptible crops.To increase safety of imazaquin application,two composted litters,bovine manure (BM) and chicken manure (CM),were used to determine their effects on imazaquin environmental behavior by incorporating each kind of manure into the tested sandy loam soil at 10% (w/w).The degradation of imazaquin in BM- and CM-amended soil was about 2.4 and 1.5 times,respectively,faster than that in unamended soil.The half-lives of imazaquin in BM-amended soil varied between 6.7 and 15.4 d over the temperature range of 20 to 40℃,and the degradation rate constant (k) increased by a factor of about 1.5 for every 10℃ change.Higher mix ratio did not significantly increase the degradation,and the optimal active degradation of imazaquin was observed approximately at the mix ratio of 10:1 of soil to BM.The different moisture levels had negligible effect on imazaquin degradation.In both unamended and BM-amended treatments.two metabolites were observed at 5,10 and 30 d after treatment.One metabolite at retention time (RT) of 8.4 min was identified as 2-(4-hydroxyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-y1) quinoline acid,originating from the loss of isopropyl group and hydroxylation at the 4-position of imidazolinone ring.The other at RT of 12.9 min was identified as quinolinc-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride,resulting from detachment of imidazolinone ring and the forming of dicarboxylic anhydride.This finding suggested that the addition of farm litters into soil might be a good management option since it can not only increase soil fertility but also contribute to increase safety of imazaquin application to the following susceptible crops.

  7. Influence of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar application on nitrate leaching in calcaric dark red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K; Miyamoto, T; Shiono, T; Shinogi, Y

    2012-01-01

    Application of biochar has been suggested to improve water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity of agricultural soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bagasse charcoal (sugarcane [ L.] bagasse-derived biochar) on nitrate (NO) leaching from Shimajiri Maji soil, which has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity. The nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse charcoal formed at five pyrolysis temperatures (400-800° C) were investigated to select the most suitable bagasse charcoal for NO adsorption. Nitrate was able to adsorb onto the bagasse charcoal formed at pyrolysis temperatures of 700 to 800° C. Nitrate adsorption by bagasse charcoal (formed at 800° C) that passed through a 2-mm sieve was in a state of nonequilibrium even at 20 h after the addition of 20 mg N L KNO solution. Measurements suggested that the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of bagasse charcoal (800° C)-amended soils are affected by changes in soil tortuosity and porosity and the presence of meso- and micropores in the bagasse charcoal, which did not contribute to soil water transfer. In NO leaching studies using bagasse charcoal (800° C)-amended soils with different charcoal contents (0-10% [w/w]), the maximum concentration of NO in effluents from bagasse charcoal-amended soil columns was approximately 5% less than that from a nonamended soil column because of NO adsorption by bagasse charcoal (800° C). We conclude that application of bagasse charcoal (800°C) to the soil will increase the residence time of NO in the root zone of crops and provide greater opportunity for crops to absorb NO.

  8. Metal contamination disturbs biochemical and microbial properties of calcareous agricultural soils of the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Cheviron, Natalie; Quintana, Jose R; González, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Mougin, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate characteristics and carbonate are key factors governing soil heavy-metal accumulation, and low organic matter (OM) content could limit the ability of microbial populations to cope with resulting stress. We studied the effects of metal contamination on a combination of biological parameters in soils having these characteristics. With this aim, soils were spiked with a mixture of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, at the two limit values proposed by current European legislation, and incubated for ≤12 months. Then we measured biochemical (phosphatase, urease, β-galactosidase, arylsulfatase, and dehydrogenase activities) and microbial (fungal and bacterial DNA concentration by quantitative polymerase chain reaction) parameters. All of the enzyme activities were strongly affected by metal contamination and showed the following inhibition sequence: phosphatase (30-64 %) soils was attributed to the different proportion of fine mineral fraction, OM, crystalline iron oxides, and divalent cations in soil solution. The decrease of fungal DNA concentration in metal-spiked soils was negligible, whereas the decrease of bacterial DNA was ~1-54 % at the lowest level and 2-69 % at the highest level of contamination. The lowest bacterial DNA decrease occurred in soils with the highest OM, clay, and carbonate contents. Finally, regarding the strong inhibition of the biological parameters measured and the alteration of the fungal/bacterial DNA ratio, we provide strong evidence that disturbance on the system, even within the limiting values of contamination proposed by the current European Directive, could alter key soil processes. These limiting values should be established according to soil characteristics and/or revised when contamination is produced by a mixture of heavy metals.

  9. Considering temperature dependence of thermo-physical properties of sandy soils in two scenarios of oil pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksey V.Malyshev; Anatoly M.Timofeev

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the heat conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of sandy soil contaminated in two scenarios of oil pollu tion, and also determined the temperature dependencies of these changed thermophysical properties. In the first pollution scenario, the oil product was introduced into wet river sand, and in the second case, dry sand was contaminated by the oil product and was then moistened with water. By considering these two scenarios as multicomponent dispersion systems with varying degrees of contamination and humidity, and by using a polystructural granular model with pore spaces and closed inclusions, we calculated that the heat conductivity of the sandy soil increased under the first pollution scenario and decreased under the second, but the change in the volumetric heat capacity of the sandy soil was proportional only to the amount of oil pollution, not the manner in which it was introduced. We also determined the temperature dependencies of these two thermophysical properties of sandy soil when polluted by oil, of which information will be useful for future containment and remediation of oil contaminated soil.

  10. Influence of drainage status on soil and water chemistry, litter decomposition and soil respiration in central Amazonian forests on sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ocimar Manzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Central Amazonian rainforest landscape supports a mosaic of tall terra firme rainforest and ecotone campinarana, riparian and campina forests, reflecting topography-induced variations in soil, nutrient and drainage conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in litter decomposition, soil and groundwater chemistry and soil CO2 respiration were studied in forests on sandy soils, whereas drought sensitivity of poorly-drained valley soils was investigated in an artificial drainage experiment. Slightly changes in litter decomposition or water chemistry were observed as a consequence of artificial drainage. Riparian plots did experience higher litter decomposition rates than campina forest. In response to a permanent lowering of the groundwater level from 0.1 m to 0.3 m depth in the drainage plot, topsoil carbon and nitrogen contents decreased substantially. Soil CO2 respiration decreased from 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1 before drainage to 2.5±0.2 and 0.8±0.1 µmol m-2 s-1 eight and 11 months after drainage, respectively. Soil respiration in the control plot remained constant at 3.7±0.6 µmol m-2 s-1. The above suggests that more frequent droughts may affect topsoil carbon and nitrogen content and soil respiration rates in the riparian ecosystem, and may induce a transition to less diverse campinarana or short-statured campina forest that covers areas with strongly-leached sandy soil.

  11. Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) biomass production in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge compost and irrigated with sewage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lag, A.; Gomez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Melendez, I.; Perez Gimeno, A.; Soriano-Disla, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    Energy use is one of the most important current global issues. Traditional energetic resources are limited and its use generates environmental problems, i.e. Global Warming, thus it is necessary to find alternative ways to produce energy. Energy crops represent one step towards sustainability but it must be coupled with appropriate land use and management adapted to local conditions. Moreover, positive effects like soil conservation; economical improvement of rural areas and CO2 storage could be achieved. Treated sewage water and sewage sludge compost were used as low-cost inputs for nutrition and irrigation, to cultivate cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) a perennial Mediterranean crop. The aim of the present field experiment was to ascertain the optimum dose of compost application to obtain maximum biomass production. Four compost treatments were applied by triplicate (D1=0; D2=30; D3=50; D4=70 ton/ha) and forty eight cardoon plants were placed in each plot, 12 per treatment, in a calcareous soil (CLfv; WRB, 2006) plot, located in the South East of Spain, in semi-arid conditions. The experiment was developed for one cardoon productive cycle (one year); soil was sampled three times (October, April and July). Soil, compost and treated sewage irrigation water were analyzed (physical and chemical properties). Stalk, capitula and leave weight as well as height and total biomass production were the parameters determined for cardoon samples. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p=0,05 significance level were performed to detect differences among treatments for each sampling/plot and to study soil parameters evolution and biomass production for each plot/dose. Several statistical differences in soil were found between treatments for extractable zinc, magnesium and phosphorus; as well as Kjeldahl nitrogen and organic carbon due to compost application, showing a gradual increase of nutrients from D1 to D4. However, considering the evolution of soil parameters along time, pH was

  12. Leaching and ponding of viral contaminants following land application of biosolids on sandy-loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin; Harrigan, Tim; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2012-12-15

    Much of the land available for application of biosolids is cropland near urban areas. Biosolids are often applied on hay or grassland during the growing season or on corn ground before planting or after harvest in the fall. In this study, mesophilic anaerobic digested (MAD) biosolids were applied at 56,000 L/ha on a sandy-loam soil over large containment lysimeters seeded to perennial covers of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), or planted annually to maize (Zea mays L.). Portable rainfall simulators were to maintain the lysimeters under a nearly saturated (90%, volumetric basis) conditions. Lysimeter leachate and surface ponded water samples were collected and analyzed for somatic phage, adenoviruses, and anionic (chloride) and microbial (P-22 bacteriophage) tracers. Neither adenovirus nor somatic phage was recovered from the leachate samples. P-22 bacteriophage was found in the leachate of three lysimeters (removal rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.2 log(10)/m). Although the peak of the anionic tracer breakthrough occurred at a similar pore volume in each lysimeter (around 0.3 pore volume) the peak of P-22 breakthrough varied between lysimeters (worm holes or other natural phenomena. The concentration of viral contaminants collected in ponded surface water ranged from 1 to 10% of the initial concentration in the applied biosolids. The die off of somatic phage and P-22 in the surface water was fit to a first order decay model and somatic phage reached background level at about day ten. In conclusion, sandy-loam soils can effectively remove/adsorb the indigenous viruses leached from the land-applied biosolids, but there is a potential of viral pollution from runoff following significant rainfall events when biosolids remain on the soil surface.

  13. Empirical and mechanistic evaluation of NH4(+) release kinetic in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, F; Jalali, M

    2014-05-01

    Release, fixation, and distribution of ammonium (NH4(+)) as a source of nitrogen can play an important role in soil fertility and plant nutrition. In this study, ten surface soils, after addition of 1,000 mg NH4(+) kg(-1,) were incubated for 1 week at the field capacity moisture and 25 ± 2 °C temperature, and then NH4(+) release kinetic was investigated by sequential extractions with 10 mM CaCl2. Furthermore, NH4(+) distribution among three fractions, including water-soluble, exchangeable, and non-exchangeable, was determined in all soil samples. NH4(+) release was initially rapid followed by a slower reaction, and this was described well with the Elovich equation as an empirical model. The cumulative NH4(+) concentration released in spiked soil samples had a positive significant correlation with sand content and negative ones with pH, exchangeable Ca(2+)m and K(+), cation exchange capacity (CEC), equivalent calcium carbonate (ECC), and clay content. The cation exchange model in the PHREEQC program was successful in mechanistic simulation of the release trend of native and added NH4(+) in all control and spiked soil samples. The results of fractionation experiments showed that the non-exchangeable fraction in control and spiked soil samples was greater than that in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Soil properties, such as pH, exchangeable Ca(2+) and K(+), CEC, ECC, and contents of sand and clay, had significant influences on the distribution of NH4(+) among three measured fractions. This study indicated that both native and recently fixed NH4(+), added to soil through the application of fertilizers, were readily available for plant roots during 1 week after exposure.

  14. Biochar effects on wet and dry regions of the soil water retention curve of a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Moldrup, Per; Sun, Zhencai;

    2014-01-01

    Reported beneficial effects of biochar on soil physical properties and processes include decreased soil density, and increased soil water transport, water holding capacity and retention (mainly for the wet region). Research is limited on biochar effects on the full soil water retention curve (wet...... and dry regions) for a given soil and biochar amendment scenarios. This study evaluates how biochar applied to a sandy loam field at rates from 0 to 50 Mg ha−1 yr–1 in 2011, 2012, or both years (2011+2012) influences the full water retention curve. Inorganic fertilizer and pig slurry were added to all...... region-water retention curve increased with increasing biochar rates....

  15. Bentonite and anthracite in alginate-based controlled release formulations to reduce leaching of chloridazon and metribuzin in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Céspedes, F; Pérez García, S; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Fernández Pérez, M

    2013-08-01

    The leaching of herbicides through soil can be minimized using controlled release formulations (CRFs). In this research, bentonite and anthracite have been used as modifying agents in alginate-based CRFs prepared with chloridazon and metribuzin. These CRFs have been evaluated in a calcareous soil. The Kf and Koc values obtained from sorption experiments in soil have demonstrated a high leaching potential for both herbicides, mainly for metribuzin. Release kinetics in soil have showed that the control of release rate of chloridazon and metribuzin was possible by using bentonite and anthracite in CRFs, being this effect greater when we use anthracite as modifying sorbent. Using an empirical equation, the time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released (T50(soil)) was calculated. T50 values ranged between 2.88 d for metribuzin-bentonite alginate-based granules and 14.37 d for chloridazon-anthracite alginate-based granules, being the release rate higher in metribuzin CRFs than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, a linear correlation between T50 values in water and soil was obtained. Mobility experiments carried out in a calcareous soil have shown that the use of CRFs reduces the presence of herbicides in the leachate compared to technical products, mainly for chloridazon. We found that one could design a right profile in the release rate of active ingredients from CRFs in each agro-environmental situation, and thus prevent the environmental pollution derived from the use of chloridazon and metribuzin.

  16. Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Su, Jieqiong; Wang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The object of this study was to assess the capacity of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for phytoremediation of heavy metals on calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals. In a pot culture experiment, a multi-metal-contaminated calcareous soil was mixed at different ratios with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil, to establish a gradient of soil metal contamination levels. In a field experiment, poplars with different stand ages (3, 5, and 7 years) were sampled randomly in a wastewater-irrigated field. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), Cu, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the poplar tissues and soil were determined. The accumulation of Cd and Zn was greatest in the leaves of P. pyramidalis, while Cu and Pb mainly accumulated in the roots. In the pot experiment, the highest tissue concentrations of Cd (40.76 mg kg(-1)), Cu (8.21 mg kg(-1)), Pb (41.62 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (696 mg kg(-1)) were all noted in the multi-metal-contaminated soil. Although extremely high levels of Cd and Zn accumulated in the leaves, phytoextraction using P. pyramidalis may take at least 24 and 16 years for Cd and Zn, respectively. The foliar concentrations of Cu and Pb were always within the normal ranges and were never higher than 8 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The field experiment also revealed that the concentrations of all four metals in the bark were significantly higher than that in the wood. In addition, the tissue metal concentrations, together with the NH4NO3-extractable concentrations of metals in the root zone, decreased as the stand age increased. P. pyramidalis is suitable for phytostabilization of calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals, but collection of the litter fall would be necessary due to the relatively high foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn.

  17. Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandyk Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers (the upper and the lower, as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

  18. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduk Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum, chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1. Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM, on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average. Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average, whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average. Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.

  19. Proposal of new convenient extractant for assessing phytoavailability of heavy metals in contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of 1 M HCl with aqua regia, EDTA, and CaCl2 for the extraction of phytoavailable forms of Cu, Ni, and Zn on coarse-textured soils contaminated with these metals. Two microplot experiments were used for the studies. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), maize (Zea mays), willow (Salix viminalis), spartina (Spartina pectinata), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were used as test plants. They were grown on soil artificially spiked with Cu, Ni, and Zn. The experimental design included a control and three increasing doses of metals. Microplots (1 m(2) × 1 m deep) were filled with sandy soil (clay-6%, pH 5.5, Corg-0.8%). Metals in the form of sulfates were dissolved in water and applied to the plot using a hand liquid sprayer. During the harvest, samples were collected from aboveground parts, roots, and the soil and then tested for their Cu, Zn, and Ni contents. The metal content of the soil was determined using four tested extractants. It was found that Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots in bigger amounts than Zn. The usefulness of the extractants was evaluated based on the correlation between the content of metals in the soil and the plant (n = 32). This study demonstrated that 1 M HCl, aqua regia, and EDTA were more efficient or equally useful for the assessment of the phytoavailability of Cu, Ni, and Zn as CaCl2. Due to the ease of performing determinations and their low cost, 1 M HCl can be recommended to assess the excess of Cu, Ni, and Zn in the coarse-textured soils.

  20. Multiple benefits of manure: the key to maintenance of soil fertility and restoration of depleted sandy soils on African smallholder farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingore, S.; Delve, R.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Manure is a key nutrient resource on smallholder farms in the tropics, especially on poorly buffered sandy soils, due to its multiple benefits for soil fertility. Farmers preferentially apply manure to fields closest to homesteads (homefields), which are more fertile than fields further away (outfie

  1. Chemical contamination of soils in the New York City area following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandigo, Amy C; DiScenza, Dana J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Fitzgerald, Neil

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a unique data set of lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soil samples collected from the metropolitan New York City area in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Initial samples were collected by citizen scientists recruited via social media, a relatively unusual approach for a sample collection project. Participants in the affected areas collected 63 usable samples from basements, gardens, roads, and beaches. Results indicate high levels of arsenic, lead, PCBs, and PAHs in an area approximately 800 feet south of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Superfund site at Newtown Creek. A location adjacent to the Gowanus Canal, another Superfund site, was found to have high PCB concentrations. Areas of high PAH contamination tended to be near high traffic areas or next to sites of known contamination. While contamination as a direct result of Hurricane Sandy cannot be demonstrated conclusively, the presence of high levels of contamination close to known contamination sites, evidence for co-contamination, and decrease in number of samples containing measureable amounts of semi-volatile compounds from samples collected at similar locations 9 months after the storm suggest that contaminated particles may have migrated to residential areas as a result of flooding.

  2. Characterisation of phosphate solubilising bacteria in sandy loam soil under chickpea cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Machiavelli; Tejo Prakash, N

    2012-06-01

    With the aim to explore the possible role of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in phosphorus (P) cycling in agricultural soils, we isolated PSB inhabiting naturally in the sandy loam soils under chickpea cropping of Patiala (Punjab State). A total of 31 bacterial isolates showing solubilizing activities were isolated on Pikovskaya agar plates. The potent phosphate solubilizers were selected for further characterization. These isolates were shown to belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Serratia by partial sequencing analysis of their respective 16S rDNA genes. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting was done for tracking the survival of introduced populations of the PSB during mass inoculation of these strains under chickpea plots. The results showed positive correlation (r(2) = 0.853) among soil phosphatase activity and phosphate solubilizers population, which was also positively correlated (r(2) = 0.730) to available phosphorus. Identification and characterization of soil PSB for the effective plant growth-promotion broadens the spectrum of phosphate solubilizers available for field application.

  3. Environmental adaptability of Canavalia virosa and Flemingia congesta to sandy ash soil of Merapi Volcano, Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Wardoyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on volcanic ash of Mount Merapi erupted in 2010 are limited to only characterization of mineralogical, physical, chemical, and biological properties of the volcanic ash. In order to speed up rehabilitation of soils affected by the volcanic ash, it is necessary to study the application of suitable plant species, which is called bio-mechanic conservation. The purpose of this study was to test the environmental adaptability of Canavalia virosa and Flemingia congesta in sandy soil covered by volcanic ash of Mount Merapi. This study was carried out using 2x4 Split-plot randomized block design with three replicates. The main plot of the design was plant species (Canavalia virosa and Flemingia congesta, while the sub plot was the dose of organic matter application (0, 20, 40, and 60 t / ha. Soil parameters measured were N-total, P-total, available P, available K, and organic matter contents. Plant parameters measured were plant dry weight and plant height. The results showed no significant differences in soil N, P and K contents of all treatments tested in this study after 9 weeks, except C organic content. Canavalia virosa grew well until 9 weeks, whereas Flemingia congesta started to die a 9 weeks after planting.

  4. Biochar application does not improve the soil hydrological function of a sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, S.; Meinders, M.B.C.; Stoof, C.R.; Bezemer, T.M.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Mommer, L.; Van Groenigen, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Biochar application to soil is currently being widely posited as a means to improve soil quality and thereby increase crop yield. Next to beneficial effects on soil nutrient availability and retention, biochar is assumed to improve soil water retention. However, evidence for such an effect in the

  5. Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water. Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363508287; Dekker, S.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203449827; Nierop, K.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182329895

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms

  6. Effect of Plant-derived Hydrophobic Compounds on Soil Water. Repellency in Dutch Sandy Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.; Dekker, S.C.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil water repellency or hydrophobicity is a common and important soil property, which may diminish plant growth and promotes soil erosion leading to environmentally undesired situations. Hydrophobic organic compounds in the soil are derived from vegetation (leaves, roots, mosses) or microorganisms

  7. Comparison of split nitrogen appliacation strategies in leek (Allium porrum) to reduce N fertilization on sandy soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, van W.C.A.; Meurs, E.J.J.; Radersma, S.; Grashoff, C.

    2006-01-01

    High nitrogen (N) fertilization to maximize production of leek (Allium porrum L.) combined with low N recovery can lead to considerable nitrogen pollution of the environment. A field trial was conducted in 2002 and 2003 on a sandy soil in the Netherlands. To synchronize N supply and N demand, two st

  8. Tomato nitrogen accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tomato production systems in Florida are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation and on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities; potential nutrient leaching losses undermine the sustainability of such systems. The objectives of this 3

  9. Strategies to optimize allocation of limited nutrients to sandy soils of the Sahel: a case study from Niger, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandah, M.; Brouwer, J.; Hiernaux, P.; Duivenbooden, van N.

    2003-01-01

    Soils used for rainfed cereal production in Niger are sandy, deficient in major nutrients (N and P), and also low in organic matter content. Scarce rainfall with an unpredictable distribution in space and time makes crop and nutrient management difficult. Observations were made in 1996 and 1997 on m

  10. Grass Cover Influences Hydrophysical Parameters and Heterogeneity of Water Flow in a Sandy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. LICHNER; D. J. ELDRIDGE; K. SCHACHT; N. ZHUKOVA; L. HOLKO; M. (S)(I)R; J. PECHO

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation cover has a major effect on water flow in soils.Two sites,separated by distance of about 50 m,were selected to quantify the influence of grass cover on hydrophysical parameters and heterogeneity of water flow in a sandy soil emerging during a heavy rain following a long hot,dry period.A control soil (pure sand) with limited impact of vegetation or organic matter was obtained by sampling at 50 cm depth beneath a glade area,and a grassland soil was covered in a 10 cm thick humic layer and colonised by grasses.The persistence of water repellency was measured using the water drop penetration time test,sorptivity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using a mini disk infiltrometer,and saturated hydraulic conductivity using a double-ring infiltrometer.Dye tracer experiments were used to assess the heterogeneity of water flow,and both the modified method for estimating effective cross section and an original method for assessing the degree of preferential flow were used to quantify this heterogeneity from the images of dyed soil profiles.Most hydrophysical parameters were substantially different between the two surfaces.The grassland soil had an index of water repellency about 10 times that of pure sand and the persistence of water repellency almost 350 times that of pure sand.Water and ethanol sorptivities in the grassland soil were 7% and 43%,respectively,of those of the pure sand.Hydraulic conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivities in the grassland soil were 5% and 16% of those of the pure sand,respectively.Dye tracer experiments revealed a stable flow with "air-draining" condition in pure sand and well-developed preferential flow in grassland soil,corresponding to individual grass tussocks and small micro-depressions.The grassland soil was substantially more water repellent and had 3 times the degree of preferential flow compared to pure sand.The results of this study reinforce our view that the consequences of any change in climate

  11. Losses of Urea—Nitrogen Applied to Maize Grown on a Calcareous Fluvo—Aquic Soil in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSHAO-LIN; ZHUZHAO-LIANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in a maize (Zea mays L.)field of a calcareous fluvo-aquic soil in North China Plain for studying the fate and ammonia loss of urea-N applied at seedling stage,as well as the effectiveness of coated calcium carbide(CCC) in reducing N loss and in improving the yield efficiency of urea.Results show that:(1) For the surface-broadcast treatment ammonia volatilization (measured with micro-meteorological technique)took place quickly,reached the peak 20-26hr after application,and then declined gradually;the cumulative ammonia loss approached the maximum 188hr after application (30% of the N applied),and increased only to 32% 284 hr after application;the latter accounted for 71% of the total loss (45% of applied N).(2) In the case of point placement at a depth of 5-10 cm,ammonia loss 188hr after application was only 12% of the N applied,accounting for 40% of the total loss.(3) There was no difference in total loss between the application depths of 6cm and 10 cm,the loss of them was 30% and 29%,respectively.(4) Total loss of N applied at lower rate (40kg N/ha)with point deep placement at 6cm depth was found only 4% of the N applied,it rose up to 30% when the rate of application increased to 80kg N/ ha.(5) The nitrification inhibitor,CCC,seemed to enhance N loss of urea rather than reduce it,and did not show any benefit effect in improving the yield efficiency of urea,which is presumably due to the high potential of ammonia volatilization in the soil and climatic conditions under investigation.

