WorldWideScience

Sample records for sandstones south estonia

  1. Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Estonian Country Case Study concentrated on the energy sector. Estonia is in the process of intensive transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. The reforming of the whole economy, included the energy sector, is underway at present in Estonia, therefore the current situation is permanently changing. This in its turn complicates the overall characterisation of the situation and makes it difficult to have well founded basis for furhter forecasts and projections. However, the main lines of further development have been worked out in the governmental document `Long Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector`, which was adopted by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in February 1998. The Estonian Country Case Study team has managed with the complicated task to analyse the most probable GHG mitigation options to be used for the period up till 2035. MARKAL and MARKAL-MACRO models were used to build up the energy system development scenarios and to analyse various GHG mitigation options. Two main scenarios, respectively with low and high GDP growth rates, were assumed for the present analysis. Also the impact of carbon tax on the choice of possible energy generation scenarios was studied with the help of the model. The results have been discussed in the context of future socio-economic and political restrictions. Special attention was paid to the problems and prospects of using Estonian main energy resource - oil shale - for the production of electricity. New combustion technologies developed in Estonia allow reducing CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, which makes them highly important in the process of following the binding agreements of international treaties on pollution abatement. The technological mitigation options of GHG emissions have been handled thoroughly, as they are of great interest for Estonia following the requirements of the Kyoto conference. Additionally, renewable energy sources were discussed more thoroughly

  2. Study of petrological characteristics of uranium-bearing sandstone in the south of ordos basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Cheng; Jia Licheng; Li Song; Zhang Zimin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between uranium-bearing abundance and texture constituent of sedimentary rock, on the basis of the research of petrological characteristic of sandstone in the south of Ordos basin. The influence of infiltration of sandstone and uranium migration and accumulation by the major diagenesis of compaction and cementation, clay minerals evolution, corrosion and forming of secondary porosity are discussed. Uranium-bearing sandstones are divided into four types and their petrological characteristics are discussed. After mineralization conditions being summed up, the uranium-mineralization model of sandstone-type is built. Reliable petrological evidences for evaluating favourable uranium mineralization rich areas are furnished. (authors)

  3. Characteristics and model of sandstone type uranium deposit in south of Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenbin; Yu Zhenqing

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the uranium deposit tectonic environment, upper cretaceous sequence stratigraphy, depositional system, evolutionary characteristics of sand bodies, the effect of subsequent transformation and the characteristic of uranium deposit, the sandstone type uranium deposit in southern basin is different from typical interlayer oxidation zone sandstone type uranium deposit. The formation and evolution of sandstone-type uranium deposit are controlled by structure fensters; the favorable sedimentary facies type is braided river facies, and the ore body is braided river sand body. The size of uranium deposits is controlled by the local oxidation zone with the characteristics of sandstone type uranium deposit in partial oxidation zone. Uranium ore bodies which distribute in the roof wings of structure fenstes, and occur in gray layers between the upper and lower oxidation zone, showing tabular, and the plate of uranium ore body is controlled by the local oxidation zone. Based on the geological features of sandstone-type uranium deposits, the metallogenic model of local oxidation zones sandstone-type uranium deposits has been set up in the south of Songliao Baisn. (authors)

  4. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  5. The Paleozoic-Mesozoic recycling of the Rakaia Terrane, South Island, New Zealand : sandstone clast and sandstone petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandres, A.M.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Ireland, T.

    2005-01-01

    The Torlesse terranes - part of the New Zealand Eastern Province - are accretionary complexes that comprise an enormous volume of quartzofeldspathic sandstones and mudstones with subsidiary conglomerates plus minor oceanic assemblages. Two terranes are recognised in the South Island - the Permian to Late Triassic Rakaia Terrane and the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Pahau Terrane. Sandstone clasts from two Rakaia Terrane and two Pahau Terrane conglomerates were collected. We present the first combined detailed information on petrography and geochemistry of Torlesse conglomerate sandstone clasts and use our own and published U-Pb SHRIMP detrital zircon age data to demonstrate the recycling of the Rakaia Terrane into Rakaia strata itself and into Pahau Terrane strata. Sandstone clast major and trace element chemical data largely support petrographic observations derived from thin-section analysis. The similarities of petrographic and geochemical data between sandstone clasts from the Rakaia Terrane and Rakaia sandstones suggest that clasts in the Permian Te Moana and Late Triassic Lake Hill Conglomerates were derived by autocannibalistic reworking of older, consolidated, Rakaia sediments. Data from sandstone clasts from the Pahau Terrane suggest that uplift of the Rakaia Terrane continued into the Cretaceous. These Pahau Terrane clasts indicate that at the time of the Pahau sedimentation Permian to early Late Triassic Rakaia rocks were exposed and recycled into the Pahau Basin. (author). 57 refs., 8 figs., 3 tables

