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Sample records for sandwich-type lateral flow

  1. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  2. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  3. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong

    2017-12-15

    We report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN)-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle with a diameter of around 15nm was used as a tag to label a detection DNA probe, which was complementary with the part of target DNA. A capture DNA probe was immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among the FCN-labeled DNA probe, target DNA and capture DNA probe were performed on the lateral flow biosensor. In the presence of target DNA, FCNs were captured on the test zone of the biosensor and the fluorescent intensity of the captured FCNs was measured with a portable fluorescent reader. After systematic optimizations of experimental parameters (the components of running buffers, the concentration of detection DNA probe used in the preparation of FCN-DNA conjugates, the amount of FCN-DNA dispensed on the conjugate pad and the dispensing cycles of the capture DNA probes on the test-zone), the biosensor could detect a minimum concentration of 0.4 fM DNA. This study provides a rapid and low-cost approach for DNA detection with high sensitivity, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanosecond optical limiting response of sandwich-type neodymium dyphthalocyanine in a co-polymer host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Gopinath, P.; Thomas, J.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nanosecond optical limiting characteristics of sandwich-type neodymium diphthalocyanine in a co-polymer matrix of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and methyl-2-cyanoacrylate have been studied for the first time. The measurements were performed using 9 ns laser pulses generated from a

  5. Sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Qian, Kang; Wang, Kang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Gao, Song

    2011-09-14

    Homoleptic tetrakis[2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(butyloxy)phthalocyaninato] dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker complex 1 was isolated in relatively good yield of 43% from a simple one-pot reaction. This compound represents the first sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM that has been structurally characterized. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  6. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  7. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert B.

    2018-04-17

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  8. Battery operated preconcentration-assisted lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheonjung; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Han, Sung Il; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Dohwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Chung, Seok; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2017-07-11

    Paper-based analytical devices (e.g. lateral flow assays) are highly advantageous as portable diagnostic systems owing to their low costs and ease of use. Because of their low sensitivity and detection limits for biomolecules, these devices have several limitations in applications for real-field diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate a paper-based preconcentration enhanced lateral flow assay using a commercial β-hCG-based test. Utilizing a simple 9 V battery operation with a low power consumption of approximately 81 μW, we acquire a 25-fold preconcentration factor, demonstrating a clear sensitivity enhancement in the colorimetric lateral flow assay; consequently, clear colors are observed in a rapid kit test line, which cannot be monitored without preconcentration. This device can also facilitate a semi-quantitative platform using the saturation value and/or color intensity in both paper-based colorimetric assays and smartphone-based diagnostics.

  9. High frequency lateral flow affinity assay using superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago-Cachón, D., E-mail: dlagocachon@gmail.com [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Rivas, M., E-mail: rivas@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-García, J.C., E-mail: jcmg@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Oliveira-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: oliveiramyriam@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Blanco-López, M.C., E-mail: cblanco@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, J.A., E-mail: joseagd@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Escuela de Marina, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Lateral flow assay is one of the simplest and most extended techniques in medical diagnosis for point-of-care testing. Although it has been traditionally a positive/negative test, some work has been lately done to add quantitative abilities to lateral flow assay. One of the most successful strategies involves magnetic beads and magnetic sensors. Recently, a new technique of superparamagnetic nanoparticle detection has been reported, based on the increase of the impedance induced by the nanoparticles on a RF-current carrying copper conductor. This method requires no external magnetic field, which reduces the system complexity. In this work, nitrocellulose membranes have been installed on the sensor, and impedance measurements have been carried out during the sample diffusion by capillarity along the membrane. The impedance of the sensor changes because of the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The results prove the potentiality of the method for point-of-care testing of biochemical substances and nanoparticle capillarity flow studies. - Highlights: • A method for quantification of Lateral Flow Assays is proposed. • MNP induce an increase of the impedance on a RF-current carrying copper sensor. • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be detected flowing over the sensing element.

  10. High frequency lateral flow affinity assay using superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago-Cachón, D.; Rivas, M.; Martínez-García, J.C.; Oliveira-Rodríguez, M.; Blanco-López, M.C.; García, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral flow assay is one of the simplest and most extended techniques in medical diagnosis for point-of-care testing. Although it has been traditionally a positive/negative test, some work has been lately done to add quantitative abilities to lateral flow assay. One of the most successful strategies involves magnetic beads and magnetic sensors. Recently, a new technique of superparamagnetic nanoparticle detection has been reported, based on the increase of the impedance induced by the nanoparticles on a RF-current carrying copper conductor. This method requires no external magnetic field, which reduces the system complexity. In this work, nitrocellulose membranes have been installed on the sensor, and impedance measurements have been carried out during the sample diffusion by capillarity along the membrane. The impedance of the sensor changes because of the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The results prove the potentiality of the method for point-of-care testing of biochemical substances and nanoparticle capillarity flow studies. - Highlights: • A method for quantification of Lateral Flow Assays is proposed. • MNP induce an increase of the impedance on a RF-current carrying copper sensor. • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be detected flowing over the sensing element.

  11. Instability of shallow open channel flow with lateral velocity gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A C; Izumi, N, E-mail: adriano@eng.hokudai.ac.jp, E-mail: nizumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [River and Watershed Engineering Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-12-22

    The turbulent flow in a wide rectangular open channel partially covered with vegetation is studied using linear stability analysis. In the base state normal flow condition, the water depth is constant and the transverse velocity vanishes, while there is a lateral gradient in the streamwise velocity with an inflexion point at the boundary between the vegetated zone and the main channel. The Reynolds stress is expressed by introducing the eddy viscosity, which is obtained from assuming a logarithmic distribution of the velocity near the bed. Perturbation expansions are introduced to the streamwise and transverse velocities, as well as to the water depth. The system of governing equations was solved in order to determine the maximum growth rate of the perturbations as a function of parameters which describe physical characteristics of the channel and the flow.

  12. Analytical Tools to Improve Optimization Procedures for Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen V. Hsieh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic or lateral flow assays (LFAs are inexpensive, easy to use, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests that are found in arenas ranging from a doctor’s office in Manhattan to a rural medical clinic in low resource settings. The simplicity in the LFA itself belies the complex task of optimization required to make the test sensitive, rapid and easy to use. Currently, the manufacturers develop LFAs by empirical optimization of material components (e.g., analytical membranes, conjugate pads and sample pads, biological reagents (e.g., antibodies, blocking reagents and buffers and the design of delivery geometry. In this paper, we will review conventional optimization and then focus on the latter and outline analytical tools, such as dynamic light scattering and optical biosensors, as well as methods, such as microfluidic flow design and mechanistic models. We are applying these tools to find non-obvious optima of lateral flow assays for improved sensitivity, specificity and manufacturing robustness.

  13. Aptamer-Phage Reporters for Ultrasensitive Lateral Flow Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Meena; Strych, Ulrich; Kim, Jinsu; Goux, Heather; Dhamane, Sagar; Poongavanam, Mohan-Vivekanandan; Hagström, Anna E V; Kourentzi, Katerina; Conrad, Jacinta C; Willson, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the modification of bacteriophage particles with aptamers for use as bioanalytical reporters, and demonstrate the use of these particles in ultrasensitive lateral flow assays. M13 phage displaying an in vivo biotinylatable peptide (AviTag) genetically fused to the phage tail protein pIII were used as reporter particle scaffolds, with biotinylated aptamers attached via avidin-biotin linkages, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reporter enzymes covalently attached to the pVIII coat protein. These modified viral nanoparticles were used in immunochromatographic sandwich assays for the direct detection of IgE and of the penicillin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus (PBP2a). We also developed an additional lateral flow assay for IgE, in which the analyte is sandwiched between immobilized anti-IgE antibodies and aptamer-bearing reporter phage modified with HRP. The limit of detection of this LFA was 0.13 ng/mL IgE, ∼100 times lower than those of previously reported IgE assays.

  14. Behavior of instantaneous lateral velocity and flow pulsation in duct flow with cylindrical rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Young; Shin, Chang Hwan; Park, Ju Yong; Oh, Dong Seok; Chun, Tae Hyun; In, Wang Kee

    2012-01-01

    Recently, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has examined and developed a dual cooled annular fuel. Dual cooled annular fuel allows the coolant to flow through the inner channel as well as the outer channel. Due to inner channel, the outer diameter of dual cooled annular fuel (15.9 mm) is larger than that of conventional cylindrical solid fuel (9.5 mm). Hence, dual cooled annular fuel assembly becomes a tight lattice fuel bundle configuration to maintain the same array size and guide tube locations as cylindrical solid fuel assembly. P/Ds (pitch between rods to rod diameter ratio) of dual cooled annular and cylindrical solid fuel assemblies are 1.08 and 1.35, respectively. This difference of P/D could change the behavior of turbulent flow in rod bundle. Our research group has investigated a turbulent flow parallel to the fuel rods using two kinds of simulated 3x3 rod bundles. To measure the turbulent rod bundle flow, PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and MIR (Matching Index of Refraction) techniques were used. In a simulated dual cooled annular fuel bundle (i.e., P/D=1.08), the quasi periodic oscillating flow motion in the lateral direction, called the flow pulsation, was observed, which significantly increased the lateral turbulence intensity at the rod gap center. The flow pulsation was visualized and measured clearly and successfully by PIV and MIR techniques. Such a flow motion may have influence on the fluid induced vibration, heat transfer, CHF (Critical Heat Flux), and flow mixing between subchannels in rod bundle flow. On the other hand, in a simulated cylindrical solid fuel bundle (i.e., P/D=1.35), the peak of turbulence intensity at the gap center was not measured due to an irregular motion of the lateral flow. This study implies that the behavior of lateral velocity in rod bundle flow is greatly influenced by the P/D (i.e., gap distance). In this work, the influence of gap distance on behavior of instantaneous lateral velocity and flow

  15. Characteristics of sandwich-type structural elements built of advanced composite materials from three dimensional fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón, L.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-type structures have proved to be alternatives of great success for several fields of application, and specially in the building sector. This is due to their outstanding properties of .specific rigidity and strength against bending loads and other range of advantages like fatigue and impact resistance, attainment of flat and smooth surfaces, high electric and thermal insulation, design versatility and some others. However, traditional sandwich structures present problems like their tendency towards delamination, stress concentrations in bores or screwed Joints, and pre resistance. These problems are alleviated thanks to the use of new sandwich structures built using three dimensional structures of advanced composite materials, maintaining the present advantages for more traditional sandwich structures. At this rate, these new structures can be applied in several areas where conventional sandwich structures used to be like walls, partitions, floor and ceiling structures, domes, vaults and dwellings, but with greater success.

    Las estructuras tipo sándwich han demostrado ser alternativas de gran éxito para diversos campos de aplicación y, en concreto, en el sector de la construcción, listo es gracias a sus excelentes propiedades de rigidez y resistencia específica frente a cargas de flexión y otra larga lista de ventajas, a la que pertenecen, por ejemplo, su buena resistencia a fatiga, resistencia al impacto, obtención de superficies lisas y suaves, elevado aislamiento térmico y eléctrico, versatilidad de diseño y otras. Sin embargo, las estructuras sándwich, tradicionales presentan una problemática consistente en su tendencia a la delaminación, concentraciones de tensiones ¿aparecidas ante la existencia de agujeros o uniones atornilladas y resistencia al fuego. Estos problemas son pifiados gracias a la aplicación de estructuras novedosas tipo sándwich, construidas a partir de tejidos tridimensionales de materiales

  16. Detection of Shiga Toxins by Lateral Flow Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn H. Ching

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC produce shiga toxins (Stxs that can cause human disease and death. The contamination of food products with STEC represents a food safety problem that necessitates rapid and effective detection strategies to mitigate risk. In this manuscript, we report the development of a colorimetric lateral flow assay (LFA for the rapid detection of Stxs in <10 min using a pair of monoclonal antibodies that bind epitopes common to Stx1 and six Stx2 variants. This LFA provides a rapid and sensitive test for the detection of Stxs directly from STEC culture supernatants or at risk food samples with a 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection (LOD for Stx2a. This Stx LFA is applicable for use in the rapid evaluation of Stx production from cultured E. coli strains or as a tool to augment current methods as part of food safety testing.

  17. Experimental effect of flow depth on ratio discharge in lateral intakes in river bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjedi, A; Foroushani, E P

    2012-01-01

    Open-channel dividing flow is characterized by the inflow and outflow discharges, the upstream and downstream water depths, and the recirculation flow in the branch channel. In general, diversion flow can be categorized as natural and artificial flow. Natural flow diversion usually occurs as braiding or cut-off in bend rivers, while artificial flow is man-made to divert flow by lateral intake channels for water supply. This study presents the results of a laboratory research into effect intake flow depth on ratio discharge in lateral intakes in 180 degree bend. Investigation on lateral intake and determination of intake flow depth is among the most important issues in lateral intake on ratio discharge with model intake flow depth were measured in a laboratory flume under clear-water. Experiments were conducted for various intake flow depths and with different discharges. It was found that by increasing the flow depth at 180 degree flume bend, ratio discharge increases.

  18. Integrated Lateral Flow Device for Flow Control with Blood Separation and Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Betancur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lateral flow devices are versatile and serve a wide variety of purposes, including medical, agricultural, environmental, and military applications. Yet, the most promising opportunities of these devices for diagnosis might reside in point-of-care (POC applications. Disposable paper-based lateral flow strips have been of particular interest, because they utilize low-cost materials and do not require expensive fabrication instruments. However, there are constraints on tuning flow rates and immunoassays functionalization in papers, as well as technical challenges in sensors’ integration and concentration units for low-abundant molecular detection. In the present work, we demonstrated an integrated lateral flow device that applied the capillary forces with functionalized polymer-based microfluidics as a strategy to realize a portable, simplified, and self-powered lateral flow device (LFD. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surface was rendered hydrophilic via functionalization with different concentrations of Pluronic F127. Controlled flow is a key variable for immunoassay-based applications for providing enough time for protein binding to antibodies. The flow rate of the integrated LFD was regulated by the combination of multiple factors, including Pluronic F127 functionalized surface properties and surface treatments of microchannels, resistance of the integrated flow resistor, the dimensions of the microstructures and the spacing between them in the capillary pump, the contact angles, and viscosity of the fluids. Various plasma flow rates were regulated and achieved in the whole device. The LFD combined the ability to separate high quality plasma from human whole blood by using a highly asymmetric plasma separation membrane, and created controlled and steady fluid flow using capillary forces produced by the interfacial tensions. Biomarker immunoglobulin G (IgG detection from plasma was demonstrated with a graphene nanoelectronic sensor integrated

  19. Research on Effective Electric-Mechanical Coupling Coefficient of Sandwich Type Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducer Using Bending Vibration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model on electromechanical coupling coefficient and the length optimization of a bending piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer are proposed. The piezoelectric transducer consists of 8 PZT elements sandwiched between four thin electrodes, and the PZT elements are clamped by a screwed connection between fore beam and back beam. Firstly, bending vibration model of the piezoelectric transducer is built based on the Timoshenko beam theory. Secondly, the analytical model of effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is built based on the bending vibration model. Energy method and electromechanical equivalent circuit method are involved in the modelling process. To validate the analytical model, sandwich type piezoelectric transducer example in second order bending vibration mode is analysed. Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of the transducer is optimized with simplex reflection technique, and the optimized ratio of length of the transducers is obtained. Finally, experimental prototypes of the sandwich type piezoelectric transducers are fabricated. Bending vibration mode and impedance of the experimental prototypes are tested, and electromechanical coupling coefficient is obtained according to the testing results. Results show that the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental model.

  20. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important. In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein. The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks. Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and

  1. Two-monoclonal-antibody sandwich-type assay for thyrotropin, with use of an avidin-biotin separation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, W.D.; Griffin, J.; Zahradnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive, specific, noncompetitive, sandwich-type radioimmunoassay for human thyrotropin (hTSH), which can be performed in 30 min. The assay involves two monoclonal antibodies, selected for high affinity and specificity and also for reaction against antigenic sites on hTSH that are distal from each other. One of these antibodies is labeled with 125 I; the other is conjugated covalently to biotin. Polystyrene beads were also conjugated covalently to biotin. After conjugation, the beads were incubated with avidin. These beads represent a rapid, simple method for separating hTSH-bound antibody from free antibody. The biotin-antibody-hTSH- 125 I-labeled antibody complexes bind to the beads and hTSH concentration is directly related to counts per minute. This assay can detect hTSH at a concentration of 0.06 milli-unit/L in serum

  2. Examination of High-Torque Sandwich-Type Spherical Ultrasonic Motor Using with High-Power Multimode Annular Vibrating Stator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mizuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spherical ultrasonic motors (SUSMs that can operate with multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF using only a single stator have high holding torque and high torque at low speed, which makes reduction gearing unnecessary. The simple structure of MDOF-SUSMs makes them useful as compact actuators, but their development is still insufficient for applications such as joints of humanoid robots and other systems that require MDOF and high torque. To increase the torque of a sandwich-type MDOF-SUSM, we have not only made the vibrating stator and spherical rotor larger but also improved the structure using three design concepts: (1 increasing the strength of all three vibration modes using multilayered piezoelectric actuators (MPAs embedded in the stator, (2 enhancing the rigidity of the friction driving portion of the stator for transmitting more vibration force to the friction-driven rotor surface, and (3 making the support mechanism more stable. An MDOF-SUSM prototype was tested, and the maximum torques of rotation around the X(Y-axis and Z-axis were measured as 1.48 N∙m and 2.05 N∙m, respectively. Moreover, the values for torque per unit weight of the stator were obtained as 0.87 N∙m/kg for the X(Y-axis and 1.20 N∙m/kg for the Z-axis. These are larger than values reported for any other sandwich-type MDOF-SUSM of which we are aware. Hence, the new design concepts were shown to be effective for increasing torque. In addition, we measured the transient response and calculated the load characteristics of rotation around the rotor’s three orthogonal axes.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of a Heterometallic Extended Architecture Based on a Manganese(II-Substituted Sandwich-Type Polyoxotungstate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masooma Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of [α-P2W15O56]12− with MnII and DyIII in an aqueous basic solution led to the isolation of an all inorganic heterometallic aggregate Na10(OH242[{Dy(H2O6}2Mn4P4W30O112(H2O2]·17H2O (Dy2Mn4-P2W15. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that Dy2Mn4-P2W15 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P 1 ¯ , and consists of a tetranuclear manganese(II-substituted sandwich-type phosphotungstate [Mn4(H2O2(P2W15O562]16− (Mn4-P2W15, Na, and DyIII cations. Compound Dy2Mn4-P2W15 exhibits a 1D ladder-like chain structure based on sandwich-type segments and dysprosium cations as linkers, which are further connected into a three-dimensional open framework by sodium cations. The title compound was structurally and compositionally characterized in solid state by single-crystal XRD, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric (TGA, and elemental analyses. Further, the absorption and emission electronic spectra in aqueous solutions of Dy2Mn4-P2W15 and Mn4-P2W15 were studied. Also, magnetic properties were studied and compared with the magnetic behavior of [Mn4(H2O2(P2W15O562]16−.

  4. An evaluation of the hydrologic relevance of lateral flow in snow at hillslope and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Eiriksson; Michael Whitson; Charles H. Luce; Hans Peter Marshall; John Bradford; Shawn G. Benner; Thomas Black; Hank Hetrick; James P. McNamara

    2013-01-01

    Lateral downslope flow in snow during snowmelt and rain-on-snow (ROS) events is a well-known phenomenon, yet its relevance to water redistribution at hillslope and catchment scales is not well understood. We used dye tracers, geophysical methods, and hydrometric measurements to describe the snow properties that promote lateral flow, assess the relative velocities of...

  5. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

  6. Lateral Flow Field Behavior Downstream of Mixing Vanes In a Simulated Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, Michael E.; Smith, L. David III; Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the fuel assembly performance of PWR nuclear fuel assemblies, average subchannel flow values are used in design analyses. However, for this highly complex flow, it is known that local conditions around fuel rods vary dependent upon the location of the fuel rod in the fuel assembly and upon the support grid design that maintains the fuel rod pitch. To investigate the local flow in a simulated nuclear fuel rod bundle, a testing technique has been employed to measure the lateral flow field in a 5 x 5 rod bundle. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to measure the lateral flow field downstream of a support grid with mixing vanes for four unique subchannels in the 5 x 5 bundle. The dominant lateral flow structures for each subchannel are compared in this paper including the decay of these flow structures. (authors)

  7. Compressible Flow Phenomena at Inception of Lateral Density Currents Fed by Collapsing Gas-Particle Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Sweeney, Matthew R.

    2018-02-01

    Many geological flows are sourced by falling gas-particle mixtures, such as during collapse of lava domes, and impulsive eruptive jets, and sustained columns, and rock falls. The transition from vertical to lateral flow is complex due to the range of coupling between particles of different sizes and densities and the carrier gas, and due to the potential for compressible flow phenomena. We use multiphase modeling to explore these dynamics. In mixtures with small particles, and with subsonic speeds, particles follow the gas such that outgoing lateral flows have similar particle concentration and speed as the vertical flows. Large particles concentrate immediately upon impact and move laterally away as granular flows overridden by a high-speed jet of expelled gas. When a falling flow is supersonic, a bow shock develops above the impact zone, and this produces a zone of high pressure from which lateral flows emerge as overpressured wall jets. The jets form complex structures as the mixtures expand and accelerate and then recompress through a recompression zone that mimics a Mach disk shock in ideal gas jets. In mixtures with moderate to high ratios of fine to coarse particles, the latter tend to follow fine particles through the expansion-recompression flow fields because of particle-particle drag. Expansion within the flow fields can lead to locally reduced gas pressure that could enhance substrate erosion in natural flows. The recompression zones form at distances, and have peak pressures, that are roughly proportional to the Mach numbers of impacting flows.

  8. Mapping of the lateral flow field in typical subchannels of a support grid with vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClusky, Heather L.; Holloway, Mary V.; Conover, Timothy A.; Beasley, Donald E.; Conner, Michael E.; Smith III, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Lateral flow fields in four subchannels of a model rod bundle fuel assembly are measured using particle image velocimetry. Vanes (split-vane pairs) are located on the downstream edge of the support grids in the rod bundle fuel assembly and generate swirling flow. Measurements are acquired at a nominal Reynolds number of 28,000 and for seven streamwise locations ranging from 1.4 to 17.0 hydraulic diameters downstream of the grid. The streamwise development of the lateral flow field is divided into two regions based on the lateral flow structure. In Region I, multiple vortices are present in the flow field and vortex interactions occur. Either a single circular vortex or a hairpin shaped flow structure is formed in Region II. Lateral kinetic energy, maximum lateral velocity, centroid of vorticity, radial profiles of azimuthal velocity, and angular momentum are employed as measures of the streamwise development of the lateral flow field. The particle image velocimetry measurements of the present study are compared with laser doppler velocimetry measurements taken for the identical support grids and flow condition. (author)

  9. Designs, formats and applications of lateral flow assay: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript provides a brief overview of latest research involving the use of lateral flow assay for qualitative and quantitative analysis in different areas. The excellent features and versatility of detection formats make these strips an ideal choice for point of care applications. We outline and critically discuss detection formats, molecular recognition probes, labels, and detection systems used in lateral flow assay. Applications in different fields along with selected examples from the literature have been included to show analytical performance of these devices. At the end, we summarize accomplishments, weaknesses and future challenges in the area of lateral flow strips.

  10. Imaging dipole flow sources using an artificial lateral-line system made of biomimetic hair flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In Nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc., using the lateral-line organ. Artificial hair flow sensors arranged in a linear array shape (inspired by the lateral-line system (LSS) in fish) have been applied to measure airflow patterns at the sensor positions. Here, we

  11. Rapid detection of fungal alpha-amylase in the work environment with a lateral flow immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Wouters, I.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Amerongen, van A.; Doekes, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background Occupational allergen exposure assessment usually requires airborne dust sampling at the worksite followed by dust extraction and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analysis at the laboratory. Use of semiquantitative lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) may allow a more rapid detection procedure with

  12. Research on Flow Field Perception Based on Artificial Lateral Line Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijie Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the lateral line of fish is a peculiar and important organ for sensing the surrounding hydrodynamic environment, preying, escaping from predators and schooling. In this paper, by imitating the mechanism of fish lateral canal neuromasts, we developed an artificial lateral line system composed of micro-pressure sensors. Through hydrodynamic simulations, an optimized sensor structure was obtained and the pressure distribution models of the lateral surface were established in uniform flow and turbulent flow. Carrying out the corresponding underwater experiment, the validity of the numerical simulation method is verified by the comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results. In addition, a variety of effective research methods are proposed and validated for the flow velocity estimation and attitude perception in turbulent flow, respectively and the shape recognition of obstacles is realized by the neural network algorithm.

  13. Experimental evidence of lateral flow in unsaturated homogeneous isotropic sloping soil due to rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, G.; Dirksen, C.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes laboratory experimental evidence for lateral flow in the top layer of unsaturated sloping soil due to rainfall. Water was applied uniformly on horizontal and V-shaped surfaces of fine sand, at rates about 100 times smaller than the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Flow regimes near the surface and in the soil bulk were studied by using dyes. Streamlines and streak lines and wetting fronts were visually studied and photographed through a vertical glass wall. Near wetting fronts the flow direction was always perpendicular to the fronts owing to dominant matrix potential gradients. Thus, during early wetting of dry sloping sand, the flow direction is directed upslope. Far above a wetting front the flow was vertical due to the dominance of gravity. Downslope flow was observed during decreasing rainfall and dry periods. The lateral movement was largest near the soil surface and decayed with soil depth. Unstable downslope lateral flow close to the soil surface was attributed to non-Darcian flow due to variable temporal and spatial raindrop distributions. The experiments verify the theory that predicts unsaturated downslope lateral flow in sloping soil due to rainfall dynamics only, without apparent soil texture difference or anisotropy. This phenomenon could have significant implications for hillside hydrology, desert agriculture, irrigation management, etc., as well as for the basic mechanisms of surface runoff and erosion.

  14. Experimental evidence of lateral flow in unsaturated homogeneous isotropic sloping soil due to rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinai, G.; Dirksen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory experimental evidence for lateral flow in the top layer of unsaturated sloping soil due to rainfall. Water was applied uniformly on horizontal and V-shaped surfaces of fine sand, at rates about 100 times smaller than the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Flow regimes

  15. Wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Sheng, Meiping; Ding, Xiaodong; Yan, Xiaowei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents analysis on wave propagation and power flow in an acoustic metamaterial plate with lateral local resonance. The metamaterial is designed to have lateral local resonance systems attached to a homogeneous plate. Relevant theoretical analysis, numerical modelling and application prospect are presented. Results show that the metamaterial has two complete band gaps for flexural wave absorption and vibration attenuation. Damping can smooth and lower the metamaterial’s frequency responses in high frequency ranges at the expense of the band gap effect, and as an important factor to calculate the power flow is thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the effective mass density becomes negative and unbounded at specific frequencies. Simultaneously, power flow within band gaps are dramatically blocked from the power flow contour and power flow maps. Results from finite element modelling and power flow analysis reveal the working mechanism of the flexural wave attenuation and power flow blocked within the band gaps, where part of the flexural vibration is absorbed by the vertical resonator and the rest is transformed through four-link-mechanisms to the lateral resonators that oscillate and generate inertial forces indirectly to counterbalance the shear forces induced by the vibrational plate. The power flow is stored in the vertical and lateral local resonance, as well as in the connected plate.

  16. Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.

  17. Sandwich-type electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  18. Recharge and Lateral Groundwater Flow Boundary Conditions for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arnold; T. Corbet

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of the flow boundary conditions analysis is to provide specified-flux boundary conditions for the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow and transport model. This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the SZ site-scale model domain, both as recharge at the upper (water table) boundary and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. The objective is to provide consistency at the boundaries between the SZ site-scale flow model and other groundwater flow models. The scope of this analysis includes extraction of the volumetric groundwater flow rates simulated by the SZ regional-scale flow model to occur at the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow model and the internal qualification of the regional-scale model for use in this analysis model report (AMR). In addition, the scope includes compilation of information on the recharge boundary condition taken from three sources: (1) distributed recharge as taken from the SZ regional-scale flow model, (2) recharge below the area of the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model, and (3) focused recharge along the Fortymile Wash channel.

  19. 6LiF sandwich type detectors for low dose individual monitoring in mixed neutron-photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Bilski, P.; Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1994-01-01

    ICRP Publication 60 recommends the reduction of the annual dose limit for occupational exposure from 50 to 20 mSv and a doubling of the quality factor for medium energy neutrons. If occupational doses are evaluated every month (which is obligatory e.g. in Germany and in Poland), the individual neutron dosemeter will have to measure neutron doses in the range of 100 μSv. No commercially available, automatic individual dosimetry monitoring system exists that fulfils this requirement. Some of the parameters which influence the evaluation of the neutron dose from readings of TL dosemeters have been studied in order to decrease the variance of the measured neutron signal. In mixed neutron-photon fields, clear separation of the neutron component from the total reading depends also on the uncertainty of the gamma dose measurements. While the thermal albedo neutrons are absorbed mostly at the surface of the 6 LiF detector, the reduction of the detector thickness results in a decrease of its photon sensitivity, while its neutron sensitivity is almost principally maintained. As a consequence, the uncertainty of gamma dose contributes with lower weight to the variance of the evaluated neutron signal. First tests of an optimised 200 μm thick sandwich detector and 0.9 mm thick standard LiF chips were made at low neutron and photon dose ranges using different readers, in order to determine the uncertainty versus dose for different neutron-photon combinations. The conditions under which the new sandwich type detectors may improve albedo neutron dosimetry are demonstrated. (Author)

  20. New Fpg probe chemistry for direct detection of recombinase polymerase amplification on lateral flow strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael L; Bowler, Frank R; Martinez, Aurore J; Greenwood, Catherine J; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2018-02-15

    Rapid, cost-effective and sensitive detection of nucleic acids has the ability to improve upon current practices employed for pathogen detection in diagnosis of infectious disease and food testing. Furthermore, if assay complexity can be reduced, nucleic acid amplification tests could be deployed in resource-limited and home use scenarios. In this study, we developed a novel Fpg (Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase) probe chemistry, which allows lateral flow detection of amplification in undiluted recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions. The prototype nucleic acid lateral flow chemistry was applied to a human genomic target (rs1207445), Campylobacter jejuni 16S rDNA and two genetic markers of the important food pathogen E. coli O157:H7. All four assays have an analytical sensitivity between 10 and 100 copies DNA per amplification. Furthermore, the assay is performed with fewer hands-on steps than using the current RPA Nfo lateral flow method as dilution of amplicon is not required for lateral flow analysis. Due to the simplicity of the workflow, we believe that the lateral flow chemistry for direct detection could be readily adapted to a cost-effective single-use consumable, ideal for use in non-laboratory settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Simulation and validation of concentrated subsurface lateral flow paths in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Lin, H. S.

    2009-08-01

    The importance of soil water flow paths to the transport of nutrients and contaminants has long been recognized. However, effective means of detecting concentrated subsurface flow paths in a large landscape are still lacking. The flow direction and accumulation algorithm based on single-direction flow algorithm (D8) in GIS hydrologic modeling is a cost-effective way to simulate potential concentrated flow paths over a large area once relevant data are collected. This study tested the D8 algorithm for simulating concentrated lateral flow paths at three interfaces in soil profiles in a 19.5-ha agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania, USA. These interfaces were (1) the interface between surface plowed layers of Ap1 and Ap2 horizons, (2) the interface with subsoil water-restricting clay layer where clay content increased to over 40%, and (3) the soil-bedrock interface. The simulated flow paths were validated through soil hydrologic monitoring, geophysical surveys, and observable soil morphological features. The results confirmed that concentrated subsurface lateral flow occurred at the interfaces with the clay layer and the underlying bedrock. At these two interfaces, the soils on the simulated flow paths were closer to saturation and showed more temporally unstable moisture dynamics than those off the simulated flow paths. Apparent electrical conductivity in the soil on the simulated flow paths was elevated and temporally unstable as compared to those outside the simulated paths. The soil cores collected from the simulated flow paths showed significantly higher Mn content at these interfaces than those away from the simulated paths. These results suggest that (1) the D8 algorithm is useful in simulating possible concentrated subsurface lateral flow paths if used with appropriate threshold value of contributing area and sufficiently detailed digital elevation model (DEM); (2) repeated electromagnetic surveys can reflect the temporal change of soil water storage

  2. Coping with flow: behavior, neurophysiology and modeling of the fish lateral line system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogdans, Joachim; Bleckmann, Horst

    2012-12-01

    With the mechanosensory lateral line fish perceive water motions relative to their body surface and local pressure gradients. The lateral line plays an important role in many fish behaviors including the detection and localization of dipole sources and the tracking of prey fish. The sensory units of the lateral line are the neuromasts which are distributed across the surface of the animal. Water motions are received and transduced into neuronal signals by the neuromasts. These signals are conveyed by afferent nerve fibers to the fish brain and processed by lateral line neurons in parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, midbrain, and forebrain. In the cerebellum, midbrain, and forebrain, lateral line information is integrated with sensory information from other modalities. The present review introduces the peripheral morphology of the lateral line, and describes our understanding of lateral line physiology and behavior. It focuses on recent studies that have investigated: how fish behave in unsteady flow; what kind of sensory information is provided by flow; and how fish use and process this information. Finally, it reports new theoretical and biomimetic approaches to understand lateral line function.

  3. Improved sensitivity and limit-of-detection of lateral flow devices using spatial constrictions of the flow-path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katis, Ioannis N; He, Peijun J W; Eason, Robert W; Sones, Collin L

    2018-05-03

    We report on the use of a laser-direct write (LDW) technique that allows the fabrication of lateral flow devices with enhanced sensitivity and limit of detection. This manufacturing technique comprises the dispensing of a liquid photopolymer at specific regions of a nitrocellulose membrane and its subsequent photopolymerisation to create impermeable walls inside the volume of the membrane. These polymerised structures are intentionally designed to create fluidic channels which are constricted over a specific length that spans the test zone within which the sample interacts with pre-deposited reagents. Experiments were conducted to show how these constrictions alter the fluid flow rate and the test zone area within the constricted channel geometries. The slower flow rate and smaller test zone area result in the increased sensitivity and lowered limit of detection for these devices. We have quantified these via the improved performance of a C-Reactive Protein (CRP) sandwich assay on our lateral flow devices with constricted flow paths which demonstrate an improvement in its sensitivity by 62x and in its limit of detection by 30x when compared to a standard lateral flow CRP device. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Lateral Flow Biosensor for the Detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingwen; Xiao, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    A lateral flow biosensor (LFB) is introduced for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The assay is composed of two steps: circular strand displacement reaction and lateral flow biosensor detection. In step 1, the nucleotide at SNP site is recognized by T4 DNA ligase and the signal is amplified by strand displacement DNA polymerase, which can be accomplished at a constant temperature. In step 2, the reaction product of step 1 is detected by a lateral flow biosensor, which is a rapid and cost effective tool for nuclei acid detection. Comparing with conventional methods, it requires no complicated machines. It is suitable for the use of point of care diagnostics. Therefore, this simple, cost effective, robust, and promising LFB detection method of SNP has great potential for the detection of genetic diseases, personalized medicine, cancer related mutations, and drug-resistant mutations of infectious agents.

  5. Lateral Mixing Mechanisms in Vertical and Horizontal Interconnected Subchannel Two-Phase Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gencay, Sarman; Teyssedou, Alberto; Tye, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A lateral mixing model based on equal volume exchange between two laterally interconnected subchannels is presented. The following mixing mechanisms are taken into account in this model: (a) diversion cross flow, caused by the lateral pressure difference between adjacent subchannels; (b) turbulent void diffusion, which is governed by the lateral void fraction difference between the subchannels; (c) void drift, responsible for the tendency of the vapor phase to drift toward unobstructed regions; and (d) buoyancy drift, which takes into account the effect of gravity in horizontal flows. Experimental two-phase air-water data obtained using two test sections having different geometries and orientations are used to determine the diffusion coefficients required by the mixing model. Under the absence of diversion crossflow, i.e., negligible lateral pressure difference between the subchannels, it is observed that the diffusion coefficient increases with increasing average void fraction in the subchannels. Moreover, for vertical flows turbulent void diffusion seems to be considerably affected by the geometry of the subchannels. For horizontal flows under nonsymmetric inlet void fraction conditions, even though the interconnected subchannels have the same geometry, different turbulent void diffusion and void drift coefficients are required to satisfy the conditions of hydrodynamic equilibrium. In the present study this condition is achieved by introducing a new void drift coefficient expressed as a correction term applied to the turbulent void drift term

  6. Multiplexed lateral flow biosensors: Technological advances for radically improving point-of-care diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Macdonald, Joanne

    2016-09-15

    Lateral flow biosensors are a leading technology in point-of-care diagnostics due to their simplicity, rapidness and low cost. Their primacy in this arena continues through technological breakthroughs such as multiplexing: the detection of more than one biomarker in a single assay. Multiplexing capacity is critical for improving diagnostic efficiency, enhancing the diagnostic precision for specific diseases and reducing diagnostic cost. Here we review, for the first time, the various types and strategies employed for creating multiplexed lateral flow biosensors. These are classified into four main categories in terms of specific application or multiplexing level, namely linear, parameter, spatial and conceptual. We describe the practical applications and implications for each approach and compare their advantages and disadvantages. Importantly, multiplexing is still subject to limitations of the traditional lateral flow biosensor, such as sensitivity and specificity. However, by pushing the limitations of the traditional medium into the multiplex arena, several technological breakthroughs are emerging with novel solutions that further expand the utility of lateral flow biosensing for point-of-care applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A lateral flow biosensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism by circular strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuo; Lie, Puchang; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yu, Luxin; Chen, Junhua; Liu, Jie; Ge, Chenchen; Zhou, Xuemeng; Zeng, Lingwen

    2012-09-04

    A lateral flow biosensor for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism based on circular strand displacement reaction (CSDPR) has been developed. Taking advantage of high fidelity of T4 DNA ligase, signal amplification by CSDPR, and the optical properties of gold nanoparticles, this assay has reached a detection limit of 0.01 fM.