  12. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  13. Study on the diagenetic calcareous accumulations in a soil profile from Floresti (Cluj County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea Bedelean

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The studied calcretes developed in two different levels (horizons in the soil profile from Floreşti (Cluj County. The deposits outcropping in the area are represented by Bartonian-Priabonian sedimentary rocks (Ciuleni Member, Viştea Limestone and the Quaternary horizon (terrace of Someşul Mic River, consisting of pebbles of different origin, which represent the parent rock of the soil. A detailed petrographical and mineralogical description of the calcretes is given below, based on macroscopic, microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis. It led to the conclusion that the calcretes from the studied profile have a pedogenic origin. The calcretes consist of distinctive subhorizons within the host horizon of the soil. According to their microstructure, the studied calcretes belong to the alpha-type and may be considered as “nodular calcretes” or “glaebular calcretes”. The source of carbonate was variable: from the parent material of the soil including fragments of carbonate rocks, bioclasts, vegetal rests, eolian dust.

  14. Soil water retention, air flow and pore structure characteristics after corn cob biochar application to a tropical sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Frimpong, Kwame Agyei; Okae-Anti, D

    2017-01-01

    Soil structure is a key soil physical property that affects soil water balance, gas transport, plant growth and development, and ultimately plant yield. Biochar has received global recognition as a soil amendment with the potential to ameliorate the structure of degraded soils. We investigated how...... corn cob biochar contributed to changes in soil water retention, air flow by convection and diffusion, and derived soil structure indices in a tropical sandy loam. Intact soil cores were taken from a field experiment that had plots without biochar (CT), and plots each with 10 t ha− 1 (BC-10), 20 t ha...... to significant increase in soil water retention compared to the CT and BC-10 as a result of increased microporosity (pores biochar had minimal impact. No significant influence of biochar was observed for ka and Dp/D0 for the BC treatments compared to the CT despite...

  15. Soil resistance and resilience to mechanical stresses for three differently managed sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per;

    2012-01-01

    carbon (CCC resistance and resilience of the three soils to compaction using air permeability (ka), void ratio (e) and air-filled porosity (ε) as functional indicators and to characterise aggregate stability, strength and friability. Aggregate tensile...... at both soil-water potentials than the MCC and CCC soils possibly due to higher biotic binding of soil particles by the greater organic carbon content. The water dispersible clay was negatively correlated with the level of clay saturation by organic carbon. The resistance of the soils to compaction......, quantified by both the compression index and a proposed functional index, was significantly greater for the MFC soil compared to the other two soils. The change in compression index with initial void ratio was significantly less for the MFC than the other soils. Plastic reorganisation of the soil particles...

  16. Copper Accumulation, Availability and Adsorption Capacity in Sandy Soils of Vineyards with Different Cultivation Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, F. J. K.; Miotto, A.; Bender, M. A.; Gubiani, E.; Rheinheimer, D. D. S.; Kaminski, J.; Ceretta, C. A.; Šimůnek, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bordeaux mixture is a copper-based (Cu) fungicide and bactericide applied in vineyards to control plant diseases. Since it is applied several times per year, it accumulates in large quantities on plants and in soil. This study evaluates the Cu accumulation in, and desorption kinetics and adsorption capability of a sandy Ultisol in a natural field and in 3 vineyards for 5 (V1), 11 (V2), and 31 (V3) years in South of Brazil. Soil samples were collected in 8 depths (0-60 cm) of all four soil profiles, which all displayed similar soil properties. The following soil properties were measured: pH, organic matter (OM), soil bulk density, Cu total concentration, and Cu desorption and adsorption curves. A two first-order reactions model and the Langmuir isotherm were fitted to the desorption and adsorption curves, respectively. An increase in the total mass of Cu in the vineyards followed a linear regression curve, with an average annual increase of 7.15 kg ha-1. Cu accumulated down to a depth of 5, 20, and 30 cm in V1, V2 and V3, respectively, with the highest Cu content reaching 138.4 mg kg-1 in the 0-5 cm soil layer of V3. Cu desorption parameters showed a high correlation with its total concentration. Approximately 57 and 19% of total Cu were immediately and slowly available, respectively, indicating a high potential for plant absorption and/or downward movement. Cu concentrations extracted by EDTA from soil layers not affected by anthropogenic Cu inputs were very low. The maximum Cu adsorption capacity of the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers increased with the vineyard age, reaching concentrations higher than 900 mg kg-1. This increase was highly related to OM and pH, which both increased with cultivation duration. Despite of low clay content of these soils, there is low risk of groundwater Cu contamination for actual conditions. However, high Cu concentrations in the surface layer of the long-term vineyards could cause toxicity problems for this and for companion crops.

  17. Effect of soil pH on sorption of salinomycin in clay and sandy soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Full Length Research Paper. Effect of ... In this study, sorption of salinomycin was measured in four agricultural soils, a clay soil with low organic ... Key words: Salinomycin, sorption, pH, desorption, environmental pollution, phosphate buffer.

  18. Controlled release fertilizer increased phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Andrew D; Cartmill, Donita L; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the application of controlled release fertilizer [(CRF) 0, 4,6, or 8 kg m(-3)] on Lolium multiflorum Lam. survival and potential biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (0, 3000, 6000, or 15000 mg kg(-1)) in sandy soil. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, and proline content as well as rhizosphere microbial population (culturable heterotrophic fungal and bacterial populations) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degradation were determined. Petroleum induced-toxicity resulted in reduced plant growth, photosynthesis, and nutrient status. Plant adaptation, growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content were enhanced by the application of CRF in contaminated soil. Proline content showed limited use as a physiological indicator of petroleum induced-stress in plants. Bacterial and filamentous fungi populations were stimulated by the petroleum concentrations. Bacterial populations were stimulated by CRF application. At low petroleum contamination, CRF did not enhance TPH-degradation. However, petroleum degradation in the rhizosphere was enhanced by the application of medium rates of CRF, especially when plants were exposed to intermediate and high petroleum contamination. Application of CRF allowed plants to overcome the growth impairment induced by the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils.

  19. Cations extraction of sandy-clay soils from cavado valley, portugal, using sodium salts solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva João Eudes da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of contamination by metals in the water wells of the Cavado Valley in north-west Portugal can be attributed to the heavy leaching of clay soils due to an excess of nitrogen resulting from the intensive use of fertilisers in agricultural areas. This work focuses on the natural weathering characteristics of soils, particularly the clay material, through the study of samples collected near the River Cavado. Samples taken from various sites, after physico-chemical characterisation, were subjected to clay dissolution tests, using sodium salts of different ionic forces, to detect the relationship between certain physico-chemical parameters of water, such as pH, nitrate, chloride and sulphate content, in the dissolution of clay and the subsequent extraction of such cations as Al, Fe and K. In acidic sandy clay soils, the mineralogical composition of which was characterised by a predominance of quartz, micas, kaolinite and K-feldspars, decreases of the clay material/water pH ratio increases dissolution of the micaceous and K-feldspars phases. The presence of nitrates in the aqueous solution apparently advanced the extraction of all three cations Al, Fe and K. The specific surface area of the clay material showed a significant correlation with the main kinetic parameters of cation extraction.

  20. Dissolved Organic Carbon Dynamics Along Terrestrial-aquatic Flowpaths in a Catchment Dominated by Sandy Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.; Walker, J. F.; Hood, K.; Butler, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic systems receive significant amounts of terrestrially-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from their watersheds. The amount and nature received depends on terrestrial carbon source strength, processing and losses of carbon during transport, and hydrologic connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic systems. While much research has been done on terrestrial DOC dynamics along terrestrial-aquatic flowpaths, there is still considerable uncertainty in many areas including the importance of different carbon sources, microbial metabolism and sorption of DOC, and processing of carbon in groundwater. Here we investigate DOC dynamics in soils, groundwater, and stream waters at the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical (WEBB) Program research site in northern Wisconsin. This site is well-suited for studying DOC dynamics as soils are sandy and homogenous with small DOC sorption potential, and previous work has characterized the hydrology of the region in detail. We collected water samples over two years from soil pit lysimeters along a series of hillslope transects, from shallow and deep groundwater wells, and from a first-order stream receiving these waters. We measured DOC concentration, DOC optical properties, and biodegradability of DOC. Combined with historical DOC and companion water chemistry data we characterize DOC generation and loss along the following flowpaths: 1) infiltration through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table, 2) shallow groundwater flow, and 3) long groundwater flowpaths of different origin (lake-derived vs. terrestrial-derived water).

  1. Controls over N2O, NOx and CO2 fluxes in a calcareous mountain forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured nitrogen oxides (N2O and NOx, dinitrogen (N2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The site received 10.6–11.9 kg N ha−1 y−1 nitrogen as bulk deposition. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis over a two year period. Daily N2O emissions were obtained by a semi-automatic gas measuring system. In order to cover spatial variability biweekly manual measurements of N2O and CO2 emissions were carried out in addition. For acquiring information on the effects of soil and meteorological conditions and of N-deposition on N-emissions we chose the auto-regression procedure (time-series analysis as our means of investigation. Hence, we could exclude the data's autocorrelation in the course of the time. We found that soil temperature, soil moisture and bulk N-deposition followed by air temperature and precipitation were the most powerful influencing parameters effecting N-emissions. With these variables, up to 89% of observed temporal variations of N-emissions could be explained. During the two-year investigation period between 2.5 and 3.5% of deposited N was reemitted in form of N2O whereas only 0.2% were emitted as NO. At our mountain forest site the main end-product of microbial activity processes was N2 and trace gases (N2O and NO were only of minor importance.

  2. Transport and Retention of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Loamy Sand and Sandy Loam Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, E. N.; Korte, C.; L'Ollivier, C.; Dubey, J. P.; Aurélien, D.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasites affecting warm-blooded animals and humans. It has a complex life cycle that involves a wide variety of intermediate hosts with felids as a definitive host. Humans may contract it through consumption of infected, undercooked meat or by water or food sources contaminated with the oocyst form of the parasite. Infection of pregnant women can cause stillbirth, neurological effects or blindness. Because of the prevalence of cats, including on farms where oocyst-contaminated cat feces, animal feed, soil and water have been found, T. gondii is spread almost throughout the entire globe. It has been implicated or suspected in waterborne infections since the 1990s. This study aims to characterize the transport and retention of T. gondii oocysts in field soils. The four soils used were collected from fallow and cultivated fields in Illinois and Utah, USA. They are classified as loamy sands and sandy loams. Soil columns were subjected to continuous artificial rainfall until they reached steady state at which point pulses that included 2.5 million T. gondii oocysts (Me49 strain) and KBr as a tracer were added. After the pulse infiltrated, continuous rainfall was resumed. Rain applied all columns was a 1 mM KCl solution. Leachate samples were collected, analyzed using qPCR for T. gondii and bromide ions and breakthrough curves were produced. Soil was sliced into 1 to 2 cm sections, for which water content and T. gondii concentration were measured to access degree of saturation and oocyst retention.

  3. PCDD/PCDF behavior in low-temperature pyrolysis of PCP-contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Ngo Thi; Dien, Nguyen Thanh; Chang, Moo Been

    2013-01-15

    This study investigates the behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) formation, dechlorination and destruction in PCP-contaminated sandy soil by low-temperature thermal treatment. Experimental tests were carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 200-400 °C with a treatment time of 30 min. 70% of PCP removal from the soil was achieved, resulting in 1436±230 ng/kg, the highest PCDD/F formation at 250 °C; however, the highest toxic concentration was measured around 4.20±0.62 ng TEQ/kg at 300 °C with 80% PCP removal from the soil. Further analysis has revealed that OCDD is the most dominant congener that is supposed to be formed from the pyrolysis of PCP, while OCDF is the second prevailing congener, possibly due to pyrolysis of 2,3,4,5-TeCP being a main byproduct of PCP pyrolysis. Detection of less chlorinated dioxins and furans over 300 °C indicates the dechlorination of highly chlorinated dioxins and furans, especially octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) at 350 °C and 400 °C. Desorption from soil was supposed as a main mechanism for the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the gaseous phase, and not much difference in dioxins and furan levels was observed at 350 °C and 400 °C in the gaseous phase. Therefore, 350 °C is the most appropriate temperature to remove most PCP and PCDD/Fs from soil, as well as to meet PCDD/F emission standards (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of freeze-thaw on soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability at the Keerqin Sandy Lands, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-hui; FAN Zhi-ping

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory simulated freeze-thaw was conducted to determine the effects of freeze-thaw on soil nutrient availability in temperate semi-arid regions. Soil samples were collected from sandy soils (0-20 cm) of three typical ecosystems (grassland, Mongolian pine plantation and poplar plantation) in southeastern Keerqin Sandy Lands of China and subjected to freeze-thaw treatment (-12℃ for 10 days, then 20℃ for 10 days) or incubated at constant temperature (20℃ for 20 days). Concentrations of the soil NO3--N, NH4+-N, NaHCO3 extractable inorganic P (LPi) and microbial biomass P (MBP) were determined on three occasions: at the start of the incubation, immediate post-thawing and at the 10th day post-thawing. The results showed that soil net nitrification and N mineralization rates at three sites were negatively affected by freeze-thaw treatment, and decreased by 50%-85% as compared to the control, of which the greatest decline occurred in the soil collected from poplar plantation. In contrast, the concentration of soil NH4+-N, NaHCO3 extractable inorganic P (LPi) and microbial biomass P were insignificantly influenced by freeze-thaw except that LPi and NH4+-N showed a slight increase immediate post-thawing. The effects of freeze-thaw on soil N transformation were related to soil biological processes and the relatively constant available P was ascribed to severe soil aridity.

  5. Biochar effects on wet and dry regions of the soil water retention curve of a sandy loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Moldrup, Per; Sun, Zhencai

    2014-01-01

    Reported beneficial effects of biochar on soil physical properties and processes include decreased soil density, and increased soil water transport, water holding capacity and retention (mainly for the wet region). Research is limited on biochar effects on the full soil water retention curve (wet...... and dry regions) for a given soil and biochar amendment scenarios. This study evaluates how biochar applied to a sandy loam field at rates from 0 to 50 Mg ha−1 yr–1 in 2011, 2012, or both years (2011+2012) influences the full water retention curve. Inorganic fertilizer and pig slurry were added to all...... treatments. Six months after the last biochar application, intact and disturbed soil samples were collected for analyses. Soil water retention was measured from −1 kPa to −100 kPa using tension tables and ceramic plates and from −10 MPa to −480 MPa using a Vapor Sorption Analyzer. Soil specific area...

  6. Quasi 3D modelling of water flow in the sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; De Pue, Jan; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. Spatial interpolation is required for analyzing the effects of soil hydraulic parameters, soil layer thickness and groundwater level on irrigation management using hydrological models at field scale. We used non-invasive soil sensor, a crop growth (LINGRA-N) and a soil hydrological model (Hydrus-1D) to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. In the first step, the sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models at one soil column. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. In the second step, to predict Ks over the whole field, the spatial distributions of Ks and its relationship between co-located soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor were investigated. Measured groundwater levels and soil layer thickness were interpolated using ordinary point kriging (OK) to a 0.5 by 0.5 m in aim of digital elevation maps. In the third step, a quasi 3D modelling approach was conducted using interpolated data as input hydraulic parameter, geometric information and boundary conditions in the integrated model. In addition, three different irrigation scenarios namely current, no irrigation and optimized irrigations were carried out to find out the most efficient irrigation regime. In this approach, detailed field scale maps of soil water stress, water storage and crop yield were produced at each specific time interval to evaluate the best and most efficient distribution of water using standard gun sprinkler irrigation. The results show that the effect of the position of the groundwater level was dominant in soil-water content prediction and associated water stress. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic

  7. Using a local-interaction model to determine the resistance to penetration of projectiles into sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. L.; Balandin, V. V.; Bragov, A. M.; Linnik, E. Yu.; Balandin, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    A local-interaction model describing the penetration of axisymmetric projectiles into sandy soil at a constant velocity is studied experimentally and theoretically. Two approaches to the determination of the parameters of the quadratic local-interaction model are considered. The first approach is based on the use of the solution of the problem of spherical-cavity expansion taking into account the dynamic compressibility and shear resistance of soil. In the second approach, model parameters are determined based on the experimental dependence of the resistance to penetration of conical projectiles into a sandy soil on the impact velocity. Good agreement was obtained between the results of experiments, two-dimensional numerical calculations, and calculations for the local interaction model based on the solution of the spherical-cavity expansion problem and used to determine the maximum resistance to penetration of conical and spherical projectiles.

  8. Artificial Management Improves Soil Moisture, C, N and P in an Alpine Sandy Meadow of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gao-Lin; LI Wei; ZHAO Ling-Ping; SHI Zhi-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Regeneration of degraded grassland ecosystems is a significant issue in restoration ecology globally.To understand the effects of artificial management measures on alpine meadows, we surveyed topsoil properties including moisture, organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents five years after fencing and fencing + reseeding management practices in a sandy meadow in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, northwestern China.Both the fencing and fencing + reseeding management practices significantly increased soil moisture storage, SOC, total N, available N, total P, and available P, as compared to the unmanaged control.Fencing plus reseeding was more effective than fencing alone for improving soil C, N, and P contents.These suggested that rehabilitation by reseeding and fencing generally had favorable effects on the soil properties in degraded sandy alpine meadows, and was an effective approach for restoration of degraded meadow ecosystems of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Temporal changes in soil water repellency after a forest fire in a Mediterranean calcareous soil: Influence of ash and different vegetation type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pinilla, P; Lozano, E; Mataix-Solera, J; Arcenegui, V; Jordán, A; Zavala, L M

    2016-12-01

    Forest fires usually modify soil water repellency (SWR), and its persistence and intensity show a high variability both in space and time. This research studies the evolution of SWR in a Mediterranean calcareous soil affected by a forest fire, which occurred in Gorga (SE Spain) in July 2011, comparing the effect of the main vegetation cover between pine (Pinus halepensis) and shrubs species (Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus albidus, Erica arborea and Brachypodium retusum) and the relationship with soil moisture content (SMC). Also the study analyzed the effect of ash on SWR dynamics under field conditions. Six plots were established on the fire-affected area and the unburned-control-adjacent area to monitoring SWR with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, SMC through moist sensors (5cm depth) and three different ash treatments: ash presence, ash absence and incorporation of ash into the soil. An immediate increase of SWR was observed in the fire-affected area, mainly in pine plots. SWR changes in control (unburned) plots were quite similar between different types of vegetation influence, despite higher SWR values being observed on pine plots during the study period. A noticeable decrease of SWR was observed during the first months after fire in the affected areas, especially after the first rainy period, both in pine and shrubs plots. SWR increase was registered in all plots, and the highest levels were in March 2012 in burned pine plots. SWR decrease was higher in plots where ash was removed. Fire-affected soils became wettable 1year and a half after the fire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E El-Hadad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  11. Enhanced retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl in sandy soil columns intercalated with wood barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Ordax, J M; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2011-03-01

    A study has been made of the effect a reactive barrier made of pine (softwood) or oak (hardwood) wood intercalated in a sandy soil column has on the retention of linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl (pesticides with contrasting physicochemical characteristics). The leaching of pesticides has been carried out under a saturated flow regime and breakthrough curves (BTCs) have been obtained at flow rates of 1 m Lmin(-1) (all pesticides) and 3 m Lmin(-1) (linuron). The cumulative curves in the unmodified soil indicate a leaching of pesticides >80% of the total amount of compound added. After barrier intercalation, linuron leaching decreases significantly and a modification of the leaching kinetics of alachlor and metalaxyl has been observed. The theoretical R factors increased ∼2.6-3.3, 1.2-1.6-fold, and 1.4-1.7-fold and the concentration of the maximum peak decreased ∼6-12-fold, 2-4-fold and 1.2-2-fold for linuron, alachlor and metalaxyl, respectively. When considering the three pesticides, significant correlations have been found between the theoretical retardation factor (R) and the pore volume corresponding to the maximum peaks of the BTCs (r=0.77; pmetalaxyl. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the Grouting Ability of Sandy Soils by Artificial Neural Networks Based On Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassanlourad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the grouting ability of sandy soils is investigated by artificial neural networks based on the results of chemical grout injection tests. In order to evaluate the soil grouting potential, experimental samples were prepared and then injected. The sand samples with three different particle sizes (medium, fine, and silty and three relative densities (%30, %50, and %90 were injected with the sodium silicate grout with three different concentrations (water to sodium silicate ratio of 0.33, 1, and 2. A multi-layer Perceptron type of the artificial neural network was trained and tested using the results of 138 experimental tests. The multi-layer Perceptron included one input layer, two hidden layers and one output layer. The input parameters consisted of initial relative densities of grouted samples, the average size of particles (D50, the ratio of the grout water to sodium silicate and the grout pressure. The output parameter was the grout injection radius. The results of the experimental tests showed that the radius of grout injection is a complicated function of the mentioned parameters. In addition, the results of the trained artificial neural network showed to be reasonably consistent with the experimental results.

  13. Desorption kinetics of benzene in a sandy soil in the presence of powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J-W; Kim, S-B; Kim, D-J

    2007-02-01

    Desorption kinetics of benzene was investigated with a modified biphasic desorption model in a sandy soil with five different powdered activated carbon (PAC) contents (0, 1, 2, 5, 10% w/w) as sorbents. Sorption experiments followed by series dilution desorption were conducted for each sorbent. Desorption of benzene was successively performed at two stages using deionized water and hexane. Modeling was performed on both desorption isotherm and desorption rate for water-induced desorption to elucidate the presence of sorption-desorption hysteresis and biphasic desorption and if present to quantify the desorption-resistant fraction (q (irr)) and labile fraction (F) of desorption site responsible for rapid process. Desorption isotherms revealed that sorption-desorption exhibited a severe hysteresis with a significant fraction of benzene being irreversibly adsorbed onto both pure sand and PAC, and that desorption-resistant fraction (q (irr)) increased with PAC content. Desorption kinetic modeling showed that desorption of benzene was biphasic with much higher (4-40 times) rate constant for rapid process (k (1)) than that for slow process (k (2)), and that the difference in the rate constant increased with PAC content. The labile fraction (F) of desorption site showed a decreasing tendency with PAC. The experimental results would provide valuable information on remediation methods for soils and groundwater contaminated with BTEX.

  14. Exploring the potential of near-surface geophysical methods to delineate a shallow hardpan in a southeastern U.S. sandy coastal plain soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hardpan, which is a dense soil layer near the ground surface, is an undesirable feature of many soils in the Southeast U.S., especially sandy Coastal Plain soils. Shallow hardpans restrict root growth and water penetration through the soil profile, in turn reducing the effective crop root zone and...

  15. Certified reference material for the quality control of EDTA- and DTPA-extractable trace metal contents in calcareous soil (CRM 600)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevauviller, P. [European Commission, Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme, Brussels (Belgium); Lachica, M.; Barahona, E. [Estacion Experimental del Zaidin, Granada (Spain); Gomez, A. [Institut Nacional de Recherche Agronomique, Station d`Agronomie, Villenave d`Ornon (France); Rauret, G. [Universidad de Barcelona, Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Barcelona (Spain); Ure, A. [University of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Muntau, H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Environment Institute, Ispra (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    Single extraction tests are commonly used to study the eco-toxicity and mobility of metals in soils, e.g. to assess the bioavailable metal fraction (and thus to estimate the related phyto-toxic and nutritional deficiency effects) and the environmentally accessible trace metals upon disposal of e.g. sediment on to a soil (e.g. contamination of ground waters). However, the lack of uniformity in the different procedures does not allow the results to be compared worldwide nor the procedures to be validated. This paper describes the interlaboratory testing of EDTA- and DTPA-extraction procedures for soil analysis, followed by the preparation of a calcareous soil reference material (CRM 600), the homogeneity and stability studies and the analytical work performed for the certification of the EDTA- and DTPA- extractable contents of some trace metals (following the standardized extraction procedures). (orig.) With 2 figs., 7 tabs., 14 refs.

  16. Effects of Nitramine Explosive CL-20 on the Soil Microinvertebrate Community in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    by individually combining and gently mixing CL-20- amended soil concentrates with clean SSL field soil in a plastic bag . This approach ensured that...Hawari, J.; Spain, J.C. Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL- 20. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2003, 69, 1871–1874. U.S. Department of

  17. Microstructure and stability of two sandy loam soils with different soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.