  6. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  7. Application of anatectic mineralization to prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium ore in South Songliao Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhonghua

    2001-01-01

    The deep ore-forming origin is a new theory for prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium. Tectonics, lithologic and geochemistry are basic forecasting criteria. Previous unconsolidated sand, source area and geochemical barrier are three essential conditions for forming uranium deposit. Metallogenic environment and prospective region are found. Tertiary system is prospective layer for prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium ore in south Songliao Basin

  8. Origin of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, Frome Embayment, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Frome Embayment of South Australia is largely a result of tectonic events possibly as old as the Archean. Uranium deposits of several types and ages in the region demonstrate the importance of uranium enrichment in the source area. Mobile zones around the Archean terrane of the Gawler block have been the locus of intermittent tectonic activity from Early Proterozoic to recent time. Vein-type uranium deposits in basement source rocks are concentrated in these zones, because they favor deep crustal partial melting and ascent of Na-rich granitic magmas and hydrothermal solutions. Relatively stable areas bordered by mobile zones, are important for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits because they act as platforms for terrigenous sedimentation from the surrounding, uplifted, uranium-rich basement rocks. Wet, subtropical conditions prevailing at the time of uplift aided rapid erosion and subaerial deposition of channel sands with intermixed organic detritus. Later uplift accompanied by erosion of the recently deposited sands in the headwater area caused increased recharge of oxygenated uraniferous ground water, which led to the formation of geochemical-cell roll-front type deposits like those in the Wyoming basins. Subsequent arid conditions helped preserve the deposits. (author)

  9. Humid to arid to subhumid vegetation shift on Pilliga Sandstone, Ulungra Springs, New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J. R.; Wright, R. V. S.

    1989-09-01

    The Pilliga Sandstone region of the northwest slope of New South Wales has a natural vegetation cover of sclerophyllous relatively closed to open forests with a largely heathy understorey, and a warm, subhumid and continental climate. Pollen analysis of spring-fed deposits gives a vegetation history extending from at least 30,000 yr B.P. to the late Holocene. Tree pollen became scarce after about 25,000 yr B.P. and an assemblage dominated by Chenopodiaceae, Liguliflorae, Tubuliflorae, and probably Poaceae developed. No similar assemblage is known from present pollen rain studies carried out in Australia. However, it clearly represents a treeless open shrub-steppe formation and therefore an arid or semiarid environment. The site thus provides evidence of an eastward late Pleistocene extension of the arid zone in Australia, and is the first full-glacial vegetation record between 20° and 35° latitude in Australia. The present vegetation cover did not become reestablished until the beginning of the Holocene, which raises questions about the form in which Pilliga Sandstone vegetation survived full-glacial conditions.

  10. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.

  11. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H 2 S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H 2 S

  12. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  13. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  14. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyegunhi Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  15. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-11-01

    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  16. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  17. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  18. Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone from Pukpyeong Formation, South Korea: Pore-scale Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change, and Korea government puts a great effort in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage). The geological sequestration is regarded as one viable option and we are looking for prospecting formations for carbon storage. In this paper, we present a new approach to determine physical property changes during CO2 injection and preliminary results from applying the method to one of prospective Tertiary formation in South Korea. The so-called computational rock physics method is composed of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We have been shown the viability of the method last year. This year we applied this method to one of CS (carbon storage) target area, Pukpyeong formation located in north-eastern part of South Korea. From thin section analysis, we found that the formation is composed of mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate, and most of them are poorly consolidated. The mudstone and poorly-sorted conglomerate are believed to have very low permeability, and the effect of CO2 injection would be significant. Thus we focus on sandstone units and get pore microstructure of those units. We then performed the computational rock physics analysis, and present the relations of Vp - CO2 saturation, and electrical conductivity - CO2 saturation for a few sand units. We also present the preliminary upscaling results by putting combined sandstone and mudstone units into FEM modeling. The modeling results implies that the new computational approach can be very useful to characterizing the CS sites especially in early stage. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP

  19. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ivanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia, corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian. These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order and family of this taxon are notspecified.

  20. A new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Ivanov; Tiiu Märss; Anne Kleesment

    2011-01-01

    Teeth of a new elasmobranch Karksiodus mirus gen. et sp. nov. were discovered on two levels in the sandstones of the Karksi outcrop (South Estonia), corresponding to the Härma Beds, lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage (Givetian, Middle Devonian). These teeth differ from all known Palaeozoic elasmobranch teeth in the presence of a unique wide transversal tube-shaped basal canal, in very fine and dense striation of cusps and in an arched base without well-developed extensions. The order ...