  8. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barnett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs in immunochromatographic (lateral flow assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  9. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilavaki, Evdokia; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2017-11-20

    Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  10. Optimized Lateral Flow Immunoassay Reader for the Detection of Infectious Diseases in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Pilavaki

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection and control of infectious diseases is a major problem, especially in developing countries. Lateral flow immunoassays can be used with great success for the detection of infectious diseases. However, for the quantification of their results an electronic reader is required. This paper presents an optimized handheld electronic reader for developing countries. It features a potentially low-cost, low-power, battery-operated device with no added optical accessories. The operation of this proof of concept device is based on measuring the reflected light from the lateral flow immunoassay and translating it into the concentration of the specific analyte of interest. Characterization of the surface of the lateral flow immunoassay has been performed in order to accurately model its response to the incident light. Ray trace simulations have been performed to optimize the system and achieve maximum sensitivity by placing all the components in optimum positions. A microcontroller enables all the signal processing to be performed on the device and a Bluetooth module allows transmission of the results wirelessly to a mobile phone app. Its performance has been validated using lateral flow immunoassays with influenza A nucleoprotein in the concentration range of 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL.

  11. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  12. The effect of gas and fluid flows on nonlinear lateral vibrations of rotating drill strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajiyeva, Lelya; Kudaibergenov, Askar; Kudaibergenov, Askat

    2018-06-01

    In this work we develop nonlinear mathematical models describing coupled lateral vibrations of a rotating drill string under the effect of external supersonic gas and internal fluid flows. An axial compressive load and a torque also affect the drill string. The mathematical models are derived by the use of Novozhilov's nonlinear theory of elasticity with implementation of Hamilton's variation principle. Expressions for the gas flow pressure are determined according to the piston theory. The fluid flow is considered as added mass inside the curved tube of the drill string. Using an algorithm developed in the Mathematica computation program on the basis of the Galerkin approach and the stiffness switching method the numerical solution of the obtained approximate differential equations is found. Influences of the external loads, drill string angular speed of rotation, parameters of the gas and fluid flows on the drill string vibrations are shown.

  13. Hydrodynamic pressure sensing with an artificial lateral line in steady and unsteady flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturelli, Roberto; Akanyeti, Otar; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo; Ježov, Jaas; Toming, Gert; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Chambers, Lily D; Brown, Jennifer; Megill, William M

    2012-01-01

    With the overall goal being a better understanding of the sensing environment from the local perspective of a situated agent, we studied uniform flows and Kármán vortex streets in a frame of reference relevant to a fish or swimming robot. We visualized each flow regime with digital particle image velocimetry and then took local measurements using a rigid body with laterally distributed parallel pressure sensor arrays. Time and frequency domain methods were used to characterize hydrodynamically relevant scenarios in steady and unsteady flows for control applications. Here we report that a distributed pressure sensing mechanism has the capability to discriminate Kármán vortex streets from uniform flows, and determine the orientation and position of the platform with respect to the incoming flow and the centre axis of the Kármán vortex street. It also enables the computation of hydrodynamic features which may be relevant for a robot while interacting with the flow, such as vortex shedding frequency, vortex travelling speed and downstream distance between vortices. A Kármán vortex street was distinguished in this study from uniform flows by analysing the magnitude of fluctuations present in the sensor measurements and the number of sensors detecting the same dominant frequency. In the Kármán vortex street the turbulence intensity was 30% higher than that in the uniform flow and the sensors collectively sensed the vortex shedding frequency as the dominant frequency. The position and orientation of the sensor platform were determined via a comparative analysis between laterally distributed sensor arrays; the vortex travelling speed was estimated via a cross-correlation analysis among the sensors. (paper)

  14. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  15. Carbon nanoparticles in lateral flow methods to detect genes encoding virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguera, P.; Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Tuil, van M.; Wal, van der F.J.; Boer, de A.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon nanoparticles is shown for the detection and identification of different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli virulence factors (vt1, vt2, eae and ehxA) and a 16S control (specific for E. coli) based on the use of lateral flow strips (nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay,

  16. A novel sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor based on GR-3D Au and aptamer-AuNPs-HRP for sensitive detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Wang, Yu; Xu, Wei; Leng, Xueqi; Wang, Hongzhi; Guo, Yuna; Huang, Jiadong

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor has been fabricated and applied for sensitive and selective detection of antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC). This sensor was based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposite (GR-3D Au) and aptamer-AuNPs-horseradish peroxidase (aptamer-AuNPs-HRP) nanoprobes as signal amplification. Firstly, GR-3D Au film was modified on glassy carbon electrode only by one-step electrochemical coreduction with graphite oxide (GO) and HAuCl 4 at cathodic potentials, which enhanced the electron transfer and loading capacity of biomolecules. Then the aptamer and HRP modified Au nanoparticles provide high affinity and ultrasensitive electrochemical probe with excellent specificity for OTC. Under the optimized conditions, the peak current was linearly proportional to the concentration of OTC in the range of 5×10 -10 -2×10 -3 gL -1 , with a detection limit of 4.98×10 -10 gL -1 . Additionally, this aptasensor had the advantages in high sensitivity, superb specificity and showed good recovery in synthetic samples. Hence, the developed sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor might provide a useful and practical tool for OTC determination and related food safety analysis and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A fluorometric lateral flow assay for visual detection of nucleic acids using a digital camera readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Maria; Sevastou, Areti; Kalogianni, Despina P

    2018-06-04

    A fluorometric lateral flow assay has been developed for the detection of nucleic acids. The fluorophores phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as labels, while a common digital camera and a colored vinyl-sheet, acting as a cut-off optical filter, are used for fluorescence imaging. After DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the biotinylated PCR product is hybridized to its complementary probe that carries a poly(dA) tail at 3΄ edge and then applied to the lateral flow strip. The hybrids are captured to the test zone of the strip by immobilized poly(dT) sequences and detected by streptavidin-fluorescein and streptavidin-phycoerythrin conjugates, through streptavidin-biotin interaction. The assay is widely applicable, simple, cost-effective, and offers a large multiplexing potential. Its performance is comparable to assays based on the use of streptavidin-gold nanoparticles conjugates. As low as 7.8 fmol of a ssDNA and 12.5 fmol of an amplified dsDNA target were detectable. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a fluorometric lateral flow assay based on fluorescein and phycoerythrin fluorescent labels for the detection of single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences and using a digital camera readout. SA: streptavidin, BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin, B: biotin, FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate, PE: phycoerythrin, TZ: test zone, CZ: control zone.

  18. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting.

  19. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China); Hao, Fen [DaAn Gene Co. Ltd. of Sun Yat-sen University, 19 Xiangshan Road, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wu, Ying-Song, E-mail: wg@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (H{sub T}) and the control line (H{sub C}); the H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0–1000 IU mL{sup −1}) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL{sup −1}) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both <10%. Furthermore, in the analysis of human serum samples, excellent correlation (n = 284, r = 0.9860, p < 0.0001) was obtained between the proposed method and a commercially available CLIA kit. Results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing. - Highlights: • Europium (III) chelate microparticles was used as a label for LIFA. • Quantitative detection by using H{sub T}/H{sub C} ratio was achieved. • LIFA for simple and rapid AFP detection in human serum. • The sensitivity and linearity was more excellent compared with QD-based ICTS. • This method could be developed for rapid point-of-care screening.

  20. Image-based modelling of lateral magma flow: the Basement Sill, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petford, Nick; Mirhadizadeh, Seyed

    2017-05-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle microstructure of a congested magma slurry. We simulated the flow regime in two and three dimensions using numerical models built on a finite-element mesh derived from field data. The model captures the flow behaviour of the Basement Sill magma over a viscosity range of 1-10 4  Pa s where the higher end (greater than or equal to 10 2  Pa s) corresponds to a magmatic slurry with crystal fractions varying between 30 and 70%. A novel feature of the model is the discovery of transient, low viscosity (less than or equal to 50 Pa s) high Reynolds number eddies formed along undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. Numerical tracing of particle orbits implies crystals trapped in eddies segregate according to their mass density. Recovered shear strain rates (10 -3 -10 -5  s -1 ) at viscosities equating to high particle concentrations (around more than 40%) in the Sill interior point to shear-thinning as an explanation for some types of magmatic layering there. Model transport rates for the Sill magmas imply a maximum emplacement time of ca 10 5 years, consistent with geochemical evidence for long-range lateral flow. It is a theoretically possibility that fast-flowing magma on a continental scale will be susceptible to planetary-scale rotational forces.

  1. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  2. Development of a Nanobody-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Tabatabai, Julia; Schnitzler, Paul; Farah, Carlo; Rameil, Steffen; Sander, Peter; Koromyslova, Anna; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries. A number of commercially available ELISAs and lateral flow immunoassays were found to have lower sensitivities to the GII.17 viruses, indicating that the antibodies used in these methods may not have a high level of cross-reactivity. In this study, we developed a rapid Nanobody-based lateral flow immunoassay (Nano-immunochromatography [Nano-IC]) for the detection of human norovirus in clinical specimens. The Nano-IC assay detected virions from two GII.4 norovirus clusters, which included the current dominant strain and a novel variant strain. The Nano-IC method had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 86% for outbreak specimens. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) representing four genotypes (GII.4, GII.10, GII.12, and GII.17) could be detected by this method, demonstrating the potential in clinical screening. However, further modifications to the Nano-IC method are needed in order to improve this sensitivity, which may be achieved by the addition of other broadly reactive Nanobodies to the system. IMPORTANCE We previously identified a Nanobody (termed Nano-85) that bound to a highly conserved region on the norovirus capsid. In this study, the Nanobody was biotinylated and gold conjugated for a lateral flow immunoassay (termed Nano-IC). We showed that the Nano-IC assay was capable of detecting at least four antigenically distinct GII genotypes, including the newly emerging GII.17. In the clinical setting, the

  3. Immunochromatographic lateral flow strip for on-site detection of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Z.; Deng, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Wu, J.; Yang, H.; Wang, Z.; Zheng, L.; Chen, W.; Chu, H.; Xue, F.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a lateral flow assay (LFA) for the detection of bisphenol A (BPA) in water samples. Antibody against BPA was labeled with gold nanoparticles, and these conjugates were used as the recognition probes for the construction of an LFA strip. The diameter of the gold nanoparticles, the amount of antibody, the pH of the buffer, and the categories of the conjugation pad were optimized. The resulting method has a (visual) detection limit of 5 ppb, and of 0.92 ppb if used in combination with professional software. This LFA displays excellent specificity and was applied to spiked water samples with satisfactory results. (author)

  4. Current development of microfluidic immunosensing approaches for mycotoxin detection via capillary electromigration and lateral flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Li, Ran

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in the food chain has caused serious health issues in humans and animals. Thus, a rapid on-site and lab-independent detection method for mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins (AFTs), is desirable. Microfluidic chip based immunosensor technology is one of the most promising methods for fast mycotoxin assays. In this review, we cover the major microfluidic immunosensors used for mycotoxin analysis, via flow-through (capillary electromigration) and lateral flow technology. Sample preparation from different matrices of agricultural products and foodstuffs is summarized. The choice of materials, fabrication strategies, and detection methods for microfluidic immunosensors are further discussed in detail. The sensors application in mycotoxin determination is also outlined. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis, structure, and characterization of a new sandwich-type arsenotungstocerate, [As 2W 18Ce 3O 71(H 2O) 3] 12-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M. H.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, H.; Khoshnavazi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The rational synthesis of the new sandwich-type arsenotungstocerate [As 2W 18Ce 3O 71(H 2O) 3] 12- is reported for the first time by reaction of the trivacant lacunary species A-α-[AsW 9O 34] 9- with appropriate Ce IV. The single crystal structure analysis was carried out on K 7(H 3O) 5[As 2W 18Ce 3O 71(H 2O) 3]·9H 2O; H 39As 2Ce 3K 7O 88W 18; ( 2) which crystallizes in triclinic system, space group P overline1 with a=11.615(5) Å, b=17.638(7) Å, c=19.448(8) Å, α=73.643(7)°, β=88.799(7)°, γ=88.078(7)° and Z=2. The anion consists on two lacunary A-α-[AsW 9O 34] 9- Keggin moieties linked via a (H 2OCeO) 3 belt leading to a sandwich-type structure. Each cerium atom adopts tri-capped trigonal-prismatic coordination achieved by two terminal oxygen of an edge shared paired of WO 6 octahedra to each A-α-AsW 9O 349- moiety and two oxygen from the belt and the cap by one μ 3-O (As, W 2) to each A-α-AsW 9O 349- moiety and one external water ligand. The Ce-O bond lengths average in CeO 6 group, Ce-O(As, W 2) and Ce-O(nW) are 2.300(9), 2.887(3) and 2.682(5) Å, respectively. The acid/base titration curve reveals that the anion has two different titrable protons.

  6. Fabrication of sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions with rapid annealing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Xu; Ma, Junli; Cui, Ruirui; Deng, Chaoyong, E-mail: cydeng@gzu.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions were fabricated using magnetron sputtering system. The rapid-anneal process was adopted to replace traditional way of annealing, trying to solve the problem of interdiffusion and oxidation with multilayer films. The boron film was used as barrier layer to avoid the introduction of impurities and improve reproducibility of the junctions. The bottom MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire substrate exhibits a critical temperature T{sub C} of 37.5 K and critical current density J{sub C} at 5 K of 8.7 × 10{sup 6} A cm{sup −2}. From the XRD pattern, the bottom MgB{sub 2} thin film shows c-axis orientation, whereas the top MgB{sub 2} became polycrystalline as Boron barrier layer grown thicker. Therefore, all junction samples show lower T{sub C} than single MgB{sub 2} thin film. The junctions exhibit excellent quasiparticle characteristics with ideal dependence on temperature and Boron barrier thickness. Subharmonic gap structure was appeared in conductance characteristics, which was attributed to the multiple Andreev reflections (MAR). The result demonstrates great promise of this new fabrication technology for MgB{sub 2} Josephson junction fabrication. - Highlights: • Sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions were fabricated. • The junctions were annealed after deposition with the rapid-anneal process. • The highest critical current is 25.3 mA at 5 K and remains non-zero near 25 K. • Subharmonic gap features can be observed in the dI/dV – V curves.

  7. Morphological resilience to flow fluctuations of fine sediment deposits in bank lateral cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, C.; Thalmann, M.; Schleiss, A. J.; Franca, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Lateral cavities are built in the banks of rivers for several purposes: to create harbors, to capture sediment, to keep a central navigable channel (i.e., Casiers de Girardon in the Rhone river) or to promote the formation of aquatic habitats if a limited amount of sediment is captured, providing hydraulic and morphologic diversity (i.e., the case of Japanese Wandos). This work is focused on this latter purpose: promotion of hydraulic and morphologic diversity. In these scenarios, an increase in the flow discharge in the main channel may, however, re-mobilize the deposit of sediment inside these lateral embayments and cause a sudden increase of the sediment concentration and turbidity in the main channel. It is thus of interest to characterize the resistance and resilience of these sedimentary deposits when the main channel is subjected to high flow or flushing events. Laboratory tests were carried out for five different normalized geometries of the cavities installed in the banks of an open channel and for five hydrographs with different levels of unsteadiness. Water depth, sediment deposit mass, sediment concentration and area covered by the settled sediments were recorded throughout each experiment. Although sediment deposits established at equilibrium before the flushing events are different depending on the geometry of the cavities, generally, they are recovered after being flushed by the high flow events. It is shown that the resistance and resilience of the sediment deposits are strongly dependent on the flow field and the mass exchange between the main channel and the cavities. This mass exchange is governed by the geometry of the cavities and the magnitude of the hydrographs applied.

  8. Effects of dorsal and lateral decubitus on peak expiratory flow in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa H. Gianinis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the measures of the pulmonary function is the peak expiratory flow (PEF that can be defined as the major flow obtained in an expiratory pressure after a complete inspiration to the level of the total lung capacity. This measure depends on the effort and strength of expiratory muscles, the airway diameter and the lung volume. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the peak expiratory flow in healthy male and female obtained in a seated position and dorsal decubitus (DD, right lateral decubitus (RLD and left lateral decubitus (LLD. METHOD: Thirty young subjects with mean age 22.7 years, healthy and non-smokers were included at the study, 15 of male sex. They did spirometry and IPAQ questionnaire to check the normal pulmonary function and physical activity level. The measures of PEF were performed in four positions, being performed 3 measures in which position, in a random order. Statistical analysis was performed according to Student's t test, with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: There was a difference between the values obtained in sitting position(481±117.1 L/min with DD(453.2±116.3 L/min and RLD (454±112.9 L/min (p<0.05, however, did not find a significant difference between the sitting position and LLD (469±83 L/min. CONCLUSIONS: Body position affects the values of PEF, with decreasing values in DD and RLD. The LLD can be an alternative to optimize the expiratory flow in situations of constraint to the sitting position.

  9. Touch at a distance sensing: lateral-line inspired MEMS flow sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash Kottapalli, Ajay Giri; Asadnia, Mohsen; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Evolution bestowed the blind cavefish with a resourcefully designed lateral-line of sensors that play an essential role in many important tasks including object detection and avoidance, energy-efficient maneuvering, rheotaxis etc. Biologists identified the two types of vital sensors on the fish bodies called the superficial neuromasts and the canal neuromasts that are responsible for flow sensing and pressure-gradient sensing, respectively. In this work, we present the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of biomimetic polymer artificial superficial neuromast micro-sensor arrays. These biomimetic micro-sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity of 0.9 mV/(m s −1 ) and 0.022 V/(m s −1 ) and threshold velocity detection limits of 0.1 m s −1 and 0.015 m s −1 in determining air and water flows respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the biological canal inspired polymer encapsulation on the array of artificial superficial neuromast sensors is capable of filtering steady-state flows that could otherwise significantly mask the relevant oscillatory flow signals of high importance. (paper)

  10. A paper-polymer centrifugal device for low-cost sample pre-concentration and colorimetric lateral flow assay enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wiederoder, MS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a novel hybrid paper-polymer centrifugal microfluidic device for pre-concentration of E.coli and lateral flow immunoassay enhancement for water quality verification. The device balances rotational centrifugal force...

  11. Controllable Microdroplet Splitting via Additional Lateral Flow and its Application in Rapid Synthesis of Multi-scale Microspheres

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Wang, Cong; Xiao, Xiao; Hui, Yu Sanna; Cao, Yulin; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that controllable microdroplet splitting could be obtained via additional lateral flow with simplicity and high controllability. The volume ratio of the two splitting products can be flexibly regulated by adjusting

  12. Isothermal Amplification and Lateral-Flow Assay for Detecting Crown-Gall-Causing Agrobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Skylar L; Savory, Elizabeth A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Buser, Jessica Z; Gordon, Michael I; Putnam, Melodie L; Chang, Jeff H

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium is a genus of soilborne gram-negative bacteria. Members carrying oncogenic plasmids can cause crown gall disease, which has significant economic costs, especially for the orchard and nursery industries. Early and rapid detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp. is key to the management of crown gall disease. To this end, we designed oligonucleotide primers and probes to target virD2 for use in a molecular diagnostic tool that relies on isothermal amplification and lateral-flow-based detection. The oligonucleotide tools were tested in the assay and evaluated for detection limit and specificity in detecting alleles of virD2. One set of primers that successfully amplified virD2 when used with an isothermal recombinase was selected. Both tested probes had detection limits in picogram amounts of DNA. Probe 1 could detect all tested pathogenic isolates that represented most of the diversity of virD2. Finally, the coupling of lateral-flow detection to the use of these oligonucleotide primers in isothermal amplification helped to reduce the onerousness of the process, and alleviated reliance on specialized tools necessary for molecular diagnostics. The assay is an advancement for the rapid molecular detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

  13. Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase amplification (RPA) of Schistosoma haematobium DNA and oligochromatographic lateral flow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, A; Rollinson, D; Forrest, M; Webster, B L

    2015-09-04

    Accurate diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis is vital for surveillance/control programs. Amplification of schistosome DNA in urine by PCR is sensitive and specific but requires infrastructure, financial resources and skilled personnel, often not available in endemic areas. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is an isothermal DNA amplification/detection technology that is simple, rapid, portable and needs few resources. Here a Schistosoma haematobium RPA assay was developed and adapted so that DNA amplicons could be detected using oligochromatographic Lateral Flow (LF) strips. The assay successfully amplified S. haematobium DNA at 30-45 °C in 10 mins and was sensitive to a lower limit of 100 fg of DNA. The assay was also successful with the addition of crude urine, up to 5% of the total reaction volume. Cross amplification occurred with other schistosome species but not with other common urine microorganisms. The LF-RPA assay developed here can amplify and detect low levels of S. haematobium DNA. Reactions are rapid, require low temperatures and positive reactions are interpreted using lateral flow strips, reducing the need for infrastructure and resources. This together with an ability to withstand inhibitors within urine makes RPA a promising technology for further development as a molecular diagnostic tool for urogenital schistosomiasis.

  14. Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divaret, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the

  15. Lateral Variability of Lava flow Morphologies in the Deccan Traps Large Igneous Province (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Rader, E. L.; Self, S.; Clarke, A. B.; Sheth, H.; Moyer, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    In continental flood basalt provinces (CFBs), lava flow morphologies have traditionally been classified in two distinct groups recognizable in the field, expressing two different modes of lava flow emplacement mechanisms: (a) compound lava flow fields dominated by meter-sized pāhoehoe toes and lobes; and (b) inflated sheet lobes tens to hundreds of meters in width and meters to tens of meters in height. Temporal transitions between these two emplacement styles have been recognized in many mafic large igneous provinces worldwide and seem to be a fundamental feature of CFBs. However, lateral variations in these morphologies remain poorly studied and understood. In the Deccan CFB of India, two principal hypotheses have been proposed to account for possible lateral variations in lava flow facies: that smaller toes and lobes occur in distal regions of flow fields, representing breakouts at the edges of larger inflated lavas; or on the contrary that smaller toes and lobes represent proximal facies. We conducted a field study focusing on two of the Deccan's formations, the Khandala and the Poladpur, located in the middle and upper sections of the province's defined chemostratigraphy. We studied nine sections along a 600 km long E-W transect, with the easternmost sections representing the most distal outcrops, ≥ 500 km away from inferred vents. The Khandala Formation is traditionally described as a sequence of three thick inflated sheet lobes in the well-exposed sections of the western Deccan. However, in the central Deccan, we find the Khandala to be much thicker overall, with half of its thickness dominated by small, meter-sized toes and lobes. Inflated sheet lobes of the Khandala are thinner on average in the central Deccan than further to the east or west. We document this transition as occurring progressively in outcrops only 80 km apart. In the Poladpur, the average thickness of inflated sheet lobes increases in distal outcrops of the eastern Deccan. We interpret

  16. Modelling lateral entrapment of suspended sediment in estuaries : The role of spatial lags in settling and M4 tidal flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhongyong; de Swart, Huib E.; Cheng, Heqin; Jiang, Chenjuan; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the joint action of M2 and M4 tidal flow, residual flow and spatial settling lag on the lateral entrapment of sediment is examined in tidally dominated estuaries with an idealized model that assumes along-estuary uniform conditions. Approximate solutions are obtained for arbitrary

  17. Influence of vertical and lateral heat transfer on permafrost thaw, peatland landscape transition, and groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; Masaki, Masaki; Quinton, William L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent climate change has reduced the spatial extent and thickness of permafrost in many discontinuous permafrost regions. Rapid permafrost thaw is producing distinct landscape changes in the Taiga Plains of the Northwest Territories, Canada. As permafrost bodies underlying forested peat plateaus shrink, the landscape slowly transitions into unforested wetlands. The expansion of wetlands has enhanced the hydrologic connectivity of many watersheds via new surface and near-surface flow paths, and increased streamflow has been observed. Furthermore, the decrease in forested peat plateaus results in a net loss of boreal forest and associated ecosystems. This study investigates fundamental processes that contribute to permafrost thaw by comparing observed and simulated thaw development and landscape transition of a peat plateau-wetland complex in the Northwest Territories, Canada from 1970 to 2012. Measured climate data are first used to drive surface energy balance simulations for the wetland and peat plateau. Near-surface soil temperatures simulated in the surface energy balance model are then applied as the upper boundary condition to a three-dimensional model of subsurface water flow and coupled energy transport with freeze-thaw. Simulation results demonstrate that lateral heat transfer, which is not considered in many permafrost models, can influence permafrost thaw rates. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that landscape evolution arising from permafrost thaw acts as a positive feedback mechanism that increases the energy absorbed at the land surface and produces additional permafrost thaw. The modeling results also demonstrate that flow rates in local groundwater flow systems may be enhanced by the degradation of isolated permafrost bodies.

  18. A Lateral Flow Protein Microarray for Rapid and Sensitive Antibody Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Andersson-Svahn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarrays are useful tools for highly multiplexed determination of presence or levels of clinically relevant biomarkers in human tissues and biofluids. However, such tools have thus far been restricted to laboratory environments. Here, we present a novel 384-plexed easy to use lateral flow protein microarray device capable of sensitive (< 30 ng/mL determination of antigen-specific antibodies in ten minutes of total assay time. Results were developed with gold nanobeads and could be recorded by a cell-phone camera or table top scanner. Excellent accuracy with an area under curve (AUC of 98% was achieved in comparison with an established glass microarray assay for 26 antigen-specific antibodies. We propose that the presented framework could find use in convenient and cost-efficient quality control of antibody production, as well as in providing a platform for multiplexed affinity-based assays in low-resource or mobile settings.

  19. Studies on diversion cross-flow between two parallel channels communicating by a lateral slot. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapucu, A.; Merilo, M.

    1977-01-01

    The axial pressure variations of two parallel channels with single phase flows communicating by a long lateral slot have been studied experimentally. Using mass and momentum conservation principles, the axial pressure variations have been derived in terms of two parameters ksub(d) and ksub(r), for donor and recipient channels, respectively. These parameters include the combined effect of fluid transferred from donor to recipient channel, and drag force brought on by the connection gap, and are functions of the velocities and slot geometry parameters. A pressure difference oscillation between channels along the slot has been detected which is sinusoidal with wave lengths which seem to be a function of the gap clearance. (Auth.)

  20. Gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le-le; Liu, Shuo; Li, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Ying-xiang; Xu, Jing-yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the gas-liquid flow splitting in T-junction with inclined lateral arm. The separation mechanism of the T-junction is related to the pressure distribution in the T-junction. It is shown that the separation efficiency strongly depends on the inclination angle, when the angle ranges from 0° to 30°, while not so strongly for angles in the range from 30° to 90° Increasing the number of connecting tubes is helpful for the gas-liquid separation, and under the present test conditions, with four connecting tubes, a good separation performance can be achieved. Accordingly, a multi-tube Y-junction separator with four connecting tubes is designed for the experimental investigation. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data shows that there is an optimal split ratio to achieve the best performance for the multi-tube Y-junction separator.

  1. Broken flow symmetry explains the dynamics of small particles in deterministic lateral displacement arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Cheol; Wunsch, Benjamin H; Hu, Huan; Smith, Joshua T; Austin, Robert H; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2017-06-27

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a technique for size fractionation of particles in continuous flow that has shown great potential for biological applications. Several theoretical models have been proposed, but experimental evidence has demonstrated that a rich class of intermediate migration behavior exists, which is not predicted. We present a unified theoretical framework to infer the path of particles in the whole array on the basis of trajectories in a unit cell. This framework explains many of the unexpected particle trajectories reported and can be used to design arrays for even nanoscale particle fractionation. We performed experiments that verify these predictions and used our model to develop a condenser array that achieves full particle separation with a single fluidic input.

  2. A Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Human Toxocariasis Developed Using Three Toxocara canis Recombinant Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Tan Farrizam, Siti Naqiuyah; Abdul Karim, Izzati Zahidah; Noordin, Rahmah

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit. Using Toxocara- positive samples, the concordance of the dipstick dotted with rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120 was 41.4% (12/29), 51.7% (15/29), and 72.4% (21/29), respectively. When positivity with any dipstick was considered as an overall positive rapid test result, the concordance with the Cypress kit was 93% (27/29). Meanwhile, when compared with the results of the Cypress kit, the concordance of IgG-ELISA from NovaTec and Bordier was 100% (29/29) and 89.7% (26/29), respectively. Specific IgG4 has been recognized as a marker of active infection for several helminthic diseases; therefore, the two non-concordant results of the rapid test when compared with the NovaTec IgG-ELISA kit may be from samples of people with non-active infection. All the three dipsticks showed 100% (50/50) concordance with the Cypress kit when tested with serum from individuals who were healthy and with other infections. In conclusion, the lateral flow rapid test is potentially a good, fast, and easy test for toxocariasis. Next, further validation studies and development of a test with the three antigens in one dipstick will be performed.

  3. Mobile Phone Ratiometric Imaging Enables Highly Sensitive Fluorescence Lateral Flow Immunoassays without External Optical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kamal G; Singh, Vidhi; Kauffman, Peter C; Abe, Koji; Yager, Paul

    2018-05-14

    Paper-based diagnostic tests based on the lateral flow immunoassay concept promise low-cost, point-of-care detection of infectious diseases, but such assays suffer from poor limits of detection. One factor that contributes to poor analytical performance is a reliance on low-contrast chromophoric optical labels such as gold nanoparticles. Previous attempts to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostics include replacing chromophoric labels with enzymes, fluorophores, or phosphors at the expense of increased fluidic complexity or the need for device readers with costly optoelectronics. Several groups, including our own, have proposed mobile phones as suitable point-of-care readers due to their low cost, ease of use, and ubiquity. However, extant mobile phone fluorescence readers require costly optical filters and were typically validated with only one camera sensor module, which is inappropriate for potential point-of-care use. In response, we propose to couple low-cost ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with long Stokes-shift quantum dots to enable ratiometric mobile phone fluorescence measurements without optical filters. Ratiometric imaging with unmodified smartphone cameras improves the contrast and attenuates the impact of excitation intensity variability by 15×. Practical application was shown with a lateral flow immunoassay for influenza A with nucleoproteins spiked into simulated nasal matrix. Limits of detection of 1.5 and 2.6 fmol were attained on two mobile phones, which are comparable to a gel imager (1.9 fmol), 10× better than imaging gold nanoparticles on a scanner (18 fmol), and >2 orders of magnitude better than gold nanoparticle-labeled assays imaged with mobile phones. Use of the proposed filter-free mobile phone imaging scheme is a first step toward enabling a new generation of highly sensitive, point-of-care fluorescence assays.

  4. A Renewable and Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosenor Based on Magnetic RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 Sandwich-Type Nano-Immunocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasensitive and renewable electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunosensor was developed for the detection of tumor markers by combining a newly designed trace tag and streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SCMPs. The trace tag (RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 was prepared by loading Ru(bpy32+(RuL-conjuged secondary antibodies (RuL-Ab2 on RuL@SiO2 (RuL-doped SiO2 doped Au (RuL@SiO2-Au. To fabricate the immunosensor, SCMPs were mixed with biotinylated AFP primary antibody (Biotin-Ab1, AFP, and RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 complexes, then the resulting SCMP/Biotin-Ab1/AFP/RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 (SBAR sandwich-type immunocomplexes were absorbed on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE for detection. The immunocomplexes can be easily washed away from the surface of the SPCE when the magnetic field was removed, which made the immunosensor reusable. The present immunosensor showed a wide linear range of 0.05–100 ng mL–1 for detecting AFP, with a low detection limit of 0.02 ng mL–1 (defined as S/N = 3. The method takes advantage of three properties of the immunosensor: firstly, the RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 composite exhibited dual amplification since SiO2 could load large amount of reporter molecules (RuL for signal amplification. Gold particles could provide a large active surface to load more reporter molecules (RuL-Ab2. Accordingly, through the ECL response of RuL and tripropylamine (TPA, a strong ECL signal was obtained and an amplification analysis of protein interaction was achieved. Secondly, the sensor is renewable because the sandwich-type immunocomplexes can be readily absorbed or removed on the SPCE’s surface in a magnetic field. Thirdly, the SCMP modified probes can perform the rapid separation and purification of signal antibodies in a magnetic field. Thus, the present immunosensor can simultaneously realize separation, enrichment and determination. It showed potential application for the detection of AFP in human sera.

  5. Acoustic programming in step-split-flow lateral-transport thin fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratier, Claire; Hoyos, Mauricio

    2010-02-15

    We propose a new separation scheme for micrometer-sized particles combining acoustic forces and gravitational field in split-flow lateral-transport thin (SPLITT)-like fractionation channels. Acoustic forces are generated by ultrasonic standing waves set up in the channel thickness. We report on the separation of latex particles of two different sizes in a preliminary experiment using this proposed hydrodynamic acoustic sorter, HAS. Total binary separation of 5 and 10 microm diameter particles has been achieved. Numerical simulations of trajectories of particles flowing through a step-SPLITT under the conditions which combine acoustic standing waves and gravity show a very good agreement with the experiment. Calculations in order to compare separations obtained by the acoustic programming s-SPLITT fractionation and the conventional SPLITT fractionation show that the improvement in separation time is around 1 order of magnitude and could still be improved; this is the major finding of this work. This separation technique can be extended to biomimetic particles and blood cells.

  6. Man-made flows from a fish's perspective: autonomous classification of turbulent fishway flows with field data collected using an artificial lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhtan, Jeffrey A; Fuentes-Perez, Juan Francisco; Toming, Gert; Schneider, Matthias; Schwarzenberger, Richard; Schletterer, Martin; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2018-05-25

    The lateral line system provides fish with advanced mechanoreception over a wide range of flow conditions. Inspired by the abilities of their biological counterparts, artificial lateral lines have been developed and tested exclusively under laboratory settings. Motivated by the lack of flow measurements taken in the field which consider fluid-body interactions, we built a fish-shaped lateral line probe. The device is outfitted with 11 high-speed (2.5 kHz) time-synchronized pressure transducers, and designed to capture and classify flows in fish passage structures. A total of 252 field measurements, each with a sample size of 132 000 discrete sensor readings were recorded in the slots and across the pools of vertical slot fishways. These data were used to estimate the time-averaged flow velocity (R 2   =  0.952), which represents the most common metric to assess fishway flows. The significant contribution of this work is the creation and application of hydrodynamic signatures generated by the spatial distribution of pressure fluctuations on the fish-shaped body. The signatures are based on the collection of the pressure fluctuations' probability distributions, and it is shown that they can be used to automatically classify distinct flow regions within the pools of three different vertical slot fishways. For the first time, field data from operational fishway measurements are sampled and classified using an artificial lateral line, providing a completely new source of bioinspired flow information.

  7. Controllable Microdroplet Splitting via Additional Lateral Flow and its Application in Rapid Synthesis of Multi-scale Microspheres

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that controllable microdroplet splitting could be obtained via additional lateral flow with simplicity and high controllability. The volume ratio of the two splitting products can be flexibly regulated by adjusting the flow rate ratio between the main and additional lateral flows. The splitting phenomena under different main flow rates were investigated. A volume ratio up to 200 : 1 of the two daughter droplets under a relatively higher main flow rate was experimentally achieved based on our approach. In this case, we have successfully achieved uniform daughter droplets with a smallest diameter of ∼19.5 ± 1.6 μm. With such a design, we have synthesized uniform PEGDA hydrogel microspheres with diameters ranging from ∼30 μm to over hundred of micrometers simultaneously.

  8. Sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay for big endothelin-I in plasma: concentrations in healthy human subjects unaffected by sex or posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, P; Le Brun, G; Moldovan, F; Villette, J M; Créminon, C; Dumas, J; Homyrda, L; Soliman, H; Azizi, M; Fiet, J

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay has been developed for measuring human big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) in human plasma and supernatant fluids from human cell cultures. Big ET-1 is the precursor of endothelin 1 (ET-1), the most potent vasoconstrictor known. A rabbit antibody raised against the big ET-1 COOH-terminus fragment was used as an immobilized antibody (anti-P16). The Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody (1B3) raised against the ET-1 loop fragment was used as the enzyme-labeled antibody, after being coupled to acetylcholinesterase. The lowest detectable value in the assay was 1.2 pg/mL (0.12 pg/well). The assay was highly specific for big ET-1, demonstrating no cross-reactivity with ET-1, big endothelin-2 (big ET-2), and big endothelin-3 (big ET-3). We used this assay to evaluate the effect of two different postural positions (supine and standing) on plasma big ET-1 concentrations in 11 male and 11 female healthy subjects. Data analysis revealed that neither sex nor body position influenced plasma big ET-1 concentrations. This assay should thus permit the detection of possible variations in plasma concentrations of big ET-1 in certain pathologies and, in association with ET-1 assay, make possible in vitro study of endothelin-converting enzyme activity in cell models. Such studies could clarify the physiological and clinical roles of this family of peptides.