    1969-01-01

    A practical problem initiated this study. In the Haarlemmermeer, a former lake reclaimed about 1850, several farmers had difficulties with soil structure. Land, plowed in autumn, was very wet in spring. Free water was sometimes present on the soil surface. Planting and seeding were long delayed in

  18. Dryland, calcareous soils store (and lose) significant quantities of near-surface organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Andrew M.; Puttock, Alan K.; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    Semiarid ecosystems are susceptible to changes in dominant vegetation which may have significant implications for terrestrial carbon dynamics. The present study examines the distribution of organic carbon (OC) between particle size fractions in near-surface (0-0.05 m) soil and the water erosion-induced redistribution of particle-associated OC over a grass-shrub ecotone, in a semiarid landscape, subject to land degradation. Coarse (>2 mm) particles have comparable average OC concentrations to the fine (events was monitored over four annual monsoon seasons. Eroded sediment was significantly enriched in OC; enrichment increased significantly across the grass-shrub ecotone and appears to be an enduring phenomenon probably sustained through the dynamic replacement of preferentially removed organic matter. The average erosion-induced OC event yield increased sixfold across the ecotone from grass-dominated to shrub-dominated ecosystems, due to both greater erosion and greater OC enrichment. This erosional pathway is rarely considered when comparing the carbon budgets of grasslands and shrublands, yet this accelerated efflux of OC may be important for long-term carbon storage potentials of dryland ecosystems.

  19. Field performance of nine soil water content sensors on a sandy loam soil in new brunswick, maritime region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lien; Xing, Zisheng; Rees, Herb W; Meng, Fanrui; Monteith, John; Stevens, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada) using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r(2) of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917), and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r(2) of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  20. Field Performance of Nine Soil Water Content Sensors on a Sandy Loam Soil in New Brunswick, Maritime Region, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Stevens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An in situ field test on nine commonly-used soil water sensors was carried out in a sandy loam soil located in the Potato Research Center, Fredericton, NB (Canada using the gravimetric method as a reference. The results showed that among the tested sensors, regardless of installation depths and soil water regimes, CS615, Trase, and Troxler performed the best with the factory calibrations, with a relative root mean square error (RRMSE of 15.78, 16.93, and 17.65%, and a r2 of 0.75, 0.77, and 0.65, respectively. TRIME, Moisture Point (MP917, and Gopher performed slightly worse with the factory calibrations, with a RRMSE of 45.76, 26.57, and 20.41%, and a r2 of 0.65, 0.72, and 0.78, respectively, while the Gypsum, WaterMark, and Netafim showed a frequent need for calibration in the application in this region.

  1. Thallium dynamics in contrasting light sandy soils--soil vulnerability assessment to anthropogenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Ales; Chrastný, Vladislav; Komárek, Michael; Galusková, Ivana; Drahota, Petr; Grygar, Tomás; Tejnecký, Václav; Drábek, Ondrej

    2010-01-15

    The influence of different soil conditions and the presence of LMWOA (Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids) on anthropogenic Tl dynamics were discussed in this study. A shift from the "labile" to the residual fraction during the ageing was identified, indicating Tl incorporation into stable phases (e.g., illite and/or amorphous silicates). The increased water-soluble Tl concentration (1.8-fold, in maximum) after the split application of LMWOA (simulating root exudation) was observed in all soils; partial dissolution of relatively "insoluble" Tl-bearing phases (silicates and eventually oxides) in the presence of LMWOA is suggested. Thermodynamic modeling showed that Tl mobilization in the presence of citric and oxalic acids was indirect and could be attributed to complexation of major elements (Ca, Mg, Al) originating from the dissolution of various soil phases. On the contrary, H(+)-promoted dissolution by acetic acid was assumed as the predominant mechanism of Tl mobilization. Manganese(III,IV) oxides, illite and probably amorphous silicates were evaluated as the dominant phases responsible for Tl retention in the soils. In carbonate-rich soils, Tl coprecipitation with the newly formed carbonates seems to be an important factor influencing Tl release. Therefore, we suggest data on CEC, pH(ZPC) and soil mineralogy to be critical for assessment of Tl behavior in soil systems.

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions.

  3. Effect of silver nano-particles on soil microbial growth, activity and community diversity in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, A D; Velicogna, J R; Princz, J I; Subasinghe, R M; Scroggins, R P; Beaudette, L A

    2017-01-01

    Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are widely used in a range of consumer products as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Given the broad spectrum of uses, AgNPs have the potential for being released to the environment. As a result, environmental risks associated with AgNPs need to be assessed to aid in the development of regulatory guidelines. Research was performed to assess the effects of AgNPs on soil microbial activity and diversity in a sandy loam soil with an emphasis on using a battery of microbial tests involving multiple endpoints. The test soil was spiked with PVP coated (0.3%) AgNPs at the following concentrations of 49, 124, 287, 723 and 1815 mg Ag kg(-1) dry soil. Test controls included an un-amended soil; soil amended with PVP equivalent to the highest PVP concentration of the coated AgNP; and soil amended with humic acid, as 1.8% humic acid was used as a suspension agent for the AgNPs. The impact on soil microbial community was assessed using an array of tests including heterotrophic plate counting, microbial respiration, organic matter decomposition, soil enzyme activity, biological nitrification, community level physiological profiling (CLPP), Ion Torrent™ DNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). An impact on microbial growth, activity and community diversity was evident from 49 to 1815 mg kg(-1) with the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) as low as 20-31 mg kg(-1) depending on the test. AgNP showed a notable impact on microbial functional and genomic diversity. Emergence of a silver tolerant bacterium was observed at AgNP concentrations of 49-287 mg kg(-1) after 14-28 days of incubation, but not detectable at 723 and 1815 mg kg(-1). The bacterium was identified as Rhodanobacter sp. The study highlighted the effectiveness of using multiple microbial endpoints for inclusion to the environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen exported by runoff from sandy agricultural soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The eutrophication problem has drawn attention to nutrient leaching from agricultural soils.and an understanding of spatial and temporal variability is needed to develop decision-making tools.Thus,eleven sites were selected to monitor,over a two-year period,spatial and temporal variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff in sandy agricultural soils.Factors influencing the variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff were analyzed.Variation of annual rainfall was small among 11 situs.especially between 2001 and 2002.However,variation of annual discharge was significant among the sites.The results suggest that rainfall patterns and land usc had significant effect on discharge.The concentrations of total N,total kjeldahl N (TKN),organic matter-associated N (OM-N),NO3--N,and NH4+-N in the runoff ranged widely from 0.25 to 54.1,0.15 to 20.3,0.00 to 14.6,0.00 to 45.3,and 0.00 to 19.7 mg/L,respectively.Spatial and temporal variations in the N concentration and runoff discharge were noted among the different sites.Annual loads of N in the runoff varied widely among monitoring sites and depend mainly on runoff discharge.High loads of total N,OM-N,NO3--N,and NH4+-N in the runoff either in citrus groves or on vegetable farms occurred from June to October for each year,which coincided with the rainy season in the region.This study found that N in surface runoff was related to rainfall intensity,soil N level,and fertilizer use.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of nitrogen exported by runoff from sandy agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Kui; Wang, Li-Ping; He, Zhen-Li

    2007-01-01

    The eutrophication problem has drawn attention to nutrient leaching from agricultural soils, and an understanding of spatial and temporal variability is needed to develop decision-making tools. Thus, eleven sites were selected to monitor, over a two-year period, spatial and temporal variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff in sandy agricultural soils. Factors influencing the variation of runoff discharge and various forms of N in surface runoff were analyzed. Variation of annual rainfall was small among 11 sites, especially between 2001 and 2002. However, variation of annual discharge was significant among the sites. The results suggest that rainfall patterns and land use had significant effect on discharge. The concentrations of total N, total kjeldahl N (TKN), organic matter-associated N (OM-N), NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in the runoff ranged widely from 0.25 to 54.1, 0.15 to 20.3, 0.00 to 14.6, 0.00 to 45.3, and 0.00 to 19.7 mg/L, respectively. Spatial and temporal variations in the N concentration and runoff discharge were noted among the different sites. Annual loads of N in the runoff varied widely among monitoring sites and depend mainly on runoff discharge. High loads of total N, OM-N, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N in the runoff either in citrus groves or on vegetable farms occurred from June to October for each year, which coincided with the rainy season in the region. This study found that N in surface runoff was related to rainfall intensity, soil N level, and fertilizer use.

  6. Effect of biochar and compost application on quantity, quality and stability of organic carbon in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holes, Annamaria; Szegi, Tamas; Fuchs, Marta; Micheli, Erika; Aleksza, Laszlo

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the amount of waste is increasing as a consequence of civilization development. Significant proportion of municipal waste is biodegradable. For the treatment of these wastes composting and pyrolysis can be one solution. Many studies were published on the effects of composts in soils, but on combined application of biochars and composts only a limited number of articles are available. Total carbon content, water soluble organic carbon content and organic matter quality have decisive role in the utilization of soils. In our study the effects of combined application of biochars and compost on organic carbon quality, quantity and stability were measured in sandy soil. The sandy soil was mixed with different proportions (1w/w%, 2,5w/w%, 5w/w%, 10w/w%) of biochars. Two types of biochars produced by pyrolization were used: plant origin biochar (POB) and animal origin biochar (AOB). 20w/w% urban green compost was mixed into each sample in addition to biochars. After the 30 days of wet incubation soil organic carbon (SOC) content was determined by Walkley-Black method, while for the SOC quality measurements E4/E6 method was used. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was extracted from the soil samples by cold water, and determined by titrimetric method. The future purpose of our study is to find the optimal compost-biochar treatment in order to improve soil fertility and maximize crop yield.

  7. Evaluation of Soil Quality Indicators in Sugarcane Management in Sandy Loam Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.A.C.SANT'ANNA; M.F.FERNANDES; W.M.P.M.IVO; J.L.S.COSTA

    2009-01-01

    An important factor for the sustainability of soils highly susceptible to degradation is the use of monitoring tools that promptly and realistically reflect changes imposed on soil by different cropping systems.To select soil quality indicator variables in sugarcane (Saccharum offcinarum L.) production areas that fulfill the criteria of sensitivity to management practices and between-season consistency in the management discrimination,ten composite soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in July 2005 (rainy season) and again in March 2006 (dry season) from areas under cultivation of organic sugarcane (OS),green sugarcane (GS),burned sugarcane (BS) and from an adjacent native forest (NF) area at Usina Triunfo,Boca da Mata,Alagoas,Brazil.Microbial biomass-C (MBC),total organic C (TOC),soil enzyme activity expressed as the rate of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis,mean weight diameter of water-stable soil aggregates (MWD),and percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (PWSA) were analyzed.Although MBC and TOC were higher in NF than in the cultivated areas,no differences were observed in these C pools between the three sugarcane systems.The response of FDA to the site management was dependent on the sampling time.In the rainy period,the activity followed the order:NF > OS > GS > BS,whereas in the dry season,only NF differed from the other treatments.Irrespective of the sampling time,MWD and PWSA decreased in the order NF > OS = GS > BS.The variables MWD and PWSA are quite sensitive for discriminating between site management histories regardless the sampling season.

  8. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  9. A genetic-algorithm approach for assessing the liquefaction potential of sandy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The determination of liquefaction potential is required to take into account a large number of parameters, which creates a complex nonlinear structure of the liquefaction phenomenon. The conventional methods rely on simple statistical and empirical relations or charts. However, they cannot characterise these complexities. Genetic algorithms are suited to solve these types of problems. A genetic algorithm-based model has been developed to determine the liquefaction potential by confirming Cone Penetration Test datasets derived from case studies of sandy soils. Software has been developed that uses genetic algorithms for the parameter selection and assessment of liquefaction potential. Then several estimation functions for the assessment of a Liquefaction Index have been generated from the dataset. The generated Liquefaction Index estimation functions were evaluated by assessing the training and test data. The suggested formulation estimates the liquefaction occurrence with significant accuracy. Besides, the parametric study on the liquefaction index curves shows a good relation with the physical behaviour. The total number of misestimated cases was only 7.8% for the proposed method, which is quite low when compared to another commonly used method.

  10. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on morphology traits of sweet sorghum cultivated on sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szydełko-Rabska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the experiment conducted in 2010-2012 on the influence of nitrogen fertilizer type (ammonium sulfate, calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate and urea on sweet sorghum cultivated on sandy soil. Selected morphological traits and fresh and dry matter biomass were analyzed. Although fertilization significantly increased fresh and dry aboveground biomass, it did not affect sweet sorghum yield. Fresh aboveground biomass was highest under fertilization with ammonium nitrate (59.3 t ha-1. Fertilization influenced also yield growth rate, which ranged from 23.3 t ha-1 (under fertilization with urea to 26.5 t ha-1 (under fertilization with ammonium nitrate. The highest dry matter content (26.1% and dry matter yield (15.3 t ha-1 were obtained under ammonium sulfate. Nitrogen efficiency was affected by nitrogen fertilization and ranged from 40.4 (under fertilization with urea to 52.4 kg D.M. kg-1 N (under fertilization with ammonium sulfate. On the contrary, nitrogen physiological efficiency was not affected.

  11. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total dissolve

  12. Role of microbial inoculation and industrial by-product phosphogypsum in growth and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enazy, Abdul-Aziz R; Al-Oud, Saud S; Al-Barakah, Fahad N; Usman, Adel Ra

    2017-08-01

    Alkaline soils with high calcium carbonate and low organic matter are deficient in plant nutrient availability. Use of organic and bio-fertilizers has been suggested to improve their properties. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the integrative role of phosphogypsum (PG; added at 0.0, 10, 30, and 50 g PG kg(-1) ), cow manure (CM; added at 50 g kg(-1) ) and mixed microbial inoculation (Incl.; Azotobacter chroococcum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) on growth and nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) in calcareous soil. Treatment effects on soil chemical and biological properties and the Cd and Pb availability to maize plants were also investigated. Applying PG decreased soil pH. The soil available P increased when soil was inoculated and/or treated with CM, especially with PG. The total microbial count and dehydrogenase activity were enhanced with PG+CM+Incl. Inoculated soils treated with PG showed significant increases in NPK uptake and maize plant growth. However, the most investigated treatments showed significant decreases in shoot micronutrients. Cd and Pb were not detected in maize shoots. Applying PG with microbial inoculation improved macronutrient uptake and plant growth. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of peat and weathered coal on the growth of Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica seedlings on aeolian sandy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at the Ganqika Sandy Land Ecological Station in Ke'erqinzuoyihouqi County, Inner Mongolia, in a growing season from April 28 to October 28, 2001. Peat and weathered coal wereadded to the aeolian sandy soil in different ratios. Two-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica seedlings and plastic pots wereused in the experiment. The experimental results indicat ed that: 1) the peat and weathered coal could significantly improve the physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, and thus promoted the growth of seedlings;2) the effect of peat on seedling growth, including height, base diam eter, root length and biomass, presented an order of 8%>10%>5%>2%>0 in terms of peat contents, and the effect of weathered coal on seedling growth presented an order of 5%>8%>10%>2%>0 in terms of weathered coal contents for height and basal diameter, 5%>8%>2% >10%>0 for root length, and 5%>2%>8% >10%>0 for biomass;3) the effects of peat were generally greater than that of weathered coal. Meanwhile, 8% peat was the best treatment to promote the growth of P. Sylvestris var. Mo ngolica seedlings.

  14. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  15. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  16. Seasonal fluctuations in water repellency and infiltration in a sandy loam soil after a forest fire in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Alleres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze, after a wildfire of moderate severity, the temporal fluctuations in water repellency and infiltration in a sandy loam soil under a mixed plantation of pine and eucalyptus and the comparison with an adjacent area not affected by the fire. In the burnt area and in a neighboring area not affected by the fire were collected during one year (1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 months after the fire 10 soil samples along a transect of 18 m at four depths: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. Soil water repellency was determined using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT test and the infiltration was measured with a mini-disc infiltrometer (pressure head h0 = -2 cm.The results show a temporal pattern of soil water repellency in the burnt and unburnt areas. Significant correlations between water repellency and soil moisture were observed, with higher correlation coefficients in the unburned area and in the surface soil layer.Soil water infiltration was significantly lower than would be expected by the coarse texture of the soil in both burnt and unburnt areas. Temporal fluctuations in unburnt soil infiltration seem to be clearly related to the transient nature of the soil water repellency, with no infiltration in samples extremely repellent. In the burned area, the soil infiltration showed much more variability and temporal fluctuations appear to be less dependent on the persistence of water repellency and more dependent on environmental conditions.The unburnt area show significant and negative correlations of soil water repellency with hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity and positive of these two parameters with soil moisture. These relationships were not observed in the burnt area. The temporal fluctuations of soil water repellency have an evident impact on soil infiltration and seem to be more influent than the effects of fire.

  17. Using Biochar composts for improving sandy vineyard soils while reducing the risk of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia; Mengel, Jonathan; Mohr, Julia; Muskat, Stefan; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, biochar has increasingly been discussed as an option for sustainable environmentalmanagement, combining C sequestration with the aim of soil fertility improvement. Biochar has shownpositive effects in viticulture before (Genesio et al. 2015) which were largely attributed to improved water supply to the plants. However, in fertile temperate soils, the use of pure, untreated biochar does not guarantee economic benefits on the farm level (Ruysschaert et al., 2016). Hence, recent approaches started introducing biochar in management of nutrient-rich agricultural waste, e.g. in compost production (Kammann et al. 2015). Compost is frequently used in German vineyards for humus buildup and as a slow-release organic fertilizer. This, and increasingly mild, precipitation-rich winters, promoting mineralization, increase the risk of unwanted nitrate leaching losses into surface and ground waters during winter. To investigate if biochar pure, or biochar-compost mixtures and -products may have the potential to reduce nitrate leaching, we set up the following experiment: Either 30 or 60 t ha-1 of the following additives were mixed into the top 30 cm of sandy soil in large (120 L) containers, and planted with oneRiesling grapevine (Clone 198-30 GM) per container: Control (no addition), pure woody biochar, pure compost, biochar-compost (produced from the same organic feedstock than the compost, with 20 vol. - % of a woody biochar added), and pure compost plus pure biochar (same mixing ratio as in the former product). Once monthly, containers were exposed to simulated heavy rainfall that caused drainage. Leachates were collected from an outlet at the bottom of the containers, and analyzed for nutrients. The nutrient-rich additives containing compost all improved grape biomass and yield, most markedly pure compost and biochar-compost; same amendments were not significantly different. However,while the addition of the lower amount (30 t ha-1) of compost reduced nitrate

  18. Factors driving the carbon mineralization priming effect in a sandy loam soil amended with different types of biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, P.; Tarquis, A. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of biochar on the soil carbon mineralization priming effect depends on the characteristics of the raw materials, production method and pyrolysis conditions. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the impact of three different types of biochar on physicochemical properties and CO2 emissions of a sandy loam soil. For this purpose, soil was amended with three different biochars (BI, BII and BIII) at a rate of 8 wt% and soil CO2 emissions were measured for 45 days. BI is produced from a mixed wood sieving from wood chip production, BII from a mixture of paper sludge and wheat husks and BIII from sewage sludge. Cumulative CO2 emissions of biochars, soil and amended soil were well fit to a simple first-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97. Results show a negative priming effect in the soil after addition of BI and a positive priming effect in the case of soil amended with BII and BIII. These results can be related to different biochar properties such as carbon content, carbon aromaticity, volatile matter, fixed carbon, easily oxidized organic carbon or metal and phenolic substance content in addition to surface biochar properties. Three biochars increased the values of soil field capacity and wilting point, while effects over pH and cation exchange capacity were not observed.

  19. Soil Moisture Eff ects on Sand Saltation and Dust Emission Observed over the Horqin Sandy Land Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolan; ZHANG Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the eff ects of soil moisture on sand saltation and dust emission over the Horqin Sandy Land area are investigated, based on observations of three dust events in 2010. The minimum friction velocity initiating the motion of surface particles, namely, the threshold friction velocity, is estimated to be 0.34, 0.40, and 0.50 m s−1 under the very dry, dry, and wet soil conditions, respectively. In comparison with the observations during the dust events under the very dry and dry soil conditions, the dust emission fl ux during the wet event is smaller, but the saltation activities of sand particles (d≧50 µm) are stronger. The size distributions of airborne dust particles (0.1≦d≦20 µm) show that concentrations of the fi ner dust particles (0.1≦d≦0.3 µm) have a secondary peak under dry soil conditions, while they are absent under wet soil conditions. This suggests that the surface soil particle size distribution can be changed by soil moisture. Under wet soil conditions, the particles appear to have a larger size, and hence more potential saltating particles are available. This explains the occurrence of stronger saltation processes observed under wet soil conditions.

  20. Simulation of Zinc Release Affected by Microbial Inoculation and Salinity Levels in a non-sterile Calcareous Soil Using kinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza boostani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc (Zn is an important nutrient element for humans and plants that controls many biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. Zinc deficiency is common in high pH, low organic matter, carbonatic, saline and sodic soils. Salinity is a major abiotic environmental stresses that limits growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Bioavailability of Zn is low in calcareous and saline soils having high levels of pH and calcium. Desorption of Zinc (Zn from soil as influenced by biological activities is one of the important factors that control Zn bioavailability. Few reports on the effects of salinity on the availability and desorption kinetics of Zn are available. Rupa et al. (2000 reported that increasing the salt concentration led to increase Zn desorption from soil due to ion competition on soil exchangeable sites. Different kinetic equations have been used to describe the release kinetics of nutrients. Reyhanitabar and Gilkes (2010 found that the power function model was the best equation to describe the release of Zn from some calcareous soil of Iran, whereas Baranimotlagh and Gholami (2013 stated that the best model for describing Zn desorption from 15 calcareous soils of Iran was the first-order equation.less attention has been paid to kinetics of Zn release by DTPA extractant over time by inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae fungi in comination with soil salinity.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhizae fungi (MF inoculation on release kinetic of Zn in a calcareous soil at different salinity levels after in cornplantation Materials and Methods: A composite sample of bulk soil from the surface horizon (0-30 cm of a calcareous soil from southern part of Iran was collected, air dried, passed through 2 mm sieve, and thoroughly mixed. Routine soil analysis was performed to determine some

  1. Effect of Application of Increasing Concentrations of Contaminated Water on the Different Fractions of Cu and Co in Sandy Loam and Clay Loam Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Volk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the fate of copper (Cu and cobalt (Co in sandy loam and clay loam soils that had been irrigated with increasing concentrations of contaminated water. A sequential extraction procedure was used to determine the fractions of Cu and Co in these soils. The concentration of bioavailable Cu and Co on clay loam was 1.7 times that of sandy loam soil. Cu on sandy loam soil was largely in the organic > residual > exchangeable > water-soluble > carbonate fractions, whereas on clay loam soil the element was largely in organic > exchangeable > residual > carbonate > water-soluble fractions. Co was largely observed in the exchangeable, water-soluble, and carbonate fractions, but with no particular trend observed in both soil types. When crops are grown on sandy soils that have a low capacity to hold heavy metals, the resulting effect would be high uptake of the heavy metals in crop plants. Because the predominant forms of Cu and Co vary in soils, it is expected that the metals will behave differently in the soils.

  2. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  3. Metal extractability patterns to evaluate (potentially) mobile fractions in periurban calcareous agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area-analytical and mineralogical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Valverde-Asenjo, Inmaculada; Quintana, Jose R; Vázquez, Antonio; Lafuente, Antonio L; González-Huecas, Concepción

    2013-09-01

    A set of periurban calcareous agricultural Mediterranean soils was spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at two levels within the limit values proposed by current European legislation, incubated for up to 12 months, and subjected to various one-step extraction procedures to estimate mobile (neutral salts) and potentially mobile metal fractions (complexing and acidic extraction methods). The results obtained were used to study metal extractability patterns according to the soil characteristics. The analytical data were coupled with mineralogical investigations and speciation modelling using the Visual Minteq model. The formation of soluble metal-complexes in the complexing extracts (predicted by the Visual Minteq calculations) led to the highest extraction efficiency with complexing extractants. Metal extractability patterns were related to both content and composition of carbonate, organic matter, Fe oxide and clay fractions. Potentially mobile metal fractions were mainly affected by the finest soil fractions (recalcitrant organic matter, active lime and clay minerals). In the case of Pb, scarce correlations between extractable Pb and soil constituents were obtained which was attributed to high Pb retention due to the formation of 4PbCO3·3PbO (corroborated by X-ray diffraction). In summary, the high metal proportion extracted with complexing agents highlighted the high but finite capacity to store potentially mobilizable metals and the possible vulnerability of these soils against environmental impact from metal accumulation.