  1. Calculation of paleohydraulic parameters of a fluvial system under spatially variable subsidence, of the Ericson sandstone, South western Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H.; Leva-Lopez, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the late Campanian age in North America fluvial systems drained the highlands of the Sevier orogenic belt and travelled east towards the Western Interior Seaway. One of such systems deposited the Canyon Creek Member (CCM) of the Ericson Formation in south-western Wyoming. At this time the fluvial system was being partially controlled by laterally variable subsidence caused by incipient Laramide uplifts. These uplifts rather than real topographic features were only areas of reduced subsidence at the time of deposition of the CCM. Surface expression at that time must have been minimum, only minute changes in slope and accommodation. Outcrops around these Laramide structures, in particular both flanks of the Rock Springs Uplift, the western side of the Rawlins uplift and the north flank of the Uinta Mountains, have been sampled to study the petrography, grain size, roundness and sorting of the CCM, which along with the cross-bed thickness and bar thickness allowed calculation of the hydraulic parameters of the rivers that deposited the CCM. This study reveals how the fluvial system evolved and responded to the very small changes in subsidence and slope. Furthermore, the petrography will shed light on the provenance of these sandstones and on the relative importance of Sevier sources versus Laramide sources. This work is framed in a larger study that shows how incipient Laramide structural highs modified the behavior, style and architecture of the fluvial system, affecting its thickness, facies characteristics and net-to-gross both down-dip and along strike across the basin.

  2. 234U and 238U in the Carrizo Sandstone aquifer of South Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, J.B.; Osmond, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    The waters of the Carrizo Sand formation of South Texas, United States of America, exhibit a pattern of uranium isotopic disequilibrium, described in terms of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio ('A.R.') and uranium concentration, which may be a function of geochemical factors and the hydrologic history of the area. In terms of uranium, two regimes seem to exist. The first, including outcrop and near outcrop sample locations, has waters with relatively high concentration and low A.R. Somewhat downdip, the uranium concentration decreases sharply at the downdip limit of the oxidation environment, a zone of uranium precipitation. Recoil of daughter products from the precipitated uranium causes an increase of A.R. of the water. Water of low uranium concentration and high A.R. is found throughout the downdip regime. If a constant input of 234 U through time is assumed, the downdip decrease in A.R. after the initial introduction of 234 U into the water may be ascribed to radioactive decay of 234 U. However, this assumption leads to the calculation of a water flow rate one twentieth that determined by other means. Alternatively, this pattern may be an artifact of a change of climate from 20,000 years to 10,000 years ago. In this case, the decrease in A.R. downdip is a function of a varying input of 234 U as well as decay. (author)

  3. Revitalizing a mature oil play: Strategies for finding and producing unrecovered oil in frio fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs at South Texas. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtz, M.; Knox, P.; McRae, L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The Frio Fluvial-Deltaic Sandstone oil play of South Texas has produced nearly 1 billion barrels of oil, yet it still contains about 1.6 billion barrels of unrecovered mobile oil and nearly the same amount of residual oil resources. Interwell-scale geologic facise models of Frio Fluvial-deltaic reservoirs are being combined with engineering assessments and geophysical evaluations in order to determine the controls that these characteristics exert on the location and volume or unrecovered mobile and residual oil. Progress in the third year centered on technology transfer. An overview of project tasks is presented.

  4. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  5. Towards sustainable Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtvee, Valdur

    1997-01-01

    Since 1989 the Estonian Green Movement has had a working group on energy issues. This group has tried to influence the energy policy in Estonia towards sustainable development. But the process has been hard. Five years have passed since Estonia has started with taking on its shoulders international environmental obligations. Unfortunately, Estonia is one of the last countries in Europe still to join the obligation on transboundary pollution. A master plan on energy is now prepared in Estonia within the framework of PHARE programme, involving quite a few high level specialists from various institutions in Estonia and assisted by foreign specialists. But the energy sector has not been open to public discussion in Estonia up to now. It's very important not to lose from sight the environmental problems in connection with energy sector development plans. The Estonian Green Movement together with its umbrella organization, the Friends of the Earth Europe, have worked out a new energy strategy for Estonia, based on the concept of environmental space. This concept has been used by some countries already on working out the strategy for their economic progress. The limit values for a set of basic mineral resources and local fuels of Estonia have been calculated on the basis of environmental space and economic targets set for the year 2010