  9. Enhancement in the microstructure and neutron shielding efficiency of sandwich type of 6061Al–B4C composite material via hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Ju; Hong, Sung-Mo; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rhee, Won-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 6061Al–B 4 C neutron shielding composites are fabricated by sintering and HIP. • HIP process improves the wettability of B 4 C particles into 6061Al matrix. • Neutron attenuation performance can be enhanced by application of HIP process. - Abstract: Sandwich type of 6061Al–B 4 C composite plates, which are used as a thermal neutron absorber for spent nuclear fuel pool storage rack, were fabricated using two different consolidation ways as sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) processes and their thermal neutron shielding efficiency was investigated as a function of B 4 C concentration ranging from 0 to 40 wt.%. For this purpose, two respective inner core compaction parts of sintered and HIPped neutron absorbing composite materials were first produced and then cladded them between two outer plates by HIP process. The application of HIP process provided not only a lead of excellent interfacial adhesion due to the improved wettability but also an enhancement of thermal neutron shielding efficiency owing to the more uniform dispersion of B 4 C particles

  10. Metal-doped inorganic nanoparticles for multiplex detection of biomarkers by a sandwich-type ICP-MS immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Aa; Lim, H B

    2016-09-28

    Metal-doped inorganic nanoparticles were synthesized for the multiplex detection of biomarkers by a sandwich-type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) immunoassay. The synthesized Cs-doped multicore magnetic nanoparticles (MMNPs) were used not only for magnetic extraction of targets but also for ratiometric measurement in ICP-MS. In addition, three different metal/dye-doped silica nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesized as probes for multiplex detection: Y/RhBITC (rhodamine B isothiocyanate)-doped SNPs for CRP (cardiovascular disease), Cd/RhBITC-doped SNPs for AFP (tumor), and Au/5(6)-XRITC (X-rhodamine-5-(and-6)-isothiocyanate)-doped SNPs for NSE (heart disease). For quantification, the doped metals of SNPs were measured by ICP-MS and then the signal ratio to Cs of MMNPs was plotted with respect to the concentration of targets by a ratiometry. Limits of detection (LOD) of 0.35 ng/mL to 77 ng mL(-1) and recoveries of 83%-125% were obtained for serum samples spiked with the biomarkers. Since no sample treatment was necessary prior to the extraction, the proposed method provided short analysis time and convenience for the multiplex determination of biomarkers, which will be valuable for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of non-small cell lung cancer biomarker CYFRA21-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Bao, Jing; Zhao, Yanan; Huo, Danqun; Chen, Mei; Qi, Yanli; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao; Hou, Changjun

    2018-04-01

    Many studies confirm that the aberrant expression of Cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) is highly correlated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially for squamous cell carcinoma. Herein, we report a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on signal amplification strategy of multiple nanocomposites to test CYFRA21-1 selectively and sensitively. The proposed immunosensor fabricated by three-dimensional graphene (3D-G), chitosan (CS) and glutaraldehyde (GA) composite on the glass carbon electrode (GCE) with a large surface area is prepared to immobilize primary antibodies (Ab 1 ) and provide excellent conductivity. To further amplify the electrochemical signal, the trace tag on the foundation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is coated with amino-functionalized carbon nanotube (MWCNT-NH 2 ) nanocomposite through thionine linking, which provides more amino groups to capture more horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibodies (HPR-Ab 2 ) and enhances the conductivity. Under optimal conditions, the developed immunosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance for the determination of CYFRA21-1 with a wide linear range from 0.1 to 150ng·mL -1 and a low detection limit (LOD) of 43pg·mL -1 . Furthermore, satisfactory results are obtained for the determination of CYFRA21-1 in real clinical serum samples, indicating the potential of the immunoassay to be applied in clinical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-03-25

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies.

  13. An automatic enzyme immunoassay based on a chemiluminescent lateral flow immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hyou-Arm; Oh, Young Kyoung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2014-03-15

    Microfluidic integrated enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) sensors are efficient systems for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such systems are not only relatively expensive but also require a complicated manufacturing process. Therefore, additional fluidic control systems are required for the implementation of EIAs in a lateral flow immunosensor (LFI) strip sensor. In this study, we describe a novel LFI for EIA, the use of which does not require additional steps such as mechanical fluidic control, washing, or injecting. The key concept relies on a delayed-release effect of chemiluminescence substrates (luminol enhancer and hydrogen peroxide generator) by an asymmetric polysulfone membrane (ASPM). When the ASPM was placed between the nitrocellulose (NC) membrane and the substrate pad, substrates encapsulated in the substrate pad were released after 5.3 ± 0.3 min. Using this delayed-release effect, we designed and implemented the chemiluminescent LFI-based automatic EIA system, which sequentially performed the immunoreaction, pH change, substrate release, hydrogen peroxide generation, and chemiluminescent reaction with only 1 sample injection. In a model study, implementation of the sensor was validated by measuring the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level in human serum. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and evaluation of a new lateral flow immunoassay for serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Martínez-Sernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fasciolosis is a re-emerging disease worldwide and is caused by species of the genus Fasciola (F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Human fasciolosis can be diagnosed by classical coprological techniques, such as the Kato-Katz test, to reveal parasite eggs in faeces. However, although 100% specific, these methods are generally not adequate for detection of acute infections, ectopic infections, or infections with low number of parasites. In such cases immunological methods may be a good alternative and are recommended for use in major hospitals where trained personnel are available, although they are not usually implemented for individual testing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a new lateral flow test (SeroFluke for the serodiagnosis of human fasciolosis. The new test was constructed with a recombinant cathepsin L1 from F. hepatica, and uses protein A and mAb MM3 as detector reagents in the test and control lines, respectively. In comparison with an ELISA test (MM3-SERO the SeroFluke test showed maximal specificity and sensitivity and can be used with serum or whole blood samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new test can be used in major hospitals in hypoendemic countries as well as in endemic/hyperendemic regions where point-of-care testing is required.

  15. A rapid Salmonella detection method involving thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification and a lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Tian-Jiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min. Performance analyses indicated that the method had detection limits for DNA and pure cultured bacteria of 73.4-80.7 fg and 35-40 CFU, respectively. Specificity analyses showed no cross reactions with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella and Campylobacter jejuni. The results for detection in real food samples showed that 1.3-1.9 CFU/g or 1.3-1.9 CFU/mL of Salmonella in contaminated chicken products and infant nutritional cereal could be detected after 2 h of enrichment. The same amount of Salmonella in contaminated milk could be detected after 4 h of enrichment. This tHDA-strip can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food samples and is particularly suitable for use in areas with limited equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Smartphone-based reading system for lateral flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangdae; Kim, Giyoung; Moon, Jihea

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to develop and evaluate the performance of the Smartphone-based reading system for the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Smartphone-based reading system consists of a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone, Smartphone application, and a LFIA reader. LFIA reader is composed of the close-up lens with a focal length up to 30 mm, white LED light, lithium polymer battery, and main body. The Smartphone application for image acquisition and data analysis was developed on the Android platform. The standard curve was obtained by plotting the measured P(T)/P(c) or A(T)/A(c) ratio versus Salmonella standard concentration. The mean, standard deviation (SD), recovery, and relative standard deviation (RSD) were also calculated using additional experimental results. These data were compared with that obtained from the benchtop LFIA reader. The LOD in both systems was observed with 10(6) CFU/mL. The results show high accuracy and good reproducibility with a RSD less than 10% in the range of 10(6) to 10(9) CFU/mL. Due to the simple structure, good sensitivity, and high accuracy of the Smartphone-based reading system, this system can be substituted for the benchtop LFIA reader for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

  17. The Role of Nanoparticle Design in Determining Analytical Performance of Lateral Flow Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li; Guo, Shuang-Zhuang; Song, Fayi; Gong, Yan; Xu, Feng; Boulware, David R; McAlpine, Michael C; Chan, Warren C W; Bischof, John C

    2017-12-13

    Rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostics are needed to improve healthcare at the point of care (POC). However, the most widely used POC diagnostic, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFA), is ∼1000-times less sensitive and has a smaller analytical range than laboratory tests, requiring a confirmatory test to establish truly negative results. Here, a rational and systematic strategy is used to design the LFA contrast label (i.e., gold nanoparticles) to improve the analytical sensitivity, analytical detection range, and antigen quantification of LFAs. Specifically, we discovered that the size (30, 60, or 100 nm) of the gold nanoparticles is a main contributor to the LFA analytical performance through both the degree of receptor interaction and the ultimate visual or thermal contrast signals. Using the optimal LFA design, we demonstrated the ability to improve the analytical sensitivity by 256-fold and expand the analytical detection range from 3 log 10 to 6 log 10 for diagnosing patients with inflammatory conditions by measuring C-reactive protein. This work demonstrates that, with appropriate design of the contrast label, a simple and commonly used diagnostic technology can compete with more expensive state-of-the-art laboratory tests.

  18. Hierarchical Nanogold Labels to Improve the Sensitivity of Lateral Flow Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Kseniya; Samsonova, Jeanne; Osipov, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is a widely used express method and offers advantages such as a short analysis time, simplicity of testing and result evaluation. However, an LFIA based on gold nanospheres lacks the desired sensitivity, thereby limiting its wide applications. In this study, spherical nanogold labels along with new types of nanogold labels such as gold nanopopcorns and nanostars were prepared, characterized, and applied for LFIA of model protein antigen procalcitonin. It was found that the label with a structure close to spherical provided more uniform distribution of specific antibodies on its surface, indicative of its suitability for this type of analysis. LFIA using gold nanopopcorns as a label allowed procalcitonin detection over a linear range of 0.5-10 ng mL-1 with the limit of detection of 0.1 ng mL-1, which was fivefold higher than the sensitivity of the assay with gold nanospheres. Another approach to improve the sensitivity of the assay included the silver enhancement method, which was used to compare the amplification of LFIA for procalcitonin detection. The sensitivity of procalcitonin determination by this method was 10 times better the sensitivity of the conventional LFIA with gold nanosphere as a label. The proposed approach of LFIA based on gold nanopopcorns improved the detection sensitivity without additional steps and prevented the increased consumption of specific reagents (antibodies).

  19. Rapid and Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay Method for Procalcitonin (PCT Based on Time-Resolved Immunochromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Shao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA. The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%–7.7% and 5.7%–13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p < 0.0001 and consistency (Kappa = 0.875 were obtained when compared with the PCT kit from Roche Elecsys BRAHMS. Thus, the new quantitative method for detecting PCT has been successfully established. The results indicated that the newly-developed system based on TRFIA combined with LFIA was suitable for rapid and on-site detection for PCT, which might be a useful platform for other biomarkers in point-of-care tests.

  20. Simple system for isothermal DNA amplification coupled to lateral flow detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Roskos

    Full Text Available Infectious disease diagnosis in point-of-care settings can be greatly improved through integrated, automated nucleic acid testing devices. We have developed an early prototype for a low-cost system which executes isothermal DNA amplification coupled to nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF detection in a mesofluidic cartridge attached to a portable instrument. Fluid handling inside the cartridge is facilitated through one-way passive valves, flexible pouches, and electrolysis-driven pumps, which promotes a compact and inexpensive instrument design. The closed-system disposable prevents workspace amplicon contamination. The cartridge design is based on standard scalable manufacturing techniques such as injection molding. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that enables efficient heat transfer. We have demonstrated as proof of principle the amplification and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb genomic DNA in the cartridge, using either Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP or the Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR, both coupled to NALF detection. We envision that a refined version of this cartridge, including upstream sample preparation coupled to amplification and detection, will enable fully-automated sample-in to answer-out infectious disease diagnosis in primary care settings of low-resource countries with high disease burden.

  1. A Lateral Flow Strip Based Aptasensor for Detection of Ochratoxin A in Corn Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin identified as a contaminant in grains and wine throughout the world, and convenient, rapid and sensitive detection methods for OTA have been a long-felt need for food safety monitoring. Herein, we presented a new competitive format based lateral flow strip fluorescent aptasensor for one-step determination of OTA in corn samples. Briefly, biotin-cDNA was immobilized on the surface of a nitrocellulose filter on the test line. Without OTA, Cy5-labeled aptamer combined with complementary strands formed a stable double helix. In the presence of OTA, however, the Cy5-aptamer/OTA complexes were generated, and therefore less free aptamer was captured in the test zone, leading to an obvious decrease in fluorescent signals on the test line. The test strip showed an excellent linear relationship in the range from 1 ng·mL−1 to 1000 ng·mL−1 with the LOD of 0.40 ng·mL−1, IC15 value of 3.46 ng·mL−1 and recoveries from 96.4% to 104.67% in spiked corn samples. Thus, the strip sensor developed in this study is an acceptable alternative for rapid detection of the OTA level in grain samples.

  2. Dual-Quantum-Dots-Labeled Lateral Flow Strip Rapidly Quantifies Procalcitonin and C-reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, XiaoPing; Huang, YunYe; Lin, ZhongShi; Xu, Liang; Yu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    In the article, a dual-quantum-dots-labeled (dual-QDs-labeled) lateral flow strip (LFS) method was developed for the simultaneous and rapid quantitative detection of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood. Two QD-antibody conjugates with different fluorescence emission spectra were produced and sprayed on the LFS to capture PCT and CRP in the blood. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich method for PCT and, meanwhile, a competitive inhibition method for CRP were employed in the LFS. For PCT and CRP in serum assayed by the dual-QDs-labeled LFS, their detection sensitivities reached 0.1 and 1 ng/mL, respectively, and their linear quantitative detection ranges were from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL and from 50 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. There was little evidence that the PCT and CRP assays would be interfered with each other. The correlations for testing CRP and PCT in clinical samples were 99.75 and 97.02 %, respectively, between the dual-QDs-labeled LFS we developed and commercial methods. The rapid quantification of PCT and CRP on dual-QDs-labeled LFS is of great clinical value to distinguish inflammation, bacterial infection, or viral infection and to provide guidance for the use of antibiotics or other medicines.

  3. Quantum-Dot-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Neonicotinoid Residues in Tea Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangjie; Liu, Ying; Jiao, Shasha; Zhao, Ying; Guo, Yirong; Wang, Mengcen; Zhu, Guonian

    2017-11-22

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used for pest control on tea plantations as a result of their broad-spectrum activity. However, neonicotinoid residues released from tea leaves into tea infusions pose a dietary risk to consumers. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable on-site detection method for neonicotinoids is needed. We developed a quantum-dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS) combined with a broad-specific antibody for detection of typical neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, and clothianidin), with sensitivities [50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 )] of 0.104-0.33 ng/mL and visual detection limits of 0.5-1 ng/mL. The strip assay could be completed in less than 30 min. Using the LFICS to analyze spiked tea samples (green tea, black tea, and oolong tea), the average recovery of the three neonicotinoids ranged between 71 and 111%, with the coefficient of variation below 12%. The results from the LFICS tests for field samples were consistent with results from ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The newly developed strip is a useful tool for the on-site detection of neonicotinoid residues in tea.

  4. Sandwich-Type Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Graphene-Backboned Porous Carbon Coated Separator for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Lulu; Ren, Jiangang; Luo, Xinyu; Liu, Bibo; Zhou, Xiangyang

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been identified as the greatest potential next- generation energy-storage systems because of the large theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg−1. However, its practical application on a massive scale is impeded by severe capacity loss resulted from the notorious polysulfides shuttle. Here, we first present a novel technique to synthesize sandwich-type nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene-backboned porous carbon (NSGPC) to modify the commercial polypropylene separator in Li-S batteries. The as-synthesized NSGPC exhibits a unique micro/mesoporous carbon framework, large specific surface area (2439.0 m2 g−1), high pore volume (1.78 cm3 g−1), good conductivity, and in situ nitrogen (1.86 at %) and sulfur (5.26 at %) co-doping. Benefiting from the particular physical properties and chemical components of NSGPC, the resultant NSGPC-coated separator not only can facilitate rapid Li+ ions and electrons transfer, but also can restrict the dissolution of polysulfides to alleviate the shuttle effect by combining the physical absorption and strong chemical adsorption. As a result, Li-S batteries with NSGPC-coated separator exhibit high initial reversible capacity (1208.6 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), excellent rate capability (596.6 mAh g−1 at 5 C), and superior cycling stability (over 500 cycles at 2 C with 0.074% capacity decay each cycle). Propelling our easy-designed pure sulfur cathode to a extremely increased mass loading of 3.4 mg cm−2 (70 wt. % sulfur), the Li-S batteries with this functional composite separator exhibit a superior high initial capacity of 1171.7 mAh g−1, which is quite beneficial to commercialized applications. PMID:29587467

  5. Theoretical study of inverted sandwich type complexes of 4d transition metal elements: interesting similarities to and differences from 3d transition metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Yusaku I; Nakao, Yoshihide; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-03-08

    Inverted sandwich type complexes (ISTCs) of 4d metals, (μ-η(6):η(6)-C(6)H(6))[M(DDP)](2) (DDPH = 2-{(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)amino}-4-{(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino}pent-2-ene; M = Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, and Tc), were investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and MRMP2 methods, where a model ligand AIP (AIPH = (Z)-1-amino-3-imino-prop-1-ene) was mainly employed. When going to Nb (group V) from Y (group III) in the periodic table, the spin multiplicity of the ground state increases in the order singlet, triplet, and quintet for M = Y, Zr, and Nb, respectively, like 3d ISTCs reported recently. This is interpreted with orbital diagram and number of d electrons. However, the spin multiplicity decreases to either singlet or triplet in ISTC of Mo (group VI) and to triplet in ISTC of Tc (group VII), where MRMP2 method is employed because the DFT method is not useful here. These spin multiplicities are much lower than the septet of ISTC of Cr and the nonet of that of Mn. When going from 3d to 4d, the position providing the maximum spin multiplicity shifts to group V from group VII. These differences arise from the size of the 4d orbital. Because of the larger size of the 4d orbital, the energy splitting between two d(δ) orbitals of M(AIP) and that between the d(δ) and d(π) orbitals are larger in the 4d complex than in the 3d complex. Thus, when occupation on the d(δ) orbital starts, the low spin state becomes ground state, which occurs at group VI. Hence, the ISTC of Nb (group V) exhibits the maximum spin multiplicity.

  6. Sandwich-Type Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Graphene-Backboned Porous Carbon Coated Separator for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-sulfur (Li-S batteries have been identified as the greatest potential next- generation energy-storage systems because of the large theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg−1. However, its practical application on a massive scale is impeded by severe capacity loss resulted from the notorious polysulfides shuttle. Here, we first present a novel technique to synthesize sandwich-type nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene-backboned porous carbon (NSGPC to modify the commercial polypropylene separator in Li-S batteries. The as-synthesized NSGPC exhibits a unique micro/mesoporous carbon framework, large specific surface area (2439.0 m2 g−1, high pore volume (1.78 cm3 g−1, good conductivity, and in situ nitrogen (1.86 at % and sulfur (5.26 at % co-doping. Benefiting from the particular physical properties and chemical components of NSGPC, the resultant NSGPC-coated separator not only can facilitate rapid Li+ ions and electrons transfer, but also can restrict the dissolution of polysulfides to alleviate the shuttle effect by combining the physical absorption and strong chemical adsorption. As a result, Li-S batteries with NSGPC-coated separator exhibit high initial reversible capacity (1208.6 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C, excellent rate capability (596.6 mAh g−1 at 5 C, and superior cycling stability (over 500 cycles at 2 C with 0.074% capacity decay each cycle. Propelling our easy-designed pure sulfur cathode to a extremely increased mass loading of 3.4 mg cm−2 (70 wt. % sulfur, the Li-S batteries with this functional composite separator exhibit a superior high initial capacity of 1171.7 mAh g−1, which is quite beneficial to commercialized applications.

  7. Sandwich-Type Nitrogen and Sulfur Codoped Graphene-Backboned Porous Carbon Coated Separator for High Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Lulu; Ren, Jiangang; Luo, Xinyu; Liu, Bibo; Zhou, Xiangyang

    2018-03-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been identified as the greatest potential next- generation energy-storage systems because of the large theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg -1 . However, its practical application on a massive scale is impeded by severe capacity loss resulted from the notorious polysulfides shuttle. Here, we first present a novel technique to synthesize sandwich-type nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene-backboned porous carbon (NSGPC) to modify the commercial polypropylene separator in Li-S batteries. The as-synthesized NSGPC exhibits a unique micro/mesoporous carbon framework, large specific surface area (2439.0 m² g -1 ), high pore volume (1.78 cm³ g -1 ), good conductivity, and in situ nitrogen (1.86 at %) and sulfur (5.26 at %) co-doping. Benefiting from the particular physical properties and chemical components of NSGPC, the resultant NSGPC-coated separator not only can facilitate rapid Li⁺ ions and electrons transfer, but also can restrict the dissolution of polysulfides to alleviate the shuttle effect by combining the physical absorption and strong chemical adsorption. As a result, Li-S batteries with NSGPC-coated separator exhibit high initial reversible capacity (1208.6 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C), excellent rate capability (596.6 mAh g -1 at 5 C), and superior cycling stability (over 500 cycles at 2 C with 0.074% capacity decay each cycle). Propelling our easy-designed pure sulfur cathode to a extremely increased mass loading of 3.4 mg cm -2 (70 wt. % sulfur), the Li-S batteries with this functional composite separator exhibit a superior high initial capacity of 1171.7 mAh g -1 , which is quite beneficial to commercialized applications.

  8. A sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on in situ silver deposition for determination of serum level of HER2 in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Emami, Mahdi; Farzin, Leila; Saber, Reza

    2018-04-30

    The sensitive quantification of Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2), as a key prognostic tumor marker, plays a critical role in screening, early diagnosis and management of breast cancer. This paper describes a sandwich-type immunoassay with silver signal enhancement strategy for highly sensitive detection of HER2. For this purpose, the target capturing step was designed by functionalization of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane coated magnetite nanoparticles with antibody (antiHER2/APTMS-Fe 3 O 4 ), as a platform bioconjugate (PB), and immobilized at a bare GCE. Then, in the presence of label-free immunosensor, the PB was covered by magnetic gold nanoparticles self-assembled with thiolated antibodies (antiHER2/Hyd@AuNPs-APTMS-Fe 3 O 4 ) containing chemically reduced silver ions, as a label bioconjugate (LB). Under optimum conditions, a linear relationship between the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) stripping signal of silver and the logarithm of HER2 concentrations was obtained in the range of 5.0 × 10 -4 -50.0ngmL -1 (R 2 = 0.9906) with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10 -5 ngmL -1 . The effectiveness of this protocol was evaluated experimentally through employing of designed immunosensor for detection of the serum level of tumor marker. The good consistency of the results with those obtained by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) conventional method (p-value of < 0.05) showed that this immunosensor can be applied for the testing of HER2 in clinical samples of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay for simultaneous detection of Listeria spp. and Listeriamonocytogenes in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blazkova, M.; Koets, M.; Rauch, P.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (NALFIA) for the assessment of listeria contamination. The detection procedure starts with enrichment of sample in Half Fraser broth (24 h). Following isolation of DNA, a duplex PCR is performed with two labelled primer sets, one generic and

  10. The evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizanbayeva, Sulushash; Smits, Henk L.; Zhalilova, Katya; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Kozakov, Stanislaw; Ospanov, Kenes S.; Elzer, Philip H.; Douglas, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Serum samples from all patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis including those with chronic disease from Kazakhstan tested positive in the serum agglutination test for titers > or = 1:25 and reacted in the Brucella immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G lateral flow assay (LFA) confirming the high

  11. Immunochromatographic Lateral-flow test strip for the rapid detection of added bovine rennet whey in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, C.; Munoz, M.; Daury, C.; Weymuth, H.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.; Corbation, V.; Toribo, T.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    An immunochromatographic lateral-flow test dipstick test was developed for the fast detection of bovine rennet whey in liquid milk and milk powder. The test is based on the binding of casein glycomacropeptide (cGMP) by two specific anti-bovine ¿-casein monoclonal antibodies and has a visual

  12. Immunochromatographic Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M and G lateral flow assays for rapid serodiagnosis of human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Henk L.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Solera, Javier; Clavijo, Encarnacion; Diaz, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    To fulfill the need for a simple and rapid diagnostic test for human brucellosis, we used the immunochromatographic lateral flow assay format to develop two assays, one for the detection of Brucella-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and one for the detection of Brucella-specific IgG

  13. Impact of lateral flow on the transition from connected to disconnected stream-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yang; Jin, Menggui; Liu, Yanfeng; Si, Aonan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which stream water infiltrates through streambeds to recharge groundwater systems is essential to sustainable management of scarce water resources in arid and semi-arid areas. An inverted water table (IWT) can develop under a stream in response to the desaturation between the stream and underlying aquifer as the system changes from a connected to disconnected status. However, previous studies have suggested that the IWT can only occur at the bottom of a low permeability streambed in which only the vertical flow between the stream and groundwater during disconnection was assumed. In the present study, numerical simulations revealed that the lateral flow induced by capillarity or heterogeneity also plays an essential role on interactions between streams and aquifers. Three pathways were identified for the transition from connection to disconnection in homogenous systems; notably, the lowest point of an IWT can develop not only at the bottom of the streambed but also within the streambed or the aquifer in response to the initial desaturation at, above, or below the interface between the streambed and aquifer (IBSA), respectively. A sensitivity analysis indicated that in wide streams, the lowest point of an IWT only occurs at the bottom of the streambed; however, for a stream half width of 1 m above a 6 m thick sandy loam streambed, the lowest point occurs in the streambed as stream depth is less than 0.5 m. This critical stream depth increases with streambed thickness and decreases with stream width. Thus, in narrow streams the lowest point can also develop in a thick streambed under a shallow stream. In narrow streams, the lowest point also forms in the aquifer if the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed to that of the aquifer is greater than the ratio of the streambed thickness to the sum of the stream depth and the streambed thickness; correspondingly, the streambed is thin but relatively permeable and the stream is

  14. Rapid Salmonella detection in experimentally inoculated equine faecal and veterinary hospital environmental samples using commercially available lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, B A; Noyes, N R; Bolte, D S; Hyatt, D R; van Metre, D C; Morley, P S

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is the most commonly reported cause of outbreaks of nosocomial infections in large animal veterinary teaching hospitals and the closure of equine hospitals. Rapid detection may facilitate effective control practices in equine populations. Shipping and laboratory testing typically require ≥48 h to obtain results. Lateral flow immunoassays developed for use in food-safety microbiology provide an alternative that has not been evaluated for use with faeces or environmental samples. We aimed to identify enrichment methods that would allow commercially available rapid Salmonella detection systems (lateral flow immunoassays) to be used in clinical practice with equine faecal and environmental samples, providing test results in 18-24 h. In vitro experiment. Equine faecal and environmental samples were inoculated with known quantities of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium and cultured using 2 different enrichment techniques for faeces and 4 enrichment techniques for environmental samples. Samples were tested blindly using 2 different lateral flow immunoassays and plated on agar media for confirmatory testing. In general, commercial lateral flow immunoassays resulted in fewer false-negative test results with enrichment of 1 g faecal samples in tetrathionate for 18 h, while all environmental sample enrichment techniques resulted in similar detection rates. The limit of detection from spiked samples, ∼4 colony-forming units/g, was similar for all methods evaluated. The lateral flow immunoassays evaluated could reliably detect S. enterica within 18 h, indicating that they may be useful for rapid point-of-care testing in equine practice applications. Additional evaluation is needed using samples from naturally infected cases and the environment to gain an accurate estimate of test sensitivity and specificity and to substantiate further the true value of these tests in clinical practice. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of a new rapid lateral flow chromatography test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklikkaya, N.; Dinc, U.; Dabanca, Pinar A.; Aydin, F.; Erturk, M.; Akdogan, Remzi A.; Ozgur, O.; Uzun, Dogan Y.; Gungor, E.; Arslan, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid, simple and non-invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is important in implementing chemotherapy in appropriate manner, and in assessing persistent H. pylori infection after eradication therapy. The Immuno Card STAT HpSA kit (Meridian Bioscience, Europe) is a lateral flow chromatography test which utilizes a monoclonal anti-H. pylori antibody. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test before and after eradication therapy on patients referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Sixty-five consecutive patients who were referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Department of Gastroenterology, Karadeniz Technical University Medical School, Turkey between February and August 2005 were included in this study. The ImmunoCard STAT HpSA was compared with 4 invasive tests (histology, gram staining, rapid urease test, and culture). The reference method was defined as positive when 2 of the 4 invasive tests were positive. A negative H. pylori status was considered when all 4 tests present concordant negative results. Overall, the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test had 77.8% sensitivity, 79.3% specificity, 82.4% positive predictive value (PPV) and 74.2% negative predictive value (NPV) in all patients. With regard to pre-treatment values, the sensitivity was 70.6%, specificity 70.6%, PPV 100% and NPV 100% while on post-treatment group the sensitivity was 84.2%, specificity 64.7%, PPV 72.7% and NPV 78.6%. Our results indicate that the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test is a rapid, simple, and helpful procedure not only to determine H. pylori infection but also to assess the success of eradication therapy. (author)

  16. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Rapid Detection of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutal, Hervé; Naas, Thierry; Devilliers, Karine; Oueslati, Saoussen; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Simon, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) that are often resistant to most, if not all, classes of antibiotics is a major public health concern. The NDM-1 carbapenemase is among the most worrisome carbapenemases given its rapid worldwide spread. We have developed and evaluated a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) (called the NDM LFIA) for the rapid and reliable detection of NDM-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from culture colonies. We evaluated the NDM LFIA using 175 reference enterobacterial isolates with characterized β-lactamase gene content and 74 nonduplicate consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates referred for expertise to the French National Reference Center (NRC) for Antibiotic Resistance during a 1-week period (in June 2016). The reference collection included 55 non-carbapenemase producers and 120 carbapenemase producers, including 27 NDM producers. All 27 NDM-like carbapenemase producers of the reference collection were correctly detected in less than 15 min by the NDM LFIA, including 22 strains producing NDM-1, 2 producing NDM-4, 1 producing NDM-5, 1 producing NDM-7, and 1 producing NDM-9. All non-NDM-1 producers gave a negative result with the NDM LFIA. No cross-reaction was observed with carbapenemases (VIM, IMP, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48-like), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M), AmpCs (CMY-2, DHA-2, and ACC-1), and oxacillinases (OXA-1, -2, -9, and -10). Similarly, among the 74 referred nonduplicate consecutive clinical isolates, all 7 NDM-like producers were identified. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100% for NDM-like carbapenemase detection with strains cultured on agar. The NDM LFIA was efficient, rapid, and easy to implement in the routine workflow of a clinical microbiology laboratory for the confirmation of NDM-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:28404680

  17. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  18. Lateral flow devices for nucleic acid analysis exploiting quantum dots as reporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapountzi, Eleni A.; Tragoulias, Sotirios S.; Kalogianni, Despina P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Ioannou, Penelope C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Christopoulos, Theodore K., E-mail: tchrist@upatras.gr [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes, Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Dipstick tests for DNA hybridization assays and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. • Use of quantum dots as reporters. • Visual detection without the need for expensive instrumentation. • Simplicity and low-cost of the assays. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in the development of biosensors in the form of simple lateral flow devices that enable visual detection of nucleic acid sequences while eliminating several steps required for pipetting, incubation and washing out the excess of reactants. In this work, we present the first dipstick-type nucleic acid biosensors based on quantum dots (QDs) as reporters. The biosensors enable sequence confirmation of the target DNA by hybridization and simple visual detection of the emitted fluorescence under a UV lamp. The ‘diagnostic’ membrane of the biosensor contains a test zone (TZ) and a control zone (CZ). The CZ always fluoresces in order to confirm the proper function of the biosensor. Fluorescence is emitted from the TZ, only when the specific nucleic acid sequence is present. We have developed two general types of QD-based nucleic acid biosensors, namely, Type I and Type II, in which the TZ consists of either immobilized streptavidin (Type I) or immobilized oligodeoxynucleotides (Type II). The control zone consists of immobilized biotinylated albumin. No purification steps are required prior to the application of the DNA sample on the strip. The QD-based nucleic acid biosensors performed accurately and reproducibly when applied to (a) the visual detection of PCR amplification products and (b) visual genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human genomic DNA from clinical samples. As low as 1.5 fmol of double-stranded DNA were clearly detected by naked eye and the dynamic range extended to 200 fmol. The %CV were estimated to be 4.3–8.2.

  19. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  20. Lateral and vertical facies relationships of bedforms deposited by aggrading supercritical flows: From cyclic steps to humpback dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jörg; Winsemann, Jutta

    2013-10-01

    The preservation of bedforms related to supercritical flows and hydraulic jumps is commonly considered to be rare in the geologic record, although these bedforms are known from a variety of depositional environments. This field-based study presents a detailed analysis of the sedimentary facies and stacking pattern of deposits of cyclic steps, chutes-and-pools, antidunes and humpback dunes from three-dimensional outcrops. The well exposed Middle Pleistocene successions from northern Germany comprise glacilacustrine ice-contact subaqueous fan and glacial lake-outburst flood deposits. The studied successions give new insights into the depositional architecture of bedforms related to supercritical flows and may serve as an analogue for other high-energy depositional environments such as fluvial settings, coarse-grained deltas or turbidite systems. Deposits of cyclic steps occur within the glacial lake-outburst flood succession and are characterised by lenticular scours infilled by gently to steeply dipping backsets. Cyclic steps formed due to acceleration and flow thinning when the glacial lake-outburst flood spilled over a push-moraine ridge. These bedforms are commonly laterally and vertically truncated and alternate with deposits of chutes-and-pools and antidunes. The subaqueous fan successions are dominated by laterally extensive sinusoidal waveforms, which are interpreted as deposits of aggrading stationary antidunes, which require quasi-steady flows at the lower limit of the supercritical flow stage and high rates of sedimentation. Humpback dunes are characterised by downflow divergent cross-stratification, displaying differentiation into topsets, foresets and bottomsets, and are interpreted as deposited at the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow conditions or vice versa. Gradual lateral and vertical transitions between humpback dunes and antidune deposits are very common. The absence of planar-parallel stratification in all studied successions

  1. Clinical utility of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay in a diagnostic mycology laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J McMullan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans causes life-threatening meningitis. A recently introduced lateral flow immunoassay (LFA to detect cryptococcal antigen (CRAG is reportedly more rapid and convenient than standard latex agglutination (LA, but has not yet been evaluated in a diagnostic laboratory setting. METHODS: One hundred and six serum, 42 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, and 20 urine samples from 92 patients with known or suspected cryptococcosis were tested by LA and LFA, and titres were compared. Results were correlated with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcosis. Serial samples were tested in nine treated patients. RESULTS: Twenty-five of 92 patients had confirmed cryptococcosis; all sera (n = 56 from these patients were positive by LFA (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval (CI 93.6-100% compared with 51/56 positive by LA (sensitivity 91.1%, 95% CI 80.7-96.1%. Fifty sera from 67 patients without cryptococcosis tested negative in both assays. While LA yielded more false negative results (5/56 this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.063. Nine CSF samples from patients with cryptococcal meningitis yielded positive results using both assays while 17/18 urine samples from patients with cryptococcosis were positive by the LFA. The LFA detected CRAG in C. gattii infection (n = 4 patients. Agreement between titres obtained by both methods (n = 38 samples was imperfect; correlation between log-transformed titres (r was 0.84. Turn-around-time was 20 minutes for the LFA and 2 h for LA. The cost per qualitative sample was 18USD and 91 USD, respectively and per quantitative sample was 38USD and 144USD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative agreement between the LFA and LA assays performed on serum and CSF was good but agreement between titres was imperfect. Ease of performance of the LFA and the capacity for testing urine suggest it has a role in the routine laboratory as a rapid diagnostic test or point-of-care test.

  2. Trinuclear Lanthanoid Complexes of 1,3,5-Triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol with a Unique, Sandwich-Type Cage Structure(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedinger, Roman; Ghisletta, Michele; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E.; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante; Gramlich, Volker

    1998-12-28

    A variety of trinuclear complexes [M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)](3+) [M = Y, La, Eu, Gd, Dy; L = 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci)] was prepared as solid materials of the composition M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)X(3).pH(2)O.qEtOH (X = Cl, NO(3); 2.5 sandwich-type cage structure, where the two triply deprotonated taci ligands encapsulate an equilateral triangle of the three metal centers. The metal cations are coordinated to the equatorial, terminal amino groups and are bridged by the axial &mgr;(2)-alkoxo groups. The coordination spheres are completed by additional peripheral ligands such as H(2)O or Cl(-) counterions. The coordination number of the metal cations is 8. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the Gd complex revealed very weak antiferromagnetic coupling interactions between the three Gd centers. Complex formation and species distribution in aqueous solution was investigated by potentiometry and pD-dependent NMR spectroscopy. An exclusive formation of the [Eu(3)(H(-)(3)taci)(2)](3+) unit in solution was found in the range 7

  3. Heat-flow and lateral seismic-velocity heterogeneities near Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Robert P.; Stephen, Ralph A.