  4. Combination of Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process Techniques to Assess Potassium Saturation Percentage of Some Calcareous Soils (Case Study: Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mokarram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the capability of a combined fuzzy logic-based approach and analytical hierarchy process (AHP for potassium saturation percentage (KSP estimation in some calcareous soils of southern Iran. Based on a reconnaissance soil survey, 52 soil series were selected and different physical and chemical properties were determined. Five soil parameters including clay, cation exchange capacity, calcium carbonate equivalent, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon were chosen for analysis. Mapping was developed with the kriging method for each parameter. Different fuzzy membership functions were employed and weights for all parameters were calculated according to AHP. Finally, KSP classes were provided for each land unit. Results indicated that about 60% of the studied area is classified as having moderate to high KSP content (>3% and 40% of had low or very low KSP content (<3%. Then 15 sample points were used for determination of the accuracy of the fuzzy method. Results showed that the fuzzy and AHP methods have a high accuracy for KSP estimation in the studied soils. Further development of the fuzzy and AHP methods would be worthwhile for improving the accuracy of KSP analysis.

  5. Influence of tebuconazole and copper hydroxide on phosphatase and urease activities in red sandy loam and black clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, B; Rekhapadmini, A; Rangaswamy, V

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of two selected fungicides i.e., tebuconazole and coppoer hydroxide, was conducted experiments in laboratory and copper hydroxide on the two specific enzymes phosphatase and urease were determined in two different soil samples (red sandy loam and black clay soils) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from cultivated fields of Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh. The activities of the selected soil enzymes were determined by incubating the selected fungicides-treated (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg ha(-1)) and -untreated groundnut soil samples at 10 day intervals. By determining the effective concentration, the rate of selected enzyme activity was estimated by adding the suitable substrate at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days of soil incubation. Both the enzyme activities were increased up to 5.0 kg ha(-1) level of fungicide in both soil samples significantly at 10 days of soil incubation and further enhanced up to 20 days of incubation. The activity of the phosphatase and urease decreased progressively at 30 and 40 days of incubation. From overall studies, higher concentrations (7.5 and 10.0 kg ha(-1)) of both tebuconazole and copper hydroxide were toxic to phosphatase and urease activities, respectively, in both soil samples.

  6. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long-term...... mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm...

  7. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: I. Soil physical properties and topsoil carbon content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    experiments were conducted in 11- to 12-yr-old experiments on two Danish sandy loams at Foulum and Flakkebjerg. Three crop rotations/residue management treatments were compared and tillage was included as a splitplot factor. The tillage systems were moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm (MP), direct drilling...... their important role in soil structure formation and stabilization. Our study showed benefits of combining key CA elements, although longer-term studies are most likely needed to reveal the full potential....

  8. PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF APPLICABILITY OF PROVISIONS OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL THEORY OF EFFECTIVE STRESSES TO SANDY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    V.I. Osipov. The analysis of several genetic types of quaternary sands, performed by the authors, makes it possible to use the number of contacts to identify the morphology of sand grains within the framework of the analysis of soils. The authors demonstrate that the employment of the formulas developed by academician V.I. Osipov in the calculation of the number of contacts between particles in natural sandy soils is virtually impossible due to the fact that no natural sand particles can boast an ideal spherical shape. The number of contacts between the sand particles may increase due to the defects of their shape and the nature of the particle surface. In this study, the shape and nature of the surface of sand grains represent those of the sands of various origins. The authors have employed a composite index of morphology that takes account of the shape and nature of the surface throughout the amount of sand under research. Similar calculations that take account of the morphology of grains were performed for selected fractions of sands to eliminate the influence of grain size on the packing of sands. The analysis of provisions of the physical and chemical theory of effective stresses of soils and the study of multiple types of natural sands demonstrate that further research of formation and phases of coagulation contacts between particles of soil requires a detailed study of structural features of sands. These structural features include the grain size, homogeneity, the shape and nature of the surface of sand grains. Both individual particles of sand and sandy soil are to be subjected to morphological assessments. The parameters to be assessed will include density and composition of sandy soils, as the soil porosity affects the formation of true contacts between particles of sand and determines their number. Mineral composition is an important factor affecting the shape and nature of the surface of sand grains. The research performed by the authors contemplates

  9. Microcalorimetric study the toxic effect of hexavalent chromium on microbial activity of Wuhan brown sandy soil: an in vitro approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Tian, Lin; Wang, Yanxin; Djah, Atakora; Wang, Fei; Chen, Huilun; Su, Chunli; Zhuang, Rensheng; Zhou, Yong; Choi, Martin M F; Bramanti, Emilia

    2008-02-01

    A multi-channel thermal activity monitor was applied to study soil microbial activity in Wuhan brown sandy soil in the presence of different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)). In order to stimulate the soil microbial activity, 5.0mg of glucose and 5.0mg of ammonium sulfate were added to a 1.20-g soil sample under a controlled humidity of 35%. The results show that the poisonous species of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) at an half inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 4.27 microg mL(-1) against soil microbe, and an increase of the amount of hexavalent chromium is associated to a decrease in the microbial activity of the soil, probably due to an increase in the toxicity of hexavalent chromium, affecting strongly the life in this soil microbial environment. Our work also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple and more sensitive method that can be easily performed to study the toxicity of different species of heavy metals on microorganism compared to other biological methods.

  10. Total Phosphate Influences the Rate of Hydrocarbon Degradation but Phosphate Mineralogy Shapes Microbial Community Composition in Cold-Region Calcareous Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Steven D; Chen, Tingting; Phillips, Courtney; Hamilton, Jordan; Hilger, David; Chartrand, Blaine; Grosskleg, Jay; Bradshaw, Kris; Carlson, Trevor; Peak, Derek

    2016-05-17

    Managing phosphorus bioaccessibility is critical for the bioremediation of hydrocarbons in calcareous soils. This paper explores how soil mineralogy interacts with a novel biostimulatory solution to both control phosphorus bioavailability and influence bioremediation. Two large bore infiltrators (1 m diameter) were installed at a PHC contaminated site and continuously supplied with a solution containing nutrients and an electron acceptor. Soils from eight contaminated sites were prepared and pretreated, analyzed pretrial, spiked with diesel, placed into nylon bags into the infiltrators, and removed after 3 months. From XAS, we learned that three principal phosphate phases had formed: adsorbed phosphate, brushite, and newberyite. All measures of biodegradation in the samples (in situ degradation estimates, mineralization assays, culturable bacteria, catabolic genes) varied depending upon the soil's phosphate speciation. Notably, adsorbed phosphate increased anaerobic phenanthrene degradation and bzdN catabolic gene prevalence. The dominant mineralogical constraints on community composition were the relative amounts of adsorbed phosphate, brushite, and newberyite. Overall, this study finds that total phosphate influences microbial community phenotypes whereas relative percentages of phosphate minerals influences microbial community genotype composition.

  11. In situ stabilization of As and Sb with naturally occurring Mn, Al and Fe oxides in a calcareous soil: bioaccessibility, bioavailability and speciation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherifam, Saeed; Lakzian, Amir; Fotovat, Amir; Khorasani, Reza; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2014-05-30

    This study investigated the effectiveness of 6 different types of naturally occurring manganese, aluminum and iron oxides for stabilization of As and Sb in a calcareous soil spiked with 50mgkg(-1) of As or Sb and two dosages of treatments (2% and 5%). The resulting contaminated soils were subjected to a series of chemical extraction studies including sequential extraction, single step extraction with DTPA and Simplified Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) for estimation of bioaccessible fraction of As and Sb in soil and a greenhouse experiment using barley as the test crop. The results showed that Fe-associated and carbonate-bound fraction of As and Sb were predominant fractions. However, the amounts of labile fractions were higher in As contaminated soils, whereas the percentage of Sb associated with crystalline Fe-oxide and residual fractions were higher. The results revealed that application of natural metal oxides reduced DTPA and SBET extractable amounts and plant uptake of As and Sb. After application of amendments, the exchangeable fraction of As decreased dramatically by up to 82% while Sb exchangeable fraction decreased by up to 60% depending upon the additive. The results of chemical extractions and plant uptake confirmed that Sb had lower bioavailability, compared with As. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity and availability of various P fractions for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in some calcareous soils amended with municipal sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raeisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship of various P fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity with bean indices growing in 10 calcareous soils, amended with municipal sewage sludge from Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, a greenhouse research was carried out. Soil samples were incubated for one month with sludge at a rate equivalent to 1% (w/w. Then, the P fractions, including P adsorbed by Fe and Al oxides (]NaOH+CB]-P, occluded P (CBD-P and P absorbed by Ca (HCl-P, were determined by Olsen and Summers' sequential fractionation procedure. Furthermore, total P, organic P and residual P were determined. Also, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured. A pot experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications in the ten soils was done to evaluate the bean plant indices. The results showed that the amount of P fractions decreased in the following order: HCl-P>residual-P>]NaOH+CB]-P > OP>CBD-P. The results also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with CBD-P fraction, organic P and total P. In addition, significant correlations were found between ([NaOH+CB]-P and HCl-P and plant shoots. In general, the results of this research showed that P fractionation method appears to be a powerful tool to identify the P status and availability in the soils amended with sewage sludge.

  13. Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on kinetics release and fractionation of phosphorus in some calcareous soils of western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, M; Jalali, M

    2013-07-01

    Organic acid has been related to nutrient mobilization, mainly in phosphorus (P) insoluble utilization, and therefore enhances P bioavailability. In this study, we examined the effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids (malic, citric, and oxalic acids) on P release of some calcareous soils from western Iran. Fractionation and speciation of P in the soil solution were studied at the initial and final P release. Significantly different quantities of P were extracted by the organic acids. On average the maximum (1,554.9 mg kg(-1)) and the minimum (1,260.5 mg kg(-1)) P were extracted by 10 mM oxalic and malic acid, respectively. Power equation described well P release. In the initial stage of P release, the solution samples in soils were supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite and β-TCP. At the end of P release, all solutions were undersaturated with phosphate minerals. The percentage of Fe-Al oxide fraction generally increased after P release, while carbonate and residual P fractions were decreased in all organic acids. Compared with the native soils, adding malic and citric acids had no effect on Fe-Al oxide fraction, but oxalic acid significantly reduced this fraction.

  14. Diffusion and emissions of 1,3-dichloro propene in Florida sandy soil in microplots affected by soil moisture, organic matter, and plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; McCormack, Leslie A; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W; Ou, Li-Tse

    2004-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of soil moisture, organic matter amendment and plastic cover (a virtually impermeable film, VIF) on diffusion and emissions of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots of Florida sandy soil (Arredondo fine sand). Upward diffusion of the two isomers in the Arredondo soil without a plastic cover was greatly influenced by soil-water content and (Z)-1,3-D diffused faster than (E)-1,3-D. In less than 5 h after 1,3-D injection to 30 cm depth, (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in air dry soil had diffused to a 10 cm depth, whereas diffusion for the two isomers was negligible in near-water-saturated soil, even 101 h after injection. The diffusion rate of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in near-field-capacity soil was between the rates in the two water regimes. Yard waste compost (YWC) amendment greatly reduced diffusion of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D, even in air-dry soil. Although upward diffusion of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D in soil with VIF cover was slightly less than in the corresponding bare soil; the cover promoted retention of vapors of the two isomers in soil pore air in the shallow subsurface. More (Z)-1,3-D vapor was found initially in soil pore air than (E)-1,3-D although the difference declined thereafter. As a result of rapid upward movement in air-dry bare soil, (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D were rapidly volatilized into the atmosphere, but emissions from the near-water-saturated soil were minimal. Virtually impermeable film and YWC amendment retarded emissions. This study indicated that adequate soil water in this sandy soil is needed to prevent rapid emissions, but excess soil water slows diffusion of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-D. Thus, management for optimum water in soil is critical for pesticidal efficacy and the environment.

  15. Contribution of nitrous oxide and methan to the overall climate impact of maize on well-drained sandy soils of north-east Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, M.; Hagemann, U.; Pohl, M.; Sommer, M.; Augustin, J.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion effects and the influence of organic fertiliser (fermentation residues, FR) on the climate impact and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 were investigated at an experimental field side in the lowlands of north-east Germany during the years 2010 and 2011. This intensively used agricultural landscape is glacially shaped and characterized by well-drained sandy and loamy soils. Erosion effects on GHG exchange were investigated for energy maize at the CarboZALF-D project site near Dedelow, Uckermark. In addition to a non-eroded haplic luvisol (reference), emissions were measured for three eroded soil types: a) eroded haplic luvisol, b) haplic regosol (calcaric) and c) endogleyic colluvic regosol (deposition side). In a second field trial, the impact of organic fertilization on GHG emissions was assessed for a range of FR fertilization (0-200% N) and compared to a non-fertilized and a minerally fertilized control. Only 70% of the N content of the FR was assumed to be available for plants. Discontinuous measurements of N2O and CH4 were carried out bi-weekly using the closed-chamber method and 20-minute interval sampling. Gas samples were analysed using a gas chromatograph. Gas fluxes were calculated using linear regression, interpolated and finally cumulated. CO2 flux measurements of ecosystem respiration (Reco) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were conducted every four weeks by using a non-flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system (Livingston and Hutchinson 1995) based on Drösler (2005). Measurement gaps of NEE were filled by modeling the Reco fluxes using the Lloyd-Taylor (Lloyd and Taylor 1994) method and the gross primary production (GPP) fluxes using Michaelis-Menten (Michaelis and Menten 1913) modeling approach. Annual NEE balances were then calculated based on the modeled Reco and GPP fluxes. All investigated soil types were C sinks, storing up to 9,6 t CO2eq ha-1 yr-1. As expected for this well-drained soils, the climate impact

  16. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2015-01-01

    to experimental disturbance treatments (ploughing or rotavation), and the vegetation was surveyed during four subsequent years of succession. Treated plots were compared with control plots representing untreated grassland, as well as nearby plots characterized by plant communities representing the restoration...... target. Species richness and functional diversity both increased in response to soil disturbance, and rotavation, but not ploughing, had a persistent positive effect on the occurrence of specialist species of calcareous sandy grassland. However, no type of soil disturbance caused the plant species...

  17. Vegetation pattern variation, soil degradation and their relationship along a grassland desertification gradient in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoan; Zhao, Halin; Zhao, Xueyong; Guo, Yirui; Yun, Jianying; Wang, Shaokun; Miyasaka, Takafumi

    2009-09-01

    The Horqin Sandy Land is one of the most severely desertified regions in northern China. Plant communities and soil conditions at five stages of grassland desertification (potential, light, moderate, severe and very severe) were selected for the study of vegetation pattern variation relating to soil degradation. The results showed that vegetation cover, species richness and diversity, aboveground biomass (AGB), underground biomass, litter, soil organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), electrical conductivity, very fine sand (0.1-0.05 mm) content and silt (0.05-0.002 mm) content decreased with the desertification development. Plant community succession presented that the palatable herbaceous plants gave place to the shrub species with asexual reproduction and sand pioneer plants. The decline of vegetation cover and AGB was positively related to the loss of soil organic C and total N with progressive desertification ( P < 0.01). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that plant community distribution, species diversity and ecological dominance had the close relationship with the gradient of soil nutrients in the processes of grassland desertification. These results suggest that grassland desertification results in the variation of vegetation pattern which presents the different composition and structure of plant community highly influenced by the soil properties.

  18. Contrasting Hydraulic Strategies during Dry Soil Conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a Sandy Site in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Thomsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analyses were carried out for the dynamics of leaf water potential in two broad-leaf deciduous tree species in a sandy site under a range of air vapor pressure deficits and a relatively dry range of soil conditions. During nights when the soil is dry, the diffuse-porous, isohydric and shallow-rooted Acer rubrum does not recharge its xylem and leaf water storage to the same capacity that is observed during nights when the soil is moist. The ring-porous, deep-rooted Quercus rubra displays a more anisohydric behavior and appears to be capable of recharging to capacity at night-time even when soil moisture at the top 1 m is near wilting point, probably by accessing deeper soil layers than A. rubrum. Compared to A. rubrum, Q. rubra displays only a minimal level of down-regulation of stomatal conductance, which leads to a reduction of leaf water potential during times when vapor pressure deficit is high and soil moisture is limiting. We determine that the two species, despite typically being categorized by ecosystem models under the same plant functional type—mid-successional, temperate broadleaf—display different hydraulic strategies. These differences may lead to large differences between the species in water relations, transpiration and productivity under different precipitation and humidity regimes.

  19. Biological soil crust formation under artificial vegetation effect and its properties in the Mugetan sandy land, northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Li, Z. W.; Jia, Y. H.; Zhang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Mugetan sandy land is an inland desertification area of about 2,065 km2 in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In the ecological restoration region of the Mugetan sandy land, different crusts have formed under the action of vegetation in three types of sandy soil (i.e. semi-fixed sand dune, fixed sand dune and ancient fixed aeolian sandy soil). The surface sand particle distribution, mineral component and vegetation composition of moving sand dunes and three types of sandy soil were studied in 2010-2014 to analyze the biological crust formation properties in the Mugetan sandy land and the effects of artificial vegetation. Results from this study revealed that artificial vegetation increases the clay content and encourages the development of biological curst. The fine particles (i.e. clay and humus) of the surface layer of the sand dunes increased more than 15% ten years after the artificial vegetation planting, and further increased up to 20% after one hundred years. The interaction of clay, humus, and other fine particles formed the soil aggregate structure. Meanwhile, under the vegetation effect from the microbes, algae, and moss, the sand particles stuck together and a biological crust formed. The interconnection of the partial crusts caused the sand dunes to gradually be fixed as a whole. Maintaining the integrity of the biological crust plays a vital role in fixing the sand under the crust. The precipitation and temperature conditions in the Mugetan sandy land could satisfy the demand of biological crust formation and development. If rational vegetation measures are adopted in the region with moving sand dunes, the lichen-moss-algae biological curst will form after ten years, but it still takes more time for the sand dunes to reach the nutrient enrichment state. If the biological curst is partly broken due to human activities, reasonable closure and restoration measures can shorten the restoration time of the biological crust.

  20. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38–60 kg N ha−1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32–71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system. PMID:28176865

  1. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38-60 kg N ha-1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32-71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  2. [Effects of Different Residue Part Inputs of Corn Straws on CO2 Efflux and Microbial Biomass in Clay Loam and Sandy Loam Black Soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-yi; Liang, Ai-zhen; Yang, Xue-ming; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Jia, Shu-xia; Chen, Xue-wen; Zhang, Shi-xiu; Sun, Bing-jie; Chen, Sheng-long

    2015-07-01

    The decomposed rate of crop residues is a major determinant for carbon balance and nutrient cycling in agroecosystem. In this study, a constant temperature incubation study was conducted to evaluate CO2 emission and microbial biomass based on four different parts of corn straw (roots, lower stem, upper stem and leaves) and two soils with different textures (sandy loam and clay loam) from the black soil region. The relationships between soil CO2 emission, microbial biomass and the ratio of carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) and lignin of corn residues were analyzed by the linear regression. Results showed that the production of CO2 was increased with the addition of different parts of corn straw to soil, with the value of priming effect (PE) ranged from 215. 53 µmol . g-1 to 335. 17 µmol . g -1. Except for corn leaves, the cumulative CO2 production and PE of clay loam soil were significantly higher than those in sandy loam soil. The correlation of PE with lignin/N was obviously more significant than that with lignin concentration, nitrogen concentration and C/N of corn residue. The addition of corn straw to soil increased the contents of MBC and MBN and decreased MBC/MBN, which suggested that more nitrogen rather than carbon was conserved in microbial community. The augmenter of microbial biomass in sandy loam soil was greater than that in clay loam soil, but the total dissolved nitrogen was lower. Our results indicated that the differences in CO2 emission with the addition of residues to soils were primarily ascribe to the different lignin/N ratio in different corn parts; and the corn residues added into the sandy loam soil could enhance carbon sequestration, microbial biomass and nitrogen holding ability relative to clay loam soil.

  3. CO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, N.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examines the effect of different amendments on selected soil physical and biological properties over a 24-month period in two cropland fields. Urban municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and alfalfa residue (AR) were used as different organic amendments at the rates of 0 (control), 10 and 30 Mg ha-1 to a clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil in a semiarid region. Results showed that the soil improvement was controlled by the application rate and decomposability of amendments and soil type. The addition of organic amendments to the soils improved aggregate stability and consequently enhanced total porosity, especially macropore fraction. The increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total porosity values as compared to the control treatment were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of MSW resulted in higher values of microbial respiration in the clay loam soil than in the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for AR. Linear and power functions were provided for the relationships between microbial respiration and SOC in the loamy sand and clay loam soils, respectively. Also, CO2 emission was stimulated significantly as power functions of the total porosity and the ratio of macroporosity to microporosity. However, the soil microbial respiration and carbon storage improved aggregate stability and pore size distribution, and as a response, soil porosity, especially the macropore fraction, controlled CO2 flux.

  4. Organic Carbon Storage and Decomposition Rate of Three Subcategories of Calcareous Soil in Karst Area%桂林毛村岩溶区三种亚类石灰土有机碳矿化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严毅萍; 曹建华; 梁毅; 王培; 玉宏

    2012-01-01

    three sub-categories are following the order: black calcareous soilbrown calcareous soilred calcareous soil,the black calcareous soil mineralization rate is much greater than that of brown and red calcareous soils,in which the differences in 0~20 cm soil layer are largest.Mineralization rate of SOC and SOC contents displayed a positive correlattion.Black calcareous soil has the highest fraction of cumulative CO2-C released by SOC mineralization,and reached 3.33%.Secondly the fraction of the red calcareous soil is 2.92%.The Brown calcareous soil of cultivated land has the lowest fraction of cumulative CO2-C released by SOC mineralization by 1.90%,indicating that the stability of black calcareous soil and Red calcareous soil were weakly than Brown calcareous soil.The Brown calcareous soil of cultivated land has a strong capability to fix organic carbon.

  5. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  6. The influence of clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    2016-01-01

    was sampled at the 0–10, 10–20 and 25–30 cm depths of a sandy loam soil at Flakkebjerg, Denmark in 2013. We used the experimental plots of a long-term field experiment with mouldboard ploughing (MP) and direct drilling (DD) treatments. The residue management included straw removal (−S) and straw retention (+S...... decreased clay dispersibility (p = 0.09) and increased soil friability (p b 0.05) compared with the MP soil. Direct drilling with straw removal (DD − S) resulted in higher workability compared with mouldboard ploughing with straw removal (MP − S) (p b 0.05). We defined non-complexed clay as NCC = clay −10...

  7. Initial soil formation and humus accumulation on the spoil heaps of sandy quarry, Russian-North-West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were studied in chronoseries of different aged (3-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 43-, and 60-year-old) soils and a reference (mature) plot. The ecogenetic succession of plants on sand quarry dumps was started from grass plant community and finished on the Scotch Pine forest on the 60-years old plot. The pedogenesis rate was closely related to the rate of phytocenosis development, and the thicknesses of organic and mineral horizons increased synchronously. The profile distribution of organic matter in young soils was estimated as an ectomorphic distribution, and the humus stocks in the mineral horizons of the same soils were comparable with the reserves of organic matter in the litters. The illuvial (Bs) horizons of the soils under study played a significant role in the accumulation of organic carbon; the resistance of organic matter to mineralization increased with age. In the soil chronoseries, the caloricity of litter organic matter increased, as well as the content of energy accumulated in the litters. The composition of humus differed strongly between the eluvial and illuvial horizons; in the chronosequence, the relative content of humic acids increased in the E horizon, and that of fulvic acids increased in the B horizon. On the base of C-13 NMR study of humic substances the humic and fulvic acid are different in organic, eluvial and illuvial horizons in terms of different structural components content. The effect of the phytocenosis on the soil was increasingly mediated with time. The accumulation and transformation of organic matter were the leading pedogenic processes at all stages. The main conclusion of investigation is that the 60 years is enough for formation of embrio-profile of podzol soil on the dumps of quaternary sands of former sandy quarry in the south taiga, North-West of Russia.

  8. Impacts of grass removal on wetting and actual water repellency in a sandy soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaas Oostindie; Louis W. Dekker; Jan G. Wesseling; Violette Geissen; Coen J. Ritsema

    2017-01-01

    Soil water content and actual water repellency were assessed for soil profiles at two sites in a bare and grasscovered plot of a sand pasture, to investigate the impact of the grass removal on both properties...