  6. Tectonic and sedimentological environments of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, with special reference to the Karoo Basin of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal tectonic and sedimentological settings for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are described. Back-arc basins filled with post-Silurian, fluvial sediments bordering subduction zone magmatic arcs of calc-alkaline composition are considered favourable tectonic environments. The basins should be closed to prevent excessive oxidation of the sediments. Uranium deposits are concentrated near basin rims in the transition zone between uplift and basin subsidence, because of favourable sedimentary facies in those areas. Syn- and post-depositional deformation could have affected the localisation of uranium ore-bodies, while intrusive centres or uplifted arcs commonly have surrounding aprons of potential host rocks. Stratigraphic zoning is also related to source area tectonics and can be used to predict favourable sedimentary environments. Sedimentological processes had a direct influence on the permeability and carbonaceous matter content of sandstones and therefore have often controlled the localisation of ore-bodies. (author)

  7. Experimental strain analysis of Clarens Sandstone colonised by endolithic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wessels

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Endolithic lichens occur commonly on Clarens Sandstone in South Africa, where they significantly contribute to the weathering of sandstone by means of mechanical and chemical weathering processes. This preliminary investigation reports on the success- ful use of strain gauges in detecting strain differences between sandstone without epilithic lichens and sandstone colonised by the euendolithic lichen Lecidea aff. sarcogynoides Korb. Mechanical weathering, expressed as strain changes, in Clarens Sandstone was studied during the transition from relatively dry winter to wet summer conditions. Daily weathering of sandstone due to thermal expansion and contraction of colonised and uncolonised sandstone could be shown. Our results show that liquid water in sandstone enhances the mechanical weathering of uncolonised Clarens Sandstone while water in the gaseous phase enhances mechanical weathering of sandstone by euendolithic lichens.

  8. The association of tree species, landform, soils and erosion on Narrabeen sandstone west of Putty, New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, G.L.; Lang, R.D.; Campbell, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    An exploratory study was made of the tree species, landform, soils and erosional sequence along altitudinal transects from interfluve to stream channel in a valley incised into Narrabeen Group sandstones and shales to the west of Putty, NSW. Caesium-137 analysis was used to investigate surface stability and erosion. It was found that the landform fitted a hypothetical nine unit land surface model. The soil types and plant communities were found to reflect the dominant contemporary pedogenetic and geomorphic processes which are also used to define the units of this model. Erosion was evident in the catchment, and the sequence of alluvial soils on the valley floor was found to be consistent with previous suggestions of widespread slope instability during the Quaternary period

  9. Environmental performance reviews. Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This review of Estonia is the first environmental performance review (EPR) carried out under the auspices of the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy. This pilot ECE study builds, inter alia, on the experience gained in the preparation of pilot environmental performance reviews of Poland and Bulgaria, which were carried out in 1994-1995 by OECD in cooperation with ECE. The report focuses on capacity building; air, water, waste, and nature management; the integration of environmental and economic policies both generally and more specifically within the energy sector; and cooperation of Estonia with the international community. The review examines the current situation, recent and likely future trends, pressures, policy responses and their effectiveness. The principal conclusions and recommendations for improving Estonia's environmental performance are brought together in the concluding chapter.

  10. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  11. Considerations in the extraction of uranium from a fresh-water aquifer - Miocene Oakville Sandstone, south Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.D.; Galloway, W.E.; Smith, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Miocene Oakville Sandstone is a major aquifer and uranium host beneath the Texas Coastal Plain. Present and future uranium mining by either surface or in situ methods could affect the availability and quality of Oakville ground water unless the mining is designed properly. Possible effects of mining, potential natural mitigation of these effects, and approaches to minimizing the impact of mining on the aquifer system are discussed. Both solution and surface mining may affect the availability of ground water by altering recharge characteristics and permeability. Because the volume of the aquifer affected by mining is small compared with its total volume, availability of Oakville ground water will probably not be reduced significantly, except in wells immediately adjacent to a mine. Mining may affect the quality of ground water by introducing chemicals that are not indigenous to the aquifer or by inducing chemical reactions that do not occur naturally or that occur at much slower rates. Most mining companies no longer use concentrated, ammonium-based leaches because of known problems in restoring water to its original chemistry. Natural and induced release of trace elements such as molybdenum is known to occur, but the geochemical controls on mobility and potential mitigating reactions in the aquifer are poorly understood. Because the affected aquifer volume is small, any deterioration of water quality will probably be localized. Observations and recommendations are presented on: regional and local baseline studies, determination of aquifer sensitivity, methods and goals of monitoring during and after mining, and need for research on poorly understood aspects of mining impact. Such impacts include chemical reactions and processes that affect the long-term release of trace elements