    1991-11-01

    Both conductive heat-flow and seismic-velocity data contain information relating to the permeability of the oceanic crust. Deep Sea Drilling Project-Ocean Drilling Program Site 504 is the only place where both detailed heat-flow and seismic-velocity field studies have been conducted at the same scale. In this paper we examine the correlation between heat flow and lateral heterogeneities in seismic velocity near Site 504. Observed heterogeneities in seismic velocity, which are thought to be related to variations in crack density in the upper 500 m of the basaltic crust, show little correlation with the heat-flow pattern. This lack of correlation highlights some of the current difficulties in using seismic-velocity data to infer details of spatial variations in permeability that are significant in controlling hydrothermal circulation.

  4. Assessing lateral flows and solute transport during floods in a conduit-flow-dominated karst system using the inverse problem for the advection-diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholet, Cybèle; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Moussa, Roger; Steinmann, Marc; Denimal, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to present a framework that provides new ways to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of lateral exchanges for water flow and solute transport in a karst conduit network during flood events, treating both the diffusive wave equation and the advection-diffusion equation with the same mathematical approach, assuming uniform lateral flow and solute transport. A solution to the inverse problem for the advection-diffusion equations is then applied to data from two successive gauging stations to simulate flows and solute exchange dynamics after recharge. The study site is the karst conduit network of the Fourbanne aquifer in the French Jura Mountains, which includes two reaches characterizing the network from sinkhole to cave stream to the spring. The model is applied, after separation of the base from the flood components, on discharge and total dissolved solids (TDSs) in order to assess lateral flows and solute concentrations and compare them to help identify water origin. The results showed various lateral contributions in space - between the two reaches located in the unsaturated zone (R1), and in the zone that is both unsaturated and saturated (R2) - as well as in time, according to hydrological conditions. Globally, the two reaches show a distinct response to flood routing, with important lateral inflows on R1 and large outflows on R2. By combining these results with solute exchanges and the analysis of flood routing parameters distribution, we showed that lateral inflows on R1 are the addition of diffuse infiltration (observed whatever the hydrological conditions) and localized infiltration in the secondary conduit network (tributaries) in the unsaturated zone, except in extreme dry periods. On R2, despite inflows on the base component, lateral outflows are observed during floods. This pattern was attributed to the concept of reversal flows of conduit-matrix exchanges, inducing a complex water mixing effect in the saturated zone

  5. Assessing lateral flows and solute transport during floods in a conduit-flow-dominated karst system using the inverse problem for the advection–diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cholet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a framework that provides new ways to characterize the spatio-temporal variability of lateral exchanges for water flow and solute transport in a karst conduit network during flood events, treating both the diffusive wave equation and the advection–diffusion equation with the same mathematical approach, assuming uniform lateral flow and solute transport. A solution to the inverse problem for the advection–diffusion equations is then applied to data from two successive gauging stations to simulate flows and solute exchange dynamics after recharge. The study site is the karst conduit network of the Fourbanne aquifer in the French Jura Mountains, which includes two reaches characterizing the network from sinkhole to cave stream to the spring. The model is applied, after separation of the base from the flood components, on discharge and total dissolved solids (TDSs in order to assess lateral flows and solute concentrations and compare them to help identify water origin. The results showed various lateral contributions in space – between the two reaches located in the unsaturated zone (R1, and in the zone that is both unsaturated and saturated (R2 – as well as in time, according to hydrological conditions. Globally, the two reaches show a distinct response to flood routing, with important lateral inflows on R1 and large outflows on R2. By combining these results with solute exchanges and the analysis of flood routing parameters distribution, we showed that lateral inflows on R1 are the addition of diffuse infiltration (observed whatever the hydrological conditions and localized infiltration in the secondary conduit network (tributaries in the unsaturated zone, except in extreme dry periods. On R2, despite inflows on the base component, lateral outflows are observed during floods. This pattern was attributed to the concept of reversal flows of conduit–matrix exchanges, inducing a complex water mixing effect

  6. Interaction Between Downwelling Flow and the Laterally-Varying Thickness of the North American Lithosphere Inferred from Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, M. D.; Conrad, C. P.; Silver, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Shear flow in the asthenosphere tends to align olivine crystals in the direction of shear, producing a seismically anisotropic asthenosphere that can be detected using a number of seismic techniques (e.g., shear-wave splitting (SWS) and surface waves). In the ocean basins, where the asthenosphere has a relatively uniform thickness and lithospheric anisotropy appears to be small, observed azimuthal anisotropy is well fit by asthenospheric shear flow in global flow models driven by a combination of plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. In contrast, beneath the continents both the lithospheric ceiling and asthenospheric thickness may vary considerably across cratonic regions and ocean-continent boundaries. To examine the influence of a continental lithosphere with variable thickness on predictions of continental seismic anisotropy, we impose lateral variations in lithospheric viscosity in global models of mantle flow driven by plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. For the North American continent, the Farallon slab descends beneath a deep cratonic root, producing downwelling flow in the upper mantle and convergent flow beneath the cratonic lithosphere. We evaluate both the orientation of the predicted azimuthal anisotropy and the depth dependence of radial anisotropy for this downwelling flow and find that the inclusion of a strong continental root provides an improved fit to observed SWS observations beneath the North American craton. Thus, we hypothesize that at least some continental anisotropy is associated with sub-lithospheric viscous shear, although fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric layer may also contribute significantly. Although we do not observe significant variations in the direction of predicted anisotropy with depth, we do find that the inclusion of deep continental roots pushes the depth of the anisotropy layer deeper into the upper mantle. We test several different models of laterally-varying lithosphere and asthenosphere

  7. Integration of lateral flow and micro array technologies for multiplex immunoassay: application to the determination of drugs of abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranova, Nadezhda A.; Byzova, Nadezhda A.; Zaiko, Viktoria V.; Starovoitova, Tatiana A.; Vengerov, Yury Yu.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a lateral flow micro array that combines multi-spot immunochip technology and immunochromatography. It can serve as a tool for the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The test zone of the nitrocellulose support comprises a micro array spotted with up to 32 antigens that can capture labeled gold-antibodies after lateral flow. The detection limits and detectable concentration ranges of the assay were characterized. The method was applied to the determination of drugs of abuse (and their metabolites) in urine, specifically of morphine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and benzoylecgonine. The assay format is rapid (10 min), and has both a low relative standard deviation ( -1 for drugs of abuse) are comparable to those of conventional single-analyte strip methods. (author)

  8. Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Adrian; Sampedro, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Pimienta, Miguel; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-11-24

    Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results.

  9. Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Carrio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results.

  10. Relationship between cerebral blood flow and later cognitive decline in hypertensive patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Kazuo; Oku, Naohiko; Yagita, Yoshiki; Sakaguchi, Manabu; Sakoda, Saburo; Kimura, Yasuyuku; Hatazawa, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Vascular risk factors are thought to be important for dementia. However, there is little evidence for a prospective association between cerebral blood flow and the risk of cognitive decline. Twenty-seven cognitively intact hypertensive patients aged 55 years and older with lacunar infarction or white matter lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular reactivity (CVR). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 3 years later with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Patients whose MMSE score fell by more than three points were classified as having cognitive decline. Six patients showed cognitive decline. Baseline CBF in these patients was significantly lower than that of the 21 patients without cognitive decline (31.2±2.4 vs. 42.6±5.9 ml per 100 gmin -1 , respectively; P<0.001). A moderate linear association was found between CBF and change in MMSE score over a 3-year period (r=0.59, P=0.001), not between CBF and baseline MMSE score. In contrast, no association between CVR and later cognitive decline was found. This study suggests that cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with later cognitive decline. (author)

  11. Continental slope sea level and flow variability induced by lateral movements of the Gulf Stream in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, E.; Hopkins, T. S.; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Churchill, J. H.

    2006-08-01

    As described by [Csanady, G.T., Hamilton, P., 1988. Circulation of slope water. Continental Shelf Research 8, 565-624], the flow regime over the slope of the southern Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) includes a current reversal in which southwestward flow over the upper and middle slope becomes entrained in the northeastward current adjacent to the Gulf Stream. In this paper we use satellite-derived data to quantify how lateral motions of the Gulf Stream impact this current system. In our analysis, the Gulf Stream’s thermal front is delineated using a two-year time series of sea surface temperature derived from NOAA/AVHRR satellite data. Lateral motions of the Gulf Stream are represented in terms of temporal variations of the area, east of 73°W, between the Gulf Stream thermal front and the shelf edge. Variations of slope water flow within this area are represented by anomalies of geostrophic velocity as derived from the time series of the sea level anomaly determined from TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter data. A strong statistical relationship is found between Gulf Stream displacements and parabathic flow over the continental slope. It is such that the southwestward flow over the slope is accelerated when the Gulf Stream is relatively far from the shelf edge, and is decelerated (and perhaps even reversed) when the Gulf Stream is close to the shelf edge. This relationship between Gulf Stream displacements and parabathic flow is also observed in numerical simulations produced by the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Model. In qualitative terms, it is consistent with the notion that when the Gulf Stream is closer to the 200-m isobath, it is capable of entraining a larger fraction of shelf water masses. Alternatively, when the Gulf Stream is far from the shelf-break, more water is advected into the MAB slope region from the northeast. Analysis of the diabathic flow indicates that much of the cross-slope transport by which the southwestward flow entering the study region is

  12. Inferring common cognitive mechanisms from brain blood-flow lateralization data: a new methodology for fTCD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F; Spray, Amy; Fairlie, Jo E; Uomini, Natalie T

    2014-01-01

    Current neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution constrain participant motion so that many natural tasks cannot be carried out. The aim of this paper is to show how a time-locked correlation-analysis of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) lateralization data, obtained with functional TransCranial Doppler (fTCD) ultrasound, can be used to infer cerebral activation patterns across tasks. In a first experiment we demonstrate that the proposed analysis method results in data that are comparable with the standard Lateralization Index (LI) for within-task comparisons of CBFV patterns, recorded during cued word generation (CWG) at two difficulty levels. In the main experiment we demonstrate that the proposed analysis method shows correlated blood-flow patterns for two different cognitive tasks that are known to draw on common brain areas, CWG, and Music Synthesis. We show that CBFV patterns for Music and CWG are correlated only for participants with prior musical training. CBFV patterns for tasks that draw on distinct brain areas, the Tower of London and CWG, are not correlated. The proposed methodology extends conventional fTCD analysis by including temporal information in the analysis of cerebral blood-flow patterns to provide a robust, non-invasive method to infer whether common brain areas are used in different cognitive tasks. It complements conventional high resolution imaging techniques.

  13. Lateral migration of a microdroplet under optical forces in a uniform flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Chang, Cheong Bong; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of a microdroplet in a uniform flow and subjected to a vertical optical force applied by a loosely focused Gaussian laser beam was studied numerically. The lattice Boltzmann method was applied to obtain the two-phase flow field, and the dynamic ray tracing method was adopted to calculate the optical force. The optical forces acting on the spherical droplets agreed well with the analytical values. The numerically predicted droplet migration distances agreed well with the experimentally obtained values. Simulations of the various flow and optical parameters showed that the droplet migration distance nondimensionalized by the droplet radius is proportional to the S number (z d /r p = 0.377S), which is the ratio of the optical force to the viscous drag. The effect of the surface tension was also examined. These results indicated that the surface tension influenced the droplet migration distance to a lesser degree than the flow and optical parameters. The results of the present work hold for the refractive indices of the mean fluid and the droplet being 1.33 and 1.59, respectively

  14. Optical measurements of lateral energy flow and plasma motion in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Riffle, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    An optical system consisting of a telephoto lens and multi-image camera is described and the experimental results and their implications are presented. We will also describe the opto-electronic system that will measure the time history of the energy flow with sub-nanosecond resolution. The system will be useful to study both one- and two-dimensional geometries. The third optical diagnostic is a laser probe utilizing detection by the opto-electronic system mentioned above. This diagnostic measures plasma motion as well as energy flow. The laser probe and detection system mounts directly onto the target chamber at LASLs Gemini CO 2 laser, causing severe alignment and stability problems whose solutions will be shown

  15. A novel multi-walled carbon nanotube-based antibody conjugate for quantitative and semi-quantitative lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Hu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yurong; Lu, Jianzhong; Zeng, Libo

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were applied in lateral flow strips (LFS) for semi-quantitative and quantitative assays. Firstly, the solubility of MWCNTs was improved using various surfactants to enhance their biocompatibility for practical application. The dispersed MWCNTs were conjugated with the methamphetamine (MET) antibody in a non-covalent manner and then manufactured into the LFS for the quantitative detection of MET. The MWCNTs-based lateral flow assay (MWCNTs-LFA) exhibited an excellent linear relationship between the values of test line and MET when its concentration ranges from 62.5 to 1500 ng/mL. The sensitivity of the LFS was evaluated by conjugating MWCNTs with HCG antibody and the MWCNTs conjugated method is 10 times more sensitive than the one conjugated with classical colloidal gold nanoparticles. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MWCNTs-LFA is a more sensitive and reliable assay for semi-quantitative and quantitative detection which can be used in forensic analysis.

  16. A hybrid EKF and switching PSO algorithm for joint state and parameter estimation of lateral flow immunoassay models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nianyin; Wang, Zidong; Li, Yurong; Du, Min; Liu, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid extended Kalman filter (EKF) and switching particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm is proposed for jointly estimating both the parameters and states of the lateral flow immunoassay model through available short time-series measurement. Our proposed method generalizes the well-known EKF algorithm by imposing physical constraints on the system states. Note that the state constraints are encountered very often in practice that give rise to considerable difficulties in system analysis and design. The main purpose of this paper is to handle the dynamic modeling problem with state constraints by combining the extended Kalman filtering and constrained optimization algorithms via the maximization probability method. More specifically, a recently developed SPSO algorithm is used to cope with the constrained optimization problem by converting it into an unconstrained optimization one through adding a penalty term to the objective function. The proposed algorithm is then employed to simultaneously identify the parameters and states of a lateral flow immunoassay model. It is shown that the proposed algorithm gives much improved performance over the traditional EKF method.

  17. Temporal Entropy Generation in the Viscous Layers of Laterally-converging Duct Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, Donald M.; Brodkey, Robert S.; Eckelmann, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Since insight into entropy generation is a key to increasing efficiency and thereby reducing fuel consumption and/or waste and--for wall-bounded flows--most entropy is generated in the viscous layer, we examine the transient behavior of its dominant contributor there for a non-canonical flow. New measurements in oil flow are presented for the effects of favorable streamwise mean pressure gradients on temporal entropy generation rates and, in the process, on key Reynolds-stress-producing events such as sweep front passage and on the deceleration/outflow phase of the overall bursting process. Two extremes have been considered: (1) a high pressure gradient, nearing 'laminarization', and (2), for comparison, a low pressure gradient corresponding to many earlier experiments. In both cases, the peak temporal entropy generation rate occurs shortly after passage of the ejection/sweep interface. Whether sweep and ejection rates appear to decrease or increase with the pressure gradient depends on the feature examined and the manner of sampling. When compared using wall coordinates for velocities, distances and time, the trends and magnitudes of the transient behaviors are mostly the same. The main effects of the higher pressure gradient are (1) changes in the time lag between detections--representing modification of the shape of the sweep front and the sweep angle with the wall, (2) modification of the magnitude of an instantaneous Reynolds shear stress with wall distance and (3) enlarging the sweeps and ejections. Results new for both low and high pressure gradients are the temporal behaviors of the dominant contribution to entropy generation; it is found to be much more sensitive to distance from the wall than to streamwise pressure gradient

  18. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Soma, Yoshiaki; Ootsuki, Mika [Takeda General Hospital, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP), using the Matsuda`s quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (leftlateral asymmetry was present when rCBF for each ROI between left and right sides differs by more than 10%. General score (MMS, T-IQ) was not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author).

  19. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Soma, Yoshiaki; Ootsuki, Mika

    1993-01-01

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (left< right, n=5; right< left, n=3; left=right, n=8). We decided that lateral asymmetry was present when rCBF for each ROI between left and right sides differs by more than 10%. General score (MMS, T-IQ) was not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author)

  20. The evaluation of a user-friendly lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of human brucellosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizanbayeva, Sulushash; Smits, Henk L; Zhalilova, Katya; Abdoel, Theresia H; Kozakov, Stanislaw; Ospanov, Kenes S; Elzer, Philip H; Douglas, James T

    2009-09-01

    Serum samples from all patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis including those with chronic disease from Kazakhstan tested positive in the serum agglutination test for titers > or = 1:25 and reacted in the Brucella immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G lateral flow assay (LFA) confirming the high sensitivity of these assays. The strong reactivity in the LFA observed for the majority (92.1%) of the samples from the patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis together with the user-friendliness of the assay procedure makes the LFA ideal for the confirmation of brucellosis in endemic areas in Kazakhstan. The Rose Bengal test lacked sensitivity in particular for patients with chronic brucellosis therefore limiting its value as a quick screening assay. The study emphasizes the importance of the LFA as a useful, rapid, and easy-to-perform tool in the diagnostic testing of brucellosis.

  1. Point-of-care coagulation monitoring: first clinical experience using a paper-based lateral flow diagnostic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegener, Michael A; Li, Hua; Han, Daewoo; Steckl, Andrew J; Pauletti, Giovanni M

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin are the most widely used class of oral anticoagulants. Due to a narrow therapeutic window, patients on warfarin require regular monitoring. Self-testing using point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices is available, but cost makes this monitoring method beyond reach for many. The main objective of this research was to assess the clinical utility of a low-cost, paper-based lateral flow POC diagnostic device developed for anticoagulation monitoring without the need for a separate electronic reader. Custom-fabricated lateral flow assay (LFA) test strips comprised of a glass fiber sample pad, a nitrocellulose analytical membrane, a cellulose wicking pad, and a plastic backing card were assembled in a plastic cassette. Healthy volunteers and patients on warfarin therapy were recruited for this prospective study. For each participant, a whole blood sample was collected via fingerstick to determine: (1) international normalized ratio (INR) using the CoaguChek® XS coagulometer, (2) hematocrit by centrifugation, and (3) red blood cell (RBC) travel distance on the experimental LFA device after 240 s using digital image analysis. RBC travel distance measured on the LFA device using blood samples obtained from warfarin patients positively correlated with increasing INR value and the LFA device had the capability to statistically distinguish between healthy volunteer INR values and those for patients groups with INR ≥ 2.6. From these data, it is predicted that this low-cost, paper-based LFA device can have clinical utility for identifying anticoagulated patients taking vitamin K antagonists who are outside of the desired therapeutic efficacy window.

  2. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A sensitive lateral flow biosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection based on aptamer mediated strand displacement amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zhao, Shiming [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Mao, Yiping [Yueyang Institute for Food and Drug Control, Yueyang 430198 (China); Fang, Zhiyuan [Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Lu, Xuewen [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Zeng, Lingwen, E-mail: zeng6@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • Limit of detection as low as 10 CFU mL{sup −1}Escherichia coli O157:H7. • No need of antibodies and substituted with aptamers. • Isothermal strand displacement amplification for signal amplification. • Results observed by the naked eye. • Great potential application in the area of food control. - Abstract: Foodborne diseases caused by pathogens are one of the major problems in food safety. Convenient and sensitive point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for food-borne pathogens have been a long-felt need of clinicians. Commonly used methods for pathogen detection rely on conventional culture-based tests, antibody-based assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. These methods are costly, laborious and time-consuming. Herein, we present a simple and sensitive aptamer based biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). In this assay, two different aptamers specific for the outmembrane of E. coli O157:H7 were used. One of the aptamers was used for magnetic bead enrichment, and the other was used as a signal reporter for this pathogen, which was amplified by isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) and further detected by a lateral flow biosensor. Only the captured aptamers on cell membrane were amplified, limitations of conventional DNA amplification based method such as false-positive can be largely reduced. The generated signals (red bands on the test zone of a lateral flow strip) can be unambiguously read out by the naked eye. As low as 10 colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli O157:H7 were detected in this study. Without DNA extraction, the reduced handling and simpler equipment requirement render this assay a simple and rapid alternative to conventional methods.

  4. Lateral-flow colloidal gold-based immunoassay for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol with two indicator ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosova, Anna Yu.; Sibanda, Liberty; Dumoulin, Frederic; Lewis, Janet; Duveiller, Etienne; Van Peteghem, Carlos; Saeger, Sarah de

    2008-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay using a colloidal gold-labelled monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of deoxynivalenol (DON). Different parameters, such as the amount of immunoreagents, type of the materials, composition of the blocking solution and of the detector reagent mixture, were investigated to provide the optimum assay performance. The experimental results demonstrated that such a visual test had an indicator range rather than a cut-off value. Thus, tests for DON determination with two different indicator ranges of 250-500 and 1000-2000 μg kg -1 were designed. The method allowed detection of DON at low and high concentration levels, which could be useful for research and practical purposes. The assay applied to spiked wheat and pig feed samples demonstrated accurate and reproducible results. The applicability of the developed lateral-flow test was also confirmed under real field conditions. The test strips prepared in Belgium were sent to Mexico, where they were used for the screening of DON contamination in different bread wheat entries from Fusarium Head Blight inoculated plots. The results were compared with those obtained by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. A poor correlation between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed. Visual results of the dipstick tests were in a good agreement with the results of the LC-MS/MS method. Coupled with a simple and fast sample preparation, this qualitative one-step test based on the visual evaluation of results did not require any equipment. Results could be obtained within 10 min. The described assay format can be used as a simple, rapid, cost-effective and robust on-site screening tool for mycotoxin contamination in different agricultural commodities

  5. A sensitive lateral flow biosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection based on aptamer mediated strand displacement amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Shiming; Mao, Yiping; Fang, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xuewen; Zeng, Lingwen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Limit of detection as low as 10 CFU mL −1 Escherichia coli O157:H7. • No need of antibodies and substituted with aptamers. • Isothermal strand displacement amplification for signal amplification. • Results observed by the naked eye. • Great potential application in the area of food control. - Abstract: Foodborne diseases caused by pathogens are one of the major problems in food safety. Convenient and sensitive point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests for food-borne pathogens have been a long-felt need of clinicians. Commonly used methods for pathogen detection rely on conventional culture-based tests, antibody-based assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. These methods are costly, laborious and time-consuming. Herein, we present a simple and sensitive aptamer based biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). In this assay, two different aptamers specific for the outmembrane of E. coli O157:H7 were used. One of the aptamers was used for magnetic bead enrichment, and the other was used as a signal reporter for this pathogen, which was amplified by isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) and further detected by a lateral flow biosensor. Only the captured aptamers on cell membrane were amplified, limitations of conventional DNA amplification based method such as false-positive can be largely reduced. The generated signals (red bands on the test zone of a lateral flow strip) can be unambiguously read out by the naked eye. As low as 10 colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli O157:H7 were detected in this study. Without DNA extraction, the reduced handling and simpler equipment requirement render this assay a simple and rapid alternative to conventional methods

  6. Diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection with alpha-defensin using a lateral flow device: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P; Van Cauter, M; Driesen, R; Neyt, J; Cornu, O; Bellemans, J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this current multicentre study is to analyse the presence of alpha-defensin proteins in synovial fluid using the Synovasure lateral flow device and to determine its diagnostic reliability and accuracy compared with the prosthetic joint infection (PJI) criteria produced by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS). A cohort of 121 patients comprising 85 total knee arthroplasties and 36 total hip arthroplasties was prospectively evaluated between May 2015 and June 2016 in three different orthopaedic centres. The tests were performed on patients with a chronically painful prosthesis undergoing a joint aspiration in a diagnostic pathway or during revision surgery. Based on the MSIS criteria, 34 patients (28%) would have had a PJI, and 87 patients had no PJI. Testing with the lateral flow device had a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 84.5 to 99.9) and a specificity of 96.6% (95% CI 90.3 to 99.2). The positive predictive value was 91.7% (95% CI 77.7% to 98.3), and the negative predictive value was 98.8% (95% CI 93.6 to 99.9). Receiver operator characteristics analysis demonstrated an area under the curve for the Synovasure test of 0.97 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.00). Our findings suggest that the Synovasure test has an excellent diagnostic performance to confirm or reject the diagnosis of a PJI. The results are promising for the care of the painful or problematic knee and hip joint arthroplasty and the test should be considered as part of the diagnostic toolbox for PJIs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1176-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. The sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for α-fetoprotein based on enrichment by Fe3O4-Au magnetic nano probes and signal amplification by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hankun; Gan, Ning; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Zeng, Saolin; Zheng, Lei; Guo, Zhiyong

    2012-10-09

    A novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for ultra trace levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) based on sandwich immunoreaction strategy by enrichment using magnetic capture probes and quantum dots coated with Au shell (CdS-Au) as the signal tag. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing the primary antibody of AFP (Ab1) on the core/shell Fe(3)O(4)-Au nanoparticles, which was first employed to capture AFP antigens to form Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP complex from the serum after incubation. The product can be separated from the background solution through the magnetic separation. Then the CdS-Au labeled secondary antibody (Ab2) as signal tag (CdS-Au/Ab2) was conjugated successfully with Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP complex to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex (Fe(3)O(4)-Au/Ab1/AFP/Ab2/CdS-Au), which can be further separated by an external magnetic field and produce ECL signals at a fixed voltage. The signal was proportional to a certain concentration range of AFP for quantification. Thus, an easy-to-use immunosensor with magnetic probes and a quantum dots signal tag was obtained. The immunosensor performed at a level of high sensitivity and a broad concentration range for AFP between 0.0005 and 5.0 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.2 pg mL(-1). The use of magnetic probes was combined with pre-concentration and separation for trace levels of tumor markers in the serum. Due to the amplification of the signal tag, the immunosensor is highly sensitive, which can offer great promise for rapid, simple, selective and cost-effective detection of effective biomonitoring for clinical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs.

  9. Paper-based enzymatic microfluidic fuel cell: From a two-stream flow device to a single-stream lateral flow strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, Maria José; del Campo, F. Javier; Esquivel, Juan Pablo; Giroud, Fabien; Minteer, Shelley D.; Sabaté, Neus

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a first approach towards the development of a cost-effective enzymatic paper-based glucose/O2 microfluidic fuel cell in which fluid transport is based on capillary action. A first fuel cell configuration consists of a Y-shaped paper device with the fuel and the oxidant flowing in parallel over carbon paper electrodes modified with bioelectrocatalytic enzymes. The anode consists of a ferrocenium-based polyethyleneimine polymer linked to glucose oxidase (GOx/Fc-C6-LPEI), while the cathode contains a mixture of laccase, anthracene-modified multiwall carbon nanotubes, and tetrabutylammonium bromide-modified Nafion (MWCNTs/laccase/TBAB-Nafion). Subsequently, the Y-shaped configuration is improved to use a single solution containing both, the anolyte and the catholyte. Thus, the electrolytes pHs of the fuel and the oxidant solutions are adapted to an intermediate pH of 5.5. Finally, the fuel cell is run with this single solution obtaining a maximum open circuit of 0.55 ± 0.04 V and a maximum current and power density of 225 ± 17 μA cm-2 and 24 ± 5 μW cm-2, respectively. Hence, a power source closer to a commercial application (similar to conventional lateral flow test strips) is developed and successfully operated. This system can be used to supply the energy required to power microelectronics demanding low power consumption.

  10. Influence of lateral groundwater flow in a shallow aquifer on eco-hydrological process in a shrub-grass coexistence semiarid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siru; Sun, Jinhua; Lei, Huimin; Zhu, Qiande; Jiang, Sanyuan

    2017-04-01

    Topography has a considerable influence on eco-hydrological processes resulting from the patterns of solar radiation distribution and lateral water flow. However, not much quantitative information on the contribution of lateral groundwater flow on ecological processes such as vegetation growth and evapo-transpiration is available. To fill this gap, we used a simple eco-hydrological model based on water balance with a 3D groundwater module that uses Darcy's law. This model was applied to a non-contributing area of 50km2 dominated by grassland and shrubland with an underlying shallow aquifer. It was calibrated using manually and remotely sensed vegetation data and water flux data observed by eddy covariance system of two flux towers as well as water table data obtained from HOBO recorders of 40 wells. The results demonstrate that the maximum hydraulic gradient and the maximum flux of lateral groundwater flow reached to 0.156m m-1 and 0.093m3 s-1 respectively. The average annual maximum LAI in grassland, predominantly in low-lying areas, improved by about 5.9% while that in shrubland, predominantly in high-lying areas, remained the same when lateral groundwater flow is considered adequately compared to the case without considering lateral groundwater flow. They also show that LAI is positively and nonlinearly related to evapotranspiration, and that the greater the magnitude of evapotranspiration, the smaller the rate of increase of LAI. The results suggest that lateral groundwater flow should not be neglected when simulating eco-hydrological process in areas with a shallow aquifer.

  11. A trench study to assess transfer of pesticides in subsurface lateral flow for a soil with contrasting texture on a sloping vineyard in Beaujolais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, X; Liger, L; Guillemain, C; Gouy, V

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface lateral flow in both texture-contrast soils and catchments with shallow bedrock is suspected to be a non-point source of contamination of watercourses by pesticides used in agriculture. As a case study, the north of the Beaujolais region (eastern France) provides a favorable environment for such contamination due to its agro-pedo-climatic conditions. Environments seen in the Beaujolais region include intense viticulture, permeable and shallow soils, steep hillslopes, and storms that occur during the periods of pesticide application. Watercourse contamination by pesticides has been widely observed in this region, and offsite pesticide transport by subsurface lateral flow is suspected to be involved in diffuse and chronic presence of pesticides in surface water. In order to confirm and quantify the potential role of such processes in pesticide transfer, an automated trench system has been designed. The trench was set up on a steep farmed hillslope in a texture-contrast soil. It was equipped with a tipping bucket flow meter and an automatic sampler to monitor pesticide concentrations in lateral flow at fine resolution, by means of a flow-dependent sampling strategy. Four pesticides currently used in vine growing were studied to provide a range of mobility properties: one insecticide (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and three fungicides (spiroxamine, tebuconazole, and dimethomorph). With this system, it was possible to study pesticide concentration dynamics in the subsurface lateral flow, generated by substantial rainfall events following pesticide applications. The experimental design ascertained to be a suitable method in which to monitor subsurface lateral flow and related transfer of pesticides.

  12. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum [Dept. of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Chul [School of Architectural Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 4} PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit.

  13. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Veronica L; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M; Armson, Bryony; Di Nardo, Antonello; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begoña; Reid, Scott M; Barnett, Paul V; Wadsworth, Jemma; Ferris, Nigel P; Mioulet, Valérie; King, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs) for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates) representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories.

  14. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum; Yang, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10"4 PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit

  15. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 autoantibodies in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kikkas

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells and is strongly associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies. Autoantibodies to tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2As are considered to be highly predictive markers of T1D. We developed a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA based on a bridging format for the rapid detection of IA-2As in human serum samples. In this assay, one site of the IA-2As is bound to HA-tagged-IA-2, which is subsequently captured on the anti-HA-Tag antibody-coated test line on the strip. The other site of the IA-2As is bound to biotinylated IA-2, allowing the complex to be visualized using colloidal gold nanoparticle-conjugated streptavidin. For this study, 35 serum samples from T1D patients and 44 control sera from non-diabetic individuals were analyzed with our novel assay and the results were correlated with two IA-2A ELISAs. Among the 35 serum samples from T1D patients, the IA-2A LFIA, the in-house IA-2A ELISA and the commercial IA-2A ELISA identified as positive 21, 29 and 30 IA-2A-positive sera, respectively. The major advantages of the IA-2A LFIA are its rapidity and simplicity.

  16. Effects of Air Stacking Maneuver on Cough Peak Flow and Chest Wall Compartmental Volumes of Subjects With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Antonio; Resqueti, Vanessa; Dourado-Júnior, Mario; Saturnino, Lailane; Aliverti, Andrea; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas

    2017-11-01

    To assess the acute effects of air stacking on cough peak flow (CPF) and chest wall compartmental volumes of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy subjects positioned at 45° body inclination. Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. University hospital. Persons (N=24) with ALS (n=12) and age-matched healthy subjects (n=12). CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity, chest wall vital capacity, chest wall tidal volume and operational volumes, breathing pattern, and percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume were measured by optoelectronic plethysmography. Compared with healthy subjects, significantly lower CPF (P=.007), chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (Pprotocol in the healthy subjects, mainly because of end-inspiratory (P<.001) and abdominal volumes (P=.008). No significant differences were observed in percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume and end-expiratory volume of both groups. No significant differences were found in chest wall tidal volume, operational volume, and breathing pattern in persons with ALS. Air stacking is effective in increasing CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity, and chest wall vital capacity of persons with ALS with no hyperinflation. Differences in compartmental volume contributions are probably because of lung and chest wall physiological changes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contactless Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Lateral Flow Strips Using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR) Sensors in Differential Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Huaming; Wang, Kan; Ji, Xiaojun; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-12-14

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are commonly used in biomedical detection due to their capability to bind with some specific antibodies. Quantification of biological entities could be realized by measuring the magnetic response of MNPs after the binding process. This paper presents a contactless scanning prototype based on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors for quantification of MNPs present in lateral flow strips (LFSs). The sensing unit of the prototype composes of two active TMR elements, which are parallel and closely arranged to form a differential sensing configuration in a perpendicular magnetic field. Geometrical parameters of the configuration are optimized according to theoretical analysis of the stray magnetic field produced by the test line (T-line) while strips being scanned. A brief description of our prototype and the sample preparation is presented. Experimental results show that the prototype exhibits the performance of high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability. Meanwhile, the detection speed has been improved compared with existing similar techniques. The proposed prototype demonstrates a good sensitivity for detecting samples containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at a concentration of 25 mIU/mL. The T-line produced by the sample with low concentration is almost beyond the visual limit and produces a maximum stray magnetic field some 0.247 mOe at the sensor in the x direction.

  18. Contactless Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Lateral Flow Strips Using Tunneling Magnetoresistance (TMR Sensors in Differential Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are commonly used in biomedical detection due to their capability to bind with some specific antibodies. Quantification of biological entities could be realized by measuring the magnetic response of MNPs after the binding process. This paper presents a contactless scanning prototype based on tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR sensors for quantification of MNPs present in lateral flow strips (LFSs. The sensing unit of the prototype composes of two active TMR elements, which are parallel and closely arranged to form a differential sensing configuration in a perpendicular magnetic field. Geometrical parameters of the configuration are optimized according to theoretical analysis of the stray magnetic field produced by the test line (T-line while strips being scanned. A brief description of our prototype and the sample preparation is presented. Experimental results show that the prototype exhibits the performance of high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability. Meanwhile, the detection speed has been improved compared with existing similar techniques. The proposed prototype demonstrates a good sensitivity for detecting samples containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG at a concentration of 25 mIU/mL. The T-line produced by the sample with low concentration is almost beyond the visual limit and produces a maximum stray magnetic field some 0.247 mOe at the sensor in the x direction.