  9. Effects of dune stabilization on vegetation characteristics and soil properties at multiple scales in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAn Zuo; XueYong Zhao; ShaoKun Wang; Xin Zhou; Peng Lv; Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological patterns and processes in dune ecosystems have been a research focus in recent years, however information on how dune stabilization influences vegetation and soil at different spatial scales is still lacking. In this study, we measured vegetation characteristics and soil properties across three spatial scales (10, 100 and 1,000 m2) along gradient dune stabi-lization stages (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune and fixed dune) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. Vegetation cover over all scales significantly increased with degree of dune stabilization, as well as species richness and C/N ratio at 10 m2 scale. Species richness significantly increased with the increase in measured scales at each stage of dune stabilization and was higher in fixed dune than that in mobile dune and semi-fixed dune at 100 and 1,000 m2 scales. Over all scales, aboveground biomass was lower in mobile dune than that in semi-fixed dune and fixed dune, and soil organic C, total N, EC, very fine sand and silt+clay contents were higher in fixed dune than those in mobile dune and semi-fixed dune. These results suggest that along the gradient dune stabilization, species richness has strong spatial scale-dependence, but vege-tation cover, aboveground biomass and soil properties is generally scale independent (i.e., the pattern of response is con-sistent across all scales). Effect of dune stabilization on vegetation and soil over all spatial scales results in the positive correlation among vegetation cover, species richness, biomass, soil organic C, total N, C/N, EC, very fine sand and silt+clay along the gradient dune stabilization. In addition, species richness at the smallest scale (10 m2) has more sensitive response to dune stabilization. Thus, the monitoring strategies at small scales are essential to detect changes of species diversity in semiarid dune ecosystems.

  10. Reduced nitrogen leaching by intercropping maize with red fescue on sandy soils in North Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study maize (Zea mays L.) growth and soil nitrogen (N) dynamics in monocrop and intercropped systems in a North European climate and soil conditions with the support of a simulation model. Methods Field data for 3 years at two sites/soil types in Denmark and three main factors: (i) cropping...

  11. Straw gasification biochar increases plant available water capacity and plant growth in coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types needs further reserach. A pot experiment with spring barley...

  12. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid

  13. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid phase. The

  14. Changes in soil and vegetation on moving sand dunes after exclosure in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the semiarid Horqin Sandy Land of northern China, land desertification is the main causation in vegetation degradation and formation of moving dunes. A study was conducted from 1996 to 2005 to monitor the changes of vegetation characteristics and soil properties after moving dunes were fenced. The changes were compared between moving sand dunes with exclosure and without exclosure to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetation and soil restoration after exclosure establishment. The results show that exlosure establishment facilitated the colonization and development of plant species by ameliorating stressful environmental conditions. Species diversity, average coverage, and plant density significantly increased after exclosure of moving sand dunes along sequence compared with sand dunes without exclosure. Vegetation recovery on moving sand dunes accelerated by exclosure resulted in significant changes in soil properties including increased silt and clay contents, organic C and total N and decreased sand content, especially at the 0-5 cm depth. The results implied that moving sand dunes can be rapidly fixed by construction of exclosure.

  15. Extraction of bitumen, crude oil and its products from tar sand and contaminated sandy soil under effect of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, O V; Abramov, V O; Myasnikov, S K; Mullakaev, M S

    2009-03-01

    In the present paper, the kinetics of the water extraction of bitumen from tar sand and crude oil or residual fuel oil from model contaminated soils under the effect of ultrasound is studied. The influence of process temperature, ultrasound power, the nature, and properties of the components of heterogeneous mixtures being separated, and the concentration of added alkaline reagents on the rate and degree of oil recovery is investigated. A functional form of the dependencies of separation efficiency on the mean size of solid particles and the temperature of a working medium is found. Optimum concentrations of reagents in the process solution are determined. It is shown that the spent solution of sodium silicate can be multiply used for separation, its reuse even speeding up the yield of oil in the initial period. Taking into account obtained results, a multipurpose pilot plant with a flow-type reactor for ultrasonic extraction of petroleum and its products from contaminated soils was manufactured and tested. During tests, the purification of sandy soil contaminated with residual fuel oil was carried out which verified the results of laboratory studies.

  16. Impacts of grass removal on wetting and actual water repellency in a sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostindie Klaas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content and actual water repellency were assessed for soil profiles at two sites in a bare and grasscovered plot of a sand pasture, to investigate the impact of the grass removal on both properties. The soil of the plots was sampled six times in vertical transects to a depth of 33 cm between 23 May and 7 October 2002. On each sampling date the soil water contents were measured and the persistence of actual water repellency was determined of field-moist samples. Considerably higher soil water contents were found in the bare versus the grass-covered plots. These alterations are caused by differences between evaporation and transpiration rates across the plots. Noteworthy are the often excessive differences in soil water content at depths of 10 to 30 cm between the bare and grass-covered plots. These differences are a consequence of water uptake by the roots in the grass-covered plots. The water storage in the upper 19 cm of the bare soil was at least two times greater than in the grass-covered soil during dry periods. A major part of the soil profile in the grass-covered plots exhibited extreme water repellency to a depth of 19 cm on all sampling dates, while the soil profile of the bare plots was completely wettable on eight of the twelve sampling dates. Significant differences in persistence of actual water repellency were found between the grass-covered and bare plots.

  17. Nitrogen Amendment Stimulated Decomposition of Maize Straw-Derived Biochar in a Sandy Loam Soil: A Short-Term Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Lu

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N on biochar stability in relation to soil microbial community as well as biochar labile components using δ13C stable isotope technology. A sandy loam soil under a long-term rotation of C3 crops was amended with biochar produced from maize (a C4 plant straw in absence (BC0 and presence (BCN of N and monitored for dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs profile and dissolved organic carbon (DOC content. N amendment significantly increased the decomposition of biochar during the first 5 days of incubation (P < 0.05, and the proportions of decomposed biochar carbon (C were 2.30% and 3.28% in BC0 and BCN treatments, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. The magnitude of decomposed biochar C was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than DOC in biochar (1.75% and part of relatively recalcitrant biochar C was mineralized in both treatments. N amendment increased soil PLFAs concentration at the beginning of incubation, indicating that microorganisms were N-limited in test soil. Furthermore, N amendment significantly (P < 0.05 increased the proportion of gram-positive (G+ bacteria and decreased that of fungi, while no noticeable changes were observed for gram-negative (G- bacteria and actinobacteria at the early stage of incubation. Our results indicated that N amendment promoted more efficiently the proliferation of G+ bacteria and accelerated the decomposition of relatively recalcitrant biochar C, which in turn reduced the stability of maize straw-derived biochar in test soil.

  18. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  19. Effect of zinc rates, arbuscular mycorrhiza and two types of organic matter on corn growth and micronutrients-uptake in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gholami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of zinc rates, arbuscular mycorrhiza and organic matter, on corn growth and micronutrients-uptake in a calcareous soil. Experimental design was factorial based on complete randomized design with 3 replications. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of Zn (0, 5 and 10 mg Zn/kg, 2 types of organic manure (sheep manure and municipal waste compost, each at 0 or 1% w/w and 2 levels of mycorrhiza (no inoculation and inoculation with Glomus intraradices. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after emergence and used for chemical analysis. Roots were used to determine the degree of colonization. Results showed that application of Zn increased plant dry matter weight, total Zn and Cu uptake, root mycorrhizal colonization and decreased total Fe and Mn uptake. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increased plant dry matter weight, root mycorrhizal colonization and total Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu uptake. Application of both organic manures increased plant dry matter weight, root mycorrhizal colonization and total Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu uptake. 

  20. Restoring Eroded Lands in Southern Iceland: Efficacy of Domestic, Organic Fertilizers in Sandy Gravel Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Julia Miriam, 1989-

    2016-01-01

    Since settlement Iceland has faced severe soil degradation due to a combination of natural stressors – glacial flooding, volcanic eruption, and heavy wind – and anthropogenic stressors – grazing livestock, wood harvesting, and land use change. Declining soil stability under these conditions resulted in extensive soil erosion: 40% of Iceland now has considerable, severe, or extremely severe erosion. Fertilizers have been utilized for land reclamation in Iceland for many years, but they have mo...

  1. Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

  2. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2017-08-31

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N2O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N2O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N2O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO3(-), NH4(+), water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N2O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO3(-). Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N2O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The evolution of sandy soils under the influence of vegetation succession and anthropogenic activities - case study from Błędów Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus, Magdalena; Drewnik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Sandy areas are an important source of research about early stages of the soils formation process and their further development. The rate of succession is reflecting the influence of vegetation on chemical and physical properties of soils which as the time goes undergo the evolution process caused by other environmental factors. The Błędów Desert (Poland, Central Europe) is an example of this kind of area, where sandy soils evolved into Podzols, but as a result of human activities conducted since Middle Ages soil cover has been destroyed to bedrock. Currently progressing vegetation succession occurred in two ways: primary, which took place in areas covered by loose sand and secondary, in the areas with fossil soils. Presently the Błędów Desert is a suitable example to study soil changes in both cases mentioned above. The main aim of the study was to present diversity and characteristics of soils in The Błędów Desert in relation to their development stages and vegetation succession. During field studies soil profiles were described and selected for the detailed studies and soils samples were taken for laboratory analysis, including a determination of basic physical and chemical analysis as well as for micromorphological analysis (selected profiles). Podzols located near the boundary of the study area was selected as a reference soils. The results proved the complexity of the soil process formation, which strongly depends on the vegetation succession and human activities including human-induced aeolian processes. Results confirmed the presence of buried soils, which together with the contemporary soils formed a soil sequence. Moreover, research shows that the dominant soil-forming processes at the Błędów Desert are humus accumulation and podzolization. To summarize, The Błędów Desert is a dynamic environment undergoing rapid changes of soil cover under the influence of the interaction of vegetation, anthropopression and aeolian processes.

  4. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Qing [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Hu Qinhong [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Khan, Sardan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar (Pakistan); Wang Zijian [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lin Aijun [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Du Xin [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn

    2007-09-05

    The toxicity of two toxic elements, arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd cannot explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  5. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  6. Prospects of damaged calcareous spring systems in temperate Europe : Can we restore travertine-marl deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, Ab; Bulte, Marc; Wolejko, Leslaw; Pakalne, Mara; Dullo, Bikila; Eck, Nelly; Fritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Calcareous mires are peat forming systems fed by calcareous groundwater that regularly deposit travertine (CaCO3) on the soil surface or in small pools that are present in such mires. At present almost all calcareous mires in Poland are degraded, most often by land use, which has led to disturbances

  7. The Effect of Vermicompost on Reducing the Adverse Effects of Water Stress on Growth and Chemical Composition of Corn in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila zare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vermicompost is one of the important bio-fertilizer which is the product of the process of composting different organic wastes such as manures and crop residues using different earthworms. Vermicomposts, especially those are derived from animal wastes,contain the large amounts of nutrients compaired with the composts prepared from crop residues. Vermicomposts contain plant available form of nutrients such as nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable phosphorus and potassium, calcium and magnesium. Nowadays, the use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture to improve the growth and quality of fruits and crops is very common. Drought occurs when the amount of moisture in soil and water resources and rainfall is less than what plants need for normal growth and function. Two thirds of farm lands in Iran have been located in arid and semi-arid regions with annual rainfall less than150 mm that has been distributed irregularly and unpredictable during growth season imposing water stress in most crops. It indicates the importance of water management and proposing different strategies for mitigating detrimental effect of water stress in croplands. Due to the fact that crops nutrient management under drought and water stress using organic fertilizers is an effective method in reaching to high yields in sustainable agriculture, the objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of vermicompost application on reducing the adverse effects of water stress on the growth and chemical composition of corn in a calcareous soil. Materials and Methods: In order to study the influence of water stress and application of vermicompost on corn dry matter yield and nutrients concentration of corn shoot, a greenhouse factorial experiment (4×3 in completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in college of agriculture, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran. The factors consisted of four vermicompost levels (0, 10, 20 and30g kg-1soil

  8. Role of Carbon Substrates Added in the Transformation of Surplus Nitrate to Organic Nitrogen in a Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shao-Jun; JU Xiao-Tang; J.INGWERSEN; GUO Zi-De; C.F.STANGE; R.BISHARAT; T.STRECK

    2013-01-01

    Excessive amounts of nitrate have accumulated in many soils on the North China Plain due to the large amounts of chemical N fertilizers or manures used in combination with low carbon inputs.We investigated the potential of different carbon substrates added to transform soil nitrate into soil organic N (SON).A 56-d laboratory incubation experiment using the 15N tracer (K15NO3)technique was carried out to elucidate the proportion of SON derived from accumulated soil nitrate following amendment with glucose or maize straw at controlled soil temperature and moisture.The dynamics and isotopic abundance of mineral N (NO3-and NH4+) and SON and greenhouse gas (N2O and CO2) emissions during the incubation were investigated.Although carbon amendments markedly stimulated transformation of nitrate to newly formed SON,this was only a substitution effect of the newly formed SON with native SON because SON at the end of the incubation period was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that in control soil without added C.At the end of the incubation period,amendment with glucose,a readily available C source,increased nitrate immobilization by 2.65 times and total N2O-N emission by 33.7 times,as compared with maize straw amendment.Moreover,the differences in SON and total N2O-N emission between the treatments with glucose and maize straw were significant (P < 0.05).However,the total N2O-N emission in the straw treatment was not significantly (P > 0.05) greater than that in the control.Straw amendment may be a potential option in agricultural practice for transformation of nitrate N to SON and minimization of N2O emitted as well as restriction of NO3-N leaching.

  9. Assessing soil water repellency of a sandy field with visible near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Masis Melendez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) is a widespread phenomenon caused by aggregated organic matter (OM) and layers of hydrophobic organic substances coating the surface of soil particles. These substances have a very low surface free energy, reducing a soil’s water attraction. There is focus on WR due...

  10. Cumulative effects of sewage sludge and effluent mixture application on soil properties of a sandy soil under a mixture of star and kikuyu grasses in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M.; Nyamangara, J.; Bangira, C.

    Although sewage effluent and sludge provides nutrients for plant growth, its continual use over extended periods can result in the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and in grass to levels that are detrimental to the food chain. This study was carried in 2001 out at Firle farm, owned by the Municipality of Harare, to assess heavy metal loading on a sandy soil and uptake of the metals by pasture grass consisting of a mixture of Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) and Pennisetum clandestinum Chiov (kikuyu grass) following sewage effluent and sludge application for 29 years. Firle Farm receives treated effluent and sludge emanating from domestic and industrial sources. Soil and grass samples were taken from the study area, consisting of 3 ha of non-irrigated area (control) and 1.3 ha of irrigated area. Both the soil and grass samples were tested for Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Sewage sludge addition resulted in high levels of soil pollution, especially in the 20 cm horizon, in the irrigated area when compared to the control. Grasses took up moderate levels of Cu and Zn, and limited levels of Pb. Nickel was not detectable in grasses despite high levels in the irrigated soil. Copper uptake was several times higher than the suggested potentially toxic level of 12 mg/kg [Soil Science Society of America, Micronutrients in agriculture, second ed., Wisconsin, USA, 1991]. Lead uptake averaged 1.0 mg/kg, which was below 10 mg/kg the suggested limit for agronomic crops [E.M. Seaker, Zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in minespoil, water and plants from reclaimed mine land amended with sewage sludge, 1991]. Cu and Zn showed relatively higher mobility down the soil profile than Ni and Pb. Even then, the concentrations in the lower soil layers were very small, suggesting that the metals were unlikely to contaminate groundwater. There was no direct correlation between metal levels in soils and grasses. It was postulated that it is the bio

  11. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schulin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of land are restored with un-weathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5×10 cm with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P

  12. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Felderer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of land are restored with unweathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils, as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites, the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition, we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5 × 10 cm with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P

  13. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderer, B.; Boldt-Burisch, K. M.; Schneider, B. U.; Hüttl, R. F. J.; Schulin, R.

    2013-03-01

    Large areas of land are restored with unweathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P) is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils, as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites, the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC) in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES) with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition, we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5 × 10 cm) with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P concentrations. In

  14. Mobility of Arsenic and Heavy Metals in a Sandy-Loam Textured and Carbonated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GARCIA; M.DIEZ; F.MARTIN; M.SIMóN; C.DORRONSORO

    2009-01-01

    The continued effect of the pyrite-tailing oxidation on the mobility of arsenic,lead,zinc,cadmium,and copper was studied in a carbonated soil under natural conditions,with the experimcntal plot preserved with a layer of tailing covering the soil during three years.The experimental area is located in Southern Spain and was affected by a pyrite-mine spill.The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean,which determines the rate of soil alteration and element mobility.The intense alteration processes that occurred in the soil during three years caused important changes in its morphology and a strong degradation of the main soil properties.In this period,lead concentrated in the first 5 mm of the soil,with concentrations higher than 1500 mg kg-1,mainly associated to the neoformation of plumbojarosite.Arsenic was partially leached from the first 5 mm and mainly concentrated between 5-10 mm in the soil,with maximum values of 1 239 mg kg-1;the retention of arsenates was related to the neoformation of iron hydroxysulfates (jarosite,schwertmannite) and oxyhydroxides (goethite,ferrihydrite),both with a variable degree of crystallinity.The mobility of Zn,Cd,and Cu was highly affected by pH,producing a stronger leaching in depth;their retention was related to the forms of precipitated aluminium and,in the case of Cu,also to the neoformation of hydroxysulfate.

  15. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz, H.M.M.; Hasaneen, M.N.A.; Ome, A.M.

    2016-11-01

    Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing). Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials. (Author)

  16. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. A. Hasaneen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing. Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials.

  17. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  18. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Eleven years' effect of conservation practices for temperate sandy loams: II. Soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfallah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore characte......Conservation agriculture (CA) is regarded by many as a sustainable intensification strategy. Minimal soil disturbance in combination with residue retention are important CA components. This study examined the long-term effects of crop rotation, residue retention, and tillage on soil pore......, the volume of pores > 30 μm was more than 0.03 m3 m-3 larger for MP than for D in spring 2014 at the 4- to 8-cm depth. At the 18- to 27-cm depth, direct drilling resulted in a better air permeability and pore continuity index (e.g., air permeability of 18.2 and 11.2 mm2 for D and MP, respectively at −10 k...

  20. Changes in the distribution of Zn applied as a mixture of synthetic chelating agents in two successive flax crops grown in a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Obrador, A.; Alvarez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    significant decreases in both the Zn-D-H-E treatments, with reductions ranging from 38.1 to 52.6% of the initial Zn values (Zn-D-H-E applied at 5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1, respectively). Similar behaviour was also observed in Zn-MnOX with both the Zn-D-H-E treatments, with the reductions ranging from 36.6 to 43.5% of the initial Zn values (Zn-D-H-E at 5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1, respectively). In contrast, the Zn concentrations associated with the CAR and FeOX forms showed significant increases between the two successive flax crops for all the treatments, including that of Nil-Zn. These increases in Zn-CAR ranged from 41.0 to 43.6% of initial Zn (Zn-D-H-E at 5 mg Zn kg-1 and Nil-Zn and, respectively). For Zn-FeOX, the corresponding increases ranged from 56.0 to 186.8% of initial Zn (Zn-D-H-E at 10 mg Zn kg-1 and Nil-Zn, respectively). Zinc concentrations associated with OM and RES fractions did not show any significant differences between the two flax crops for the different treatments. Finally, the residual effect of this calcareous soil produced a change in the distribution of Zn fractions, mainly from water soluble, exchangeable and easily reducible Zn to carbonate bound and Fe oxide bound Zn.

  1. Cations extraction of sandy-clay soils from cavado valley, portugal, using sodium salts solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva João Eudes da; Castro Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Cases of contamination by metals in the water wells of the Cavado Valley in north-west Portugal can be attributed to the heavy leaching of clay soils due to an excess of nitrogen resulting from the intensive use of fertilisers in agricultural areas. This work focuses on the natural weathering characteristics of soils, particularly the clay material, through the study of samples collected near the River Cavado. Samples taken from various sites, after physico-chemical characterisation, were sub...

  2. Soil Seed Bank and Plant Community Development in Passive Restoration of Degraded Sandy Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui Miao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of passive restoration on soil seed bank and vegetation recovery, we measured the species composition and density of the soil seed bank, as well as the species composition, density, coverage, and height of the extant vegetation in sites passively restored for 0, 4, 7, and 12 years (S0, S4, S7, and S12 in a degraded grassland in desert land. Compared with S0, three more species in the soil seed bank at depths of 0–30 cm and one more plant species in the community was detected in S12. Seed density within the topsoil (0–5 cm was five times higher in S12 than that in S0. Plant densities in S7 and S12 were triple and quadruple than that in S0. Plant coverage was increased by 1.5 times (S4, double (S7, and triple (S12 compared with S0. Sørensen’s index of similarity in species composition between the soil seed bank and the plant community were high (0.43–0.63, but it was lower in short-term restoration sites (S4 and S7 than that in no and long-term restoration sites (S0 and S12. The soil seed bank recovered more slowly than the plant community under passive restoration. Passive restoration is a useful method to recover the soil seed bank and vegetation in degraded grasslands.

  3. Effects of charcoal-enriched goat manure on soil fertility parameters and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in a sandy soil from northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Willich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of charcoal feeding on manure quality and its subsequent application to enhance soil productivity has received little attention. The objectives of the present study therefore were to investigate the effects of (i charcoal feeding on manure composition, and (ii charcoal-enriched manure application on soil fertility parameters and growth of millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.. To this end, two experiments were conducted: First, a goat feeding trial where goats were fed increasing levels of activated charcoal (AC; 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9% of total ration; second, a greenhouse pot experiment using the manure from the feeding trial as an amendment for a sandy soil from northern Oman. We measured manure C, N, P, and K concentrations, soil fertility parameters and microbial biomass indices, as well as plant yield and nutrient concentrations. Manure C concentration increased significantly (P<0.001 from 45.2% (0% AC to 60.2% (9% AC with increasing dietary AC, whereas manure N, P, and K concentrations decreased (P<0.001 from 0% AC (N: 2.5%, P: 1.5%, K: 0.8% to 9% AC (N: 1.7%, P: 0.8%, K: 0.4%. Soil organic carbon, pH, and microbial biomass N showed a response to AC-enriched manure. Yield of millet decreased slightly with AC enrichment, whereas K uptake was improved with increasing AC. We conclude that AC effects on manure quality and soil productivity depend on dosage of manure and AC, properties of AC, trial duration, and soil type.

  4. Agronomic assessment of pyrolysed food waste digestate for sandy soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatokun, Suraj Adebayo; Yousef, Lina F; Strezov, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The digestate (DFW) of an industrial food waste treatment plant was pyrolysed for production of biochar for its direct application as bio-fertilizer or soil enhancer. Nutrient dynamics and agronomic viability of the pyrolysed food waste digestate (PyD) produced at different temperatures were evaluated using germination index (GI), water retention/availability and mineral sorption as indicators when applied on arid soil. The pyrolysis was found to enrich P, K and other micronutrients in the biochar at an average enrichment factor of 0.87. All PyD produced at different temperatures indicated significantly low phytotoxicity with GI range of 106-168% and an average water retention capacity of 40.2%. Differential thermogravimetric (DTG) thermographs delineated the stability of the food waste digestate pyrolysed at 500 °C (PyD500) against the degradation of the digestate food waste despite the latter poor nutrient sorption potential. Plant available water in soil is 40% when treated with 100 g of digestate per kg soil, whereas PyD500 treated soil indicated minimal effect on plant available water, even with high application rates. However, the positive effects of PyD on GI and the observed enrichment in plant macro and micronutrients suggest potential agronomic benefits for PyD use, in addition to the benefits from energy production from DFW during the pyrolysis process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Dynamic changes of surface soil organic carbon and light-fraction organic carbon after mobile dune afforestation with Mongolian pine in Horqin Sandy Land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen; Li, Yu-qiang; Wang, Shao-kun; Feng, Jing; Su, Na

    2011-08-01

    This paper studied the dynamic changes of surface (0-15 cm) soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in 25- and 35-year-old sand-fixing Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) plantations in Horqin Sandy Land, with a mobile dune as a comparison site. After the afforestation on mobile dune, the content of coarse sand in soil decreased, while that of fine sand and clay-silt increased significantly. The SOC and LFOC contents also increased significantly, but tended to decrease with increasing soil depth. Afforestation increased the storages of SOC and LFOC in surface soil, and the increment increased with plantation age. In the two plantations, the increment of surface soil LFOC storage was much higher than that of SOC storage, suggesting that mobile dune afforestation had a larger effect on surface soil LFOC than on SOC.

  6. Seasonal differences in tillage draught on a sandy loam soil with long-term additions of animal manure and mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nyord, T.; Christensen, B.T.;

    2016-01-01

    Energy requirements for soil tillage are closely linked to soil properties, such as clay, water and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. Long-term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments affects SOC content but little is known about seasonal differences in tillage draught...... requirements of soils subject to contrasting nutrient management regimes. We assessed autumn and spring tillage draught following harvest of early-sown and timely sown winter wheat grown on a sandy loam in the Askov Long-Term Experiment on Animal Manure and Mineral Fertilizers. Draught force was related...... to soil texture, soil water and SOC content, shear strength and bulk density, nutrient management, and yield of the preceding winter wheat. Contents of clay and SOC ranged from 8.9 to 10.6% and from 0.98 to 1.36%, respectively. In the autumn and spring, SOC normalized by clay content explained 38 and 5...