  12. An interpretation of core and wireline logs for the Petrophysical evaluation of Upper Shallow Marine sandstone reservoirs of the Bredasdorp Basin, offshore South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoba, Moses; Opuwari, Mimonitu

    2017-04-01

    This paper embodies a study carried out to assess the Petrophysical evaluation of upper shallow marine sandstone reservoir of 10 selected wells in the Bredasdorp basin, offshore, South Africa. The studied wells were selected randomly across the upper shallow marine formation with the purpose of conducting a regional study to assess the difference in reservoir properties across the formation. The data sets used in this study were geophysical wireline logs, Conventional core analysis and geological well completion report. The physical rock properties, for example, lithology, fluid type, and hydrocarbon bearing zone were qualitatively characterized while different parameters such as volume of clay, porosity, permeability, water saturation ,hydrocarbon saturation, storage and flow capacity were quantitatively estimated. The quantitative results were calibrated with the core data. The upper shallow marine reservoirs were penetrated at different depth ranging from shallow depth of about 2442m to 3715m. The average volume of clay, average effective porosity, average water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation and permeability range from 8.6%- 43%, 9%- 16%, 12%- 68% , 32%- 87.8% and 0.093mD -151.8mD respectively. The estimated rock properties indicate a good reservoir quality. Storage and flow capacity results presented a fair to good distribution of hydrocarbon flow.

  13. Coronation Hill U-Au mine, South Alligator Valley, Northern Territory: an epigenetic sandstone-type deposit hosted by debris-flow conglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The host rock at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is a debris flow conglomerate, developed in a high-energy fluvial environment during deposition of the Coronation Sandstone of the El Sherana Group. Mineralisation took place by movement of low-temperature fluids from the U-enriched volcanics into the conduit sandstone and eventually into the reduced debris flow conglomerate and carbonaceous shale

  14. Country report: Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2015-12-01

    The situation of women in education, work, and research in Estonia is relatively good. Nevertheless, science (especially engineering) remains a male-dominated field. The total number of female scientists and engineers in the workforce is about two-thirds that of males. Moreover, the gender imbalance in the researcher population increases with age. Significant pay-gap and power imbalances between the genders remain both in Estonian society in general and in the fields of science and technology. In many practical situations, behavior of both men and women is still guided by gender stereotypes.

  15. Hydropower in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, Peeter

    1997-01-01

    Long life practice has proved that small hydropower is not a beaten track in the global energy field. Before the Second World War small hydropower was rather well developed in Estonia as well. Being neglected during the years of Soviet occupation, it is rather important to help it to regain its position in the Estonian energy system once again. Our hydropower potential is not big, but it has got a good established position as an energy saving measure. By now we have some good examples of restored hydropower stations on commercial basis to be optimistic about the future

  16. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  17. Rahvusooper taastas Estonia balli traditsiooni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Aastavahetusballi operetikavast "Suudluste valss", USA koreograaf-lavastaja Russell Adamsoni dzhässikavast "Black and White" Rahvusooperis Estonia. Kontserdisaalis mängivad tantsuks Rahvusooperi sümfooniaorkester Andres Mustoneni juhatusel ja ansambel Modern Fox

  18. Rabarocki eelsoojendus. Meeleolukas kevadkontsert Estonias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    13. ja 14. juunil Järvakandis toimuva Rabarocki warm-up peost klubis Rockstars ja esimesest ETV saatest Rabarocki triloogiast 24. mail. Kevadkontserdist "Feeling Good" 26. mail Estonia kontserdisaalis

  19. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  20. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  1. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  2. Estonia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  3. Convolute laminations and load structures in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections and decelerations against bounding slopes. Examples from the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, R.; Muzzi Magalhaes, P.; Tagliaferri, A.; Cunha, R. S.

    2016-10-01

    This work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations very common within turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures. Detailed facies analyses of the foredeep turbidites in the Marnoso-arenacea Formation (northern Italy) and Annot Sandstones (south eastern France) show that these deformational structures tend to increase near morphological obstacles, concomitantly with contained-reflected beds. The lateral and vertical distribution of convolute laminae and load structures, as well as their geometry, has a well-defined depositional logic related to flow decelerations and reflections against bounding slopes. This evidence suggests an interaction between fine-grained sediment and the presence of morphologic relief, and impulsive and cyclic-wave loadings, which are produced by flow impacts or reflected bores and internal waves related to impinging bipartite turbidity currents.