  19. Improved assay to detect Plasmodium falciparum using an uninterrupted, semi-nested PCR and quantitative lateral flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapid, non-invasive, and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for malaria followed by therapeutic intervention would improve the ability to control infection in endemic areas. Methods A semi-nested PCR amplification protocol is described for quantitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum and is compared to a traditional nested PCR. The approach uses primers that target the P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase gene. Results This study demonstrates that it is possible to perform an uninterrupted, asymmetric, semi-nested PCR assay with reduced assay time to detect P. falciparum without compromising the sensitivity and specificity of the assay using saliva as a testing matrix. Conclusions The development of this PCR allows nucleic acid amplification without the need to transfer amplicon from the first PCR step to a second reaction tube with nested primers, thus reducing both the chance of contamination and the time for analysis to PCR amplicon yield was adapted to lateral flow detection using the quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter technology. This approach provides a basis for migration of the assay to a POC microfluidic format. In addition the assay was successfully evaluated with oral samples. Oral fluid collection provides a simple non-invasive method to collect clinical samples. PMID:23433252

  20. The sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein based on enrichment by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au magnetic nano probes and signal amplification by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hankun [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Gan Ning, E-mail: ganning@nbu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Li Tianhua; Cao Yuting; Zeng Saolin [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Zheng Lei, E-mail: nfyyzl@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Guo Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2012-10-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sandwich immunoreaction, testing a large number of samples simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic separation and enrichment by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au magnetic nano probes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amplification of detection signal by CdS-Au composite nanoparticles labeled anti-AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost no background signal, which greatly improve the sensitivity of detection. - Abstract: A novel and sensitive sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for ultra trace levels of {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) based on sandwich immunoreaction strategy by enrichment using magnetic capture probes and quantum dots coated with Au shell (CdS-Au) as the signal tag. The capture probe was prepared by immobilizing the primary antibody of AFP (Ab1) on the core/shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanoparticles, which was first employed to capture AFP antigens to form Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au/Ab1/AFP complex from the serum after incubation. The product can be separated from the background solution through the magnetic separation. Then the CdS-Au labeled secondary antibody (Ab2) as signal tag (CdS-Au/Ab2) was conjugated successfully with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au/Ab1/AFP complex to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au/Ab1/AFP/Ab2/CdS-Au), which can be further separated by an external magnetic field and produce ECL signals at a fixed voltage. The signal was proportional to a certain concentration range of AFP for quantification. Thus, an easy-to-use immunosensor with magnetic probes and a quantum dots signal tag was obtained. The immunosensor performed at a level of high sensitivity and a broad concentration range for AFP between 0.0005 and 5.0 ng mL{sup -1} with a detection limit of 0.2 pg mL{sup -1}. The use of magnetic probes was combined with pre-concentration and separation for trace levels of tumor markers in the serum. Due to the

  1. Subsurface lateral flow from hillslope and its contribution to nitrate loading in streams through an agricultural catchment during subtropical rainstorm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface lateral flow from agricultural hillslopes is often overlooked compared with overland flow and tile drain flow, partly due to the difficulties in monitoring and quantifying. The objectives of this study were to examine how subsurface lateral flow generated through soil pedons from cropped hillslopes and to quantify its contribution to nitrate loading in the streams through an agricultural catchment in the subtropical region of China. Profiles of soil water potential along hillslopes and stream hydro-chemographs in a trenched stream below a cropped hillslope and at the catchment outlet were simultaneously recorded during two rainstorm events. The dynamics of soil water potential showed positive matrix soil water potential over impermeable soil layer at 0.6 to 1.50 m depths during and after the storms, indicating soil water saturation and drainage processes along the hillslopes irrespective of land uses. The hydro-chemographs in the streams, one trenched below a cropped hillslope and one at the catchment outlet, showed that the concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus corresponded well to stream flow during the storm, while the nitrate concentration increased on the recession limbs of the hydrographs after the end of the storm. All the synchronous data revealed that nitrate was delivered from the cropped hillslope through subsurface lateral flow to the streams during and after the end of the rainstorms. A chemical mixing model based on electricity conductivity (EC and H+ concentration was successfully established, particularly for the trenched stream. The results showed that the subsurface lateral flow accounted for 29% to 45% of total stream flow in the trenched stream, responsible for 86% of total NO3-N loss (or 26% of total N loss, and for 5.7% to 7.3% of total stream flow at the catchment outlet, responsible for about 69% of total NO3-N loss (or 28% of total N

  2. Development of multiplex loop mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow dipstick biosensor for detection of pathogenic Leptospira

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Najian, A.B.; Engku Nur Syafirah, E.A.R.; Ismail, Nabilah; Mohamed, Maizan; Yean, Chan Yean

    2016-01-01

    In recent years extensive numbers of molecular diagnostic methods have been developed to meet the need of point-of-care devices. Efforts have been made towards producing rapid, simple and inexpensive DNA tests, especially in the diagnostics field. We report on the development of a label-based lateral flow dipstick for the rapid and simple detection of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) amplicons. A label-based m-LAMP lateral flow dipstick assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of target DNA template and a LAMP internal control. This biosensor operates through a label based system, in which probe-hybridization and the additional incubation step are eliminated. We demonstrated this m-LAMP assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes the re-emerging disease Leptospirosis. The lateral flow dipstick was developed to detect of three targets, the LAMP target amplicon, the LAMP internal control amplicon and a chromatography control. Three lines appeared on the dipstick, indicating positive results for all representative pathogenic Leptospira species, whereas two lines appeared, indicating negative results, for other bacterial species. The specificity of this biosensor assay was 100% when it was tested with 13 representative pathogenic Leptospira species, 2 intermediate Leptospira species, 1 non-pathogenic Leptospira species and 28 other bacteria species. This study found that this DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at concentrations as low as 3.95 × 10 −1 genomic equivalent ml −1 . An integrated m-LAMP and label-based lateral flow dipstick was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and serving as a point-of-care device. - Highlights: • We develop multiplex LAMP label-based lateral flow dipstick biosensor for detection of pathogenic Leptospira. • We design primers for multiplex LAMP targeting the conserved LipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira and LAMP internal

  3. Development of multiplex loop mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow dipstick biosensor for detection of pathogenic Leptospira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurul Najian, A.B.; Engku Nur Syafirah, E.A.R.; Ismail, Nabilah [Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Mohamed, Maizan [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, City Campus, Pengkalan Chepa, Locked Bag 36, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Yean, Chan Yean, E-mail: yeancyn@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    In recent years extensive numbers of molecular diagnostic methods have been developed to meet the need of point-of-care devices. Efforts have been made towards producing rapid, simple and inexpensive DNA tests, especially in the diagnostics field. We report on the development of a label-based lateral flow dipstick for the rapid and simple detection of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) amplicons. A label-based m-LAMP lateral flow dipstick assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of target DNA template and a LAMP internal control. This biosensor operates through a label based system, in which probe-hybridization and the additional incubation step are eliminated. We demonstrated this m-LAMP assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes the re-emerging disease Leptospirosis. The lateral flow dipstick was developed to detect of three targets, the LAMP target amplicon, the LAMP internal control amplicon and a chromatography control. Three lines appeared on the dipstick, indicating positive results for all representative pathogenic Leptospira species, whereas two lines appeared, indicating negative results, for other bacterial species. The specificity of this biosensor assay was 100% when it was tested with 13 representative pathogenic Leptospira species, 2 intermediate Leptospira species, 1 non-pathogenic Leptospira species and 28 other bacteria species. This study found that this DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at concentrations as low as 3.95 × 10{sup −1} genomic equivalent ml{sup −1}. An integrated m-LAMP and label-based lateral flow dipstick was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and serving as a point-of-care device. - Highlights: • We develop multiplex LAMP label-based lateral flow dipstick biosensor for detection of pathogenic Leptospira. • We design primers for multiplex LAMP targeting the conserved LipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira and LAMP

  4. Underwater tracking of a moving dipole source using an artificial lateral line: algorithm and experimental validation with ionic polymer–metal composite flow sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T; Tan, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. Based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, we formulate a nonlinear estimation problem that aims to minimize the error between the measured and model-predicted magnitudes of flow velocities at the sensor sites, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss–Newton scheme. A sliding discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) algorithm is proposed to efficiently compute the evolving signal magnitudes based on the flow velocity measurements. Simulation indicates that it is adequate and more computationally efficient to use only the signal magnitudes corresponding to the dipole vibration frequency. Finally, experiments conducted with an artificial lateral line consisting of six ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) flow sensors demonstrate that the proposed scheme is able to simultaneously locate the moving dipole and estimate its vibration amplitude and traveling speed with small errors. (paper)

  5. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Point-of-Need infrared mediated PCR platform with compatible lateral flow strip for HPV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Mingfang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sharma, Alok; Ding, Xianting

    2017-10-15

    With the increasing need of monitoring the epidemiology of serious infectious diseases, food hygiene, food additives and pesticide residues, it is urgent to develop portable, easy-to-use, inexpensive and rapid molecular diagnostic tools. Herein, we demonstrate a prototype of IR mediated Conducting Oil and CarbOn Nanotube circUlaTing PCR (IR-COCONUT PCR) platform for nucleic acid amplification. The presented platform offers a new solution for miniaturized PCR instruments with non-contact heaters by using conducting oil and carbon nanotube as a medium in IR mediated PCR. This novel platform offers accurate and flexible control of temperature through the integration of PID (proportional-integral-derivative) algorithms to manipulate the duty cycle of the voltage signals of IR LED and a peristaltic pump. The ramping rate of the introduced platform in current study is 1.5°C/s for heating speed and -2.0°C/s for cooling speed. This platform fulfills 30 thermal cycles within 50min which is a match to the conventional bench-top PCR thermo cyclers. For demonstration purpose, human papillomavirus (HPV) patient cervical swab specimens were examined. Downstream lateral flow strip (LFS) was also developed to quantity the PCR products from the IR-COCONUT PCR device within 25min. This PCR platform together with the compatible LFS shows great potential for in-field and Point-of-Need (PoN) testing of genetic or contagious diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by super-paramagnetic lateral-flow immunoassays based on "Road Closure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian-Bing; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Xu-Ying; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Li-Jun; Yang, Rui-Fu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2015-05-15

    Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the field, whether as a natural infection or as a biothreat remains challenging. Here we have developed a new lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) for B. anthracis spore detection based on the fact that conjugates of B. anthracis spores and super-paramagnetic particles labeled with antibodies will block the pores of chromatographic strips and form retention lines on the strips, instead of the conventionally reported test lines and control lines in classic LFIA. As a result, this new LFIA can simultaneously realize optical, magnetic and naked-eye detection by analyzing signals from the retention lines. As few as 500-700 pure B. anthracis spores can be recognized with CV values less than 8.31% within 5 min of chromatography and a total time of 20 min. For powdery sample tests, this LFIA can endure interference from 25% (w/v) milk, 10% (w/v) baking soda and 10% (w/v) starch without any sample pre-treatment, and has a corresponding detection limit of 6×10(4) spores/g milk powder, 2×10(5) spores/g starch and 5×10(5) spores/g baking soda. Compared with existing methods, this new approach is very competitive in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost and ease of operation. This proof-of-concept study can also be extended for detection of many other large-sized analytes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica L Fowler

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories.

  9. Enhancing the lateral-flow immunoassay for detection of proteins using an aqueous two-phase micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Foad; Le, Alexander M; Nafisi, Parsa M; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2012-10-01

    The lateral-flow (immuno)assay (LFA) has been widely investigated for the detection of molecular, macromolecular, and particle targets at the point-of-need due to its ease of use, rapid processing, and minimal power and laboratory equipment requirements. However, for some analytes, such as certain proteins, the detection limit of LFA is inferior to lab-based assays, such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and needs to be improved. One solution for improving the detection limit of LFA is to concentrate the target protein in a solution prior to the detection step. In this study, a novel approach was used in the context of an aqueous two-phase micellar system comprised of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to concentrate a model protein, namely transferrin, prior to LFA. Proteins have been shown to partition, or distribute, fairly evenly between the two phases of an aqueous two-phase system, which in turn results in their limited concentration in one of the two phases. Therefore, larger colloidal gold particles decorated with antibodies for transferrin were used in the concentration step to bind to transferrin and aid its partitioning into the top, micelle-poor phase. By manipulating the volume ratio of the two coexisting micellar phases and combining the concentration step with LFA, the transferrin detection limit of LFA was improved by tenfold from 0.5 to 0.05 μg/mL in a predictive manner. In addition to enhancing the sensitivity of LFA, this universal concentration method could also be used to improve other detection assays.

  10. Field-evaluation of a new lateral flow assay for detection of cellular and humoral immunity against Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobosha, Kidist; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Bekele, Yonas; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J; de Dood, Claudia J; Dijkman, Karin; Franken, Kees L M C; Wilson, Louis; Aseffa, Abraham; Spencer, John S; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Geluk, Annemieke

    2014-05-01

    Field-applicable tests detecting asymptomatic Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection or predicting progression to leprosy, are urgently required. Since the outcome of M. leprae infection is determined by cellular- and humoral immunity, we aim to develop diagnostic tests detecting pro-/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as antibodies against M. leprae. Previously, we developed lateral flow assays (LFA) for detection of cytokines and anti-PGL-I antibodies. Here we evaluate progress of newly developed LFAs for applications in resource-poor settings. The combined diagnostic value of IP-10, IL-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies was tested using M. leprae-stimulated blood of leprosy patients and endemic controls (EC). For reduction of the overall test-to-result time the minimal whole blood assay time required to detect distinctive responses was investigated. To accommodate LFAs for field settings, dry-format LFAs for IP-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies were developed allowing storage and shipment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, a multiplex LFA-format was applied for simultaneous detection of anti-PGL-I antibodies and IP-10. For improved sensitivity and quantitation upconverting phosphor (UCP) reporter technology was applied in all LFAs. Single and multiplex UCP-LFAs correlated well with ELISAs. The performance of dry reagent assays and portable, lightweight UCP-LF strip readers indicated excellent field-robustness. Notably, detection of IP-10 levels in stimulated samples allowed a reduction of the whole blood assay time from 24 h to 6 h. Moreover, IP-10/IL-10 ratios in unstimulated plasma differed significantly between patients and EC, indicating the feasibility to identify M. leprae infection in endemic areas. Dry-format UCP-LFAs are low-tech, robust assays allowing detection of relevant cytokines and antibodies in response to M. leprae in the field. The high levels of IP-10 and the required shorter whole blood assay time, render this cytokine useful to

  11. Hollow nanogold microsphere-signalized lateral flow immuno dipstick for the sensitive determination of the neurotoxin brevetoxin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangyao; Wu, Jiachang; Li, Yineng; Wu, Yarong; Huang, Tianfu; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new membrane-based lateral-flow assay for the rapid determination of the algal biotoxin brevetoxin B (BrevTox) that can be found in fish. Hollow nanogold microspheres (HGMS) with an average size of 45 nm were synthesized by using the reverse micelle method, followed by functionalization with monoclonal mouse anti-BrevTox antibody (mAb-HGMS). They served as the signalling reagent. Bovine serum albumin-BrevTox conjugate and rabbit anti-mouse IgG antibody were manually spotted on the nitrocellulose membrane and served as reagents for the test line and control line, respectively. Both spherical gold nanoparticle-labeled anti-BrevTox antibody (mAb-AuNP) and mAb-HGMS conjugate were investigated with respect to their suitability as signal-transduction tags, and the latter was found to give improved analytical features. The HGMS-based labeling method was then also studied in terms of performance in the immuno dipstick assay. Under optimal conditions, the visual detection limit (cut-off value) of the mAb-AuNP based assay is 1.5 ng mL −1 , while the sensitivity of the mAb-HGMS based assay is as low as 0.1 ng mL −1 . Yes/no decisions can be made within 10 min without the need for expensive instrumentation. The results for the analysis of target BrevTox in spiked fish samples showed a good correlation with data obtained with the commercial ELISA. Importantly, the assay gave no false negative results. (author)

  12. Development of multiple cross displacement amplification label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor for detection of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi Wang,1 Hui Li,1,2 Yan Wang,1 Hua Li,1 Lijuan Luo,1 Jianguo Xu,1 Changyun Ye1 1State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing, 2Department of Microbiology, GuiZhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, one of most problematic foodborne pathogens, is responsible for listeriosis in both humans and animals and mainly transmitted through the food chain. In this report, we propose a simple, rapid, and nearly instrument-free molecular technique using multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor (LFB for specific, sensitive, and visual detection of L. monocytogenes. The MCDA-LFB method was carried out at a constant temperature (61°C for only 20 min during the reaction stage, and then the amplification mixtures were directly detected by using LFB, eliminating the use of an electrophoresis instrument, special reagents, or amplicon analysis equipment. The whole procedure, from sample processing to result indicating, was finished within 1 h. The analytical specificity of MCDA-LFB method was successfully determined by distinguishing the target bacterium from other pathogens. The analytical sensitivity of the MCDA-LFB assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture, which was in complete accordance with MCDA by gel electrophoresis, real-time turbidity, and colorimetric indicator. The assay was also successfully applied to detecting L. monocytogenes in pork samples. Therefore, the rapidity, simplicity, and nearly equipment-free platform of the MCDA-LFB technique make it possible for food control, clinical diagnosis, and more. The proof-of-concept assay can be reconfigured to detect

  13. Development of multiple cross displacement amplification label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow biosensor for detection of Shigella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp., the etiological agent of shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in excess of a million deaths globally per year. Although PCR-based techniques (such as PCR-based dipstick biosensors have been used for the molecular diagnosis of infectious disease, these assays were restricted due to the need for a sophisticated thermal cycling apparatus to denature target templates. To facilitate simple and rapid detection of target pathogens, we successfully devised an inexpensive, reliable and nearly instrument-free molecular technique, which incorporates multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA combined with a newly designed lateral flow biosensor (LFB for visual, sensitive and specific detection of Shigella. The MCDA-LFB assay was conducted at 65 ˚C for only 20 min during the amplification stage, and then products were directly analyzed on the biosensor, alleviating the use of special reagents, electrophoresis equipment and amplicon detection instruments. The entire process, including specimen processing (35 min, amplification (20 and detection (2-5 min, can be finished within 1 h. The MCDA-LFB assay demonstrated high specificity for Shigella detection. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 fg of genomic templates per reaction in pure culture and 5.86 CFU per tube in human fecal samples, which was consistent with MCDA by colorimetric indicator, gel electrophoresis, real time turbidity and fluorescence detection. Hence, the simplicity, rapidity and nearly instrument-free platform of the MCDA-LFB assay make it practical for ‘on-site’ diagnosis, point-of-care testing and more. Moreover, the proof-of-concept approach can be reconfigured to detect a wide variety of target sequences by re-designing the specific MCDA primers.

  14. Integrated Lateral Flow Test Strip with Electrochemical Sensor for Quantification of Phosphorylated Cholinesterase: Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-02-08

    An integrated lateral flow test strip with electrochemical sensor (LFTSES) device with rapid, selective and sensitive response for quantification of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents has been developed. The principle of this approach is based on parallel measurements of post-exposure and baseline acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, where reactivation of the phosphorylated AChE is exploited to enable measurement of total amount of AChE (including inhibited and active) which is used as a baseline for calculation of AChE inhibition. Quantitative measurement of phosphorylated adduct (OP-AChE) was realized by subtracting the active AChE from the total amount of AChE. The proposed LFTSES device integrates immunochromatographic test strip technology with electrochemical measurement using a disposable screen printed electrode which is located under the test zone. It shows linear response between AChE enzyme activity and enzyme concentration from 0.05 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM. Based on this reactivation approach, the LFTSES device has been successfully applied for in vitro red blood cells inhibition studies using chlorpyrifos oxon as a model OP agent. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure because of individual variation of normal AChE values, but also avoids the problem in overlapping substrate specificity with cholinesterases and avoids potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It is baseline free and thus provides a rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive tool for in-field and point-of-care assessment of exposures to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

  15. Development of improved enzyme-based and lateral flow immunoassays for rapid and accurate serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Novak, Analía; Melli, Luciano J; Elena, Sebastián; Corbera, Natalia; Romero, Juan E; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sandwich-Type Electrochemiluminescence Sensor for Detection of NT-proBNP by Using High Efficiency Quench Strategy of Fe3O4@PDA toward Ru(bpy)32+ Coordinated with Silver Oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li; Li, Xiaojian; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Yaoguang; Du, Bin; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin; Pang, Xuehui

    2017-12-22

    Heart failure (HF) is a burgeoning public health problem trigged by a heart circulation disorder. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been acknowledged as a prognostic biomarker for cardiac disease. Herein, a sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was introduced for sensitive detection of NT-proBNP. Gold nanoparticle modified graphene oxide-Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /Ag 2 C 2 O 4 was used as a luminophore and a desirable platform for immobilization of the captured antibodies. The more stable immobilization of plentiful Ru(bpy) 3 2+ could be implemented by direct covalent bonding chelation with Ag 2 C 2 O 4 . More importantly, significant quenching can be achieved by introducing polydopamine (PDA) coated Fe 3 O 4 onto the electrode via sandwich immunoreactions. The quenching mechanism mainly showed that the excited states of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ could be annihilated by quinone units in PDA via energy transfer. The ECL quenching efficiency was logarithmically related to the concentration of the NT-proBNP in the range from 0.0005 ng/mL to 100.0 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.28 pg/mL. Furthermore, this specific immunosensor presented good stability and repeatability as well as selectivity, which offers a guiding significance in both fundamental and clinical diagnosis of NT-proBNP.

  17. CASPT2 study of inverse sandwich-type dinuclear Cr(I) and Fe(I) complexes of the dinitrogen molecule: significant differences in spin multiplicity and coordination structure between these two complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Masayuki; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2014-02-20

    Inverse sandwich-type complexes (ISTCs), (μ-N2)[M(AIP)]2 (AIPH = (Z)-1-amino-3-imino-prop-1-ene; M = Cr and Fe), were investigated with the CASPT2 method. In the ISTC of Cr, the ground state takes a singlet spin multiplicity. However, the singlet to nonet spin states are close in energy to each other. The thermal average of effective magnetic moments (μeff) of these spin multiplicities is close to the experimental value. The η(2)-side-on coordination structure of N2 is calculated to be more stable than the η(1)-end-on coordination one. This is because the d-orbital of Cr forms a strong dπ-π* bonding interaction with the π* orbital of N2 in molecular plane. In the ISTC of Fe, on the other hand, the ground state takes a septet spin multiplicity, which agrees well with the experimentally reported μeff value. The η(1)-end-on structure of N2 is more stable than the η(2)-side-on structure. In the η(1)-end-on structure, two doubly occupied d-orbitals of Fe can form two dπ-π* bonding interactions. The negative spin density is found on the bridging N2 ligand in the Fe complex but is not in the Cr complex. All these interesting differences between ISTCs of Cr and Fe are discussed on the basis of the electronic structure and bonding nature.

  18. Current transport and electronic states in a,b-axis-oriented YBa2Cu3O7/PrBa2Cu3O7/YBa2Cu3O7 sandwich-type junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, J.; Nagano, T.; Hashimoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    Precise measurement of the temperature and voltage dependence of junction conductance has been carried out for a,b-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 sandwich-type junctions to investigate the possible origin of Josephson coupling in these junctions. Regardless of the presence or absence of the Josephson effect, most of the junctions exhibited a dip in conductance around zero voltage in their dI/dV profiles at low temperatures. This dI/dV anomaly was attributed to the existence of a minimum in the density of states due to electron-electron interaction in disordered metals in the vicinity of a tunneling barrier within the junctions. The complex temperature dependence of junction conductance was reproduced well by a theoretical model in which both tunneling conduction paths and variable range hopping paths were assumed to exist within the PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 barrier layer. No definite evidence of current transport through a small number of localized levels or a metallic conduction path in PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has been confirmed, even for junctions with a 20-nm-thick barrier layer. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Simpanen, A L; Olkkonen, H; Haring, P

    1976-02-01

    The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left lateral recumbent position to the upright position, which caused a statistically significant 23% decrease in the mean accumulation rate. Other haemodynamic variables studied were the maternal heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The clinical significance of the haemodynamic changes produced by alterations in posture are briefly discussed.

  20. Field-evaluation of a new lateral flow assay for detection of cellular and humoral immunity against Mycobacterium leprae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidist Bobosha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Field-applicable tests detecting asymptomatic Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection or predicting progression to leprosy, are urgently required. Since the outcome of M. leprae infection is determined by cellular- and humoral immunity, we aim to develop diagnostic tests detecting pro-/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as antibodies against M. leprae. Previously, we developed lateral flow assays (LFA for detection of cytokines and anti-PGL-I antibodies. Here we evaluate progress of newly developed LFAs for applications in resource-poor settings. METHODS: The combined diagnostic value of IP-10, IL-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies was tested using M. leprae-stimulated blood of leprosy patients and endemic controls (EC. For reduction of the overall test-to-result time the minimal whole blood assay time required to detect distinctive responses was investigated. To accommodate LFAs for field settings, dry-format LFAs for IP-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies were developed allowing storage and shipment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, a multiplex LFA-format was applied for simultaneous detection of anti-PGL-I antibodies and IP-10. For improved sensitivity and quantitation upconverting phosphor (UCP reporter technology was applied in all LFAs. RESULTS: Single and multiplex UCP-LFAs correlated well with ELISAs. The performance of dry reagent assays and portable, lightweight UCP-LF strip readers indicated excellent field-robustness. Notably, detection of IP-10 levels in stimulated samples allowed a reduction of the whole blood assay time from 24 h to 6 h. Moreover, IP-10/IL-10 ratios in unstimulated plasma differed significantly between patients and EC, indicating the feasibility to identify M. leprae infection in endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: Dry-format UCP-LFAs are low-tech, robust assays allowing detection of relevant cytokines and antibodies in response to M. leprae in the field. The high levels of IP-10 and the required

  1. Visualization study of interaction with 2-D film flow on the vertical plate and lateral air velocity for DVI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sol; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong Jin; Kim, Jong Rok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The present study investigates liquid film flow generated in a downcomer of direct vessel injection (DVI) system which is employed as an emergency core cooling (ECC) system during a loss of coolant accident in the Korea nuclear power plant APR1400. During the late reflooding, complicated multi-phase flow phenomena including the wavy film flow, film breakup, entrainment, liquid film shift due to interfacial drag and gas jet impingement occur. In order to obtain a proper scaling law of the flow, local information of the flow was investigated experimentally and also numerically. A series of experiments were conducted in the 1/20 modified linear scaled plate type test rig to analyze a liquid film from ECC water injection through the DVI nozzle to the downcomer wall. A confocal chromatic sensor was used to measure the local instantaneous liquid film thickness. In this study, the average flow information of the downcomer was analyzed through the information about the thickness, speed, droplet size and speed of highly precise liquid film flow in the structure that occurs in a 2-dimensional liquid film flow, rather than film flow, onset of entrainment, droplet velocity, and size which have been studied in 1-dimension of the existing annular flow. The multi-dimensional flow characteristic information of downcomer can be utilized as the basic data for nuclear safety analysis in the future.

  2. Development of multiplex loop mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) label-based gold nanoparticles lateral flow dipstick biosensor for detection of pathogenic Leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Najian, A B; Engku Nur Syafirah, E A R; Ismail, Nabilah; Mohamed, Maizan; Yean, Chan Yean

    2016-01-15

    In recent years extensive numbers of molecular diagnostic methods have been developed to meet the need of point-of-care devices. Efforts have been made towards producing rapid, simple and inexpensive DNA tests, especially in the diagnostics field. We report on the development of a label-based lateral flow dipstick for the rapid and simple detection of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (m-LAMP) amplicons. A label-based m-LAMP lateral flow dipstick assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of target DNA template and a LAMP internal control. This biosensor operates through a label based system, in which probe-hybridization and the additional incubation step are eliminated. We demonstrated this m-LAMP assay by detecting pathogenic Leptospira, which causes the re-emerging disease Leptospirosis. The lateral flow dipstick was developed to detect of three targets, the LAMP target amplicon, the LAMP internal control amplicon and a chromatography control. Three lines appeared on the dipstick, indicating positive results for all representative pathogenic Leptospira species, whereas two lines appeared, indicating negative results, for other bacterial species. The specificity of this biosensor assay was 100% when it was tested with 13 representative pathogenic Leptospira species, 2 intermediate Leptospira species, 1 non-pathogenic Leptospira species and 28 other bacteria species. This study found that this DNA biosensor was able to detect DNA at concentrations as low as 3.95 × 10(-1) genomic equivalent ml(-1). An integrated m-LAMP and label-based lateral flow dipstick was successfully developed, promising simple and rapid visual detection in clinical diagnostics and serving as a point-of-care device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel approach based on one-tube nested PCR and a lateral flow strip for highly sensitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajuan; Chen, Jiajun; Li, Jia; Xu, Yawei; Jin, Hui; Xu, Na; Yin, Rui; Hu, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb) in cerebrospinal fluid is crucial in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), but conventional diagnostic technologies have limited sensitivity and specificity or are time-consuming. In this work, a novel, highly sensitive molecular diagnostic method, one-tube nested PCR-lateral flow strip test (OTNPCR-LFST), was developed for detecting M. tuberculosis. This one-tube nested PCR maintains the sensitivity of conventional two-step nested PCR and reduces both the chance of cross-contamination and the time required for analysis. The PCR product was detected by a lateral flow strip assay, which provided a basis for migration of the test to a point-of-care (POC) microfluidic format. The developed assay had an improved sensitivity compared with traditional PCR, and the limit of detection was up to 1 fg DNA isolated from M. tuberculosis. The assay was also specific for M. tuberculosis, and no cross-reactions were found in other non-target bacteria. The application of this technique to clinical samples was successfully evaluated, and OTNPCR-LFST showed 89% overall sensitivity and 100% specificity for TBM patients. This one-tube nested PCR-lateral flow strip assay is useful for detecting M. tuberculosis in TBM due to its rapidity, high sensitivity and simple manipulation.

  4. Facile preparation of ZIF-8@Pd-CSS sandwich-type microspheres via in situ growth of ZIF-8 shells over Pd-loaded colloidal carbon spheres with aggregation-resistant and leach-proof properties for the Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tong; Lin, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Zhang, Xiongfu, E-mail: xfzhang@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu, Haiou; Yan, Xinjuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu, Zhang; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform-sized colloidal carbon spheres were synthesized from low-cost glucose. • Pd nanoparticles were loaded onto the carbon spheres via self-reduction method. • A layer of ZIF-8 shell was in situ grown over the Pd-loaded carbon spheres. • The ZIF-8@Pd-CCS showed leach-proof and aggregation-resistant properties of Pd. - Abstract: Aiming to enhance the stability of noble metal nanoparticles that are anchored on the surface of colloidal carbon spheres (CCSs), we designed and prepared a new kind of sandwich-structured ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microsphere. Typically, uniform CCSs were first synthesized by the aromatization and carbonization of glucose under hydrothermal conditions. Subsequently, noble metal nanoparticles, herein Pd nanoparticles, were attached to the surface of CCSs via self-reduction route, followed by in situ assembly of a thin layer of ZIF-8 over the Pd nanoparticles to form the sandwich-type ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra confirmed the presence of crystalline ZIF-8, while TEM analysis revealed that the ZIF-8 shells were closely bound to the Pd-loaded CCSs. The shell thickness could be tuned by varying the ZIF-8 assembly cycles. Further, liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1-hexene as the probe reaction was carried out over the ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres and results showed that the prepared microspheres exhibited excellent agglomeration-resistant and leach-proof properties for the Pd nanoparticles, thus leading to the good reusability of the ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres.

  5. An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on the signal amplification system of double-deck gold film and thionine unite with platinum nanowire inlaid globular SBA-15 microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Mingdang; Pei, Fubin; Li, Yueyun; Liu, Qing; Dong, Yunhui; Chu, Qingyan; Zhu, Hongjun

    2017-05-15

    A novel thionine unites with platinum nanowire inlaid globular SBA-15 (Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi) not only utilizes as an efficient electrical signal probe but also constitutes an amplifying system with double-deck gold film (D-Au film) have been applied to the fabrication of sandwich-type immunosensor for detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag). The D-Au film can accelerate the electron transfer on the electrode interface due to the tunneling effect between the two Au films and can improve the load capacity of primary antibodies (Ab 1 ) because of the good biocompatibility. The Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi with uniform globular morphology not only can effectively reduce the spatial limitation for loading the secondary antibodies (Ab 2 ) but also can provide outstanding pore accessibility of guest species from outside and offer catalytically active sites in a large scale. Besides, the presence of Thi can well enhance the electrical conductivity of Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi. With the good cooperation between D-Au film and Pt NWs@g-SBA-15/Thi, a linear relationship between current signals and the concentrations of HBs Ag was obtained in the wide range from 10 fg/mL to 100ng/mL and the detection limit of HBs Ag was 3.3 fg/mL (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Furthermore, the designed immunosensor with excellent selectivity, reproducibility and stability shows excellent performance in detection of human serum samples and provides a promising capacity for detecting a wide range of other tumor markers in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of lateral terrestrial water flows to the regional hydrological cycle: A joint soil-atmospheric moisture tagging procedure with WRF-Hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Wei, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wagner, Sven; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Water resources management requires an accurate knowledge of the behavior of the regional hydrological cycle components, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge and soil water storage. Atmospheric models such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provide a tool to evaluate these components. The main drawback of these atmospheric models, however, is that the terrestrial segment of the hydrological cycle is reduced to vertical infiltration, and that lateral terrestrial water flows are neglected. Recent model developments have focused on coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling systems, such as WRF-hydro, in order to take into account subsurface, overland and river flow. The aim of this study is to investigate the contribution of lateral terrestrial water flows to the regional hydrological cycle, with the help of a joint soil-atmospheric moisture tagging procedure. This procedure is the extended version of an existing atmospheric moisture tagging method developed in WRF and WRF-Hydro (Arnault et al. 2017). It is used to quantify the partitioning of precipitation into water stored in the soil, runoff, evapotranspiration, and potentially subsequent precipitation through regional recycling. An application to a high precipitation event on 23 June 2009 in the upper Danube river basin, Germany and Austria, is presented. Precipitating water during this day is tagged for the period 2009-2011. Its contribution to runoff and evapotranspiration decreases with time, but is still not negligible in the summer 2011. At the end of the study period, less than 5 % of the precipitating water on 23 June 2009 remains in the soil. The additionally resolved lateral terrestrial water flows in WRF-Hydro modify the partitioning between surface and underground runoff, in association with a slight increase of evapotranspiration and recycled precipitation. Reference: Arnault, J., R. Knoche, J. Wei, and H. Kunstmann (2016), Evaporation tagging and atmospheric

  7. Realtime estimation of city gas pipe network damage by lateral flow of liquefied ground behind quay walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, E.; Isoyama, R. [Japan Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Public Management Research Center; Koganemaru, K.; Shimuzu, Y. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Center for Disaster Management and Supply Control; Morimoto, I. [Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, S. [Tokyo Denki Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Estimating the degree of damage to city gas pipe networks is difficult because of the lack of damage case data. This paper proposes a method for calculating the amount of earthquake-induced ground displacement at pipe node locations by constructing ground models. Data for the models was obtained from boreholes and by using a simple ground flow formula. The analysis method will make it possible to calculate the allowable limits of damage-causing factors such as ground motion and flow for different pipe network elements. The analysis procedure was conducted using a 2-dimensional liquefaction-induced flow analysis program finite element method. A real time damage estimation system for low pressure gas pipes uses ground motions having a design seismic coefficient of 0.4 in preparing strong earthquake liquefied layer thickness distribution data. Flow calculations were presented as well as a ground revetment database to replace node location data. It was concluded that achieving consistency was desirable. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Differences in lateral hemispheric asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-12-01

    We studied 21 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (8 men, 13 women; aged 53-85, mean 71.1 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebro-vascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with [sup 123]I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of right-left hemispheric asymmetry of cerebral blood flow (leftflow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe were significantly lower than in other groups, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry detected by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. (author).

  9. Differences in lateral hemispheric asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    We studied 21 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (8 men, 13 women; aged 53-85, mean 71.1 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebro-vascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with [sup 123]I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of right-left hemispheric asymmetry of cerebral blood flow (leftflow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe were significantly lower than in other groups, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry detected by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. (author).

  10. Differences in lateral hemispheric asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko

    1993-01-01

    We studied 21 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (8 men, 13 women; aged 53-85, mean 71.1 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebro-vascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of right-left hemispheric asymmetry of cerebral blood flow (left< right, n=6; right< left, n=3; left=right, n=12). General scores (MMS, T-IQ) were not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe were significantly lower than in other groups, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry detected by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. (author)

  11. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled Lateral Flow Strips for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Gastric Cancer Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinyu; Wang, Kan; Lu, Wenting; Qin, Weijian; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is an important biomarker associated closely with diagnosis and prognosis of early gastric cancer. How to realize quick, sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of CA72-4 in clinical specimens has become a great requirement. Herein, we reported a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow test strip combined with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based reader was developed for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CA72-4. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CA72-4 were employed. One of them was coated as a test line, while another mAb was labeled with quantum dots and coated onto conjugate pad. The goat anti-mouse IgG was immobilized as a control line. After sample was added, a sandwich structure was formed with CA72-4 and these two mAbs. The fluorescent signal from quantum dots (QD)-labeled mAb in sandwich structure was related to the amount of detected CA72-4. A CCD-based reader was used to realize quantitative detection of CA72-4. Results showed that developed QD-labeled lateral flow strips to detect CA72-4 biomarker with the sensitivity of 2 IU/mL and 10 min detection time. One hundred sera samples from clinical patients with gastric cancer and healthy people were used to confirm specificity of this strip method; results showed that established strip method own 100 % reproducibility and 100 % specificity compared with Roche electrochemiluminescence assay results. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for detection of CA72-4 could realize rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of clinical samples and could own great potential in clinical translation in near future.