  7. The influence of wine-distillery waste compost on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and uptake by a melon crop in a shallow calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, M. I.; Villena, R.; Ribas, F.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, the large quantity of organic wastes generated by the winery industry constitutes a serious environmental concern, due to its low pH and high content of phenolic compounds. This is accompanied by a seasonal production that makes their management difficult. Winery wastes are characterized by high organic matter contents, low electrical conductivity values and notable contents in macronutrients, so their use as organic amendments is a good management option for improving soil fertility. However, a composting treatment is necessary to convert these organic wastes into more stable, hygienic and humic-rich materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the application of exhausted grape marc compost (composed of dealcoholized pulp, skins and stems) as fertilizer in soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and uptake by a melon crop (Cucumis melo L.). This experiment was carried out from May to September 2011 in Ciudad Real (Spain). This area was designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Alfisol Xeralf Petrocalcic Palexeralfs) with a depth of 0.60 m and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.60 and 0.70 m, slightly basic (pH 7.9), poor in organic matter (0.20%), rich in potassium (407 ppm) and with a medium level of phosphorus (19.4 ppm). The experiment had a randomised complete block design, with four treatments consisted of four compost doses: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T compost ha-1 (D3), in order to determine the optimum dose to ensure nutrient demand, maximizing yield and minimizing nutrient losses. Acknowledgements This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  8. Regulating mineralization rates of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve phosphorus availability in calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve synchronization between P released from the prunings with crop demand for P was studied in a laboratory and in a glasshouse. Tithonia diversifolia prunings (Td, Lantana camara prunings (Lc, and farmyard manure (Pk were thoroughly mixed with the proportion (% of dry weight of; 25Td +75 Lc ; 50Td +50 Lc ; 75Td +25 Lc ; 90Lc +10 Pk ; 45Td +45 +10 Lc Pk ; 100Td and 100Lc, and then mixed with 100 g of air-dried soil with a rate equivalent to 100 kg P / ha. Results of the study showed that the pruning mixtures decomposed and mineralized faster than that of Lantana camara pruning only, but slower than that of Tithonia diversifolia pruning only. The amount of P released from the pruning mixtures increased with increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixtures. Increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixture applied to the soil increased the amount of P taken up by maize.

  9. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...... for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted...

  10. Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Grown on Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed to determine the effects of using humic acid with irrigation on quantitative and qualitative yield traits of sugar beet grown on calcareous soils in Esfaraen, located in the North-East of Iran. Treatments consisted of three levels of humic acid concentration (zero or control, 2.5 and 5 L ha-1 and the number of applications (once 45 days after planting; twice, 45 and 75 days after planting; three times, respectively 45, 75 and 105 days after planting. The effect of the two experimental factors on sugar beet yield traits such as the content of sucrose, refined sugar, molasses forming substances, root yield and refined sugar yield were evaluated. The results proved the existence of a significant interaction between humic acid concentration and the number of applications on all parameters under study. The application of humic acid caused a significant increase of sucrose, refined sugar, root yield and refined sugar yield and a reduction in molasses forming substances content, compared to the control. The increased amount of sucrose and refined sugar content in all applications in concentration of 2.5 L ha-1 humic acid was more than with 5 L ha-1. Similarly, the content of molasses forming substances showed more reduction in 2.5 L ha-1 than in 5 L ha-1 treatment. However, the results revealed that the highest root yield and refined sugar yield, as the main qualitative and quantitative parameters of sugar beet yield, were achieved by three times application of 5 L ha-1 that had 24 and 37% increase compared to control.

  11. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on inorganic nitrogen in silt loam and sandy agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral Clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4...

  12. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on nitrogen in a manure-amended sandy agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-...

  13. Origin and fate of organic matter in sandy soils along a primary vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.

    1999-01-01

    Until now little is known about the role vegetation plays in the organic matter formation, particularly at the molecular level. Most ecosystems have a long history, which is unknown or too complex to find distinct relations between vegetation and the chemical composition of soil organic matter. To g

  14. Water quality and surfactant effects on the water repellency of a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in irrigation water quality may affect the water repellency of soils treated or untreated with surfactants. Using simulated irrigations, we evaluated water quality and surfactant application rate effects upon the water repellency of a Quincy sand (Xeric Torripsamment). We used a split ...

  15. Amelioration of sandy soils in drought stricken areas through use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    moisture retention, pH, N, P, Ca and Mg content, and subsequently, maize dry matter yield. Averaged over 2 ... increased soil quality persisted for at least. 3 years. ..... improve its ability to support a growing crop. ... A combination of these.

  16. Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar amendment to soil may affect N turnover and retention, and may cause translocation of dissolved and particulate C. We investigated effects of three fine particulate biochars made of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (one by slow pyrolysis and two by fast pyrolysis) on N and C leaching fr...

  17. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in sandy soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The res

  18. Towards improved nitrogen management in silage maize production on sandy soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Maize has become a highly appreciated crop in Dutch dairy farming during the last 25 years. The current cropping technique, however, is associated with a low recovery of soil mineral nitrogen (N) and serious losses of N to the environment. This gave rise to the research described in this thesis whic

  19. Altered humin compositions under organic and inorganic fertilization on an intensively cultivated sandy loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humin is the largest and also the least understood fraction of soil organic matter. The humin structure and its correlation with microbiological properties are particularly uncertain. We applied advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the structural chan...

  20. Effect of Soil Surface Evaporation with Fly Ash as Sandy Soil Amendment%施用粉煤灰对沙土土面蒸发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成钢; 赵亮; 孙鹏程; 唐泽军

    2011-01-01

    Based on evaporation experiment in natural condition, research were carried out to study the effect of water retention capacity of sandy soil under four fly ash application rate (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Results showed that, the usage of fly ash reduced evaporation capability and enhance water reten- tion capacity of sandy soil. The evaporation capability always reduced by the effort of fly ash application throughout the experiment, and showed that less evaporation effect with increasing fly ash application rate. As total evaporation, compared with controlled experiment, the total evaporation of three treatments of 20%, 30%, 40% reduced 8.3%, 13.0%, 27.2% except 10% treatment has similar evaporation.%通过自然条件下蒸发试验,研究了4种粉煤灰施用率对沙土土面蒸发的影响。结果表明,粉煤灰的施用减弱了沙土土面蒸发水平,增强了沙土的保水性能。通过对蒸发过程的日观察,粉煤灰的施用始终表现出减弱沙土蒸发的能力,且呈现出随粉煤灰施用率增多而蒸发能力愈弱的特点。施用率10%处理土壤总蒸发量与对照试验大致相同,施用率20%、30%、40%三种处理总蒸发量分别较对照试验减少8.3%、13.0%、27.2%。

  1. Effect of salinity and vermicompost application on nutrients concentration and yield of spinach cv. Virofly in a calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sheikhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of salinity (S and vermicompost (V on yield and concentration of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na and chlorine (Cl of spinach shoots cv. Virofly, a pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse, and arranged as factorial in a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments included three V levels (0, 1 and 2%, w/w and four S levels (0, 1, 2 and 3 g NaCl per kg soil. Electrical conductivity of the soil for these four S levels was 0.7, 4.5, 8 and 11.5 dS/m, respectively. Results showed that the highest yield of spinach shoots was obtained in 10% V treatment. Application of sodium chloride (NaCl had no significant effect on shoot yield. Therefore, under the present experimental conditions, S threshold level for "Viroflay" cultivar was at least 11.5 dS/m, which is much higher than the level reported in literature for spinach (2 dS/m. Application of V increased concentration of N, P, K, Fe and Mg in spinach shoots, but decreased concentration of Mn, Zn, Cu, Ca, Na and Cl. Application of NaCl had no significant effect on the concentration of P, Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg. But, with the addition of NaCl, concentration of N, Zn, Cu, Na and Cl was increased in spinach shoots. In the absence of NaCl, application of V had no significant effect on Na concentration, but increased Cl concentration. Whereas, at 3 g NaCl level, application of V significantly decreased Na and Cl concentrations of shoots, compared to the application of NaCl alone. Therefore, application of V not only can increase plant growth, but also could be an effective solution to mitigate the negative effects of high concentrations of Na and Cl on growth of spinach, cv. Virofly, in saline soils.

  2. Soil disturbance alters plant community composition and decreases mycorrhizal carbon allocation in a sandy grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Tim Krone; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2011-11-01

    We have studied how disturbance by ploughing and rotavation affects the carbon (C) flow to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a dry, semi-natural grassland. AM fungal biomass was estimated using the indicator neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) 16:1ω5, and saprotrophic fungal biomass using NLFA 18:2ω6,9. We labeled vegetation plots with (13)CO(2) and studied the C flow to the signature fatty acids as well as uptake and allocation in plants. We found that AM fungal biomass in roots and soil decreased with disturbance, while saprotrophic fungal biomass in soil was not influenced by disturbance. Rotavation decreased the (13)C enrichment in NLFA 16:1ω5 in soil, but (13)C enrichment in the AM fungal indicator NLFA 16:1ω5 in roots or soil was not influenced by any other disturbance. In roots, (13)C enrichment was consistently higher in NLFA 16:1ω5 than in crude root material. Grasses (mainly Festuca brevipila) decreased as a result of disturbance, while non-mycorrhizal annual forbs increased. This decreases the potential for mycorrhizal C sequestration and may have been the main reason for the reduced mycorrhizal C allocation found in disturbed plots. Disturbance decreased the soil ammonium content but did not change the pH, nitrate or phosphate availability. The overall effect of disturbance on C allocation was that more of the C in AM fungal mycelium was directed to the external phase. Furthermore, the functional identity of the plants seemed to play a minor role in the C cycle as no differences were seen between different groups, although annuals contained less AM fungi than the other groups.

  3. Nitrification inhibitor's effect on mitigating N2O emissions was weakened by urease inhibitor in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichao; Wu, Di; Bol, Roland; Shi, Yuefeng; Guo, Yanbin; Meng, Fanqiao; Wu, Wenliang

    2017-10-01

    The application of nitrification or urease inhibitors together with nitrogen (N) fertilizer has been proposed to reduce N losses, including nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, from agricultural soils. We measured N2O fluxes, crop yield and plant N content over 3 years (2012-2015) to evaluate the long-term effects of nitrification and/or urease inhibitors on N2O emissions, crop production and N use efficiency (NUE) in an intensively farmed wheat-maize system in northern China. The experiment consisted of the following five treatments: 1) CK, no N fertilizer; 2) U, urea; 3) NI, urea with 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP); 4) UI, urea with N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT); and 5) NIUI, urea with combined DMPP and NBPT. Compared with the U treatment, the NI, NIUI and UI treatments mitigated cumulative N2O emissions by 55%, 40% and 21% in the maize season, respectively, and 47%, 40% and 33% in the wheat season, respectively. The annual direct emission factors of N2O for the U, NI, UI and NIUI treatments were 0.4%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. The NIUI, NI and UI treatments increased the annual crop yield (7%, 6% and 4%) and the NUE (15%, 10% and 7%) relative to the U treatment. The NI treatment showed the best effect on mitigating N2O emissions, but its efficacy was reduced when applied together with UI. This indicates that more studies are required focusing on the performances and mechanisms of these two inhibitors in alkaline and low organic carbon soils.

  4. Fate of carbosulfan and monocrotophos in sandy loam soils of Pakistan under field conditions at different watertable depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Shahzad, Farina

    2010-05-01

    Information regarding pesticide mobility is critical for the evaluation of pesticide management practices. For this purpose, lysimetric studies were conducted to develop assessment schemes to protect groundwater from unacceptable effects caused by pesticide use. By using these studies, specific monitoring actions and prevention measures for the protection of waters can be studied, and the results thus obtained can provide the local authorities and the decision makers with an identification tool for demarcating risk areas. Pesticide residues were found at the bottom of lysimeters in the following pattern i.e., 1.52 > 2.1 > 2.74 m which could represent an "index of risk" for groundwater pollution. Regressions built for carbofuran and monocrotophos against watertable depths showed a decreasing trend of pesticide in higher watertable treatments. These findings support the existence of a significant role for chromatographic flow in sandy texture soil. Moreover, the higher values of pesticide residue at the bottom of lysimeters reflect that chromatographic flow as well as preferential flow pattern prevails during higher precipitation events. The precipitation received during the study was higher than the 10 year average and can be considered relatively as a worst case scenario. Finally, the authors have recommended a standardized pesticide monitoring scheme for groundwater in accordance with the already validated generic schemes in developed countries.

  5. Crop residues as driver for N2O emissions from a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Petersen, Søren O.; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling within agriculture constitutes a source of direct and indirect emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). We analysed relationships between N2O emissions and C and N balances of four arable cropping systems under conventional or organic management within a long......-term experiment on a loamy sand soil at Foulum in Denmark. All cropping systems included winter wheat, a leguminous crop (faba bean or grass-clover), potato and spring barley grown in different 4-crop rotations varying in strategies for N supply (fertilizer/manure type and rate, use of catch crops and green...... manure). Crops in both organic and conventional systems received N at rates below the optimum for crop production. Soil N2O emissions were monitored in 2008–2009 in six selected crops which could be combined with data from other monitoring programs to calculate N2O emission factors for each of the 16...

  6. Olive Mill Effluent Spreading Effects on Water Retention of Tunisian Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SAHRAOUI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill effluents (OME are characterized by their nutrients content and their adhesive and hydrophobic properties. An experiment was carried out at an olive growing area in Tunisia, “Sidi Bou Ali”, to identify the impact of spreading over OME on physical soil characteristics. Three treatments were in situ monitored, namely T0 (Control, T1 (25 m3/ha and T2 (50 m3/ha, over a period of 4 months. Measurements were conducted monthly corresponding respectively to D1, D2, D3 and D4. Water retention curves were established by a physical capillary model in porous medium. Results showed that the two applied OME doses induced a decrease in water retention, especially for potential matrixes above pF 2 corresponding to the water available range. No significant differences were found between the treated soil plots T1 and T2.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.27

  7. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  8. Complexation with dissolved organic matter and solubility control of heavy metals in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Lofts, Stephen; Tipping, Edward; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2002-11-15

    The complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the environment influences the solubility and mobility of these metals. In this paper, we measured the complexation of Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Pb with DOM in the soil solution at pH 3.7-6.1 using a Donnan membrane technique. The results show that the DOM-complexed species is generally more significant for Cu and Pb than for Cd, Zn, and Ni. The ability of two advanced models for ion binding to humic substances, e.g., model VI and NICA-Donnan, in the simulation of metal binding to natural DOM was assessed by comparing the model predictions with the measurements. Using the default parameters of fulvic and humic acid, the predicted concentrations of free metal ions from the solution speciation calculation using the two models are mostly within 1 order of magnitude difference from the measured concentrations, except for Ni and Pb in a few samples. Furthermore, the solid-solution partitioning of the metals was simulated using a multisurface model, in which metal binding to soil organic matter, dissolved organic matter, clay, and iron hydroxides was accounted for using adsorption and cation exchange models (NICA-Donnan, Donnan, DDL, CD-MUSIC). The model estimation of the dissolved concentration of the metals is mostly within 1 order of magnitude difference from those measured except for Ni in some samples and Pb. The solubility of the metals depends mainly on the metal loading over soil sorbents, pH, and the concentration of inorganic ligands and DOM in the soil solution.

  9. Modeling Tractive Force Requirements of Wheel tractors For Disc Ploughing in Sandy Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Nkakini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tractive force models at different tillage speeds were developed using dimensional analysis, describing the tractor tyre - soil interaction. In this research study, disc ploughing on an experimental plot at twenty different soil moisture levels in loamy sand soil was carried out using trace tractor techniques. The independent variables: drawbar pull force, rolling (motion resistance, wheel slip, moisture content, cone index, wheel numeric, contact pressure, speed, width of plough, depth of plough, and dependent variable (Tractive force were measured and compared to computed values. High coefficients of determination R2 = 0.9492, 0.9555 and 0.9447 for ploughing at tillage speeds of 1.94m/s, 2.22m/s and 2.5m/s were obtained respectively. Standard errors of 0.3672552, 0.8628 and 0.8047 and the percentage (% errors of -2.272608059 and 2.45655144,-2.304946155 and 2.523126085,-1.424947801 and 2.020155232 at minimum and maximum values, were obtained. These results are clear evidence of the test of goodness of fit of the models between predictive and measured parameters for ploughing at different tillage speeds. The models were verified and validated by comparing the predicted with the measured tractive forces, and shown to closely followed the experimental results.

  10. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on the Concentration and Uptake of Macro Nutrients by Corn in a Cd-contaminated Calcareous Soil under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad karami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd are found naturally in soils, but their amount can be changed by human activities. The study of the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants is done in order to prevent their threats on human and animal’s health.Cadmium is a toxic element for living organisms. Cadmium competes with many of nutrients to be absorbed by the plant and interferes with their biological roles. Water stress affects the cell structure and the food is diverted from its normal metabolic pathway. It also reduces the availability and uptake of nutrients by the plant. One reason for the reduction of plant growth under drought stress is the accumulation of ethylene in plants. There are ways to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress that one of which is the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria(PGPRs to increasing the availability of nutrients. Soil beneficial bacteria play an important role in the biological cycles and have been used to increase plant health and soil fertility over the past few decades.The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of PGPRson the concentration and uptake of macro nutrients by corn in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil under drought stress. Materials and Methods: A greenhouse factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were two levels of bacteria (with and without bacteria, four levels of Cd (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1, and three levels of drought stress (without stress, 80, and 65% of field capacity. The pots were filled with 3 kg of treated soil. Cd was treated as its sulfate salt in amounts of 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg-1. The soil was mixed uniformly with 150 mg N kg-1 as urea, 20 mg P kg-1 as Ca (H2PO42, 5 mg Fe kg-1 as Fe-EDDHA and 10, 10 and 2.5 mg Zn, Mn and Cu kg-1, respectively as their sulfate salt in order to meet plant needs for these nutrients. Six seeds of Zea mays (var. HIDO were planted at

  11. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L. to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Drissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1 were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i 50% immediately after sowing, (ii 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a solution of Zn sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O. Zn deficiency symptoms appeared at an earlier stage (4–5 leaf stage as white stripes between the midrib and the margin of leaves for a Zn rate below or equal to 5 mg kg−1. Severity of these symptoms manifested more in container than in field. For both experiments, Zn supply induced a significant increase in stem height and leaf area. Furthermore, in both experiments, control plants showed a notable delay in achieving anthesis, silking, pollination and kernels maturity. The maximum shoot dry weight at harvest was recorded with Zn supply of 5 mg kg−1 in field experiment and 10 mg kg−1 in containers experiment. The shoot dry weight was especially linked to kernels dry weight. This latter was mainly enhanced through two compounds: 1000 kernels dry weight and pollination rate. On the other hand, outdoor container results can be used to help predict field plant responses to Zn except for control treatment.

  12. Effect of rainfall and tillage direction on the evolution of surface crusts, soil hydraulic properties and runoff generation for a sandy loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Babacar; Esteves, Michel; Vandervaere, Jean-Pierre; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Vauclin, Michel

    2005-06-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of rainfall and tillage-induced soil surface characteristics on infiltration and runoff on a 2.8 ha catchment located in the central region of Senegal. This was done by simulating 30 min rain storms applied at a constant rate of about 70 mm h -1, on 10 runoff micro-plots of 1 m 2, five being freshly harrowed perpendicularly to the slope and five along the slope (1%) of the catchment. Runoff was automatically recorded at the outlet of each plot. Hydraulic properties such as capillary sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity of the sandy loam soil close to saturation were determined by running 48 infiltration tests with a tension disc infiltrometer. That allowed the calculation of a mean characteristic pore size hydraulically active and a time to ponding. Superficial water storage capacity was estimated using data collected with an electronic relief meter. Because the soil was subject to surface crusting, crust-types as well as their spatial distribution within micro-plots and their evolution with time were identified and monitored by taking photographs at different times after tillage. The results showed that the surface crust-types as well as their tillage dependent dynamics greatly explain the decrease of hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity as the cumulative rainfall since tillage increases. The exponential decaying rates were found to be significantly greater for the soil harrowed along the slope (where the runoff crust-type covers more than 60% of the surface after 140 mm of rain) than across to the slope (where crusts are mainly of structural (60%) and erosion (40%) types). That makes ponding time smaller and runoff more important. Also it was shown that soil hydraulic properties after about 160 mm of rain were close to those of untilled plot not submitted to any rain. That indicates that the effects of tillage are short lived.

  13. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth phase of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' vines and nitrogen forms in sandy soil of the Pampa Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information on nitrogen fertilization in growing vines is still a very limited subject, especially for crops on sandy soils in the Pampa Biome in Rio Grande do Sul, where viticulture has expanded considerably in the last decade. This study aimed to assess the impact of N doses on growth of young plants of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines and N forms present in sandy soil in the Pampa Biome. The experiment was conducted from October 2011 to December 2012 in a vineyard in Santana do Livramento, in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, in soil with 82 g kg-1 clay in the 0-20 cm layer. Vines of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varieties were subjected to applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1. Total N in leaves, SPAD readings, stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of the pruned material were evaluated in two growth cycles and three times. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths at four crop growth stages, in which N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total N were analyzed and the mineral N was calculated. The N levels applied to young vines, although they did not provide relevant changes in the N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and mineral N contents in the soil, were able to increase the N content in the leaves, increasing plant vigor. because the reason is that there was an increase in stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of pruned material in most evaluation periods. These parameters suggest better growth patterns and uniformity of young grapevines with possible positive effects in anticipation of production, demonstrating the importance of nitrogen fertilization strategies to the growing vines in the sandy soil conditions of the Pampa Biome.

  14. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  15. Determination of Selenium Toxicity for Survival and Reproduction of Enchytraeid Worms in a Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    active radiation (PAR) light intensity of 12.8  0.7 µM m2/s (985  52 lux ), and mean temperature of 21.6  0.1 C. The soil moisture level was...PAR light intensity of 12.8  0.7 µM m2/s (985  52 lux ), and a mean temperature of 21.6  0.1 °C, for the duration of the 28 d test. The containers

  16. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe; Zeng, Fangang; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (200 μm coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 μg/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 μg/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand>coarse sand>silt>clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay>silt>coarse sand>fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites.

  17. Efficiency of a new strategy involving a new class of natural hetero-ligand iron(III) chelates (Fe(III)-NHL) to improve fruit tree growth in alkaline/calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Marta; Ortuño, María F; Pérez-Sarmiento, Francisco; Bacaicoa, Eva; Baigorri, Roberto; Conejero, Wenceslao; Torrecillas, Arturo; García-Mina, José M

    2012-12-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is a serious problem affecting the yield and quality of numerous crops and fruit trees cultivated in alkaline/calcareous soils. This paper describes the efficiency of a new class of natural hetero-ligand Fe(III) chelates (Fe-NHL) to provide available Fe for chlorotic lemon trees grown in alkaline/calcareous soils. These chelates involve the participation in the reaction system of a partially humified lignin-based natural polymer and citric acid. First results showed that Fe-NHL was adsorbed on the soil matrix while maintaining available Fe for plants in alkaline/calcareous solution. The effects of using three different sources as Fe fertilisers were also compared: two Fe-NHL formulations (NHL1, containing 100% of Fe as Fe-NHL, and NHL2, containing 80% of Fe as Fe-NHL and 20% of Fe as Fe-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA)) and Fe-EDDHA. Both Fe-NHL formulations increased fruit yield without negative effects on fruit quality in comparison with Fe-EDDHA. In the absence of the Fe-starter fraction (NHL1), trees seemed to optimise Fe assimilation and translocation from Fe-NHL, directing it to those parts of the plant more involved in development. The field assays confirmed that Fe-NHL-based fertilisers are able to provide Fe to chlorotic trees, with results comparable to Fe-EDDHA. Besides, this would imply a more sustainable and less expensive remediation than synthetic chelates. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Influence of zeolite and cement additions on mechanical behavior of sandy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Mola-Abasi; Issa Shooshpasha

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the cemented sand is one of economic and environmental topics in soil stabili-zation. In this instance, a blend of sand, cement and other materials such as fiber, glass, nanoparticle and zeolite can be commercially available and effectively used in soil stabilization in road construction. However, the influence and effectiveness of zeolite on the properties of cemented sand systems have not been completely explored. In this study, based on an experimental program, the effects of zeolite on the characteristics of cemented sands are investigated. Stabilizing agent includes Portland cement of type II and zeolite. Results show the improvements of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and failure properties of cemented sand when the cement is replaced by zeolite at an optimum proportion of 30%after 28 days. The rate of strength improvement is approximately between 20%and 78%. The efficiency of using zeolite increases with the increases in cement amount and porosity. Finally, a power function of void-cement ratio and zeolite content is demonstrated to be an appropriate method to assess UCS of zeolite-cemented mixtures.