  4. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  5. Energy from Waste and Biomass - ALTENER Conference held in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Inge

    1999-01-01

    On November 9-10, 1998 ALTENER Conference Energy from Waste and Biomass took place in the hotel Pirita, Tallinn, Estonia. The Conference was organized by the Swedish National Energy Administration in co-operation with the FEMOPET Estonia and the South Jutland University Centre, Biomass Institute (Denmark). The main topics of the Conference were: collecting biogas from landfall, biogas from municipal sewage treatment, biogas from animal manure, waste heat, biomass from the pulp industry and the sawmill, biomass from forestry, biomass for local and district heating. More than 200 delegates from 14 countries participated in this event. A poster exhibition and two study tours to Paeaeskuela Landfill Plant and Jueri Boiler House were organised too. (author)

  6. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  7. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  8. Permian arc evolution associated with Panthalassa subduction along the eastern margin of the South China block, based on sandstone provenance and U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Hirano, Miho; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Toshiro; Ueda, Hayato

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the petrography, geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sandstones from shallow-marine forearc sediments, accretionary complexes (ACs), and metamorphosed accretionary complexes (Meta-ACs) within the Kurosegawa belt of Southwest Japan. Those rocks formed in a forearc region of a Permian island arc associated with subduction of the Panthalassa oceanic crust along the eastern margin of the South China block (Yangtze block). The provenance of the shallow-marine sediments was dominated by basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks and minor granitic rocks during the late Middle to Late Permian. The ACs were derived from felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks during the Late Permian. The provenance of Meta-ACs was dominated by andesitic volcanic rocks in the Middle Permian. The provenance, source rock compositions, and zircon age distribution for the forearc sediments, ACs and Meta-ACs have allowed us to reconstruct the geological history of the Permian arc system of the Kurosegawa belt. During the Middle Permian, the ACs were accreted along the eastern margin of the South China block. The Middle Permian arc was an immature oceanic island arc consisting of andesitic volcanic rocks. During the Late Permian, the ACs formed in a mature arc, producing voluminous felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks. A forearc basin developed during the late Middle to Late Permian. Subsequently, the Middle Permian ACs and part of the Late Permian AC underwent low-grade metamorphism in the Late to Early Jurassic, presenting the Meta-ACs.

  9. Financial Participation of Employees in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Mygind, Niels; Spitsa, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Presently, legal regulation of participation of employees - financial participation as well as participation in decision-making - is not well developed in Estonia. On the one hand, it is due to the fact that no tradition of employee participation could have been formed after Estonia became...

  10. Estonia builds ties with South Korea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Korea Vabariigis toimunud välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Lõuna-Korea välis- ja kaubandusministri Yu Myung-hwani kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja Lõuna-Korea poliitilise, majandus-, teadus- ning infotehnoloogiaalase koostöö arendamisest. Urmas Paet kohtus ka Lõuna-Korea energia ja infotehnoloogia aseministri Cho Seokiga

  11. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  12. Sakslased kiidavad Estonia huku filmi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Eestisse filmi toomisega tegelev produtsent Mati Sepping peab sakslaste kommentaare filmile headeks

  13. Jutta Rabe teeb Estonia hukust uue filmi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eile alustas Saksa ajakirjanik Jutta Rabe oma filmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Peale Rabe on stsenaristid veel saksa advokaat Henning Witte ja rootslane Kaj Holmberg

  14. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  15. Climate change studies in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallaste, Tiit; Kuldna, Piret

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of papers was compiled on the basis of research papers written by Estonian scientists during the United Nations Environment Programme and Global Environment Facility initiated climate change programme Country Case Study on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Assessments. The Estonian country case study was finally approved by UNEP/GEF in February 1996, practical work started in September. The priorities for Estonia in the study of global climate change impacts and adaptation have been in the following areas of interest: agriculture, water resources, forestry, the Baltic Sea and Estonian coast, also historical climate and socioeconomic background together with the biggest producer of greenhouse gases, the energy sector. Those areas have been studied more carefully during the one and half year period of the project

  16. Sandstone Turning by Abrasive Waterjet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Cárach, J.; Hloch, Sergej; Vasilko, K.; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Lehocká, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 2489-2493 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : turning away from the jet * conventional turning towards the jet * sandstone * abrasive water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2015 http://www.springerprofessional.de/sandstone-turning-by-abrasive-waterjet/6038028.html