  12. Numerical investigation on lateral migration and lift force of single bubble in simple shear flow in low viscosity fluid using volume of fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongchun, Li; Xiaoming, Song; Shengyao, Jiang; Jiyang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A VOF simulation of bubble in low viscosity fluid was conducted. • Lift force in different viscosity fluid had different lateral migration characteristics. • Bubble with different size migrated to different direction. • Shear stress triggered the bubble deformation process and the bubble deformation came along with the oscillation behaviors. - Abstract: Two phase flow systems have been widely used in industrial engineering. Phase distribution characteristics are vital to the safety operation and optimization design of two phase flow systems. Lift force has been known as perpendicular to the bubbles’ moving direction, which is one of the mechanisms of interfacial momentum transfer. While most widely used lift force correlations, such as the correlation of Tomiyama et al. (2002), were obtained by experimentally tracking single bubble trajectories in high viscosity glycerol–water mixture, the applicability of these models into low viscosity fluid, such as water in nuclear engineering system, needs to be further evaluated. In the present paper, bubble in low viscosity fluid in shear flow was investigated in a full 3D numerical simulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to capture the interface. The fluid parameter: fluid viscosity, bubble parameter: diameter and external flow parameters: shear stress magnitude and liquid velocity were examined. Comparing with bubble in high viscosity shear flow and bubble in low viscosity still flow, relative large bubble in low viscosity shear flow keep an oscillation way towards the moving wall and experienced a shape deformation process. The oscillation amplitude increased as the viscosity of fluid decreased. Small bubble migrated to the static wall in a line with larger migration velocity than that in high viscosity fluid and no deformation occurred. The shear stress triggered the oscillation behaviors while it had no direct influence with the behavior. The liquid velocity had no effect on

  13. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of flow generated by two rotating concentric cylinders: II. Lateral dissipative and random forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, N; Haber, S; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Traditional DPD methods address dissipative and random forces exerted along the line connecting neighbouring particles. Espanol (1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 2930-48) suggested adding dissipative and random force components in a direction perpendicular to this line. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of such an addition as compared with the traditional DPD method. Our benchmark system comprises fluid initially at rest occupying the space between two concentric cylinders rotating with various angular velocities. The effect of the lateral force components on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was also compared with that of the known analytical solution. The results show that (i) the solution accuracy at steady state has improved and the error has been reduced by at least 30% (in one case by 75%), (ii) the DPD time to reach steady state has been halved, (iii) the CPU time has increased by only 30%, and (iv) no significant differences exist in density and temperature distributions

  14. Comparison of Lateral Flow Assay, Kidney Inhibition Swab, and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Penicillin G Residues in Sow Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Chakrabarty, Shubhashis; Smith, David J

    2017-03-01

    Sows (n = 126) were administered penicillin G; urine, collected at slaughter, was screened by kidney inhibition swab (KIS; 4 h testing time) and then stored at -80 °C (∼1200 days) until analysis by lateral flow assay (LF, ∼5 min testing time) and tandem quadrupole LC-MS/MS (TQ) analysis. The stability of penicillin in urine during storage was verified using TQ analyses. Quantitative results were well-correlated (R 2 = 0.98) with only a ∼10% decrease in penicillin concentration during the 3-year storage period. KIS retesting of stored samples returned results consistent with the original analyses. Lateral flow assay results were highly correlated with the KIS and TQ results. A KIS positive sample, which was not confirmed by TQ or LF, was assayed by Triple-TOF LC-MS to determine the cause of the apparent false positive. This study suggests LF can be used to quickly and efficiently screen for penicillin G residues before slaughter.

  15. Development of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Device Capable of Differentiating Phytase Expressed from Recombinant Aspergillus niger phyA2 and Genetically Modified Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaojin; Hui, Elizabeth; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Zhen; Pu, Ling-Kui; Tu, Zhiguan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Juan

    2015-05-06

    Phytase is a phosphohydrolase considered highly specific for the degradation of phytate to release bound phosphorus for animal consumption and aid in the reduction of environmental nutrient loading. New sources of phytase have been sought that are economically and efficiently productive including the construction of genetically modified (GM) phytase products designed to bypass the costs associated with feed processing. Four monoclonal antibodies (EH10a, FA7, AF9a, and CC1) raised against recombinant Aspergillus niger phyA2 were used to develop a highly specific and sensitive immunochromatographic lateral flow device for rapid detection of transgenic phytase, such as in GM corn. Antibodies sequentially paired and tested along lateral flow strips showed that the EH10a-FA7 antibody pair was able to detect the recombinant yeast-phytase at 5 ng/mL, whereas the AF9a-CC1 antibody pair to GM phytase corn was able to detect at 2 ng/mL. Concurrent to this development, evidence was revealed which suggests that antibody binding sites may be glycosylated.

  16. A bare-eye-based lateral flow immunoassay based on the use of gold nanoparticles for simultaneous detection of three pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limin; Cai, Jia; Wang, Yulong; Fang, Qingkui; Wang, Suyan; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Fengquan; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the simultaneous detection of the pesticides imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos-methyl and isocarbophos based on three competitive immunoreactions. In contrast to previously reported LFIAs, the method is based on the use of four strips. Each has three red channels (three test lines dispensed with different capture reagent) to detect imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos-methyl and isocarbophos respectively. Different channels on each strip are the key to multi-detection, and four strips of LFIA are needed for visual and semi-quantitative read-outs. Under optimized conditions, the LFIA was applied to the determination of three pesticides. The detection time is within 7 min and the detection limits are 50, 100, and 100 μg L −1 , respectively. Furthermore, the LFIA was applied to the analysis of spiked Chinese cabbage and soil samples and results were validated by HPLC. (author)

  17. A multiplex lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid identification of NDM-, KPC-, IMP- and VIM-type and OXA-48-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutal, Hervé; Vogel, Anaïs; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Devilliers, Karine; Creton, Elodie; Cotellon, Garence; Plaisance, Marc; Oueslati, Saoussen; Dortet, Laurent; Jousset, Agnès; Simon, Stéphanie; Naas, Thierry; Volland, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae represents a substantial challenge in clinical practice and rapid and reliable detection of these organisms is essential. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a lateral flow immunoassay (Carba5) for the detection of the five main carbapenemases (KPC-, NDM-, VIM- and IMP-type and OXA-48-like). Methods Carba5 was retrospectively and prospectively evaluated using 296 enterobacterial isolates from agar culture. An isolated colony was suspended in extraction buffer and then loaded on the manufactured Carba5. Results All 185 isolates expressing a carbapenemase related to one of the Carba5 targets were correctly and unambiguously detected in Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:29365094

  18. Quantum dots-based lateral flow immunoassay combined with image analysis for semiquantitative detection of IgE antibody to mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhao,1,* Qiang Zhang,2,* Qingfeng Meng,3 Fenglian Wu,4 Lihua Zhang,1 Yao Tang,1 Yuanyuan Guan,1 Lixin An1 1Department of Allergy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Qingdao University, Yantai, 3Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 4Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Semiquantitative and rapid detection of specific IgE (sIgE with well clinical relevance to house dust mite (HDM are promising for prevalence rhinitis and asthma patients due to the increasing air pollution. However, the conventional IgE measurement systems are time-consuming, complicated and require special instruments. Herein, we overcome the above limitations of sIgE to HDM detection system by developing a quantum dot nanobeads-based lateral flow immunoassay and an image analysis procedure. The proposed detection system could semiquantitatively measure the IgE in a linear range of 0.2–10 U/mL. Moreover, there is a well correlation between the developed detection system and the clinical symptoms by a comparison study using 56 positive patients’ sera and 40 healthy control sera. The proposed detection system is simple, robust and easy-to-use and promising for in home test. Keywords: lateral flow immunoassay, quantum dots, house dust mite, IgE 

  19. Flow Pooling as Lateral Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Henrik; Prockl, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the Multi User Concept (MUC) approach, a combination of vertical and horizontal collaboration across different actors in a supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: This research is based on a narrative literature review and a quantitative case...... collaboration, based on an empirical sample....

  20. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  1. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateral flow immunodipstick for visual detection of aflatoxin B1 in food using immuno-nanoparticles composed of a silver core and a gold shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J.-Y.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    An immunodipstick assay with a lateral flow strip was developed for fast screening of food for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the respective monoclonal antibody immobilized on nanoparticles with a silver core and a gold shell (AgAu) as detection reagent. The membrane-based immunodipstick consisted of a test line containing AFB1 conjugated to bovine serum albumin, and a control line with goat anti-mouse IgG. One to two colored lines are formed on the membrane by using the red AgAu nanoparticles coated with anti-AFB1 as signaling reagents. Under optimal conditions, the dipstick exhibits a lower visual detection limit of 0. 1 ng mL -1 of AFB1. Compared to the use of pure gold nanoparticles, the AgAu nanoparticles strongly enhance the sensitivity of the assay, and the reproducibility and stability are comparable. The assay was evaluated with naturally contaminated samples including rice, wheat, sunflower, cotton, chillies, and almonds, and a good correlation was found with data obtained with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The simple and non-instrumental dipstick method may further be extended to the screening of other mycotoxins in food. (author)

  3. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification-Lateral-Flow Dipstick (LAMP-LFD) to detect Toxoplasma gondii oocyst in ready-to-eat salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalle, Marco; Possenti, Alessia; Dubey, Jitender P; Pozio, Edoardo

    2018-04-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a foodborne zoonosis with a global distribution and estimated to cause up to 20% of the total foodborne disease burden in Europe. Association between T. gondii infection and the consumption of unwashed raw fruits and vegetables contaminated with oocysts has been reported and the increasing habit to eat pre-washed ready-to-eat salads poses a new potential risk for consumers. It is therefore important to trace the occurrence of potential contamination with this parasite to guarantee the safety of ready-to-eat vegetables. Detection of T. gondii in vegetables by molecular techniques has been achieved but low sensitivity (PCR) or expensive equipments (qPCR) limit routine applicability. Here, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive and robust method relying on a LAMP assay, targeting the 529 bp locus, to detect T. gondii oocysts down to 25 oocysts/50 g in ready-to-eat baby lettuce. The LAMP has been also adapted for a faster visualization of the result by a lateral flow dipstick chromatographic detection method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymptomatic cryptococcal antigen prevalence detected by lateral flow assay in hospitalised HIV-infected patients in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E; Toniolo, Carolina; Paulino, Adriana; Colombo, Arnaldo; Dos Anjos Martins, Marilena; da Silva Meira, Cristina; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Figueiredo-Mello, Claudia; Barros, Tiago; Duarte, Jequelie; Fonseca, Fernanda; Alves Cunha, Mirella; Mendes, Clara; Ribero, Taiana; Dos Santos Lazera, Marcia; Rajasingham, Radha; Boulware, David R

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) using lateral flow assay (LFA) in hospitalised HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts 18 years old without prior cryptococcal meningitis, without clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis, regardless of antiretroviral (ART) status, and with CD4 counts <200 cells/μl. Serum CRAG was tested by LFA in all patients, and whole blood CRAG was tested by LFA in positive cases. We enrolled 163 participants of whom 61% were men. The duration of HIV diagnosis was a median of 8 (range, 1-29) years. 26% were antiretroviral (ART)-naïve, and 74% were ART-experienced. The median CD4 cell count was 25 (range, 1-192) cells/μl. Five patients (3.1%; 95%CI, 1.0-7.0%) were asymptomatic CRAG-positive. Positive results cases were cross-verified by performing LFA in whole blood. 3.1% of HIV-infected inpatients with CD4 <200 cells/μl without symptomatic meningitis had cryptococcal antigenemia in São Paulo, suggesting that routine CRAG screening may be beneficial in similar settings in South America. Our study reveals another targeted population for CRAG screening: hospitalised HIV-infected patients with CD4 <200 cells/μl, regardless of ART status. Whole blood CRAG LFA screening seems to be a simple strategy to prevention of symptomatic meningitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Utilization of a lateral flow colloidal gold immunoassay strip based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for ultrasensitive detection of antibiotics in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiaoqiao; Huang, Jie; Sun, Yaning; Yin, Mengqi; Hu, Mei; Hu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Gaiping

    2018-05-01

    An ultrasensitive method for the detection of antibiotics in milk is developed based on inexpensive, simple, rapid and portable lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) strip, in combination with high sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In our strategy, an immunoprobe was prepared from colloidal gold (AuNPs) conjugated with both a monoclonal antibody against neomycin (NEO-mAb) and a Raman probe molecule 4-aminothiophenol (PATP). The competitive interaction with immunoprobe between free NEO and the coated antigen (NEO-OVA) resulted in the change of the amount of the immobilized immunoprobe on the paper substrate. The LFI procedure was completed within 15 min. The Raman intensity of PATP on the test line of the LFI strip was measured for the quantitative determination of NEO. The IC50 and the limit of detection (LOD) of this assay are 0.04 ng/mL and 0.216 pg/mL of NEO, respectively. There is no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other compounds, showing high specificity of the assay. The recoveries for milk samples with added NEO are in the range of 89.7%-105.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.4%-5.3% (n = 3). The result reveals that this method possesses high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and stability, and can be used to detect a variety of antibiotic residues in milk samples.

  6. Visual Detection of Canine Parvovirus Based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and with Lateral Flow Dipstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, Yu-Ling; YEN, Chon-Ho; TU, Ching-Fu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAMP–ELISA) and with lateral flow dipstick (LAMP–LFD) are rapid, sensitive and specific methods for the visual detection of clinical pathogens. In this study, LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD were developed for the visual detection of canine parvovirus (CPV). For LAMP, a set of four primers (biotin-labeled forward inner primers) was designed to specifically amplify a region of the VP2 gene of CPV. The optimum time and temperature for LAMP were 60 min and 65°C, respectively. The specific capture oligonucleotide probes, biotin-labeled CPV probe for LAMP–ELISA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled CPV probe for LAMP–LFD were also designed for hybridization with LAMP amplicons on streptavidin-coated wells and LFD strips, respectively. For the comparison of detection sensitivity, conventional PCR and LAMP for CPV detection were also performed. The CPV detection limits by PCR, PCR–ELISA, LAMP, LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD were 102, 102, 10−1, 10−1 and 10−1 TCID50/ml, respectively. In tests using artificially contaminated dog fecal samples, the samples with CPV inoculation levels of ≥1 TCID50/ml gave positive results by both LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD. Our data indicated that both LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD are promising as rapid, sensitive and specific methods for an efficient diagnosis of CPV infection. PMID:24334855

  7. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 104 CFU mL−1 or 105 CFU mL−1 for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.916–0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water. PMID:26884128

  8. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hu; Li, Xiangmin; Xiong, Ying; Pei, Ke; Nie, Lijuan; Xiong, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen)32+-doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs. PMID:28264472

  9. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A silver nanoparticle (AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Antigen Detection and Serotyping Lateral Flow Antigen Detection System for Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Morioka

    Full Text Available We developed a lateral flow strip using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs which allows for rapid antigen detection and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. This FMDV serotyping strip was able to detect all 7 serotypes and distinguish serotypes O, A, C and Asia1. Its sensitivities ranged from 10(3 to 10(4 of a 50% tissue culture infectious dose of each FMDV stain; this is equal to those of the commercial product Svanodip (Boehringer Ingelheim Svanova, Uppsala, Sweden, which can detect all seven serotypes of FMDV, but does not distinguish them. Our evaluation of the FMDV serotyping strip using a total of 118 clinical samples (vesicular fluids, vesicular epithelial emulsions and oral and/or nasal swabs showed highly sensitive antigen detection and accuracy in serotyping in accordance with ELISA or RT-PCR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on any FMDV serotyping strip that provides both rapid antigen detection and serotyping of FMDV at the same time on one strip without extra devices. This method will be useful in both FMD-free countries and FMD-infected countries, especially where laboratory diagnosis cannot be carried out.

  11. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gi Lee

    Full Text Available We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA. The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of an organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate [Cu(en)2(H2O)]4[Cu(en)2(H2O)2][Cu2Na4(α-SbW9O33)2]·6H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingjie; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yujie; Li, Yanzhou; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2014-01-01

    An organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O)] 4 [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ]·6H 2 O (1) has been synthesized by reaction of Sb 2 O 3 , Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O, CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O with en (en=ethanediamine) under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, IR spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays a centric dimeric structure formed by two equivalent trivacant Keggin [α-SbW 9 O 33 ] 9− subunits sandwiching a hexagonal (Cu 2 Na 4 ) cluster. Moreover, those related hexagonal hexa-metal cluster sandwiched tungstoantimonates have been also summarized and compared. The variable-temperature magnetic measurements of 1 exhibit the weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions within the hexagonal (Cu 2 Na 4 ) cluster mediated by the oxygen bridges. - Graphical abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid (Cu 2 Na 4 ) sandwiched tungstoantimonate [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O)] 4 [Cu (en) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ]·6H 2 O was synthesized and magnetic properties was investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate. • (Cu 2 Na 4 sandwiched) tungstoantimonate [Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ] 10− . • Ferromagnetic tungstoantimonate

  15. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) for the field diagnosis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Po-An; Shiu, Jia-Shian; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Pang, Victor Fei; Wang, De-Chi; Wang, Pei-Hwa

    2017-05-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) in goats is a complex disease syndrome caused by a lentivirus. This persistent viral infection results in arthritis in adult goats and encephalitis in lambs. The prognosis for the encephalitic form is normally poor, and this form of the disease has caused substantial economic losses for goat farmers. Hence, a more efficient detection platform based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed in the present study for detecting the proviral DNA of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Under the optimal incubation conditions, specifically, 30min at 37°C for RPA followed by 5min at room temperature for LFD, the assay was found to be sensitive to a lower limit of 80pg of total DNA and 10 copies of plasmid DNA. Furthermore, there was no cross-reaction with other tested viruses, including goat pox virus and bovine leukemia virus. Given its simplicity and portability, this RPA-LFD protocol can serve as an alternative tool to ELISA for the primary screening of CAEV, one that is suitable for both laboratory and field application. When the RPA-LFD was applied in parallel with serological ELISA for the detection of CAEV in field samples, the RPA-LFD assay exhibited a higher sensitivity than the traditional method, and 82% of the 200 samples collected in Taiwan were found to be positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence to support the use of an RPA-LFD assay as a specific and sensitive platform for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in goats in a faster manner, one that is also applicable for on-site utilization at farms and that should be useful in both eradication programs and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Aqueous Two-Phase System for the Concentration and Extraction of Proteins from the Interface for Detection Using the Lateral-Flow Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Y T Chiu

    Full Text Available The paper-based immunoassay for point-of-care diagnostics is widely used due to its low cost and portability over traditional lab-based assays. Lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA is the most well-established paper-based assay since it is rapid and easy to use. However, the disadvantage of LFA is its lack of sensitivity in some cases where a large sample volume is required, limiting its use as a diagnostic tool. To improve the sensitivity of LFA, we previously reported on the concentration of analytes into one of the two bulk phases of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS prior to detection. In this study, we preserved the advantages of LFA while significantly improving upon our previous proof-of-concept studies by employing a novel approach of concentrating gold nanoparticles, a common LFA colorimetric indicator. By conjugating specific antibodies and polymers to the surfaces of the particles, these gold nanoprobes (GNPs were able to capture target proteins in the sample and subsequently be concentrated within 10 min at the interface of an ATPS solution comprised of polyethylene glycol, potassium phosphate, and phosphate-buffered saline. These GNPs were then extracted and applied directly to LFA. By combining this prior ATPS interface extraction with LFA, the detection limit of LFA for a model protein was improved by 100-fold from 1 ng/μL to 0.01 ng/μL. Additionally, we examined the behavior of the ATPS system in fetal bovine serum and synthetic urine to more closely approach real-world applications. Despite using more complex matrices, ATPS interface extraction still improved the detection limit by 100-fold within 15 to 25 min, demonstrating the system's potential to be applied to patient samples.

  17. Lateral flow assay for rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a phage-displayed peptide as bio-recognition probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-06-01

    White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.

  18. Validation of a rapid lateral flow test for the simultaneous determination of β-lactam drugs and flunixin in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David; Banaszewski, Katie; Juskelis, Rima; Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Cappozzo, Jack; McRobbie, Lindsay; Salter, Robert S

    2012-07-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs on dairy farms. β-Lactam residues in milk are kept out of the human milk supply with good agricultural practices and mandatory truck screening performed by the dairy industry under Appendix N of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Flunixin, a nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory drug, appears in dairy cattle tissue residues with a frequency similar to the occurrence of penicillin G. This creates concern that flunixin residues could be in milk and would go undetected under current milk screening programs. A single test that combines mandatory β-lactam screening with voluntary flunixin screening is an economical approach for monitoring and controlling for potential flunixin or 5-hydroxyflunixin, the primary flunixin metabolite marker in milk. The objective of this study was to validate a β-lactam and flunixin rapid lateral flow test (LFT) and compare the results obtained with a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of flunixin and 5-hydroxyflunixin in raw milk with a limit of detection of , 1 ppb, equivalent to 1 ng/ml. Using the LFT, three combined manufactured lots of test strips detected penicillin G at 2.0 ppb, ampicillin at 6.8 ppb, amoxicillin at 5.9 ppb, cephapirin at 13.4 ppb, ceftiofur (total metabolites) at 63 ppb, and 5-hydroxyflunixin at 1.9 ppb at least 90% of the time with 95% confidence. The LFT also detected incurred flunixin milk samples that were analyzed with the LC-MS/MS and diluted to tolerance in raw milk. The detection levels for the LFT are lower than the U.S. safe levels or tolerances and qualify the test to be used in compliance with U.S. milk screening programs.

  19. Using an aqueous two-phase polymer-salt system to rapidly concentrate viruses for improving the detection limit of the lateral-flow immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Erik; Yamanishi, Cameron D; Chiu, Ricky Y T; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2014-12-01

    The development of point-of-need (PON) diagnostics for viruses has the potential to prevent pandemics and protects against biological warfare threats. Here we discuss the approach of using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to concentrate biomolecules prior to the lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) for improved viral detection. In this paper, we developed a rapid PON detection assay as an extension to our previous proof-of-concept studies which used a micellar ATPS. We present our investigation of a more rapid polymer-salt ATPS that can drastically improve the assay time, and show that the phase containing the concentrated biomolecule can be extracted prior to macroscopic phase separation equilibrium without affecting the measured biomolecule concentration in that phase. We could therefore significantly decrease the time of the diagnostic assay with an early extraction time of just 30 min. Using this rapid ATPS, the model virus bacteriophage M13 was concentrated between approximately 2 and 10-fold by altering the volume ratio between the two phases. As the extracted virus-rich phase contained a high salt concentration which destabilized the colloidal gold indicator used in LFA, we decorated the gold nanoprobes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to provide steric stabilization, and used these nanoprobes to demonstrate a 10-fold improvement in the LFA detection limit. Lastly, a MATLAB script was used to quantify the LFA results with and without the pre-concentration step. This approach of combining a rapid ATPS with LFA has great potential for PON applications, especially as greater concentration-fold improvements can be achieved by further varying the volume ratio. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2499-2507. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Aqueous Two-Phase System for the Concentration and Extraction of Proteins from the Interface for Detection Using the Lateral-Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ricky Y T; Thach, Alison V; Wu, Chloe M; Wu, Benjamin M; Kamei, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    The paper-based immunoassay for point-of-care diagnostics is widely used due to its low cost and portability over traditional lab-based assays. Lateral-flow immunoassay (LFA) is the most well-established paper-based assay since it is rapid and easy to use. However, the disadvantage of LFA is its lack of sensitivity in some cases where a large sample volume is required, limiting its use as a diagnostic tool. To improve the sensitivity of LFA, we previously reported on the concentration of analytes into one of the two bulk phases of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) prior to detection. In this study, we preserved the advantages of LFA while significantly improving upon our previous proof-of-concept studies by employing a novel approach of concentrating gold nanoparticles, a common LFA colorimetric indicator. By conjugating specific antibodies and polymers to the surfaces of the particles, these gold nanoprobes (GNPs) were able to capture target proteins in the sample and subsequently be concentrated within 10 min at the interface of an ATPS solution comprised of polyethylene glycol, potassium phosphate, and phosphate-buffered saline. These GNPs were then extracted and applied directly to LFA. By combining this prior ATPS interface extraction with LFA, the detection limit of LFA for a model protein was improved by 100-fold from 1 ng/μL to 0.01 ng/μL. Additionally, we examined the behavior of the ATPS system in fetal bovine serum and synthetic urine to more closely approach real-world applications. Despite using more complex matrices, ATPS interface extraction still improved the detection limit by 100-fold within 15 to 25 min, demonstrating the system's potential to be applied to patient samples.

  1. Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Seo, Hyuk Seong; Kwon, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Koo Chul; Sim, Sang Jun; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jeewon

    2015-07-15

    Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains the proteinticle probes to detect disease-specific anti-viral antibodies. Compared to peptide probes, the proteinticle probes were evidently more sensitive, and the proteinticle probe-based LFA successfully diagnosed all the 20 patient sera per each disease without a false negative signal, whereas the diagnostic sensitivities in the peptide probe-based LFAs were 65-90%. Duplex and triplex assays performed with randomly mixed patient sera gave only true positive signals for all the 20 serum mixtures without any false positive signals, indicating 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It seems that on the proteinticle surface the antigenic peptides have homogeneous orientation and conformation without inter-peptide clustering and hence lead to the enhanced diagnostic performance with solving the problems of traditional diagnostic probes. Although the multiplex diagnosis of three viral diseases above was demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, the proposed LFA system can be applied to multiplex point of care diagnosis of other intractable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extended result reading window in lateral flow tests detecting exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: a new technology to improve epidemiological surveillance tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Golden

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov. An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%-92.0%, and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-98.6%. Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives. We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test.

  3. LATERAL FLOW ASSAY FOR CRYPTOCOCCAL ANTIGEN: AN IMPORTANT ADVANCE TO IMPROVE THE CONTINUUM OF HIV CARE AND REDUCE CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS-RELATED MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. VIDAL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYAIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis continues to cause a substantial burden of death in low and middle income countries. The diagnostic use for detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen (CrAg in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by latex agglutination test (CrAg-latex or enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA has been available for over decades. Better diagnostics in asymptomatic and symptomatic phases of cryptococcosis are key components to reduce mortality. Recently, the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA was included in the armamentarium for diagnosis. Unlike the other tests, the CrAg LFA is a dipstick immunochromatographic assay, in a format similar to the home pregnancy test, and requires little or no lab infrastructure. This test meets all of the World Health Organization ASSURED criteria (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid/robust, Equipment-free, and Delivered. CrAg LFA in serum, plasma, whole blood, or cerebrospinal fluid is useful for the diagnosis of disease caused by Cryptococcusspecies. The CrAg LFA has better analytical sensitivity for C. gattii than CrAg-latex or EIA. Prevention of cryptococcal disease is new application of CrAg LFA via screening of blood for subclinical infection in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts < 100 cells/mL who are not receiving effective antiretroviral therapy. CrAg screening of leftover plasma specimens after CD4 testing can identify persons with asymptomatic infection who urgently require pre-emptive fluconazole, who will otherwise progress to symptomatic infection and/or die.

  4. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  5. Evaluation of a lateral flow-based technology card for blood typing using a simplified protocol in a model of extreme blood sampling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Benoît; Pouget, Thomas; Sailliol, Anne

    2018-02-01

    Life-threatening situations requiring blood transfusion under extreme conditions or in remote and austere locations, such as the battlefield or in traffic accidents, would benefit from reliable blood typing practices that are easily understood by a nonscientist or nonlaboratory technician and provide quick results. A simplified protocol was developed for the lateral flow-based device MDmulticard ABO-D-Rh subgroups-K. Its performance was compared to a reference method (PK7300, Beckman Coulter) in native blood samples from donors. The method was tested on blood samples stressed in vitro as a model of hemorrhage cases (through hemodilution using physiologic serum) and dehydration (through hemoconcentration by removing an aliquot of plasma after centrifugation), respectively. A total of 146 tests were performed on 52 samples; 126 in the hemodilution group (42 for each native, diluted 1/2, and diluted 1/4 samples) and 20 in the hemoconcentration group (10 for each native and 10% concentrated samples). Hematocrit in the tested samples ranged from 9.8% to 57.6% while hemoglobin levels ranged from 3.2 to 20.1 g/dL. The phenotype profile detected with the MDmulticard using the simplified protocol resulted in 22 A, seven B, 20 O, and three AB, of which nine were D- and five were Kell positive. No discrepancies were found with respect to the results obtained with the reference method. The simplified protocol for MDmulticard use could be considered a reliable method for blood typing in extreme environment or emergency situations, worsened by red blood cell dilution or concentration. © 2017 AABB.

  6. [Development and comparative evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfeng; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Chengbin; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA). Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system. The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only. The good performance

  7. Utilizing the ultrasensitive Schistosoma up-converting phosphor lateral flow circulating anodic antigen (UCP-LF CAA) assay for sample pooling-strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Hoekstra, Pytsje T; de Dood, Claudia J; van Dam, Govert J

    2017-11-01

    Methodological applications of the high sensitivity genus-specific Schistosoma CAA strip test, allowing detection of single worm active infections (ultimate sensitivity), are discussed for efficient utilization in sample pooling strategies. Besides relevant cost reduction, pooling of samples rather than individual testing can provide valuable data for large scale mapping, surveillance, and monitoring. The laboratory-based CAA strip test utilizes luminescent quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles and a rapid user-friendly lateral flow (LF) assay format. The test includes a sample preparation step that permits virtually unlimited sample concentration with urine, reaching ultimate sensitivity (single worm detection) at 100% specificity. This facilitates testing large urine pools from many individuals with minimal loss of sensitivity and specificity. The test determines the average CAA level of the individuals in the pool thus indicating overall worm burden and prevalence. When requiring test results at the individual level, smaller pools need to be analysed with the pool-size based on expected prevalence or when unknown, on the average CAA level of a larger group; CAA negative pools do not require individual test results and thus reduce the number of tests. Straightforward pooling strategies indicate that at sub-population level the CAA strip test is an efficient assay for general mapping, identification of hotspots, determination of stratified infection levels, and accurate monitoring of mass drug administrations (MDA). At the individual level, the number of tests can be reduced i.e. in low endemic settings as the pool size can be increased as opposed to prevalence decrease. At the sub-population level, average CAA concentrations determined in urine pools can be an appropriate measure indicating worm burden. Pooling strategies allowing this type of large scale testing are feasible with the various CAA strip test formats and do not affect

  8. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  9. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  10. Reply to Comment by Roques et al. on "Base Flow Recession from Unsaturated-Saturated Porous Media considering Lateral Unsaturated Discharge and Aquifer Compressibility"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiuyu; Zhan, Hongbin; Zhang, You-Kuan; Schilling, Keith

    2018-04-01

    Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022085) claims that they have proposed an exponential time step (ETS) method to improve the computing method of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) which used a constant time step (CTS) method on the derivative for dQ/dt in field data, where Q is the base flow discharge and t is the time since the start of base flow recession. This reply emphasizes that the main objective of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) was to develop an analytical model to investigate the effects of the unsaturated flow on base flow recession, not on the data interpretation methods. The analytical model indicates that the base flow recession hydrograph behaves as dQ/dt ˜aQb with the exponent b close to 1 at late times, which is consistent with previous theoretical models. The model of Liang et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR020938) was applied to field data where the derivative of dQ/dt was computed using the CTS method, a method that has been widely adopted in previous studies. The ETS method proposed by Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.07.013) appears to be a good alternative but its accuracy needs further validation. Using slopes to fit field data as proposed by Roques et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/2017WR022085) appears to match data satisfactorily at early times whereas it performs less satisfactorily at late times and leads to the exponent b being obviously larger than 1.

  11. Sandwich type plasmonic platform for MEF using silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raut, Sangram L.; Rich, Ryan; Shtoyko, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    was studied with the N-methyl-azadioxatriangulenium chloride salt (Me-ADOTA·Cl) in PVA films made from 0.2% PVA (w/v) solution spin-coated on a clean glass coverslip. The Plasmonic Platforms (PP) were assembled by pressing together silver fractals on one glass slide and a separate glass coverslip spin-coated...... with a uniform Me-ADOTA·Cl in PVA film. In addition, we also tested ADOTA labeled human serum albumin (HSA) deposited on a glass slide for potential PP bioassay applications. Using the new PP, we could achieve more than a 20-fold fluorescence enhancement (bright spots) accompanied by a decrease...... of PP can be a convenient approach for constructing assays utilizing metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) without the need for depositing the material directly on metal structures platforms....

  12. Catalytic application of two novel sandwich-type polyoxometalates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C, H and N) were performed on a Perkin-Elmer 2400 CHN elemental analyzer. The reaction was irradiated using microwave oven with con- trolled timer. The purity of the substances and the progress of the reactions were monitored by analyti-.

  13. Effect of lateralized epileptic discharges on the thought flow Efeito de descargas epilépticas lateralizadas no fluxo do pensamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bueno de Mendonça

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pauses in verbal expression of thought flow in patients with partial epilepsy was studied in order to achieve a best comprehension of brain interhemispheric influences. METHOD: We studied thirty nine patients with partial epileptic seizures and twenty four volunteers (control group. Free association of ideas was used as a method to stablish the thought flow, starting with a stimulus word (subject name that must be followed by spontaneous and consecutive word-phrase. Patients were instructed to say any thought that came to their minds without any kind of censoring. Subject responses were recorded through a PC keyboard and time intervals (pauses between each word-phrase were processed by a software developed for this purpose. RESULTS: Time intervals reduction among associations in right lesional group were compared to left lesional, right non-lesional and control groups. An increase of associative time intervals was observed in the right non-lesional group compared to left non-lesional group. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a possible inhibitory inter-hemispheric function of the right hemisphere modulating verbal expression of the thought flow. Considering the hypothesis of the inter-hemispheric inhibition by the right hemisphere on left hemisphere, we admit that in epileptic patients with right hemispheric lesion there is an attenuation of the inter-hemispheric inhibition and an increase in thought flow, whereas in patients without a lesion but a paroxysmal epileptic activity in right temporal lobe there is an exacerbation of this inhibitory function and consequent reduction in the thought flow.OBJETIVO: Foram estudadas as pausas na expressão verbal do pensamento em pacientes com epilepsia parcial a fim de estabelecer uma melhor compreensão das influências interhemisféricas cerebrais. MÉTODO: foram estudados 39 pacientes com crises epilépticas parciais e 24 voluntários (grupo controle. A associação livre de idéias foi usada como m

  14. Network-wise cerebral blood flow redistribution after 20 Hz rTMS on left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuan-Qi; Xie, Jun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Chang, Da; Wang, Ze

    2018-04-01

    The repetitive application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been consistently shown to be beneficial for treating various neuropsychiatric or neuropsychological disorders, but its neural mechanisms still remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of high-frequency left DLPFC rTMS using cerebral blood flow (CBF) collected from 40 young healthy subjects before and after applying 20 Hz left DLPFC rTMS or SHAM stimulations. Relative CBF (rCBF) changes before and after 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM were assessed with paired-t test. The results show that 20 Hz DLPFC rTMS induced CBF redistribution in the default mode network, including increased rCBF in left medial temporal cortex (MTC)/hippocampus, but reduced rCBF in precuneus and cerebellum. Meanwhile, SHAM stimulation didn't produce any rCBF changes. After controlling SHAM effects, only the rCBF increase in MTC/hippocampus remained. Those data suggest that the beneficial effects of high-frequency rTMS may be through a within-network rCBF redistribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  16. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  18. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  19. Rapid and sensitive detection of novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral-flow device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyue Ge

    Full Text Available A severe disease in humans caused by a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus emerged in China recently, which has caused at least 128 cases and 26 deaths. Rapid detection of the novel H7N9 virus is urgently needed to differentiate the disease from other infections, and to facilitate infection control as well as epidemiologic investigations. In this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow device (RT-LAMP-LFD assay to rapidly detect H7N9 virus was developed and evaluated. The RT-LAMP primers were designed to target the haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of H7N9 virus. Results of 10-fold dilution series assays showed that analysis of RT-LAMP products by the LFD method was as sensitive as real-time turbidity detection, and that the analytic sensitivities of the HA and NA RT-LAMP assays were both 10 copies of synthetic RNA. Furthermore, both the assays showed 100% clinical specificity for identification of H7N9 virus. The performance characteristics of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay were evaluated with 80 clinical specimens collected from suspected H7N9 patients. The NA RT-LAMP-LFD assay was more sensitive than real time RT-PCR assay. Compared with a combination of virus culture and real-time RT-PCR, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay were all 100%. Overall, The RT-LAMP-LFD assay established in this study can be used as a reliable method for early diagnosis of the avian-origin influenza A (H7N9 virus infection.

  20. Preliminary validation of direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus within clinical samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a simple lateral flow device for detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Waters

    Full Text Available Rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD. Current approaches involve either; 1 Detection of FMD virus (FMDV with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (LFD, which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2 portable RT-qPCR that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to modify an FMDV-specific reverse transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP assay to enable detection of dual-labelled LAMP products with an LFD, and to evaluate simple sample processing protocols without nucleic acid extraction. The limit of detection of this assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to that of a laboratory based real-time RT-qPCR assay and to have a 10,000 fold higher analytical sensitivity than the FMDV-specific antigen LFD currently used in the field. Importantly, this study demonstrated that FMDV RNA could be detected from epithelial suspensions without the need for prior RNA extraction, utilising a rudimentary heat source for amplification. Once optimised, this RT-LAMP-LFD protocol was able to detect multiple serotypes from field epithelial samples, in addition to detecting FMDV in the air surrounding infected cattle, pigs and sheep, including pre-clinical detection. This study describes the development and evaluation of an assay format, which may be used as a future basis for rapid and low cost detection of FMDV. In addition it provides providing "proof of concept" for the future use of LAMP assays to tackle other challenging diagnostic scenarios encompassing veterinary and human health.

  1. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  2. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  3. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  4. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  5. A review of lateral driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.

    2007-01-01

    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the

  6. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  7. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  8. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  9. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  10. Oahu Sewer Lateral Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inventory of sewer laterals, used for tracking, monitoring, and flow analysis as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. The base sewer...