  19. Influence of zeolite and cement additions on mechanical behavior of sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mola-Abasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the cemented sand is one of economic and environmental topics in soil stabilization. In this instance, a blend of sand, cement and other materials such as fiber, glass, nanoparticle and zeolite can be commercially available and effectively used in soil stabilization in road construction. However, the influence and effectiveness of zeolite on the properties of cemented sand systems have not been completely explored. In this study, based on an experimental program, the effects of zeolite on the characteristics of cemented sands are investigated. Stabilizing agent includes Portland cement of type II and zeolite. Results show the improvements of unconfined compressive strength (UCS and failure properties of cemented sand when the cement is replaced by zeolite at an optimum proportion of 30% after 28 days. The rate of strength improvement is approximately between 20% and 78%. The efficiency of using zeolite increases with the increases in cement amount and porosity. Finally, a power function of void-cement ratio and zeolite content is demonstrated to be an appropriate method to assess UCS of zeolite-cemented mixtures.

  20. Soil precompression stress, penetration resistance and crop yields in relation to differently-trafficked, temperate-region sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    treatment (labelled M8-1), the soil was loaded only in the first year. A tricycle-like machine with a single pass of wide tyres each carrying 12 Mg (treatment S12) was included at one site. Traffic treatments were applied in a randomized block design with four replicates and with treatments repeated in four...... strength measure predicting resistance to subsoil compaction. The tyre inflation pressure and/or the mean ground pressure were the main predictors of PR in the upper soil layers. For deeper soil layers, PR correlated better to the wheel load. The number of wheel passes (M-treatments vs the S12 treatment......-pressure tyres by crab steering/dog-walk machinery....

  1. Hydrodispersive characterization of a sandy porous medium by tracer tests carried out in laboratory on undisturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Aldo Pedro; Fallico, Carmine; Rios, Ana C.; Fernanda Rivera, Maria; Santillan, Patricio; Salazar, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The contamination of large areas and correspondent aquifers often imposes to implement some recovery operations which are generally complex and very expensive. Anyway, these interventions necessarily require the preventive characterization of the aquifers to be reclaimed and in particular the knowledge of the relevant hydrodispersive parameters. The determination of these parameters requires the implementation tracer tests for the specific site (Sauty JP, 1978). To reduce cost and time that such test requires tracer tests on undisturbed soil samples, representative of the whole aquifer, can be performed. These laboratory tests are much less expensive and require less time, but the results are certainly less reliable than those obtained by field tests for several reasons, including the particular scale of investigation. In any case the hydrodispersive parameters values, obtained by tests carried out in laboratory, can provide useful information on the considered aquifer, allowing to carry out initial verifications on the transmission and propagation of the pollutants in the aquifer considered. For this purpose, tracer tests with inlet of short time were carried out in the Soil Physics Laboratory of the Department of Soil Protection (University of Calabria), on a series of sandy soil samples with six different lengths, repeating each test with three different water flow velocities (5 m/d; 10 m/s and 15 m/d) (J. Feyen et al., 1998). The lengths of the samples taken into account are respectively 15 cm, 24 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm and 75 cm, while the solution used for each test was made of 100 ml of water and NaCl with a concentration of this substance corresponding to 10 g/L. For the porous medium taken into consideration a particle size analysis was carried out, resulting primarily made of sand, with total porosity equal to 0.33. Each soil sample was placed in a flow cell in which was inlet the tracer from the bottom upwards, measuring by a conductivimeter the

  2. Persistence, distribution, and emission of Telone C35 injected into a Florida sandy soil as affected by moisture, organic matter, and plastic film cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Ou, L T; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2004-05-01

    With the phase-out of methyl bromide scheduled for 2005, alternative fumigants are being sought. This study of Telone C35, a mixture of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with chloropicirin (CP), focuses on its emissions, distribution, and persistence in Florida sandy soil in microplots with different soil-water and organic matter carbon (C) content with and without two different plastic film mulches. The addition of CP did not affect the physical behavior of the isomers of 1,3-D. Slower subsurface dispersion and longer residence time of the mixed fumigant occurred at higher water content. An increase in the percent organic carbon in the soil led to a more rapid decrease for chloropicirin than for 1,3-dichloropene isomers. The use of a virtually impermeable film (VIF) for soil cover provided a more even distribution and longer persistence under all the conditions studied in comparison to polyethylene (PE) film cover or no cover. The conditions of near field capacity water content, low organic matter, and a virtually impermeable film cover yielded optimum conditions for the distribution, emission control, and persistence of Telone C35 in a Florida sandy soil.

  3. Heat-Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Chlorinated Solvents in Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat-activated persulfate oxidative treatment of chlorinated organic solvents containing chlorinated ethenes and ethanes in soil was investigated with different persulfate dosages (20 g/L, 40 g/L, and 60 g/L and different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, and 50°C. Chlorinated organic solvents removal was increased as persulfate concentration increase. The persulfate dosage of 20 g/L with the highest OE (oxidant efficiency value was economically suitable for chlorinated organic solvents removal. The increasing temperature contributed to the increasing depletion of chlorinated organic solvents. Chlorinated ethenes were more easily removed than chlorinated ethanes. Moreover, the persulfate depletion followed the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics (kps=0.0292 [PS]0+0.0008, R2=0.9771. Heat-activated persulfate appeared to be an effective oxidant for treatment of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  4. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  5. Effect of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Quantity of Soil Microbes and Structure of Ammonium Oxidizing Bacterial Community in a Calcareous Purple Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The quantity of soil microbes and the structure of ammonium oxidizing bacterial (AOB) community were analyzed using the dilution plate counting and most probable number method (MPN), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. Fertilizer application tended to increase the number of soil microbes and alter the AOB community compared to the control with no fertilizer application (CK). Among the eight fertilizer treatments, soil samples from the treatments of mineral fertilizers (e.g., N, P, K) in combination with farmyard manure (M) had greater numbers of soil microbes and more complex structure of AOB community than those receiving mineral fertilizers alone. The principal component analyses (PCA) for ammonium oxidizing bacterial community structure showed that the eight fertilizer treatments could be divided into two PCA groups (PCA1 and PCA2). For the soil sampled after rice harvest, PCA1 included NP, NM, NPM and NPKM fertilizer treatments, while PCA2 was consisted of CK, N, M and NPK fertilizer treatments. For soil samples collected after wheat harvest, PCA1 was consisted of M, NM, NPM and NPKM fertilizer treatments, while PCA2 was composed of CK, N, NP and NPK fertilizer treatments. For a given rotation, the richness of AOB community in PCA1 was greater than that in PCA2. In addition, AOB community structure was more complex in the soil after rice harvest than that after wheat harvest. The results indicated that different fertilizer treatments resulted in substantial changes of soil microbe number and AOB community. Furthermore, mineral fertilizers (N, NP, NPK) combined with farmyard manure were effective for increasing the quantity of soil microbes, enriching AOB community, and improving the soil biofertility.

  6. Soil disturbance as a grassland restoration measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2015-01-01

    Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success...... target. Species richness and functional diversity both increased in response to soil disturbance, and rotavation, but not ploughing, had a persistent positive effect on the occurrence of specialist species of calcareous sandy grassland. However, no type of soil disturbance caused the plant species...

  7. Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Plants on the Soil Mechanical Behaviour of Sandy Seafloors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Nina; Lambers-Huesmann, Maria; Zeiler, Manfred; Zoellner, Christian; Kopf, Achim

    2010-05-01

    Over the last decade, wind energy has become an important renewable energy source. Especially, the installation of offshore windfarms offers additional space and higher average wind speeds than the well-established windfarms onshore. Certainly, the construction of offshore wind turbines has an impact on the environment. In the framework of the Research at Alpha VEntus (RAVE) project in the German offshore wind energy farm Alpha Ventus (north of the island Borkum in water depths of about 30 m) a research plan to investigate the environmental impact had been put into place. An ongoing study focuses on the changes in soil mechanics of the seafloor close to the foundations and the development of scour. Here, we present results of the first geotechnical investigations after construction of the plants (ca. 1 - 6 months) compared to geotechnical measurements prior to construction. To study the soil mechanical behaviour of the sand, sediment samples from about thirty different positions were measured in the laboratory to deliver, e.g., grain size (0.063 - 0.3 mm), friction angles (~ 32°), unit weight (~ 19.9 kN/m³) and void ratios (~ 0.81). For acoustic visualisation, side-scan-sonar (towed and stationary) and multibeam-echosounders (hull mounted) were used. Data show a flat, homogenous seafloor prior to windmill erection, and scouring effects at and in the vicinity of the foundations afterwards. Geotechnical in-situ measurements were carried out using a standard dynamic Cone Penetration Testing lance covering the whole windfarm area excluding areas in a radius 50 %) occur above all close to the foundations. Furthermore, patterns of relatively soft zones (qsbc.: 50 - 80 kPa) and hard zones (qsbc. > 100 kPa) were mapped during the high-resolution surveys close to the foundation. Beside that, a very soft sediment layer (0.03 - 0.05 m) drapes most of the soft zones. This may be recently eroded and re-deposited sediment, whereas the hard zones may indicate areas of sediment

  8. Laboratory testing of the Monotonic behavior of partially saturated sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Noureddine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents a laboratory study on the influence of the saturation evaluated in term of Skempton's pore pressur coefficientBon the behavior of Chlef sand. The study is based on drained and unnonno drained compression tests which were carried out for Skempton's pore pressure coefficient varying between 13 and 90%.The tests were conducted on medium dense sand samples having an initial relative density Id = 0.50 at an effective stress of 100 kPa. The paper is composed of two parts. The first one presents the characteristics of the sand used in this study. The second provides an analysis of the experimental results and discusses the influence of Skempton's pore pressure coefficient (B on the mechanical characteristics of the sand. The tests show that the increase in the Skempton' S pore pressure coefficient (B reduces the soil dilatancy and amplifies the phase of contractancy and reduces the frictional and characteristic angle of the sand. The residual strength decreases with the increase ininin the Skempton's pore pressure coefficient B.

  9. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  10. Mitigation of Water Stress on Apple Trees under Rotational Irrigation Conditions by Increasing the Application Rate of Organic Fertilizers to Sandy Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Ramadan Eid, Abdelraouf; Mohsmed Rabie Abdellatif Abdelaziz, Adel; Fathy Abdelsalam Essa, El-Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Egypt, as part of Mediterranean regions, is characterized by irregular and low rainfall amount which varies between (30-150 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. On the other hand, New reclaimed soils are mostly occupies around 84 % of total area of Egypt, which is mainly sandy soils. These soils generally characterized by low water capacity holding, soil organic matter, and weak in nutrients retention. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency and increasing of nutrient retention in sandy soils. In this context, two field experiments were carried out on sand soil located in north Cairo-Egypt at the experimental farm of National Research Center, El-NUBARIA, (latitude 30° 30' N, and longitude 30° 19' E). The effect of compost rates on soil hydraulic characteristics, fruit yields, quality traits, and water use efficiency and productivity of apple tree (Apple Anna Cultivar), was studied under deficit irrigation conditions. Four rates of compost [I1: control, I2: 12 ton.ha-1., I3: 24 ton.ha-1., I4: 36 ton.ha-1. and I5:48 ton.ha-1.] were applied under irrigation frequencies of (IF1 :once per week; IF2 :twice per week, IF3 :three times per week). The obtained results indicated that by increasing the application rate of compost, the available water capacity and saturated water content of sandy soil have been enhanced. In the same time, the fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity were increased by increasing the application rate of compost. It is worthy to mention that the I5IF3 treatment gave the highest values of fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity, whereas I1IF1 treatment gave the lowest values of all the above mentioned variables. As result, for apple cultivation in El-NUBARIA region, the recommended rate of compost is 48 ton.ha-1 and irrigation frequency

  11. RESEARCH PROGRESS OF SOIL FORMING PROCESS OF AEOLIAN SANDY SOIL UNDER THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL SHELTER-BELT%人工防护林作用下风沙土成土过程的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李从娟; 雷加强; 高培; 徐新文; 王永东; 范敬龙

    2012-01-01

    人工防护林是防风固沙、有效防治沙漠化的重要措施之一.在沙漠地区建立人工防护林,可以有效防止土壤侵蚀,促进土壤有机质及黏粒积累,促使地表结皮形成,不仅对流沙起到了固定作用,而且促进了风沙土的成土过程.本文结合植物-土壤相互作用理论,分别从植物地上部分对养分的阻滞、聚集和减少土壤表面蒸发,以及地下部分的固沙和物质的分解与营养补给等方面综述了生物防护林在风沙土成土过程中的作用.同时,从以往的研究发现,在风沙土成土过程中,土壤机械组成变细,比重和容重减小;土壤剖面结构分异显著,分层增加;土壤含水量和养分显著聚集;土壤微生物数量和种类增加,活性增强,酶活性也大幅度提高.总之,随着沙漠生物防护林的建造,林下风沙土性质发生了明显的改良作用,逐渐发展成固定风沙土.说明人工防护林和风沙土的成土过程是协同发展的,这不仅有利于沙漠防护林的可持续管护,也有利于沙漠化的防治和退化生态系统的恢复与重建.%Artificial shelterbelt is an important and effective measure for checking winds and fixing drifting sands and hence for controlling desertification. To build up windbreak forest belts in desert areas can effectively control soil erosion and promote accumulation of organic matter and clay in the soil and formation of crust at soil surface, thus fixing drifting sands and accelerating formation of aeolian sandy soil. Based on the theory of plant-soil interaction theory, an overview is presented of the effects of artificial shelterbelt on formation of aeolian sandy soil, from the aspects of the function of the aboveground parts of plants intercepting and accumulating nutrients and reducing surface soil evaporation, and the function of the underground parts of plants fixing drifting sands, decomposing organic matter and supplying nutrients. It was found from the

  12. Effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission in a sandy loam soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-xin; MENG Lei; CAI Zu-cong; HAN Feng-xiang

    2007-01-01

    To understand the effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and N fertilizer on N2O emission in the North China Plain,a laboratory incubation at different temperatures and soil moistures were carried out using soils treated with organic manure (OM),half organic manure plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), fertilizer PK (NK) and control (CK) since 1989. Cumulative N2O emission in OM soil during the 17 d incubation period was slightly higher than in NPK soil under optimum nitrification conditions (25C and 60% water-filled pore space, WFPS), but more than twice under the optimum denitrification conditions (35C and 90% WFPS). N2O produced by denitrification was 2.1-2.3 times greater than that by nitrification in OM and HOM soils, but only 1.5 times greater in NPK and NP soils. These results implied that the long-term amendment of organic manure could significantly increase the N2O emission via denitrification in OM soil as compared to NPK soil. This is quite different from field measurement between OM soil and NPK soil. Substantial inhibition of the formation of anaerobic environment for denitrification in field might result in no marked difference in N2O emission between OM and NPK soils. This is due in part to more rapid oxygen diffusion in coarse textured soils than consumption by aerobic microbes until WFPS was 75% and to low easily decomposed organic C of organic manure. This finding suggested that addition of organic manure in the tested sandy loam might be a good management option since it seldom caused a burst of N2O emission but sequestered atmospheric C and maintained efficiently applied N in soil.

  13. Effects of soil oven-drying on concentrations and speciation of trace metals and dissolved organic matter in soil solution extracts of sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Weak salt extracts can be used to assess the availability of trace metals for leaching and uptake by soil organisms and plants in soil. Before extraction, the International Organization for Standardization recommends to dry soils in an oven at a temperature of 40 °C. Effects of soil oven-drying on

  14. Effects of soil oven-drying on concentrations and speciation of trace metals and dissolved organic matter in soil solution extracts of sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Weak salt extracts can be used to assess the availability of trace metals for leaching and uptake by soil organisms and plants in soil. Before extraction, the International Organization for Standardization recommends to dry soils in an oven at a temperature of 40 °C. Effects of soil oven-drying on d

  15. Movement of bromide-ion and carbofuran in the humic sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows : measurements in the field and computations with the PEARL model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2008-01-01

    In fields with ridges and furrows (like in potato growing), water flow and pesticide transport in soil may be more complicated than in level fields. In a field experiment, movement of bromide-ion (as a tracer) and of the insecticide carbofuran through a sandy soil with humic top layer to the groundw

  16. Effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils of Cauvery new delta zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulse productivity is very low in some of the sandy soil areas where, soils are having poor water and nutrient holding capacity. To improve the pulse productivity, field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu for two consecutive years to study the effect of phosphorus sources (mono- and diammonium phosphate with brassinolide and salicylic acid on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif season. The treatments include 100% recommended dose of NPK along with foliar application of monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, brassinolide (0.25 ppm, and salicylic acid (100 ppm along with the combination of these treatments. TNAU pulse wonder at 5.0 kg ha−1 and TNAU micronutrient mixture (MN at 5 kg ha−1 were also tried. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended dose of NPK + DAP 2% + TNAU pulse wonder 5.0 kg ha−1 was statistically significant and recorded higher plant growth (37.62 cm, number of pods / plant (37.15, yield of black gram (1162 kg ha−1, and benefit cost ratio (2.98 over the other treatments. The lowest black gram yield (730 kg ha−1 was recorded for control.

  17. The use of volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud in East Java for improving yield of sweet potato grown on a sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Melsandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Kelud and compost on the soil properties and production of sweet potato on a sandy soil. The treatments of this study were (a a combination of and volcanic ash with the proportion of 100: 0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30 (% weight, (b the addition of compost (2.5 and 5 t / ha, and (c two varieties of sweet potato (Manohara and Ayamurazaki. The soil used in this study is the topsoil (0-30 cm Psament or sandy Entisol obtained from sweet potato cultivation location in Sumber Pasir Village of Pakis District, South Malang. Ten kilograms of planting medium (soil + volcanic ash for each treatment was placed in a 15 kg plastic pot. Sixteen treatments arranged in a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that application of Mount Kelud volcanic ash and compost was able to improve soil permeability, soil pH, organic C, and K-total, but did not significantly affect total N content, available P and K total land. The highest fresh tuber weights of 373.51 g / plant or 19.92 t / ha and 393.09 g / plant or 20.96 t / ha for Manohara and Ayumurazaki varieties, respectively, were observed in the treatment of 10% volcanic ash + 5 t compost / ha. The carbohydrate content of Manohara variety was higher than that of Ayamurazaki variety at each treatment. The highest carbohydrate content of the Manohara variety (23.52% was obtained through application of 20% volcanic ash + 2.5 t compost/ha, while that of the Ayamurazaki variety (22.42% was obtained through application of 30% volcanic ash + 2.5 t/ha.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organo-mineral particles of alluvial sandy soil profiles at a petroleum-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Zeng, Fangang [School of Environment, Renmin University of China, Zhongguancun Street 59, Beijing 100872 (China); Xue, Nandong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Fasheng, E-mail: ligulax@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Anwai, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and the distribution of 16 USEPA priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in two alluvial sandy soil profiles and in their four sizes of organo-mineral particles (< 2 {mu}m clay, 2-20 {mu}m silt, 20-200 {mu}m fine sand, and > 200 {mu}m coarse sand) beside a typical oil sludge storage site in eastern China. PAHs were mainly enriched in the surface soil (0-20 cm) and the concentrations declined in deeper soils, from 3.68 to 0.128 {mu}g/g in profile 1 and 10.8 to 0.143 {mu}g/g in profile 2 (dry wt.). The PAHs in the upper soil layers of this study site mainly came from combustion pollution, whereas in the lower soil layers petroleum contamination became the major source of PAHs. The content of different sized organo-mineral particles of this alluvial sandy soil decreased in the following order: fine sand > coarse sand > silt > clay. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all the different sized soil fractions of this study site were dominated by quartz, calcite and feldspar. The particle surface became smoother with size increasing as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized soil fractions. The highest PAH concentration was associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Soil organic matter (SOM) content, mineral composition and particle surface characteristics were suggested as three main factors affecting the distribution of PAHs in different sized organo-mineral particles. This study will help to understand the distribution and transport characteristics of PAHs in soil profiles at petroleum-contaminated sites. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH concentrations varied largely in different sized fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest PAH concentrations were associated with clay and decreased in the order: clay > silt > coarse sand > fine sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil organic

  19. Cadmium adsorption on plant- and manure-derived biochar and biochar-amended sandy soils: impact of bulk and surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Ke; Gao, Bo; Wang, Ziying; Jin, Jie; Zhang, Zheyun; Wang, Shuifeng; Yan, Yu; Liu, Xitao; Wu, Fengchang

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the role of the bulk and surface composition of both biochar and biochar-amended soils in the adsorption of Cd(2+), as well as the influence of different biochars added to the soils on Cd(2+) adsorption, swine-manure-derived biochars (BSs) and wheat-straw-derived biochars (BWs) were produced at 300, 450, and 600°C. These biochars were added to a sandy soil to investigate the effect of biochars on the adsorption of Cd(2+) by soil. The significantly higher surface C content of the amended soils compared to their bulk C content suggests that the minerals of the biochar-amended soils are most likely covered primarily by biochars. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax,total) of the BSs was 10-15 times higher than that of the BWs due to the high polarity and ash content of the BSs. The polarity ((N+O)/C) of the low-temperature biochars greatly affected their Cd(2+) adsorption. The Qmax,total of the BS-amended soils increased with increasing dose, whereas the Qmax,total of the BW-amended soils showed the opposite behavior, which was attributed to the different surface composition characteristics of the two types of soil. The BSs were more effective in immobilizing Cd(2+) upon application to the soil relative to the BWs. This study elucidates the spatial distribution of biochars in biochar-amended soils and highlights the importance of the surface composition of the investigated samples in Cd(2+) adsorption.

  20. The Experimental Study on Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Aeolian Sandy Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在风沙土上的施用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 谢华; 孙权; 李明; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of land desertification in Ningxia, improve aeolian sandy soil quality and increase land productivity, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on aeolian sandy soil and crops was studied and evaluated through field plot experiment. The results showed that, compared with no fertilizer, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape, cherry tomato and liquorice, increased significantly the yield of wine grape and cherry tomato, improved the quality of wine grape and liquorice. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of aeolian sandy soil, promoted the growth of wine grape and cherry tomato, decreased significantly the yield of liquorice, improved the quality of wine grape. The application of BGA soil conditioner greatly increased the investment cost of production. It was proposed to reduce production cost of BGA soil conditioner and combine application of BGA soil conditioner with chemical fertilizers.%为了解决宁夏土地沙化问题,提高风沙土土壤质量和土地生产力,通过田间试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对风沙土土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.研究结果表明,与不施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄、樱桃番茄和甘草的生长发育,显著提高了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的产量,改善了酿酒葡萄和甘草品质;与配方施肥相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了风沙土土壤理化性质,促进了酿酒葡萄和樱桃番茄的生长发育,显著降低了甘草产量,改善了酿酒葡萄品质.施用BGA土壤调理剂大幅度增加了生产投入成本,建议进一步降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用.

  1. Nitrogen fertilization on soybean under crop-livestock system and sandy soil = Nitrogênio mineral na soja integrada com a pecuária em solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, soybean has been introduced in areas with sandy soil and tropical climate, often under crop-livestock system. The use of nitrogen (N for this crop is supplied by the soil organic matter mineralization and the biological N fixation. However, there are questions about the effect of nitrogen fertilization in soybean crop under sandy soils with a high amount of straw. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of two soybean cultivars in different doses (20 and 45 kg N ha-1 and application times (sowing, at flowering or early grain filling of N in sandy soil with high amount of Urochloa brizantha straw. Two experiments were conducted in Northwest of Paraná state, Brazil, the first experiment with the BMX Potência RR cultivar and the second one with the BRS 360 RR cultivar, in a sandy soil (11% clay. The experiment were composed by seven treatments (interaction between factors and the control, settled in a randomized block design with four replications. In sandy soil, with high amount of U. brizantha straw, the nitrogen fertilizer applied at different doses and at soybean development stages, cultivars BMX Potência RR and BRS 360 RR, does not influence the photoassimilates partition between stem and leaves, foliar N concentration, yield, yield components, and the oil and protein content in the grains. = No Brasil, a soja tem sido introduzida em regiões que apresentam solos arenosos e clima tropical, sendo muitas vezes integrada com a pecuária. A demanda da oleaginosa por nitrogênio(N é suprida pela mineralização da matéria orgânica do solo e pela fixação biológica do N. No entanto, há questionamentos quanto ao efeito da adubação nitrogenada na cultura da soja cultivada em solos arenosos, com alta quantidade de palha de gramíneas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho de duas cultivares de soja, em solo arenoso, após dois anos com pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, submetidas a diferentes

  2. Sorption/desorption of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(4,4'-DDT) on a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Ziya; Cutright, Teresa J

    2015-02-01

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane(4,4'-DDT) is a pesticide well-known for its negative health and environmental effects. Despite being banned by a majority of world countries more than 30 years ago, its persistence in the environment is a continuing problem even today. The objective of the study was the investigation of sorption/desorption behavior of 4,4'-DDT in sandy loam soil. The impact of contaminant concentration and age was observed with three different experiments. The sorption percentages at the end of the short time step (8 h) were 50 and 92 %, for initial concentrations 2.26 and 5.28 mg/L, respectively. When freshly spiked soil was subjected to a conventional sorption study, 82 to 99.6 % of the initial aqueous DDT concentrations were sorbed within 24 h. When modeled with a Freundlich isotherm, the log K f was found to be 3.62. After six consecutive 24 h desorption steps, 33 to 96.6 % still remained in the soil. This was more pronounced for soils that had been aged for 60 days. After seven consecutive 24 h desorption steps of aged soil, the percent remaining sorbed to the soil were 44, 64, and 77 %, for 25, 250, and 500 mg/kg, respectively. All results show that 4,4-DDT has a tendency of sorbing to the soil rapidly and showing resistance to desorption. When comparing desorption values, aged soils were seen to desorb less than non-aged soils. This result was attributed to stronger binding to soil with increased contact time.