  17. Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 25-31, nr. 2 lk. 41-47, nr. 3 lk. 29-37, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 16-23, nr. 2 lk. 39-47, nr. 3 lk. 25-33, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 23-31, nr. 2 lk. 33-41, nr. 3 lk. 31-39, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 31-39, nr. 2 lk. 35-41; 2005 nr. 1 lk. 37-44, nr. 2 lk. 43-51, nr. 3 lk. 23-27. Ülevaade Eesti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  18. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  19. Paul Pinna avab Estonia Talveaias omanimelise baari / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia sajanda sünnipäeva puhul etendub 12. ja 13. septembril Estonia Talveaias lavastus "Paul Pinnat otsimas". Tekst on 95% osas Paul Pinna ja Karl August Hindrey sulest, dramatiseeris ja lavastas Heidi Sarapuu

  20. Estonia--Going Home Again: Returning to the Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedak-Kari, Maria

    This paper provides background on The National Library of Estonia (NLE), discusses a fellowship project for developing the National Library, and presents the impressions of the author, an Estonian American, who traveled to Estonia. The NLE looks to the West for automation, information, and institutional modeling. The NLE is Estonia's equivalent of…

  1. Regional distribution regularity of sandstone uranium deposits in Asian continent and prospecting strategy for sandstone uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1980's, after the discovery of numerous sandstone uranium deposits in Middle Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) many large sandstone uranium deposits have been found in both Russia and Mongolia. So that Asia has become the most concentrated region of sandstone uranium deposits. The known sandstone uranium deposits occur mostly in a arcual tectonic belt constrained from the north by the Siberian continental block, and the Tarim-North China continental block from the south. This belt is named by Russian geologists as the Central Asian Mobile Belt, and some Chinese geologists call it the 'Mongolian Arc'. A lot of large and super large metallic, non-metallic, gold, polymetallic, porphyry copper and gold, massive sulphide and uranium deposits (of sandstone and volcanic types) with different origin and various types concentrated occur in this belt. The abundant and colourful mineral resources in the region are closely associated with the specific geologic-tectonic evolution of the above belt. It is necessary to strengthen the detailed geologic research and uranium prospecting in the region

  2. Estonia 2013: Energy Policies Beyond IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    One of the fastest-growing economies in the OECD, Estonia is actively seeking to reduce the intensity of its energy system. Many of these efforts are focused on oil shale, which the country has been using for almost a century and which meets 70% of its energy demand. While it provides a large degree of energy security, oil shale is highly carbon-intensive. The government is seeking to lessen the negative environmental impact by phasing out old power plants and developing new technologies to reduce significantly CO2 emissions. The efforts on oil shale complement Estonia’s solid track record of modernising its overall energy system. Since restoring its independence in 1991, Estonia has fully liberalised its electricity and gas markets and attained most national energy policy targets and commitments for 2020. It has also started preparing its energy strategy to 2030, with an outlook to 2050. Estonia is also promoting energy market integration with neighbouring EU member states. The strengthening of the Baltic electricity market and its timely integration with the Nordic market, as well as the establishment of a regional gas market, are therefore key priorities for Estonia. Following its accession to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2010, Estonia applied for International Energy Agency (IEA) membership in 2011. This review of Estonia’s energy policies is part of the IEA accession process. It analyses the energy policy challenges and opportunities facing Estonia, and provides critiques and recommendations for future policy improvements. It is intended to guide the country towards a more secure and sustainable energy future.

  3. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  4. Estonia: In and Out of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian economic developments during the first decade of 21st century. Estonia provided in that period a clear-cut example of the classical business cycle with an extreme bubble-burst sequence of economic activities. The author analyses the reasons on such a volatile economic growth pattern and explains economic cycle management particularities in Estonia. In the frames of macroeconomic developments will be analyzed monetary and fiscal policies. The author argues, that Estonia’s fiscal policy has been always pro-cyclical, what has deepened country’s macroeconomic volatility. The paper also analyses critically the government activities and policies during the recent crisis

  5. Rahvusooper Estonia interjööride renoveerimine = Renovation of the Estonia National Opera House interiors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. lõpetati Rahvusooperi Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar. Siseviimistluse ja laemaali (E. Okas, E. Kits, R. Sagrits) restaureerimine ja konserveerimine: KAR Grupp. Akustik Linda Madalik. 8 värv. vaadet

  6. SMEs in Estonia : Achievements and Worries

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Phare toetusel ja Eesti Väikeettevõtete Assotsiatsiooni abil läbi viidud uurimusest "The State of Small Business in Estonia" (väikeettevõtted Eestis). Tabelid ja diagrammid. Eesti väikeettevõtete probleemid, osalemine eksport/import tegevuses, peamised probleemid pangalaenude taotlemisel

  7. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  8. Estonia purjetab filmiturule / Jüri Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jüri, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  9. Friends of Estonia discuss next move