  11. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  13. Formal Research Writing - Organizations using Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi D. Butterfield

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  14. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  15. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  16. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  17. Lateral convection and diffusion of sediment in straight rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    and a higher level of turbulence at the channel centre, than in the near bank zones, which means that the ability to support suspended sediment will decrease from the channel centre. The two turbulence models give different estimates for the lateral transport, which mainly are caused by turbulence generated......The lateral transport of suspended sediment in a straight river cross section with a parabolic shaped bed is studied be use of a k-e and a full Reynolds stress turbulence model. Due to depth variations a lateral transport of suspended sediment is generated. This is mainly caused by the slopping bed...... secondary flow cells in the Reynolds stress model. The flow cells make zones with alternately high and low sediment concentration, and thereby much higher local gradients in the lateral direction. Both models found a net inward lateral transport. The transport by convection was found more dominant than...

  18. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  19. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  20. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  2. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  3. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  5. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  6. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  7. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  8. Analysis of a sandwich-type generator with self-heating thermoelectric elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mikyung; Yang, Hyein; Wee, Daehyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel and unique type of thermoelectric generators is proposed. • Heat source is combined in thermoelectric elements, reducing heat transfer problems. • Embedding radioactive isotopes is proposed as a way to implement the new design. • Conversion efficiency and power density are estimated for the proposed design. - Abstract: A novel and unique design of thermoelectric generators, in which a heat source is combined with thermoelectric elements, is proposed. By placing heat-generating radioactive isotopes inside the thermoelectric elements, the heat transfer limitation between the generator and the heat source can be eliminated, ensuring simplicity. The inner electrode is sandwiched between identical thermoelectric elements, which naturally allows the inner core to act as the hot side. Analysis shows that conversion efficiency and power density increase as the heat density inside the thermoelectric elements increases and as the thermoelectric performance of the material improves. The theoretical maximum efficiency is shown to be 50%. However, realistic performance under practical constraint is much worse. In realistic cases, the efficiency would be about 3% at best. The power density of the proposed design exhibits a much more reasonable value as high as 3000 W/m 2 . Although the efficiency is low, the simplicity of the proposed design combined with its reasonable power density may result in some, albeit limited, potential applications. Further investigation must be performed in order to realize such potential

  9. A brilliant sandwich type fluorescent nanostructure incorporating a compact quantum dot layer and versatile silica substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jing; Foda, Mohamed; Liu, Jiawei; Cai, Kai; Han, Heyou

    2014-03-18

    A "hydrophobic layer in silica" structure was designed to integrate a compact quantum dot (QD) layer with high quantum yield into scalable silica hosts containing desired functionality. This was based on metal affinity driven assembly of hydrophobic QDs with versatile silica substrates and homogeneous encapsulation of organosilica/silica layers.

  10. A Sandwich-Type Standard Error Estimator of SEM Models with Multivariate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models are increasingly used as a modeling tool for multivariate time series data in the social and behavioral sciences. Standard error estimators of SEM models, originally developed for independent data, require modifications to accommodate the fact that time series data are inherently dependent. In this article, we extend a…

  11. A sandwich-type optical immunosensor based on the alkaline phosphatase enzyme for Salmonella thypimurium detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, E.; Puspitasari Schonherr, M. F.; Masruroh, A.; Anggraeni, R. A.; Nisak, Y. K.; Mursidah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Salmonella is pathogenic bacteria that caused foodborne diseases which being called Salmonellosis. Prevalence of Salmonellosis that being caused by Salmonella thypimurium in Indonesia is quite high. However, detection of Salmonella bacteria in food still limited, complicated, and required a lot time. Sensitive optical assay for Salmonella thypimurium paper based detection has been developed by integrating sandwich assay between antibody-antigen complex and alkaline phosphatase enzyme that produce visible bluish-purple colour with presence of NBT-BCIP substrate. The results showed that Limit of Quantitation of detection is 105 CFU mL-1 with detection time 15 minutes. Linearity test between Colour intensity that produced from Salmonella concentration presence on samples showed that detection has good linearity. Selectivity test exhibited excellent sensitivity with good discrimination against Escherichia coli.

  12. Mounting and testing of a 'sandwich' type neutron spectrometer with semiconductor detectors and 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabro, M.A.

    1973-01-01

    Commercial surface barrier detectors (Si(Au)) were used to construct the spectrometer; the 6 LiF was evaporated by vacuum onto a film of Formvar and afterwards over the surface of one of the detectors, with a 6 LiF thickness of 0,2 μm (50 μg/cm 2 ) and 1,5 μm(400 μg/cm 2 ) respectively. Tests were made with slow neutrons and with neutrons from the reactions D(d,n) 3 He (2,65 MeV) and T(d,n) 4 He (14 MeV). The energy resolution for thermal neutrons was about 200 keV (FWHM) for the sum (E sub(t) + E sub(α)) and about 7 keV (FWHM) for the difference (E sub(t) - E sub(α)) with an evaluated efficiency of 5,5x10 -4 , for the sum. For the 2,65 MeV neutrons, the energy resolution was about 240 keV (FWHM) and an evaluated efficiency of 2,1 x 10 -7 . It was not possible to detect 14 MeV neutrons [pt

  13. Ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: hydrologic vegetation gradient as an indicator for lateral hydrologic connectivity of headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; James M. Vose; Christina. Tague

    2012-01-01

    Lateral water flow in catchments can produce important patterns in water and nutrient fluxes and stores and also influences the long-term spatial development of forest ecosystems. Specifically, patterns of vegetation type and density along hydrologic flow paths can represent a signal of the redistribution of water and nitrogen mediated by lateral hydrologic flow. This...

  14. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  15. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  16. Nanoparticle embedded enzymes for improved lateral flow sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özalp, Veli Cengiz; Zeydanlı, Uğur S.; Lunding, Anita

    2013-01-01

    -entrapped with Texas Red dextran inside porous polyacrylamide nanoparticles. In this system, enzymes are protected in the porous matrix of polyacrylamide which freely allows the diffusion of the analyte. The sensor is rapid and sensitive for quantification of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A test solution...

  17. Testing of Ruggedized Antibodies within a Lateral Flow Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    tryptophan and tyrosine residues in a given protein. For this reason, the extinction coefficient was used in conjunction with A280 to determine an... conjunction with the Experion reagents, electrophoresis station, and software are designed to accomplish separation, staining, destaining, detection

  18. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  19. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  1. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  2. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano

  3. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  4. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  5. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  8. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  9. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  10. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-04-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  12. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  13. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  14. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  15. Hydrocode analysis of lateral stress gauges in shocked tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. J.; Winter, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments published by other workers, on the resistance change of manganin stress gauges embedded in a lateral orientation in tantalum targets shocked to a range of stresses, have been analysed using an adaptive mesh refinement hydrocode. It was found that for all of the four experiments the shape of the time profile of the computed lateral stress in the mounting layer closely matched the shape of the experimental lateral stress profiles. However, the calculated lateral stresses at the gauge location in the mounting layer are significantly less than the lateral stresses that would have been produced in the target if no gauge had been present. The perturbation caused by the gauge increased as the strength of the applied shock increased. When the perturbations are taken into account values of flow stress that are significantly smaller than those reported in the original research paper are derived. The work shows that the lateral gauge technique can give valuable information on strength provided high resolution simulation is used to compensate for the perturbations caused by the gauges

  16. Artificial lateral-line system for imaging dipole sources using Beamforming techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    In nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc. using the lateral-line organ [1]. Here we present the use of biomimetic artificial hair-based flow-sensors arranged as lateral-line system in combination with beamforming techniques for dipole source localization in air.

  17. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  18. Diagnosis of laterality in the school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajdrová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains theoretical principals of expressions of the dominance of the brain hemispheres - laterality. It solves the development of laterality, its genotype and phenotype, levels, laterality types and species, refers to the educational consequences of the improper educational influence on genotype laterality and subsequent corrections. It also deals with the diagnosis of laterality, especially from a position of a teacher. The basic idea of this work is to support the nat...

  19. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  1. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  2. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  3. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  4. The flexural stiffness of superficial neuromasts in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, Matthew J.; van Netten, Sietse M.

    2007-01-01

    Superficial neuromasts are structures that detect water flow on the surface of the body of fish and amphibians. As a component of the lateral line system, these receptors are distributed along the body, where they sense flow patterns that mediate a wide variety of behaviors. Their ability to detect

  5. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...

  6. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  8. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  9. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  10. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  11. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  12. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  13. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  14. 环介导等温扩增联合横向流动试纸条可视化检测海豚链球菌方法的建立%Visual Detection of Streptococcus iniae Based on Loop- mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Lateral Flow Dipstick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞娜; 周前进; 陈炯

    2014-01-01

    海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)是一种革兰氏阳性球菌,呈β溶血,可感染多种淡水和海洋鱼类。本研究利用环介导等温扩增技术(loop-mediated isothermal amplification, LAMP)进行核酸扩增,通过横向流动试纸条方法(lateral flow dipstick, LFD)实现检测,建立了一种可应用于海豚链球菌快速检测的LAMP-LFD技术。该技术以海豚链球菌促旋酶B亚单位(gyrase subunit B, gyrB)基因为检测靶标,设计3对引物进行由生物素标记的LAMP扩增反应,产物经异硫氰酸荧光素(fluorescein isothiocyanate, FITC)标记的探针杂交后,在LFD上完成检测。经优化的核酸扩增最适条件为65℃反应30 min,在此条件下,阳性扩增起始时间与模板浓度之间呈典型的线性相关性。从核酸扩增反应开始到LFD显色,整个检测时程只需40 min左右,比常规PCR技术缩短约2 h。LAMP-LFD能特异性地检出海豚链球菌,针对病原纯培养物的检测灵敏度为8.70×101 cfu/mL,是LAMP检测的10倍、常规PCR检测的100倍。以灵敏度浓度(8.70×101 cfu/mL)的海豚链球菌基因组DNA为模板进行的LAMP-LFD结果显示该方法具有良好的重复性。针对人工污染花鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)肝组织的检测灵敏度为4.35×103 cfu/mL,同样为常规PCR检测方法的100倍。利用本方法可成功从患病花鲈的组织样品中检测出海豚链球菌,检测结果与常规的细菌分离鉴定方法结果一致。因此,利用LAMP-LFD能特异、准确、高效地检测出海豚链球菌,而且操作简单、费用低、耗时短,有望成为海豚链球菌的常规检测方法。%Streptococcus iniae is a species belonging to Gram-positive coccus and produces beta hemolysis, which can infect a broad range of freshwater and marine fish species and lead to seriously economic losses in the aquaculture industry worldwide. Thus, a diagnostic method for rapid and accurate detection of S. iniae was

  15. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  16. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  17. Numerical determination of lateral loss coefficients for subchannel analysis in nuclear fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    An accurate prediction of cross-flow based on detailed knowledge of the velocity field in subchannels of a nuclear fuel assembly is of importance in nuclear fuel performance analysis. In this study, the low-Reynolds number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model has been adopted in two adjacent subchannels with cross-flow. The secondary flow is estimated accurately by the anisotropic algebraic Reynolds stress model. This model was numerically calculated by the finite element method and has been verified successfully through comparison with existing experimental data. Finally, with the numerical analysis of the velocity field in such subchannel domain, an analytical correlation of the lateral loss coefficient is obtained to predict the cross-flow rate in subchannel analysis codes. The correlation is expressed as a function of the ratio of the lateral flow velocity to the donor subchannel axial velocity, recipient channel Reynolds number and pitch-to-diameter.

  18. Lateral and vertical distribution of downstream migrating juvenile sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotola, V. Alex; Miehls, Scott M.; Simard, Lee G.; Marsden, J. Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Sea lamprey is considered an invasive and nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Finger Lakes of New York and is a major focus of control efforts. Currently, management practices focus on limiting the area of infestation using barriers to block migratory adults, and lampricides to kill ammocoetes in infested tributaries. No control efforts currently target the downstream-migrating post-metamorphic life stage which could provide another management opportunity. In order to apply control methods to this life stage, a better understanding of their downstream movement patterns is needed. To quantify spatial distribution of downstream migrants, we deployed fyke and drift nets laterally and vertically across the stream channel in two tributaries of Lake Champlain. Sea lamprey was not randomly distributed across the stream width and lateral distribution showed a significant association with discharge. Results indicated that juvenile sea lamprey is most likely to be present in the thalweg and at midwater depths of the stream channel. Further, a majority of the catch occurred during high flow events, suggesting an increase in downstream movement activity when water levels are higher than base flow. Discharge and flow are strong predictors of the distribution of out-migrating sea lamprey, thus managers will need to either target capture efforts in high discharge areas of streams or develop means to guide sea lamprey away from these areas.

  19. The Influence of Laterality of Pharyngeal Bolus Passage on Dysphagia in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Seok; Lee, Seong Jae; Seo, Dong Hyuk; Hyun, Jung Keun; Kim, Jae Il

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate swallowing laterality in hemiplegic patients with stroke and recovery of dysphagia according to the laterality. Method The sample was comprised of 46 dysphagic patients with hemiplegia after their first stroke. The sample's videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was reviewed. Swallowing laterality was determined by the anterior-posterior view of VFSS. We measured width difference of barium sulfate liquid flow in the pharyngoesophageal segment. If there was double or more the width of that from the opposite width in the pharyngoesophageal segment more than twice on three trials of swallowing, then it was judged as having laterality. Subjects were assigned to no laterality (NL), laterality that is ipsilateral to hemiplegic side (LI), and laterality that is contralateral to hemiplegic side (LC) groups. We measured the following: prevalence of aspiration, the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale, and the functional dysphagia scale of the subjects at baseline and follow up. Results Laterality was observed in 45.7% of all patients. Among them, 52.4% were in the hemiplegic direction. There was no significant difference between groups at baseline in all measurements. When we compared the changes in all measurements on follow-up study, there were no significant differences between groups. Conclusion Through this study, we found that there was no significant relation between swallowing laterality and the severity or prognosis of swallowing difficulty. More studies for swallowing laterality on stroke patients will be needed. PMID:23185735

  20. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  1. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  2. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  3. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  4. Flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities. 8 refs

  5. Inferior hilar window on lateral chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Webb, W.R.; Klein, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy of lateral chest radiography in the detection of masses in the inferior hilar window, a normally avascular hilar region anterior to the lower lobe bronchi. Fifty patients with normal thoracic CT scans and 25 with hilar masses/adenopathy were selected retrospectively. The 75 corresponding lateral chest radiographs were blindly evaluated for visibility of the anterior walls of the lower lobe bronchi and the presence and laterality of abnormal soft tissue (>1 cm) in the inferior hilar window. Only a 7 x 7-cm square of the lateral radiograph was viewed

  6. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  7. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  8. Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Abdrabbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of laterally loaded pile groups is a complicated soil–structure interaction problem. Although fairly reliable methods are developed to predicate the lateral behavior of single piles, the lateral response of pile groups has attracted less attention due to the required high cost and complication implication. This study presents a simplified method to analyze laterally loaded pile groups. The proposed method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction. Shadowing effects in closely spaced piles in a group were taken into consideration. It is proven that laterally loaded piles embedded in sand can be analyzed within the working load range assuming a linear relationship between lateral load and lateral displacement. The proposed method estimates the distribution of lateral loads among piles in a pile group and predicts the safe design lateral load of a pile group. The benefit of the proposed method is in its simplicity for the preliminary design stage with a little computational effort.

  9. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  10. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  11. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2008-02-23

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex task, we find that bees learn a colour stimulus better with their right eye.

  12. Development of a Cerebrospinal Fluid Lateral Reservoir Model in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Lester McCully, Cynthia M; Bacher, John; MacAllister, Rhonda P; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha; Thomas, Marvin L; Cruz, Rafael; Warren, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Rapid, serial, and humane collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in nonhuman primates (NHP) is an essential element of numerous research studies and is currently accomplished via two different models. The CSF reservoir model (FR) combines a catheter in the 4th ventricle with a flexible silastic reservoir to permit circulating CSF flow. The CSF lateral port model (LP) consists of a lateral ventricular catheter and an IV port that provides static access to CSF and volume restrictions on sample...

  13. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced

  14. 环介导等温扩增联合横向流动试纸条可视化检测哈维氏弧菌的研究%Visual Detection ofVibrio harveyi Based on Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Lateral Flow Dipstick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程蝶; 柴方超; 蔡怡; 周前进; 陈炯

    2016-01-01

    Based on nucleotide enrichment by a loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP)and chromatographic visualization by a lateral flow dipstick(LFD)assay,this work aims to develop a novel LAMP-LFD method for the rapid detection of Vibrio harveyi. Three pairs of primers were designed using the hemolysin gene(vhhA)of V. harveyi as detection target,and used in LAMP reaction,among which the forward inner primer vhhA-FIP was biotinylated. Similarly,a fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)-labeled probe vhhA-HP was designed to specifically hybridize with LAMP products. And then the hybridized LAMP products were visually detected by LFD. The optimized LAMP was performed at 63℃ for 40 min;and visual detection via LFD took 50 min. The results indicated that LAMP-LFD was able to specifically identify V. harveyi from other 9 pathogenic bacteria commonly existing in the aquatic animals,such as V. vulnificus. The detection limit of LAMP-LFD was 1.0×102 CFU/mL for V. harveyi pure cultures(equivalent to 2 CFU per reaction),and 5×102 CFU/mL for V. harveyi contaminated tissues of large yellow croaker(equivalent to 20 CFU per reaction),both of which were 100 times lower than that of the conventional PCR method using both outer primers vhhA-F3/vhhA-B3. Therefore,this rapid and accurate LAMP-LFD method is a promising alternative in the surveillance and point-of-care test of V. harveyiin sea farming.%以哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)为材料,利用环介导等温扩增技术(LAMP)进行核酸扩增,借助横向流动试纸条(LFD)完成产物检测,旨在建立一种可用于哈维氏弧菌快速检测的LAMP-LFD新技术。以哈维氏弧菌的溶血素基因(vhhA)为检测靶标设计了3对特异性引物(其中,上游内引物vhhA-FIP由生物素标记),进行由生物素标记的LAMP反应;同时设计1条异硫氰酸荧光素(FITC)标记的探针,与获得的LAMP产物进行特异性杂交,杂交产物经LFD完成检测。经

  15. Hawaii Lava Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This sequence of ASTER nighttime thermal images shows the Pu'u O'o lava flows entering the sea at Kamokuna on the southeast side of the Island of Hawaii. Each image covers an area of 9 x 12 km. The acquisition dates are April 4 2000, May 13 2000, May 22 2000 (upper row) and June 30 2000, August 1 2000 and January 1 2001 (lower row). Thermal band 14 has been color coded from black (coldest) through blue, red, yellow and white (hottest). The first 5 images show a time sequence of a single eruptive phase; the last image shows flows from a later eruptive phase. The images are located at 19.3 degrees north latitude, 155 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Neuro-Compatible Metabolic Glycan Labeling of Primary Hippocampal Neurons in Noncontact, Sandwich-Type Neuron-Astrocyte Coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yu; Park, Matthew; Cho, Hyeoncheol; Kim, Mi-Hee; Kang, Kyungtae; Choi, Insung S

    2017-12-20

    Glycans are intimately involved in several facets of neuronal development and neuropathology. However, the metabolic labeling of surface glycans in primary neurons is a difficult task because of the neurotoxicity of unnatural monosaccharides that are used as a metabolic precursor, hindering the progress of metabolic engineering in neuron-related fields. Therefore, in this paper, we report a neurosupportive, neuron-astrocyte coculture system that neutralizes the neurotoxic effects of unnatural monosaccharides, allowing for the long-term observation and characterization of glycans in primary neurons in vitro. Polysialic acids in neurons are selectively imaged, via the metabolic labeling of sialoglycans with peracetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine (Ac 4 ManNAz), for up to 21 DIV. Two-color labeling shows that neuronal activities, such as neurite outgrowth and recycling of membrane components, are highly dynamic and change over time during development. In addition, the insertion sites of membrane components are suggested to not be random, but be predominantly localized in developing neurites. This work provides a new research platform and also suggests advanced 3D systems for metabolic-labeling studies of glycans in primary neurons.

  17. Gallium(III)-Containing, Sandwich-Type Heteropolytungstates: Synthesis, Solution Characterization, and Hydrolytic Studies toward Phosphoester and Phosphoanhydride Bond Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Balamurugan; Vanhaecht, Stef; Nkala, Fiona Marylyn; Beelen, Tessa; Bassil, Bassem S; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Kortz, Ulrich

    2016-09-19

    The gallium(III)-containing heteropolytungstates [Ga4(H2O)10(β-XW9O33)2](6-) (X = As(III), 1; Sb(III), 2) were synthesized in aqueous acidic medium by reaction of Ga(3+) ions with the trilacunary, lone-pair-containing [XW9O33](9-). Polyanions 1 and 2 are isostructural and crystallized as the hydrated sodium salts Na6[Ga4(H2O)10(β-AsW9O33)2]·28H2O (Na-1) and Na6[Ga4(H2O)10(β-SbW9O33)2]·30H2O (Na-2) in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell parameters a = 16.0218(12) Å, b = 15.2044(10) Å, c = 20.0821(12) Å, and β = 95.82(0)°, as well as a = 16.0912(5) Å, b = 15.2178(5) Å, c = 20.1047(5) Å, and β = 96.2(0)°, respectively. The corresponding tellurium(IV) derivative [Ga4(H2O)10(β-TeW9O33)2](4-) (3) was also prepared, by direct reaction of sodium tungstate, tellurium(IV) oxide, and gallium nitrate. Polyanion 3 crystallized as the mixed rubidium/sodium salt Rb2Na2[Ga4(H2O)10(β-TeW9O33)2]·28H2O (RbNa-3) in the triclinic space group P1̅ with unit cell parameters a = 12.5629(15) Å, b = 13.2208(18) Å, c = 15.474(2) Å, α = 80.52(1)°, β = 84.37(1)°, and γ = 65.83(1)°. All polyanions 1-3 were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and elemental analysis, and polyanion 2 was also characterized in solution by (183)W NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyanion 2 was used as a homogeneous catalyst toward adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the DNA model substrate 4-nitrophenylphosphate, monitored by (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The encapsulated gallium(III) centers in 2 promote the Lewis acidic synergistic activation of the hydrolysis of ATP and DNA model substrates at a higher rate in near-physiological conditions. A strong interaction of 2 with the P-O bond of ATP was evidenced by changes in chemical shift values and line broadening of the (31)P nucleus in ATP upon addition of the polyanion.

  18. An ultrasensitive sandwich type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for triiodothyronine detection using silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide as a nanocarrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hung-Tao; Fu, Chien-Yu; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Hwan-You

    2015-09-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was constructed to detect 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). The system employed T3-conjugated, silver nanoparticle-decorated carboxylic graphene oxide (Ag@fGO-T3) as a carrier and anti-T3 antibody-tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) as a probe. The Ag@fGO-T3 and Ru(bpy)3(2+) complex could be mobilized rapidly to the anode in the reaction chamber through electrophoresis. The fGO is reduced electrochemically at the electrode, and the electrons could transfer from an anode to the Ru(bpy)3(2+). The complex is excited at the electrode and an ECL signal is produced upon reacting with tripropylamine (TPrA). Because of its large surface area and excellent conductivity, Ag@fGO could enhance ECL signal significantly in the system. Quantitative measurement of T3 could be achieved in the range from 0.1 pg/mL to 0.8 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.05 pg/mL. In addition, the novel immunosensor showed good specificity in the presence of serum, indicating its high potential in clinical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on Flat Sandwich-type Self-Powered Detectors for Flux Measurements in ITER Test Blanket Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Prasoon; Angelone, Maurizio; Döring, Toralf; Eberhardt, Klaus; Fischer, Ulrich; Klix, Axel; Schwengner, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Neutron and gamma flux measurements in designated positions in the test blanket modules (TBM) of ITER will be important tasks during ITER's campaigns. As part of the ongoing task on development of nuclear instrumentation for application in European ITER TBMs, experimental investigations on self-powered detectors (SPD) are undertaken. This paper reports the findings of neutron and photon irradiation tests performed with a test SPD in flat sandwich-like geometry. Whereas both neutrons and gammas can be detected with appropriate optimization of geometries, materials and sizes of the components, the present sandwich-like design is more sensitive to gammas than 14 MeV neutrons. Range of SPD current signals achievable under TBM conditions are predicted based on the SPD sensitivities measured in this work.

  20. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  1. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  2. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    2015-01-01

    . The phenomenon of gerontopedagogicalisation is a process of becoming a juvenile and entrepreneurial self in later life, conceptualised as performAGE (Fristrup, 2012a). PerformAGE is an approach to understanding the different ways of performing age in later life which favours the performing of this juvenile...

  3. Lateral Pharyngeal Diverticulum presenting with Dysphagia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral pharyngeal diverticulum (Pharyngocele) is the protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa through the pharyngeal wall, usually through either of two weak areas in the pharyngeal wall as an acquired or congenital case. Lateral diverticula are very rare and not to be mistaken for the rather more frequent and abundantly ...

  4. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  5. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular....... Division of the posterolateral capsule caused no further laxity. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament induced a maximum laxity of 11.8 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced varus and a maximum laxity of 20.6 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced external rotation. The corresponding maximal...... posterior radial head translation was observed at 80 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion and was 5.7 mm in forced varus and 8.1 mm in forced external rotation. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be an important stabilizer of the humeroulnar joint and the radial head in forced varus...

  6. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  7. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    failure envelopes. A jacked installation test is successfully compared with existing models. Tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading applied at different loading rates are analysed. As expected, the bearing capacity of bucket foundations under transient lateral loading increases dramatically...... documents on bearing capacity and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed and the results from the models found in literature are compared to the experimental results obtained in the current study. Monotonic tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading until failure are compared with existing...

  8. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  9. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media.

  10. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  11. Transient phenomena in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled

  12. Septum formation of the lateral ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Hakan H.; Aldur, Mustafa M.; Tatar, I.; Tascioglu, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    In an MRI study examining anomalies of the septum pellucidum in 505 cases, we detected bilateral septum formation of the lateral ventricles in a 17-months-old-baby. In this study, we evaluate 505 (242 males and 263 females) patients referred to the Emaray Imaging Center, Ankara, Turkey with various prediagnoses. We specially selected all the cases from a non-psychotic population. We obtained MRI scans on a 1-Tesla imager (Picker International, Highland Heights, Ohio, USA), with slices of 5 and 6 mm thickness. In the axial and coronal sections, we observed septum formation laterally between the anterior horn and the ventricular body of the lateral ventricles. Radio opaque septum formations started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the genu of the corpus callosum. There was a second septum formation between the posterior horn and the ventricular body of the right lateral ventricle. It started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the cavum vergae. (author)

  13. Projectile Aerodynamic Jump Due to Lateral Impulsives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Gene

    2003-01-01

    .... The formulation shows for sufficiently long-range target interception; lateral impulse trajectory response for a guided projectile is independent of when the impulse is activated during the yaw cycle...

  14. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang; Pu, Jiang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Matsuda, Kazunari; Takenobu, Taishi; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p

  15. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  16. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response......The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  17. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  18. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  19. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...... is triggered. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration response is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing mechanism which generates the load is still disputed. In this thesis, a comprehensive literature review...... 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix development of large amplitude...

  20. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  1. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illus...

  2. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  3. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  4. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  5. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  6. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  7. Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing gas migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    was observed. There was a good correlation between pressure above the barometric pressure and the methane concentration in the soil, indicating that advective flow was the controlling process. This was confirmed by calculations. Diurnal measurement during a drop in barometric pressure showed that lateral...

  8. Lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons evaluated in large-volume soil monoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirastru, Mario; Marrosu, Roberto; Prima, Di Simone; Keesstra, Saskia; Giadrossich, Filippo; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating the lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, of soil horizons is crucial for understanding and modelling the subsurface flow dynamics in many shallow hill soils. A Ks,l measurement method should be able to catch the effects of soil heterogeneities governing hydrological processes

  9. Cerebral Lateralization and General Intelligence: Gender Differences in a Transcranial Doppler Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemanze, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated cerebral lateralization during Raven's progressive matrices (RPM) paradigm in female and male subjects. Bilateral simultaneous transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to measure mean blood flow velocities (MBFV) in the right and left middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) in 24 (15 females and 9 males) right-handed…

  10. Hydrocephalus secondary to obstruction of the lateral apertures in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M; Glass, E N; Haley, A C; Shaikh, L S; Sequel, M; Blas-Machado, U; Bishop, T M; Holmes, S P; Platt, S R

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, hydrocephalus is divided into communicating or non-communicating (obstructive) based on the identification of a blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo refers to ventricular enlargement as a consequence of neuroparenchymal loss. Hydrocephalus related to obstruction of the lateral apertures of the fourth ventricles has rarely been described. The clinicopathologic findings in two dogs with hydrocephalus secondary to obstruction of the lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle are reported. Signs were associated with a caudal cervical spinal cord lesion in one dog and a caudal brain stem lesion in the other dog. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed dilation of the ventricular system, including the lateral recesses of the fourth ventricle. In one dog, postmortem ventriculography confirmed obstruction of the lateral apertures. Microscopic changes were identified in the choroid plexus in both dogs, yet a definitive cause of the obstructions was not identified. The MRI findings in both dogs are similar to membranous occlusion of the lateral and median apertures in human patients. MRI detection of dilation of the entire ventricular system in the absence of an identifiable cause should prompt consideration of an obstruction of the lateral apertures. In future cases, therapeutic interventions aimed at re-establishing CSF flow or ventriculoperitoneal catheterisation should be considered. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Flow chemistry vs. flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The flow mode of conducting chemical syntheses facilitates chemical processes through the use of on-line analytical monitoring of occurring reactions, the application of solid-supported reagents to minimize downstream processing and computerized control systems to perform multi-step sequences. They are exactly the same attributes as those of flow analysis, which has solid place in modern analytical chemistry in several last decades. The following review paper, based on 131 references to original papers as well as pre-selected reviews, presents basic aspects, selected instrumental achievements and developmental directions of a rapidly growing field of continuous flow chemical synthesis. Interestingly, many of them might be potentially employed in the development of new methods in flow analysis too. In this paper, examples of application of flow analytical measurements for on-line monitoring of flow syntheses have been indicated and perspectives for a wider application of real-time analytical measurements have been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vortical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi; Ma, Hui-Yang; Zhou, Ming-De

    2015-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and intensive book for graduate students in fluid dynamics as well as scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians. Offering a systematic introduction to the physical theory of vortical flows at graduate level, it considers the theory of vortical flows as a branch of fluid dynamics focusing on shearing process in fluid motion, measured by vorticity. It studies vortical flows according to their natural evolution stages,from being generated to dissipated. As preparation, the first three chapters of the book provide background knowledge for entering vortical flows. The rest of the book deals with vortices and vortical flows, following their natural evolution stages. Of various vortices the primary form is layer-like vortices or shear layers, and secondary but stronger form is axial vortices mainly formed by the rolling up of shear layers. Problems are given at the end of each chapter and Appendix, some for helping understanding the basic theories, and some involving specific applications; but the emphasis of both is always on physical thinking.

  13. Vortical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jie-Zhi [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Engineering; Ma, Hui-Yang [Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Dept. of Physics; Zhou, Ming-De [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

    2015-11-01

    This book is a comprehensive and intensive book for graduate students in fluid dynamics as well as scientists, engineers and applied mathematicians. Offering a systematic introduction to the physical theory of vortical flows at graduate level, it considers the theory of vortical flows as a branch of fluid dynamics focusing on shearing process in fluid motion, measured by vorticity. It studies vortical flows according to their natural evolution stages,from being generated to dissipated. As preparation, the first three chapters of the book provide background knowledge for entering vortical flows. The rest of the book deals with vortices and vortical flows, following their natural evolution stages. Of various vortices the primary form is layer-like vortices or shear layers, and secondary but stronger form is axial vortices mainly formed by the rolling up of shear layers. Problems are given at the end of each chapter and Appendix, some for helping understanding the basic theories, and some involving specific applications; but the emphasis of both is always on physical thinking.

  14. Flow deflection over a foredune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Smyth, Thomas A. G.; Nielsen, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Bauer, Bernard O.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin

    2015-02-01

    Flow deflection of surface winds is common across coastal foredunes and blowouts. Incident winds approaching obliquely to the dune toe and crestline tend to be deflected towards a more crest-normal orientation across the stoss slope of the foredune. This paper examines field measurements for obliquely incident winds, and compares them to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of flow deflection in 10° increments from onshore (0°) to alongshore (90°) wind approach angles. The mechanics of flow deflection are discussed, followed by a comparative analysis of measured and modelled flow deflection data that shows strong agreement. CFD modelling of the full range of onshore to alongshore incident winds reveals that deflection of the incident wind flow is minimal at 0° and gradually increases as the incident wind turns towards 30° to the dune crest. The greatest deflection occurs between 30° and 70° incident to the dune crest. The degree of flow deflection depends secondarily on height above the dune surface, with the greatest effect near the surface and toward the dune crest. Topographically forced flow acceleration ("speed-up") across the stoss slope of the foredune is greatest for winds less than 30° (i.e., roughly perpendicular) and declines significantly for winds with more oblique approach angles. There is less lateral uniformity in the wind field when the incident wind approaches from > 60° because the effect of aspect ratio on topographic forcing and streamline convergence is less pronounced.

  15. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  16. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.MethodsFrom September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.ResultsThe average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.ConclusionsPartial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  17. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yong Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  18. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo [Pundang CHA Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  20. Study of flow behavior in all-vanadium redox flow battery using spatially resolved voltage distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Arjun; Wai, Nyunt; Schweiss, Rüdiger; Whitehead, Adam; Scherer, Günther G.; Ghimire, Purna C.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Hng, Huey Hoon

    2017-08-01

    Uniform flow distribution through the porous electrodes in a flow battery cell is very important for reducing Ohmic and mass transport polarization. A segmented cell approach can be used to obtain in-situ information on flow behaviour, through the local voltage or current mapping. Lateral flow of current within the thick felts in the flow battery can hamper the interpretation of the data. In this study, a new method of segmenting a conventional flow cell is introduced, which for the first time, splits up both the porous felt as well as the current collector. This dual segmentation results in higher resolution and distinct separation of voltages between flow inlet to outlet. To study the flow behavior for an undivided felt, monitoring the OCV is found to be a reliable method, instead of voltage or current mapping during charging and discharging. Our approach to segmentation is simple and applicable to any size of the cell.

  1. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  2. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  3. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  4. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2018-02-28

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p–n junction without the necessity of applying an external voltage. However, no scalable processes are reported to construct the devices with such lateral heterostructures. Here, a scalable strategy, two-step and location-selective chemical vapor deposition, is reported to synthesize self-aligned WSe2–MoS2 monolayer lateral heterojunction arrays and demonstrates their light-emitting devices. The proposed fabrication process enables the growth of high-quality interfaces and the first successful observation of electroluminescence at the WSe2–MoS2 lateral heterojunction. The electroluminescence study has confirmed the type-I alignment at the interface rather than commonly believed type-II alignment. This self-aligned growth process paves the way for constructing various 2D lateral heterostructures in a scalable manner, practically important for integrated 2D circuit applications.

  5. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  6. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  7. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  8. Recovery of Dysphagia in lateral medullary stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  9. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    generated by pedestrians during walking on an instrumented moving treadmill. The treadmill was driven sinusoidally in a lateral motion at various vibration frequencies and amplitudes. Visual observations made during the experiments and testimonies from the walkers, as well as subsequent analysis of video...... recordings, suggested that synchronisation is not as pronounced as generally believed. To confirm this, further analyses were undertaken on the walking patterns of 10 test subjects that were instrumented with waist-mounted tri-axial accelerometers. In this paper, the results from these tests are presented....... The tests reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the development of large amplitude lateral vibrations on footbridges, as walking frequencies and phase angles remain largely unaffected by lateral motion at most frequencies and amplitudes. Instead, large amplitude vibrations are the result...

  10. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

  11. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly graphitized laterally interconnected SWCNT network synthesis via a sandwich-grown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, I-Ju; Chen, Kai-Ling; Wang, Li-Chun; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Wang, Wei-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    We present a sandwich-grown method for growing laterally interconnected single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks with a high degree of graphitization by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD). An Al 2 O 3 -supported Fe catalyst precursor layer deposited on an oxidized Si substrate with an upper Si cover is first pretreated in pure hydrogen, and then exposed to a gas mixture of methane/hydrogen for growth process at a lower growth temperature and a faster rate. The effects of various parameters, such as catalyst film thickness, gas flow rate, working pressure, growth time and plasma power, on the morphologies and structural characteristics of the SWCNT networks are investigated, and therefore provide the essential conditions for direct growth of laterally interconnected SWCNT networks. Analytical results demonstrate that the SWCNT-based lateral architecture comprises a mixture of graphene-sheet-wrapped catalyst particles and laterally interconnected nanotubes, isolated or branched or assembled into bundles. The results also show that the formation of the laterally interconnected SWCNT networks is related to the sandwich-like stack approach and the addition of an Al 2 O 3 layer in the MPCVD process. The successful growth of lateral SWCNT networks provides new experimental information for simply and efficiently preparing lateral SWCNTs on unpatterned substrates, and opens a pathway to create network-structured nanotube-based devices.