  3. Effects of organic fertilizers and biochar/organic fertilizer combinations on fertility and organic matter dynamics of a sandy soil in north-west Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Isabel; Kaiser, Michael; Polifka, Steven; Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Ludwig, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Biochar and biochar/organic fertilizer combinations have been recommended as soil amendments to improve plant productivity and soil properties, as well as to increase soil organic C (OC) storage. However, these claims have been largely unverified by field experiments lasting several years. To address these issues, a field experiment was established in 2012 to analyze the effects of organic fertilizers and biochar/organic fertilizer combinations (five field replicates, fully randomized block design) on the fertility and organic matter dynamics of a sandy Cambisol. In 2016, samples were taken from the 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm soil depths of the following treatments: mineral fertilizer and maize digestate that were applied both individually and in combination with 1 t/ha or 40 t/ha biochar. Further treatments were compost and 10 t/ha composted biochar. The treatments were analyzed for the plant yield and the bulk soil samples were analyzed for the pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), OC content, microbial biomass C and the distribution of aggregate-size fractions (i.e. >2 mm, 2 mm - 250 µm, 250 - 53 µm, lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) (1.84 t/ha) was detected for the 40 t/ha biochar+digestate treatment. The first data for the soil samples indicate that the 10 t/ha composted biochar and the compost treatment are most effective in increasing the CEC, and the microbial biomass C content of the soil, while pH was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. The bulk soil OC content of the treatments receiving 40 t/ha biochar+fertilizer (digestate or mineral), 10 t/ha composted biochar, and compost has been significantly increased by 43 to 88% in the 10-30 cm depth compared to the individual application of mineral fertilizer. The OC content of the water-stable macro- (2 mm - 250 µm) and micro-aggregates (250 - 53 µm) of the treatments receiving 40 t/ha biochar+fertilizer (digestate or mineral), 10 t/ha composted biochar, and compost was increased by 12 to 120

  4. Physical-hydraulic properties of a sandy loam typic paleudalf soil under organic cultivation of 'montenegrina' mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Valverde dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are the most important fruit species in the world, with emphasis to oranges, mandarins and lemons. In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, most fruit production is found on small properties under organic cultivation. Soil compaction is one of the factors limiting production and due to the fixed row placement of this crop, compaction can arise in various manners in the interrows of the orchard. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and water infiltration capacity in response to interrow management in an orchard of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore 'Montenegrina' under organic cultivation. Interrow management was performed through harrowing, logs in em "V", mowing, and cutting/knocking down plants with a knife roller. Soil physical properties were evaluated in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, between the wheel tracks (BWT, and in the area under the line projection of the canopy (CLP, with undisturbed soil samples collected in the 0.00-0.15, 0.15-0.30, 0.30-0.45, and 0.45-0.60 m layers, with four replicates. The soil water infiltration test was performed using the concentric cylinder method, with a maximum time of 90 min for each test. In general, soil analysis showed a variation in the physical-hydraulic properties of the Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico (sandy loam Typic Paleudalf in the three sampling sites in all layers, regardless of the management procedure in the interrows. Machinery traffic leads to heterogeneity in the soil physical-hydraulic properties in the interrows of the orchard. Soil porosity and bulk density are affected especially in the wheel tracks of the tractor (WT, which causes a reduction in the constant rate of infiltration and in the accumulated infiltration of water in this sampling site. The use of the disk harrow and mower leads to greater harmful effects on the soil, which can interfere with mandarin production.

  5. Characteristics of soil water consumption of typical shrubs (Caragana microphylla) and trees (Pinus sylvestris) in the Horqin Sandy Land area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alamusa; Deming JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Reforestation is one of the most effective ways to reduce the impacts of desertification. Caragana microphylla Lam. and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litrin have been widely used to stabilize shifting sands in the Horqin sandy land area since the 1980s. However, soil water depletion has been of major concern in C. microphylla and P. ongolica plantations and in many places current soil moisture cannot meet the demand of growing plants. To determine the water budget of C. microphylla and P. mongolica plantations, we studied the effect of plantations on soil moisture and assessed the evapotranspiration in plantations of both species. Investigations were conducted at a fenced plot at Wulanaodu (42°29′N, 119°30′E, 479 m a. s. 1), located at the western edge of the Horqin Sandy Land area in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Five year old C. microphylla and seven year old P. mongolica plants were selected from the plantations and transplanted to iron boxes (400cm× 200cm×120cm) which can drain extra water. Plant spacing of 1 m×1 m was applied to P. mongolica, and two plant spacings of 1 m×1m and 1 m×2m to C. microphylla. The transplanted plants grew for two years in the boxes. Soil moisture from soil surface to a depth 80 cm were measured at 20 cm intervals in boxes every 10 d (2004) or 3 d (2005) during the growing season with a TDR water meter. The evapotranspiration was estimated from a mathematical formula and the characteristics of soil water consumption and evapotranspiration of these two plantations were analyzed. The soil water of P. mongolica was more than that ofC. microphylla at the same 1 m×1 m spacing. The soil water of C. microphylla with the 1 m× 2 m spacing was more than that of the 1 m ×1 m spacing. The evapotranspiration ranged from high to low as follows: C. microphylla (1 m×1 m), C. microphylla (1 m×2m) and P. mongolica (1 m×1 m) during the growing seasons. The evapotranspiration of individual plants ranging from high to low was C

  6. Monitorization of the unsaturated zone on the sandy soils of Donana National Park; Monitorizacion de la zona no saturada en el entorno del Espacio Natural de Donana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prados, M. L.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Vanderlinken, K.; Giraldez, J. V.; Mediavilla, C.

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of a study into the recharge of the Almonte-Marismas aquifer, we describe the methods used to monitor water flux in the vadose zone at four sites within the Donana National Park and its surroundings. We also provide a description of land use and soil and hydrological conditions at each measurement point. Very frequent observations are required to monitor efficiently the water flux in these well-drained, sandy soils, which undergo considerable oscillations in their usually low water content. To this end we have resorted to inexpensive capacitance probes, installed at different points along the soil profiles in question according mainly to the depth of the water table. We propose a calibration method to increase the accuracy and precision of the probe measurements. Our work has demonstrated that these sensors perform well in monitoring soil water content and also validates both the installation methods used. Data analysis proves that these sensors are very useful for locating the depth of the water table accurately and emphasises the need for specific calibration for each soil in order to obtain the most accurate moisture data. (Author) 10 refs.

  7. Effects of land-use changes on organic carbon in bulk soil and associated physical fractions in China's Horqin Sandy Grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuQiang Li; YinPing Chen; ShaoKun Wang; WenDa Huang; JianPeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The Horqin Sandy Grassland is one of the most seriously desertified areas in China's agro-pastoral ecotone due to its fragile ecology, combined with improper and unsustainable land management. We investigated organic carbon changes in bulk soil (0 to 5 cm), light fraction of soil organic matter, and soil particle-size fractions induced by land-use and cover type changes. The results indicated that total soil organic carbon (SOC) storage decreased by 121 g/m2 with the conversion of grassland into farmland for 30 years, and increased by 261 g/m2 with the conversion of grassland into plantation for 30 years. Total SOC storage decreased by 157 g/m2 as a result of severe grassland desertification due to long-term continuous livestock grazing, whereas total SOC increased by 111 g/m2 following the practice of grazing exclusion (16 years) in desertified areas. Changes in land-use and cover type also show great effects on carbon storage in soil physical fractions.

  8. Application of N-modified lignite and activated biochar to increase growth of summer wheat on nutrient-poor sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillem, Steffi; Schneider, Bernd-Uwe; Zeihser, Uwe; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main environmental problem that adversely depletes soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (SON) stocks, which in turn directly affects the fertility and productivity of soils. Degraded soils and marginal lands are characterized by low fertility, poor physicochemical and biological properties and are almost free of soil organic matter (SOM), limiting their functional properties and, hence, their productivity. To enhance or restore the fertility of these soils, natural soil amendments such as biochar, lignite or humic acids can be added. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different application rates (5, 7.5, 11, 15, 28 t ha-1) of N-modified lignite (NL) incorporated in a nutrient-poor sandy soil from a recultivation site on plant growth, water use and nitrogen use efficiency of summer wheat. Additionally activated biochar (BC) was tested to see whether any differences exist between N-modified lignite and activated biochar at the same C-application rates. All variants with soil amendments displayed a much higher grain and straw yield and water use efficiency compared to the control sample. The differences were significant for the 28 t ha-1variant followed by the variant with 5 t ha-1 NL. With the 7.5 t ha-1 NL higher biomasses, water and nitrogen use efficiency could be achieved compared to the variant treated with BC at the same C-content. This study shows that even small amounts of N-modified lignite can increase growth, water and nitrogen use efficiency of summer wheat on marginal lands.

  9. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation. Improved conditions and acceleration of the process by addition of desorbing agents to the soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    The principel of electrodialytic soil remediation was improved when ammonia was added to a calcareous copper polluted soil......The principel of electrodialytic soil remediation was improved when ammonia was added to a calcareous copper polluted soil...

  10. Impact of land-use on carbon storage as dependent on soil texture: evidence from a desertified dryland using repeated paired sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuehua; Tang, Shuangli; Cornwell, William K; Gao, Shuqin; Huang, Zhenying; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-03-01

    Desertification resulting from land-use affects large dryland areas around the world, accompanied by carbon loss. However it has been difficult to interpret different land-use contributions to carbon pools owing to confounding factors related to climate, topography, soil texture and other original soil properties. To avoid such confounding effects, a unique systematic and extensive repeated design of paired sampling plots of different land-use types was adopted on Ordos Plateau, N China. The sampling enabled to quantify the effects of the predominant land-use types on carbon storage as dependent on soil texture, and to define the most promising land-use choices for carbon storage, both in grassland on sandy soil and in desert grassland on brown calcareous soil. The results showed that (1) desertification control should be an effective measure to improve the carbon sequestration in sandy grassland, and shrub planting should be better than grass planting; (2) development of man-made grassland should be a good choice to solve the contradictions of ecology and economy in desert grassland; (3) grassland on sandy soil is more vulnerable to soil degradation than desert grassland on brown calcareous soil. The results may be useful for the selection of land-use types, aiming at desertification prevention in drylands. Follow-up studies should directly investigate the role of soil texture on the carbon storage dynamic caused by land-use change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection of Design Scheme on Sandy Soil Liquefaction in Subgrade%路基中砂土液化问题的设计方案选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯怀亮

    2012-01-01

    结合目前我国规范中对砂土液化的判别原则,理论上分析了影响土层液化的因素,从处理的结果上分析了按照完全消除液化和部分消除液化的两种设计思路,总结了完全消除液化和不完全消除液化的设计方法质量检测标准和设计结果的权衡方法,简述了一般填方路基的砂土液化段特殊设计的过程。提出了路基工程砂土液化可参照的规范较少,数值模拟结果直接用于设计的弊端,同时认识到目前受到经济技术的限制,关于液化土层采用完全消除液化和部分消除液化的设计方案选择还是一个长久问题。%Combined with the current principle of judge for sandy soil liquefaction in the national specification, the factors affecting solum liquefaction is analyzed theoretically. The treatment results of two design ideas that eliminate liquefaction fully or partly are analyzed; then the quality inspection standards and design result measuring methods for these two ideas are summarized; at last, the special design process for sandy soil liquefaction in general fill subgrade is briefed. Therefore, it is considered that the norms referred to sandy soil liquefaction in subgrad directly has certain defects; these two design schemes is e engineering is less and the numerical simulation result used for design at the same time, due to current economic and technical limitations, how to select a long-term trouble.

  12. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sandy soil columns packed to different bulk densities and water uptake by plantroots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi-Pisa, P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory metbod used to determine both the soil moisture retention curve and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in soil columns under transient flow conditions during evaporation.

  13. High-quality draft genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2, a glyphosate-degrading bacterium isolated from a sandy soil of Biskra, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslama, Ouided; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain Bisph2 was isolated from a sandy soil from Biskra, Algeria and exhibits glyphosate-degrading activity. Multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, gyrB and dnaJ genes demonstrated that Bisph2 might be a member of a new species of the genus Enterobacter. Genomic sequencing of Bisph2 was used to better clarify the relationships among Enterobacter species. Annotation and analysis of the genome sequence showed that the 5.535.656 bp genome of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2 consists in one chromosome and no detectable plasmid, has a 53.19% GC content and 78% of genes were assigned a putative function. The genome contains four prophages of which 3 regions are intact and no CRISPER was detected. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JXAF00000000.

  14. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource......, the main aim of our study was to explore the water sa ving potential of drip irrigation in order to save the shallow groundwater from over exploitation. A two season study (minor dry season, 2011 and major dry season, 2012) were carried out to determine the okra crop response to the following treatments: 1...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...

  15. Laboratory investigation on streaming potential for sandy soil and weathered rock; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru sashitsu jiban oyobi fuka ganban no ryudo den`i no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Laboratory experiment on sandy soil and weathered rock was conducted to clarify the generation mechanism of streaming potential due to underground fluid. Streaming potential is caused by underground fluid flow, namely by fluid flow in porous substances as electrokinetic phenomenon. In experiment, Inagi sand, Toyoura sand and strongly decomposed weathered granite were used. In Inagi and Toyoura sands, positive streaming potential was observed downstream in fluid flow. Streaming potential could be nearly determined as primary function of fluid velocity, and generated streaming potential increased with fluid resistivity. Streaming potential was higher in Inagi sand than Toyoura sand, probably depending on hydraulic radius, size of bleeding channel, and conductivity of sand surface. In weathered granite, negative streaming potential was measured. In the case of positive {zeta} potential, negative streaming potential is theoretically generated downstream in fluid flow. This experiment suggested possible generation of negative streaming potential in some kinds of ground. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Biomass Equations and Carbon Content of Young Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Trees from Plantations and Coppices on Sandy Soils in South-Western Romanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Liviu CIUVĂŢ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to develop biomass equations for young black locust trees from plantations and coppices established in South-West Romania. A destructive method was used to develop allometric biomass equations and to assess the carbon content of the individual tree and its biomass components. 418 black locust young trees (1-4 years old from 27 plots established in plantations and coppices growing on sandy soils in Dolj and Olt counties were sampled. Simple linear regression models were developed for biomass estimation. The results shown that root collar diameter was the most accurate biomass predictor, whilst intercept and slope values were similar to those identified in other recent studies. The specific carbon content (mean values was 45% for roots and 48% for leaves, similar to the values provided by Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  17. Effects of Long-term Located Fertilization on the Physiochemical Properties of Non-calcareous Alluvial Soil%长期定位施肥对无石灰性潮土理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀芬; 李俊良

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为改善土壤理化性质和促进农业可持续发展提供理论依据.[方法]通过田间试验研究长期定位不同施肥对无石灰性潮土理化性质的影响.[结果]单施有机肥处理的土壤含水量最高,CK的土壤含水量最低.施用有机肥处理的土壤容重较小,CK和无机肥处理的土壤容重较大.施用有机肥处理的土壤孔隙度显著高于不施有机肥处理和CK.施用有机肥、化肥处理和CK的土壤有机质含量分别约为原始土样的7.5、2.8和2.3倍.施用有机肥处理的土壤pH值提高了0.62,施用无机肥处理的土壤pH值降低.长期定位不同施肥对土壤速效养分氮磷钾含量的影响为:有机-无机肥料配施>单施大量有机肥>无机肥配施>单施氮肥>不施肥.[结论]有机-无机肥料配施能有效改善无石灰性潮土的理化性质.%[Objective]The purpose of the research was to supply theoretical basis for improving the physiochemical properties of soil and promoting agricultural sustainable development. [Method]The effects of applying different fertilizers in long-term located fertilization on the physiochemical properties of non-calcareous alluvial soil were researched through field experiment. [Result]The soil water content in the treatment with organic fertilizer only was highest and that in CK was lowest. The soil buil density in the treatment with organic fertilizer was smaller and that in CK and the treatment with inorganic fertilizer were bigger. The soil porosity in the treatment with organic fertilizer was significantly higher than that in the treatment without organic fertilizer and CK. The soil organic matter contents in the treatments with organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and CK were about 7.5, 2.8 and 2.3 times of that in the original soil samples resp. The soil pH value in the treatment with organic fertilizer was enhanced by 0.62 and that in the treatment with inorganic fertilizer was decreased. The effects of

  18. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  19. Study on Improved Physical Properties of Aeolian Sandy Soil with Fly Ash%利用粉煤灰改良风沙土物理性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占宏; 白守德; 崔志永; 高将

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to research the effective measure of the improved physical properties of Aeolian sandy soil with fly ash. [ Method] Based on the analysis of the structure and physical properties of Aeolian sandy soil and fly ash,and the measurement of particle size range of test sample, soil proportion, soil bulk density and porosity the matching soil proportion, soil bulk density, porosity and water physical properties changes of fly ash of imposing different application rates to Aeolian sandy soil were studied. [ Result] The sandy soil by mixing fly ash increased Aeolian sandy soil clay, reduced soil bulk density and porosity coefficient. Contrasting four kinds of allocated proportion plans, optimal application rate of Aeolian sandy soil with fly ash was 30%. The fly ash with optimal application rate could effectively improve the soil physical traits. Soil permeability and water holding capacity was close to 1-2. Pore-size was between 50% and 60% , with the characteristics of loam. Soil moisture of fly ash in the soil significantly improved compared with sand, the permeability increased unceasingly, and effective water stranded time increased. [ Conclusion ] The research provided support for the improvement of physical properties of Aeolian sandy soil with fly ash.%[目的]研究粉煤灰改良风沙土物理性质的有效性.[方法]在测量供试样品的粒径范围、土壤比重、容重,孔隙度的基础上,对风沙土添加不同用量的粉煤灰并调控测试条件,研究了不同土壤样品的比重、容重,孔隙度及水分物理性质的变化情况.[结果]风沙土中掺入粉煤灰使风沙土黏粒含量增多,土壤容重、孔隙度降低,风沙土与粉煤灰最优的添加率为30%.30%添加率可有效改良土壤物理性状,土壤透水性与持水性约1∶2,孔隙度为50% ~ 60%,具有壤土的特点,其含水率较沙土有明显提高,渗透性不断升高,有效水分滞留时间增加.[结论]该研究为利

  20. Effects of Soil Bulk Density on Gas Transport Parameters and Pore-Network Properties across a Sandy Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masis Melendez, Federico; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Chamindu, T K K Deepagoda

    2015-01-01

    The gas diffusion coefficient, air permeability, and their interrelations with air-filled porosity are crucial for characterization of diffusive and convective transport of gases in soils. Variations in soil bulk density can affect water retention, air-filled pore space, pore tortuosity...

  1. Quantity and nature of water-extractable organic matter from sandy loam soils with potato cropping managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) is part of the soil labile organic matter components. In this work, we evaluated the level and nature of soil WEOM from a long-term (6-year) potato crop rotation field experiment. The contents of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) were higher in continuous pot...

  2. Rate of bentazone transformation in four layers of a humic sandy soil profile with fluctuating water table

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Smelt, J.H.; Matser, A.M.; Bogte, J.J.; Pas, van der L.J.T.

    2001-01-01

    The rate of transformation of a pesticide as a function of the depth in the soil is needed as an input into computations on the risk of residues leaching to groundwater. The herbicide bentazone was incubated at 15 °C in soil materials derived from four layers at depths of up to 2.5 m in a humic sand

  3. Non-Linear finite element analysis of cone penetration in layered sandy loam soil-considering precompression stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisymmetric finite element (FE) method was developed using a commercial computer program to simulate cone penetration process in layered granular soil. Soil was considered as a non-linear elastic plastic material which was modeled using variable elastic parameters of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s r...

  4. Study and Estimation of the Ratio of 137CS and 40K Specific Activities in Sandy and Loam Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes changes in specific activities and fluctuations in the ratio of natural 40K and artificial 137Cs radionuclides in soil samples taken from different places of Lithuanian territory. The samples of soil have been selected from the districts polluted after the accident in Chernobyl nuclear plant performing nuclear testing operations. The study has established the main physical and chemical properties of soil samples and their impact on the concentration of 40K activities. 137Cs/40K specific activities in soil have been observed under the dry weight of the sample that varied from 0.0034 to 0.0240. The results of the study could be used for establishing and estimating 137Cs and 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant”.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Investigation of an onsite wastewater treatment system in sandy soil: sorption and biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Jon; Marks, Kay H; DeCarvalho, Alvaro J; McAvoy, Drew C; Nielsen, Allen M; Kravetz, Louis; Cano, Manuel L

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the sorptive and biodegradable characteristics of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in a soil below a Florida, USA, septic system drainfield. Three distinct soil samples were collected from the septic system drainfield study site. These soils were used in laboratory sorption and biodegradation studies. Different concentrations of LAS were added, in radiolabeled and unlabeled forms, to a series of test vessels that contained upgradient groundwater and the soils collected from the study site. The sorption test was designed to determine the partitioning of LAS between groundwater and soil in each sample. Results indicated that the sorption distribution coefficient (Kd) decreased from 4.02 to 0.43 L/kg and that the rate of ultimate biodegradation (first-order rate constant, k1) decreased from 2.17 to 0.08/d with increasing distance (0.7-1.2 m vertically below ground surface [BGS] and 0 to 6.1 m horizontally) from the drainfield. The three soils showed 49.8 to 83.4% LAS mineralization (percentage of theoretical CO2) over 45- or 59-d test periods. These results demonstrate that subsurface soils in this system have the potential to sorb and biodegrade LAS.

  6. 脲酶抑制剂对石灰性土壤尿素转化及N2O排放的影响%Responses of Urea Transformation Dynamics and Nitrous Oxide to Three Urease Inhibitors in Calcareous Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 刘涛; 褚贵新

    2014-01-01

    通过研究脲酶抑制剂对土壤中尿素转化的影响,揭示土壤各形态氮对N2O的贡献,为控制石灰性土壤氮素损失及提高氮肥利用率提供理论依据。在室内恒温培养条件下(25℃),研究了正丁基硫代磷酰三胺(NBPT)、醋酸棉酚、硫代硫酸铵3种脲酶抑制剂对石灰性土壤各形态氮素转化与脲酶抑制率的影响,同时在人工气候室(昼夜)通过Unisense N2O微电极法对各处理土壤N2O浓度进行了原位实时监测。结果表明:尿素施入土壤1 d后50%已迅速水解,3 d后完全水解。1~14 d各脲酶抑制剂均可显著抑制尿素水解,尿素+NBPT处理的土壤尿素残留量显著高于其他处理,其脲酶抑制率为33.6%;NBPT处理的土壤NH+4-N含量低于其他各处理(Purea+GA>urea+ATS≥urea+NBPT. Furthermore, N2O concentrations were higher during the day than at night, with diurnal variation ranging from 0.25~3.15μmol·L-1. The path coefficients between N2O concentration and different forms of soil mineral N were:NO-3-N(0.641)>NH+4-N(0.356)>Urea-N(0.255). There was a significant positive relationship between soil NO-3-N and N2O contents, indicating that soil nitrate would be one of key factors influencing soil N2O emission. In conclusion, applying NBPT, ATS and GA inhibits urea hydrolysis and decreases soil N2O generation in calcareous soil, with NBPT as a promising urease inhibitor.

  7. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to re