  13. Autogenic dynamics of debris-flow fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Wilco; de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    , the debris flows started to channelize, forced by increasingly effective concentration of the flow impulse to the flow front, which caused more effective lateral levee formation and an increasingly well-defined channel. This process continued until the debris flows reached their maximum possible extent and the cycle was reverted. Channelization occurred in the absence of erosion, in contrast with fluvial fans. Backfilling and channelization cycles were gradual and symmetric, requiring multiple debris flows to be completed. These results add debris-flow fans to the spectrum of fan-shaped aqueous systems that are affected by autogenic dynamics, now ranging from low-gradient rivers systems to steep-gradient mass-flow fans.

  14. Reversible transinsular herniation of the lateral ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holodny, Andrei I. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, The Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gor, Devang M.; Thaver, Hussain; Millian, Brian R. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2004-11-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy, with a history of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, leading to hydrocephalus with multiple shunt revisions. The current presentation of shunt failure and resultant hydrocephalus was complicated by herniation of the trigone of the lateral ventricle into the posterior fossa. Despite the dramatic radiological appearance, this herniation of the lateral ventricle was not accompanied by any additional clinical signs or symptoms other than those usually attributed to hydrocephalus. Following successful shunt revision, the patient returned to his baseline clinically with the trigone reverting back to its normal position. We also present a second companion case. (orig.)

  15. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  16. Formative flow in bedrock canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Kwoll, E.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In alluvial channels, it is widely accepted that river channel configuration is set by a formative flow that represents a balance between the magnitude and frequency of flood flows. The formative flow is often considered to be one that is just capable of filling a river channel to the top of its banks. Flows much above this formative flow are thought to cause substantial sediment transport and rearrange the channel morphology to accommodate the larger flow. This idea has recently been extended to semi-alluvial channels where it has been shown that even with bedrock exposed, the flows rarely exceed that required to entrain the local sediment cover. What constitutes a formative flow in a bedrock canyon is not clear. By definition, canyons have rock walls and are typically incised vertically, removing the possibility of the walls being overtopped, as can occur in an alluvial channel at high flows. Canyons are laterally constrained, have deep scour pools and often have width to maximum depth ratios approaching 1, an order of magnitude lower than alluvial channels. In many canyons, there are a sequence of irregularly spaced scour pools. The bed may have intermittent or seasonal sediment cover, but during flood flows the sediment bed is entrained leaving a bare bedrock channel. It has been suggested that canyons cut into weak, well-jointed rock may adjust their morphology to the threshold for block plucking because the rock bed is labile during exceptionally large magnitude flows. However, this hypothesis does not apply to canyons cut into massive crystalline rock where abrasion is the dominant erosion process. Here, we argue that bedrock canyon morphology is adjusted to a characteristic flow structure developed in bedrock canyons. We show that the deeply scoured canyon floor is adjusted to a velocity inversion that is present at low flows, but gets stronger at high flows. The effect is to increase boundary shear stresses along the scour pool that forms in constricted

  17. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress. This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress. Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  18. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  19. Brain perfusion imaging in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehisa; Morita, Mitsuya; Nakano, Imaharu

    2007-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been applied for evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in various neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS with dementia (ALS-D). Brain perfusion SPECT using statistical image analysis is useful for accurate and objective diagnosis to evaluate slight decreases in rCBF, even in cases difficult to assess by visual inspection. We have used statistical parametric mapping (SPM), three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP), easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) as statistical image analyses. ALS-D cases, even if a case manifests minimal mentality change, showed obvious rCBF reduction in the bilateral prefrontal area with some irregularity and laterality of its decrease. This abnormality was clear in ALS-D compared with classic ALS. Our study has demonstrated that brain perfusion SPECT imaging using statistical image analyses is quite useful as an adjunct to presume the existence of dementia in ALS, even if ALS patients have trouble in verbal or manual communication of the language because of progressive bulbar symptoms and muscle weakness. Thus, for ALS patients with any subtle signs and symptoms suggesting dementia, we recommend a SPECT study with use of statistical image analyses. (author)

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  1. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  2. Flow Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Lind

    2003-01-01

    Flow Game er et dialogspil, der kan bruges som ledelsesværktøj, ledertræning, samtaletræning, coachingtræning og ideudvikling m.m. Gennem dilemmakort provokeres en dialog og teori-U inspireret afklaring- og udviklingsproces, hvor der enten arbejdes på en gruppes eller et individs vision/innovatio......Flow Game er et dialogspil, der kan bruges som ledelsesværktøj, ledertræning, samtaletræning, coachingtræning og ideudvikling m.m. Gennem dilemmakort provokeres en dialog og teori-U inspireret afklaring- og udviklingsproces, hvor der enten arbejdes på en gruppes eller et individs vision...

  3. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  4. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  5. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  6. Laterality of Symptomatic Recurrent Calcium Nephrolithiasis | Ketata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Although it is presumed that both kidneys excrete similar urinary constituents, it is a general observation that the majority of patients present with unilateral stone disease. The aim of this work was to study the laterality of recurrence in calcium stone formers. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study of 154 ...

  7. Traces of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of the motor system involving both upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Patients suffer from progressive wasting and weakness of limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Onset and disease course in ALS

  8. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  9. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    . Following the unexpected serviceability failures of Paris’ Solférino and London’s Millennium footbridges in 1999 and 2000, a new tract of research was initiated, focused on understanding the phenomenon which has become known as Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE). In this paper, a comprehensive review...

  10. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  11. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  12. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal C. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

  13. Quantitative muscle ultrasonography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Rooij, F.G. van; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Janssen, H.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether quantitative muscle ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes in early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Bilateral transverse scans were made of five muscles or muscle groups (sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii/brachialis, forearm flexor group,

  14. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  15. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  17. Arthroscopic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Nuno M; Moreira, Rodrigo M

    2009-03-01

    The current "gold standard'' for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability is the Broström-Gould procedure. Most authors recommend this type of operation even after an arthroscopic inspection of the joint. We review our results with an arthroscopic method of lateral ankle ligament repair. A method of arthroscopic lateral ligament repair with an anchor placed in the fibula is described. We used this technique on 31 consecutive patients (28 were available for followup). Twenty-one patients had work or traffic accidents, four suffered casual falls. and three had sport-related lesions. The patients were evaluated after 24.5 month average followup. The average postoperative AOFAS score was 85.3 (82.3 in the workers-compensation group and 94.4 in the others) and average satisfaction was 3.8 (3.5 to workers-compensation and 4.6 for the others). Complications occurred in nine patients (29%), but only three cases had ongoing problems. We had two recurrences (another sprain without instability on the stress radiograph). Three patients had some wound healing problems and three had injuries of the superficial peroneal nerve, one of which is persistent. One patient developed a deep venous thrombosis postoperatively. With this method, we achieved good clinical results. We had several complications but most of them were minor. It was a simple procedure with less morbidity to most patients. We believe it produced an anatomical repair of the lateral ligament with clinical and functional results similar to other techniques.

  18. Lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained and atomistic models to study the lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers. We first consider simple oil/air and oil/water interfaces, and then proceed to lipid monolayers at air/water and oil/water interfaces. The results are

  19. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.C.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  20. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  1. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  2. Media Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    2016-01-01

    News and other kinds of journalistic stories, 16-17 hours a day, all year round, on all platforms, also the moderated social media. The key research thesis behind this article is that the continuous and speedy stream of news stories and media content now is becoming the centre of the production...... processes and the value creation in converged multimedia newsrooms. The article identify new methods and discuss editorial challenges in handling media flow....

  3. Kinesio taping in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Banu; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Sahin, Ebru; Ilter, Leman; Gulbahar, Selmin; Cevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2016-11-21

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a painful condition that affects the tendinous tissue of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and leads to loss of function of the affected limb. Therefore it can have a major impact on the patient's social and personal life. Many treatments are recommended for lateral epicondylitis; unfortunately the evidence is limited. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of kinesio taping (KT) on pain, grip strength and function in patients LE. Thirty-one (23 females, 8 males) patients with LE were included. KT was applied twice a week for 2 weeks. Pain at rest, activity of daily living (ADL), night and palpation on lateral epicondyle was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS 0-10 cm), and the grip strength was measured with a hand held dynamometer. The stage of the disease was evaluated by the Nirschl score and the functional status was assessed with Patient-Rated Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire (PRTEQ) score. These parameters were evaluated before, at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after treatment. Patients' satisfaction was also recorded on a Likert scale after treatment at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. The average age of the patients was 43.58 ± 9.02. The dominant limb was affected in 64.5% (20) of the patients. After the application of KT on lateral epicondyle, there was a significant improvement in all parameters in terms of pain, Nirschl score, hand grip strength, patient satisfaction, and PRTEQ scores at 2 and 6 weeks. Kinesio taping can be an effective treatment method in LE. This application improves pain, grip strength and functional status of the patients with LE.

  4. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  5. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  6. Lateral hydraulic forces calculation on PWR fuel assemblies with computational fluid dynamics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpa Masa, R.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Moreno Garcia, B.

    2016-01-01

    To be able to simulate the behavior of nuclear fuel under operating conditions, it is required to include all the representative loads, including the lateral hydraulic forces which were not included traditionally because of the difficulty of calculating them in a reliable way. Thanks to the advance in CFD codes, now it is possible to assess them. This study calculates the local lateral hydraulic forces, caused by the contraction and expansion of the flow due to the bow of the surrounding fuel assemblies, on of fuel assembly under typical operating conditions from a three loop Westinghouse PWR reactor. (Author)

  7. Lateral current generation in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction channels by Schottky-barrier gate illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawazu, Takuya; Noda, Takeshi; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sakaki, Hiroyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-01-12

    We observe lateral currents induced in an n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction channel of Hall bar geometry, when an asymmetric position of the Schottky metal gate is locally irradiated by a near-infrared laser beam. When the left side of the Schottky gate is illuminated with the laser, the lateral current flows from left to right in the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel. In contrast, the right side illumination leads to the current from right to left. The magnitude of the lateral current is almost linearly dependent on the beam position, the current reaching its maximum for the beam at the edge of the Schottky gate. The experimental findings are well explained by a theory based on the current-continuity equation, where the lateral current in the 2DEG channel is driven by the photocurrent which vertically flows from the 2DEG to the Schottky gate.

  8. Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller

    2010-01-01

    The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...

  9. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  10. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  11. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  12. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  13. Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    can be written as â fj (t) =WO tanh( WIx (t)+bI)+bO, (38) where WI , WO are the input and output matrices, respectively, and bI and bO are the input...applications, present on envisioned airborne optical platforms . One of the problems is that all adaptive optical systems rely on mechanically moving some...of successfully controlling the optical aberration due to the flow over the aperture of airborne optical platforms . As outlined above, systems

  14. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  15. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  16. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  17. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report...... mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While...... lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants...

  18. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  19. Lateral resolution of eddy current imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.; Blodgett, M.; Nagy, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical, finite element simulation, and experimental methods were used to investigate the lateral resolution of eddy current microscopy. It was found that the lateral resolution of eddy current imaging is ultimately limited by the probe-coil geometry and dimensions, but both the inspection frequency and the phase angle can be used to optimize the resolution, to some degree, at the expense of sensitivity. Electric anisotropy exhibited by noncubic crystallographic classes of materials such as titanium alloys can play a very similar role in electromagnetic materials characterization of polycrystalline metals to that of elastic anisotropy in ultrasonic materials characterization. Our results demonstrate that eddy current microscopy can be enhanced via a high-resolution, small diameter probe-coil which delivers a unique materials characterization tool well suited for the evaluation of Ti alloys

  20. The management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie

    2009-02-01

    The terms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) refer to a condition characterized by motor system degeneration with relative preservation of other pathways. Although there have been advances in symptomatic treatment, ALS remains an incurable condition. Advances in ALS management prolong survival but simultaneously raise challenging ethical dilemmas for physicians, patients and their families. Here, we review current practice in the management of ALS including pharmacological treatment, nutritional management, respiratory care, and evolving strategies in the management of cognitive impairment.

  1. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100. The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used ( p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  2. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  3. Lateral resistance of plybamboo wall-panels

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Beltran, G.E.; Herwijnen, van, F.; Janssen, J.J.A.; Moonen, S.P.G.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical behavior of plybamboo (kind of plywood made out of bamboo) wall-panels subjected to lateral load. The wall-panels are part of a house design method proposed in the author's PhD thesis for prefabricated social housing in developing countries. Sixteen fullscaled wallpanels with or without window and door openings were tested and their theoretical capacities estimated. Design wind and seismic loads were determined according to the Internatio...

  4. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  5. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  6. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Methods Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Results A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p  0.05). Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure. PMID:26401498

  7. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p  0.05). Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  8. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia...

  9. Childhood and later life stressors and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Roper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of psychosis consists of a complex integration of several risk factors including genetic vulnerability, adverse life events and trauma, and substance use. This review discusses the current theories of the genesis of psychosis, with an emphasis on the importance of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs and later life events. ACEs in particular have a profound impact on an individual’s health later in life; and specifically, those who have experienced ACEs are at an increased risk for psychosis. In addition, stressful life events later in life may be relevant for onset and relapse of psychotic episodes. Associations between types of life adversity and specific symptomatology of a psychotic episode have also been suggested. A multi-factorial approach is suggested for linking genetic and environmental contributors to the onset of psychosis. This approach may have an advantage over a purely bio-medical model by focusing less on disability and more on underlying contributors that may be responsive to intervention.

  10. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan

    2015-01-01

    To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003-2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  11. Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, Elisa; Rudolf, Margit; Lohmann, Christoph H; Stärke, Christian

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

  12. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (pfrontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (pgyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  14. Astrophysical Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, James E.; King, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    Almost all conventional matter in the Universe is fluid, and fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in astrophysics. This new graduate textbook provides a basic understanding of the fluid dynamical processes relevant to astrophysics. The mathematics used to describe these processes is simplified to bring out the underlying physics. The authors cover many topics, including wave propagation, shocks, spherical flows, stellar oscillations, the instabilities caused by effects such as magnetic fields, thermal driving, gravity, shear flows, and the basic concepts of compressible fluid dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. The authors are Directors of the UK Astrophysical Fluids Facility (UKAFF) at the University of Leicester, and editors of the Cambridge Astrophysics Series. This book has been developed from a course in astrophysical fluid dynamics taught at the University of Cambridge. It is suitable for graduate students in astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics, and requires only a basic familiarity with fluid dynamics.• Provides coverage of the fundamental fluid dynamical processes an astrophysical theorist needs to know • Introduces new mathematical theory and techniques in a straightforward manner • Includes end-of-chapter problems to illustrate the course and introduce additional ideas

  15. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptom...

  16. Recalcitrant Lateral Premalleolar Bursitis of the Ankle Associated with Lateral Ankle Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Naito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between the bursa and articular cavity of the ankle joint via the sheath of the extensor digitorum longus tendon, which was considered to act as a check valve leading to a large and recalcitrant bursitis. This report provides a novel concept about the etiology of recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle.

  17. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  18. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A.; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  1. Denervation of the lateral humeral epicondyle for treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nicholas E; Forman, Scott K; Dellon, A Lee

    2013-02-01

    Chronic lateral epicondylitis remains a treatment challenge. Traditional surgical treatments for lateral epicondylitis involve variations of the classic Nirschl lateral release. Anatomic studies reveal that the posterior branch or branches of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm consistently innervate the lateral humeral epicondyle. We undertook the present study to determine the effectiveness of denervation of the lateral humeral epicondyle in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis. An institutional review board-approved prospective study included 30 elbows in 26 patients. Inclusion criteria included failure to respond to nonoperative treatment for more than 6 months and improvement in grip strength and in visual analog pain scale after diagnostic nerve block of the posterior branches of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm proximal to the lateral humeral epicondyle. We excluded patients who had undergone previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis. Outcome measures included visual analog pain scale and grip strength testing. Denervation surgery involved identification and transection of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm branches with implantation into the triceps. The presence of radial tunnel syndrome was noted but did not affect inclusion criteria; if it was present, we did not correct it surgically. We used no postoperative splinting and permitted immediate return to activities of daily living. At a mean of 28 months of follow-up, the average visual analog scale score decreased from 7.9 to 1.9. Average grip strength with the elbow extended improved from 13 to 24 kg. A total of 80% of patients had good or excellent results, as defined by an improvement of 5 or more points on the visual analog scale for pain. Denervation of the lateral epicondyle was effective in relieving pain in 80% of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis who had a positive response to a local anesthetic block of the posterior branches of the posterior

  2. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Current ultrasonic blood flow velocity measurement systems are subject to a number of limitations, including limited frame rate, aliasing artifacts, and that only the velocity component along the ultrasound beam is estimated. This dissertation aims at solving some of these problems. The main part...... estimation. Two different velocity estimators were derived for finding both the axial and lateral velocity components through a multi-dimensional spectrum analysis. The work resulted in four journal papers and six conference papers, which are appended to the dissertation....

  3. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Lateral patellar luxation: magnetic resonance findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, V.; Pulpeiro, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the magnetic resonance (MR) findings associated with lateral patellar luxation. The series consisted of eight patients, all of whom presented joint effusion, damage to the medical retinaculum and cortical contusion or fracture of medical aspect of the patella or of anterolateral surface of the outer condyle. Five patients also presented patellar sub luxation. Diagnosis depends on the technique employed, with axial planes being very useful. Thus, it is recommended that they be used as the standard plane, especially in pathologies that are clinically unsuspicious as in this case. MR can also provide information that leads to surgical treatment rather than the standard conservative treatment. (Author)

  5. Deontological aspects of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Alekseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant problems in deontology is the degree of awareness of terminally ill patients regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of their disease. This topic is complex and relevant, it touches ethical and psychological, legal and medical aspects. The article discusses the positive and negative aspects of fully informing patients  with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis about the fatal diagnosis. There are 2  clinical cases reflecting different approaches of this complex issue: full awareness and concealment of the diagnosis.

  6. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation: one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernard, T.A.; Sofer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    About one year ago, after 18 years of business as a wholly owned affiliate of Exxon Corporation, Exxon Nuclear Company was acquired by Siemens/KWU and its name was changed to Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF). This profile describes the status of ANF one year later, principally from the European perspective but with some mention of ANF's worldwide operations to provide a balanced picture. After one year of operation as an affiliate of Siemens/KWU, ANF's role remains as an independent international supplier of nuclear fuel and services to utilities in Europe, the USA and the Far East, but with substantially augmented capabilities resulting from the new affiliation

  7. MR imaging of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, Hiroshi; Monzawa, Shuichi (Yamanashi Medical College, Nakakoma (Japan). Hospital); Araki, Tsutomu (and others)

    1992-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) provides a sensitive method for mapping the normal and pathological distribution of iron in the brain. High field strength MR imaging (1.5 T) was used to evaluate eight patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 49 neurological normal control patients. All eight ALS patients showed decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex on T2-weighted images, while only one of the normal control patients showed this finding. The results suggested that the decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex in ALS was caused by the deposition of iron in this area. (author).

  8. Lateral Interactions in Monolayer Thick Mercury Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Yolanda Jan

    An understanding of lateral adatom-adatom interactions is often an important part of understanding electronic structure and adsorption energetics in monolayer thick films. In this dissertation I use angle-resolved photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopies to explore the relationship between the adatom-adatom interaction and other characteristics of the adlayer, such as electronic structure, defects, or coexistent structural phases in the adlayer. Since Hg binds weakly to many substrates, the lateral interactions are often a major contribution to the dynamics of the overlayer. Hg adlayer systems are thus ideal for probing lateral interactions. The electronic structures of Hg adlayers on Ag(100), Cu(100), and Cu_3Au(100) are studied with angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission. The Hg atomic 5d_{5/2} electronic band is observed to split into two levels following adsorption onto some surfaces. The energetic splitting of the Hg 5d_{5/2} level is found to be directly correlated to the adlayer homogeneous strain energy. The existence of the split off level also depends on the order or disorder of the Hg adlayer. The energetics of Hg adsorption on Cu(100) are probed using thermal desorption spectroscopy. Two different ordered adlayer structures are observed for Hg adsorption on Cu(100) at 200 K. Under some adsorption conditions and over a range of exposures, the two phases are seen to coexist on the surface prior to the thermal desorption process. A phase transition from the more dense to the less dense phase is observed to occur during the thermal desorption process. Inherent differences in defect densities are responsible for the observed differences between lateral interactions measured previously with equilibrium (atom beam scattering) and as measured by the non-equilibrium (thermal desorption) technique reported here. Theoretical and experimental evidence for an indirect through-metal interaction between adatoms is also discussed. Although through

  9. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  10. [Local demyelination in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvirkvelia, N; Shakarishvili, R

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that the demyelination of peripheral nerves can be diffuse or local. Pathogenesis of acute or chronic inflamentary demyelination polyneurophathy is based on diffuse demyelination. Local demyelination occured by conduction block with electoneuromyographic (ENMG) researches. It is the main characteristic of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Generally it is considered, that conduction block is not usual for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). More over, its existance excludes this diagnosis. The article discribes 3 cases of ALS with conduction block verified with ENMG researches. Article also deals with pathogenetic mechanisms of conduction block in ALS and MMN. In addition it observes the issues of differential diagnosis between ALS and MMW.

  11. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Teimournezhad; Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-01-01

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critic...

  12. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  13. Lateral Preoptic Control of the Lateral Habenula through Convergent Glutamate and GABA Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Barker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO, little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA onto single LHb neurons. In vivo, both LPO-glutamatergic and LPO-GABAergic inputs to the LHb are activated by aversive stimuli, and their predictive cues yet produce opposing behaviors when stimulated independently. These results support a model wherein the balanced response of converging LPO-glutamate and LPO-GABA are necessary for a normal response to noxious stimuli, and an imbalance in LPO→LHb glutamate or GABA results in the type of aberrant processing that may underlie mental disorders. : Barker et al. show that distinct populations of lateral preoptic area glutamate and GABA neurons synapse together on single lateral habenula neurons and find that this “convergent neurotransmission” allows preoptic area neurons to exert bivalent control over single lateral habenula neurons and drive opposing motivational states. Keywords: preoptic, habenula, reward, aversion, synapse, glutamate, GABA, stress, calcium imaging, optogenetics, electron microscopy

  14. Effects of Volute Design and Number of Impeller Blades on Lateral Impeller Forces and Hydraulic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Baun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made between the characteristics of the measured lateral impeller forces and the hydraulic performances of a four- and a five-vane impeller, each operating in a spiral volute, a concentric volute, and a double volute. The pump's rotor was supported in magnetic bearings. In addition to supporting and controlling the rotor motion, the magnetic bearings also served as active load cells and were used to measure the impeller forces acting on the pump's rotor. The lateral impeller force characteristics, as a function of a normalized flow coefficient, were virtually identical in the four- and five-vane impellers in each respective volute type. The measured impeller forces for each volute type were compared with correlations in the literature. The measured forces from the double volute configurations agreed with the forces from a correlation model over the full flow range. Single volute configurations compared well with the predictions of a published correlation at high flow rates, ϕ/ϕn>0.5. Concentric volute configurations compared well with a published correlation at low flow rates, ϕ/ϕn<0.4. The head-versus-flow characteristics of the four-vane impeller in each volute type were stable over a greater flow range than the corresponding characteristics of the five-vane impeller. At higher flow rates in the stable region of the head's characteristic curves near the best efficiency point, the five-vane impeller produced higher head than did the four-vane impeller in each volute type.

  15. Adenoidal size in lateral roentgenogram of skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, H. S.; Byun, Y. S.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and otitis media. The diagnosis of enlarged adenoid by inspection is difficult due to its location. In the lateral roentgenogram of the skull the anterior wall of the adenoid is sharply delineated by air in the nasopharynx. The authors measured the sizes of adenoid and nasopharynx and calculated the adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (AN ratio) from 1,000 simple skull lateral roentgenograms of the children between the age of 0 to 16 years. Adenoid size is gradually increasing in the children up to 9 years of age but almost uncharged in the older age group. The AN ratio is highest in the age group of 8-9 years. In the age groups above 9 years of age the AN ratio is gradually decreased due to atrophic changes of the adenoid

  16. Adenoidal size in lateral roentgenogram of skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. S.; Byun, Y. S.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J. [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and otitis media. The diagnosis of enlarged adenoid by inspection is difficult due to its location. In the lateral roentgenogram of the skull the anterior wall of the adenoid is sharply delineated by air in the nasopharynx. The authors measured the sizes of adenoid and nasopharynx and calculated the adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (AN ratio) from 1,000 simple skull lateral roentgenograms of the children between the age of 0 to 16 years. Adenoid size is gradually increasing in the children up to 9 years of age but almost uncharged in the older age group. The AN ratio is highest in the age group of 8-9 years. In the age groups above 9 years of age the AN ratio is gradually decreased due to atrophic changes of the adenoid.

  17. The cortical signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Agosta

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ≥ 0.74. Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r = -0.33, p = 0.03. Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

  18. The cortical signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Valsasina, Paola; Riva, Nilo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Messina, Maria Josè; Prelle, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic) within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ≥ 0.74). Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

  19. Halifax Lateral Pipeline Project : comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The National Energy Board has requested the preparation of a comprehensive study report (CSR) for the proposed Halifax Lateral Pipeline Project in support of Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Company's proposal to construct the lateral pipeline to transport natural gas produced in offshore Nova Scotia to the Tufts Cove electric generating station in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The project will also enhance the access of natural gas to potential markets located along the pipeline route. This CSR was prepared according to guidelines of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. The report presents: (1) an overview of the project, (2) a summary of the regulatory requirements for assessment, (3) a description of the environmental assessment and regulatory process to date, (4) a summary of the predicted residual environmental and socio-economic effects associated with the project, and (5) a summary of the public consultation process. The environmental and socio-economic assessment focused on these eleven issues: groundwater resources, surface water resources, wetlands, soils, air quality, fish habitat, rare herpetiles, mammals, avifauna, rare plants and archaeological heritage resources. The report identified potential interactions between the project and valued socio-economic and environmental components. These were addressed in combination with recommended mitigative measures to reduce potential adverse effects. It was concluded that the overall environmental effects from the proposed project are likely to be minimal and can be effectively managed with good environmental management methods. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  1. Single port access for laparoscopic lateral segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-12-01

    Single-port access laparoscopic lateral segmentectomy (LLS) has been developed as a novel minimally invasive surgery. We have experience with this LLS technique. To report our technique and patients' postoperative course in a series of single-port access LLS performed in our department. We also examine the cosmetic outcome, safety, and utility of the procedure. Between February 2010 and October 2016, 54 patients who underwent single- or multiple-port laparoscopic or open lateral segmentectomy (LS) were retrospectively analyzed with respect to cosmetic outcome, safety, and utility. In the single LLS group, the laparoscopic procedure was successfully completed for all 14 patients. The median operative time was significantly shorter in the single LLS group (123 min; range: 50-270 min) than in the other groups. Estimated blood loss was also significantly lower in the single LLS group (10 ml; range: 0-330 ml). During the first 7 postoperative days, the visual analog scale pain score and the use of additional analgesia were not significantly different between groups. The single LLS group had a 7.1% complication rate (Clavien-Dindo classification > IIIA); this was not significantly different between groups. Single-port access LLS is a procedure with excellent cosmetic results, although, with regard to invasiveness, there are no major differences from conventional LLS.

  2. The Paradox of Leisure in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Shrira, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Numerous studies have shown that involvement in leisure activity has a significant impact on older adults’ physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. This study explores whether the association between leisure involvement and well-being in later life changes over time. Method. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Growth curve models were applied to examine whether leisure moderated change in quality of life (QoL) over time among 7,875 retirees aged 60 and older. Results. Findings indicated that the association between leisure and QoL increased with time, as nonactive respondents displayed a decline in QoL over time, whereas those with high levels of leisure involvement showed an increase. Findings remained significant after controlling for sociodemographics, health, and cognitive functioning. Discussion. Results indicated that the significance of leisure to well-being increases throughout the later life course, and that leisure may act as a resource for resilience in old age. They also pointed out a paradoxical situation in which the older seniors, who may benefit from leisure involvement more than their younger peers, are precisely the ones who face the greater number of constraints to beneficial use of leisure. PMID:25315158

  3. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic change in size of the lateral ventricle evaluated by cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshi

    1990-01-01

    CSF pulsation suggests variation in the size of the cerebral ventricle during the cardiac cycle. CINE MRI, which is a useful technique for observation of the pulsatile CSF flow, demonstrates a dynamic change in size of the lateral ventricle. CINE MRI was performed on a 0.5 tesla MR imaging system (SMT-50, SHIMADZU). Sixteen different phased images during cardiac cycle were made by a gradient acho technique (STAGE: Short Tip Angle Gradient Echo, TE=14 msec, Flip Angle=30deg). From the measurement of the lateral ventricular areas of two different phases of CINE MRI during cadiac cycle, variation rate of cerebral ventricular area (VRCVA) was calculated. Twenty-five normal volunteers (14 younger adults aged 27-44 years, 11 older adults aged 56-73 years) and six cases of marked diffuse cerebral atrophy were studied. The results included: The mean VRCVA of younger adults was 14.4% (at right body of lateral ventricle) ∼ 30.0% (at left anterior horn of lateral ventricle). The mean VRCVA of younger adults is higher than the mean VRCVA of older adults. In the cases of marked diffuse cerebral atrophy, the mean VRCVA was very lower than the mean VRCVA of older adults. VRCVA of lateral ventricle calculated from CINE MRI seemed to have a good relationship to the brain elasticity. This noninvasive method would be used as an indication of the elastic response of the ventricles and the surrounding brain. (J.P.N.)

  5. Percutaneous lateral ligament reconstruction with allograft for chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyunkook; Kim, Yong Sang; Lee, Jongseok; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Woo

    2012-02-01

    The majority of lateral ankle instability can be treated successfully with conservative method. However, if such treatments fail, surgical treatment should be considered. A wide variety of procedures have been introduced to treat chronic lateral ankle instability. The percutaneous method avoids dissection which is associated with open surgery and can lead to excessive morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of percutaneous lateral ligament reconstruction with an allograft in the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability. Between October 2006 and April 2009, percutaneous lateral ligament reconstruction using an allograft was performed on 15 ankles in 13 patients for chronic lateral ankle instability. The patients included in this study satisfied at least one of the following criteria: a previously failed reconstruction of the ligament, severe ankle instability (more than 15 degrees of talar tilt, more than 10 mm of anterior drawer), general laxity of ligaments, body mass index (BMI) higher than 25. The mean followup period was 18.1 (range, 12 to 40) months. The grafted tendon was secured by double tenodeses at both the talus and calcaneus or triple tenodeses which included a fibular tenodesis. The clinical outcomes were evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Karlsson-Peterson ankle score, and patients' subjective satisfaction. The radiological results were evaluated using the varus tilting angle and the anterior displacement distance. The VAS improved from preoperative 3.7 ±2.2 to 1.6 ±1.3 at the last followup (p = 0.002). The Karlsson-Peterson ankle score increased from 54.2 ±8.8 to 80.9 ±7.2 (p = 0.001). Patients were satisfied in 13 cases (86.7%) with excellent or good results. Radiologically, the mean varus tilting angle was 15.5 ±4.4 degrees preoperatively and 7.3 ±3.6 at the last followup (p = 0.001). The anterior drawer distance was 10.1 ±3.3 mm preoperatively and 7.2 ±2.7 mm at

  6. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  7. Primary lateral sclerosis mimicking atypical parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlinah, Ibrahim M; Bhatia, Kailash P; Østergaard, Karen

    2007-01-01

    of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here we describe five patients initially referred with a diagnosis of levodopa-unresponsive atypical parkinsonism (n = 4) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 1), but subsequently found to have features consistent with PLS instead. Onset age varied from 49 to 67......Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), the upper motor neurone variant of motor neurone disease, is characterized by progressive spinal or bulbar spasticity with minimal motor weakness. Rarely, PLS may present with clinical features resembling parkinsonism resulting in occasional misdiagnosis as one...... in all patients. Anterior horn cell involvement developed in three cases. Early gait disturbances resulting in falls were seen in all patients and none of them responded to dopaminergic medications. Two patients underwent dopamine transporter (DaT) SPECT scanning with normal results. Other features...

  8. System modelling of a lateral force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Guillaume; Lu, Cheng; Kiet Tieu, A

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively analyse lateral force microscope measurements one needs to develop a model able to relate the photodiode signal to the force acting on the tip apex. In this paper we focus on the modelling of the interaction between the cantilever and the optical chain. The laser beam is discretized by a set of rays which propagates in the system. The analytical equation of a single ray's position on the optical sensor is presented as a function of the reflection's state on top of the cantilever. We use a finite element analysis on the cantilever to connect the optical model with the force acting on the tip apex. A first-order approximation of the constitutive equations are derived along with a definition of the system's crosstalk. Finally, the model is used to analytically simulate the 'wedge method' in the presence of crosstalk in 2D. The analysis shows how the torsion loop and torsion offset signals are affected by the crosstalk.

  9. Lateral translation of covalently bound fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M J; Beton, P H; Keeling, D L; Fawcett, R H J; Moriarty, P; Butcher, M J; Birkett, P R; Walton, D R M; Taylor, R; Kroto, H W

    2006-01-01

    Lateral manipulation of fullerenes on clean silicon surfaces may be induced by either an attractive or repulsive interaction between adsorbed molecules and the tip of a scanning probe microscope, and can result in a complex response arising from molecular rolling. The model for rolling is supported by new results which show that manipulation is suppressed for adsorbed functionalized fullerenes due to the presence of phenyl sidegroups. The influence of varying the dwell time of the tip during manipulation is also reported. By reducing this time to a value which is less than the response time of the feedback control loop it is possible to induce manipulation in a quasi-constant height mode which is accompanied by large increases/decreases in current

  10. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyagi, A

    2012-02-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis.

  12. Distractor inhibition: Evidence from lateralized readiness potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramme, Lisa; Dierolf, Angelika M; Naumann, Ewald; Frings, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated distractor inhibition on the level of stimulus representation. In a sequential distractor-to-distractor priming task participants had to respond to target letters flanked by distractor digits. Reaction time and stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potentials (S-LRPs) of probe responses were measured. Distractor-target onset asynchrony was varied. For RTs responses to probe targets were faster in the case of prime-distractor repetition compared to distractor changes indicating distractor inhibition. Benefits in RTs and the latency of S-LRP onsets for distractor repetition were also modulated by distractor-target onset asynchrony. For S-LRPs distractor inhibition was only present with a simultaneous onset of distractors and target. The results confirm previous results indicating inhibitory mechanisms of object-based selective attention on the level of distractor representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  14. MR imaging appearance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvlin, M.J.; Fielding, R.; Rajan, S.S.; Muraki, A.; Manz, G.; Schellinger, D.; Hackney, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated fresh (normal) and fixed (histologically proven amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS]) cord specimens using high-resolution MR techniques in order to document, accurately and noninvasively, the internal structure of the spinal cord. Short TR/TE (500/27 [repetition time/echo time, msec]) and long TR/TE (2,00/54) spin-echo images were obtained in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes at 4.7 T (Varian), with inplane resolution of either 85 x 150 or 40 x 50 μm, section thickness of 0.8-1.5 mm. In the ALS cords, the bilateral degeneration of corticospinal tracts was well visualized as areas of high signal intensity on both short TR/TE and long TR/TE images

  15. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: update and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Ashley J; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Perry, J Jefferson P

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease. It is typically characterized by adult-onset degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, and is usually fatal within a few years of onset. A subset of ALS patients has an inherited form of the disease, and a few of the known mutant genes identified in familial cases have also been found in sporadic forms of ALS. Precisely how the diverse ALS-linked gene products dictate the course of the disease, resulting in compromised voluntary muscular ability, is not entirely known. This review addresses the major advances that are being made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms giving rise to the disease, which may eventually translate into new treatment options. PMID:23019386

  17. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  18. [Lateral column lengthening osteotomy of calcaneus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermann, B

    2015-08-01

    Lengthening of the lateral column for adduction of forefoot and restoration of the medial arch. Stabilization of the ankle joint complex. Supple flatfoot deformity (posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage II). Instability of the medial ankle joint complex (superficial deltoid and spring ligament). Posttraumatic valgus and pronation deformity of the foot. Rigid flatfoot deformity (posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage III and IV). Talocalcaneal and naviculocalcaneal coalition. Osteoarthritis of calcaneocuboid joint. Exposition of calcaneus at sinus tarsi. Osteotomy through sinus tarsi and widening until desired correction of the foot is achieved. Insertion of bone graft. Screw fixation. Immobilization in a cast for 6 weeks. Weight-bearing as tolerated from the beginning. In the majority of cases, part of hindfoot reconstruction. Reliable and stable correction. Safe procedure with few complications.

  19. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  20. [Neurophysiological investigations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Lenglet, Timothée

    2014-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease which prognosis is poor. Early diagnosis permits to set up immediately adapted treatment and cares. Available diagnostic criteria are based on the detection of both the central and peripheral motor neuron injury in bulbar, cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. Electromyographic study is the key tool to identify peripheral motor neuron involvement. Conduction velocities are systematically performed to rule out differential diagnosis. Needle examination records abnormal activities at rest and looks for neurogenic pattern during muscle contraction. Motor unit potentials morphology is modified primary to recruitment. Motor evoked potentials remain the test of choice to identify impairment of central motor neurons. For the monitoring of ALS patients, the MUNE technique (motor unit number estimation) seems the most interesting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.