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    1. juulil 2011 avas Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Riigikogu konverentsikeskuses Eesti sõprade kokkutuleku raames korraldatava sümpoosioni “Quo vadis, Estonia?”, kus ütles, et Eesti järgmine eesmärk on riiklike ja ühiskondlike struktuuride tugevdamisele keskendumine

  10. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  11. "Gerontiuse unenägu" Estonias / Igor Garšnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    2. aprillil Estonia kontserdisaalis toimunud Edward Elgari oratooriumi "Gerontiuse unenägu" ettekandest, esitasid: ERSO, Estonia ooperikoor, Estonia poistekoor, kammerkoor Voces Musicales, Helen Lokuta, Bernhard Gärtner, Priit Volmer, dirigent Carlos Spiereri

  12. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  13. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-07-17

    In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0-14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001-2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality from external causes in 0-14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is needed to enable establishing the intent of death.

  14. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is

  15. New data about the climate of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, Jaak

    1999-01-01

    During last 100-150 years global climate has changed significantly. Climate warming has also observed in Estonia. The aim of this paper is to analyse how different are old climate normals calculated for 1881-1880 from present-day normals (1966-1998). The new normals are calculated for monthly and annual mean air temperature at 22 stations in Estonia. Mean monthly and annual precipitation totals and snow cover duration are found at 69 stations and observation sites. Significant differences were determined between the old and new averages. As a rule, air temperature has increased while 0.4 deg C in case of annual values. Snow cover duration has decreased during this century. Its new normals are lower by 5-10 days, what is a direct consequence of climate warming

  16. Kunstiakadeemia kolib ajutiselt Estonia puiesteele / Mari Kodres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kodres, Mari

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia on 2010. a. alguseks vanadest ruumidest kolinud hoonesse aadressil Estonia pst. 7. Rüütelkonna hoones leidis endale ajutise kodu vabade kunstide teaduskonna enamik erialasid. Veebruari algul toimuvast tühjendamispeost. EKA uue maja arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Taani arhitektuuribüroodes Sea ja Effekt valminud töö "Art Plaza". Uue hoone ehitus algab aprillis, valmimistähtajaks on 2012. a. kevad

  17. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupo Mändla; Sven-Erik Enno; Mait Sepp

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer month...

  18. Valmis film parvlaev Estonia katastroofist / Imre Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Imre

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal on valminud poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsent ja esialgse stsenaariumi autor koosHenning Wittega on Jutta Rabe, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja

  19. Detergent zeolite complex "Ceosil", Tallinn, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Mirjana S.; Pezo Lato L.

    2003-01-01

    The IGPC Engineering Department, together with the "Birac", Zvornik Engineering Department designed basic projects for detergent zeolite production, using waste flotation sand and hydrates. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, production plant in Tallinn, Estonia was constructed, with a capacity of 100,000 t/y from 1989. to 1993. This plant became the biggest producer of detergent zeolite in the world.Several goals we...

  20. 57Fe Mössbauer and X-ray characterisation of sandstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Waanders, F. B.

    2013-01-01

    Sandstones from the Free State province in South Africa have been mined and processed mainly by small scale and artisanal miners in the rural areas. In the present investigation basic fire proof and water absorption tests, X-ray and γ-ray based characterisation techniques were used to study the sandstones. The collected samples were grouped according to their apparent colour in day light conditions and the elemental analysis showed the presence of a high amount of oxygen (>52%) and silicon (>38%) with Mn, Al, Fe and Ca as major elements in proportions related to the colour distribution of the various sandstones. The uniaxial compressive stress was found to be the highest (56 MPa) for the greyish sandstone and the lowest (8 MPa) for the white sandstone sample, also associated with the lowest (Al+Fe)/Si value of 0.082. The humidity test showed that the 6 % water absorption was lower than the recommended ASTM value of 8 %. The sandstone samples were also subjected to various high temperatures to simulate possible fire conditions and it was found that the non alteration of the mineral species might be one of the reasons why the sandstones are regarded as the most refractory amongst the building materials typically used. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that iron is present in all the sandstones, mainly as Fe 3 +  with the black sandstone showing an additional presence of 3 % Fe 2 +  indicating that a higher iron content coupled to higher silicon content, contributes to an increase in the uniaxial compressive strength.

  1. Youth negotiation and performance of masculine identities in rural Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen; van Hoven, Bettina; Huigen, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores key shared places and practices through which young men in rural Estonia perform and construct masculine identities. Whereas powerful images of rural places and rural masculinity exist and are reproduced in public discourse in Estonia, not much is known about how masculinities

  2. Ekspert välistab Estonia lepingust taganemise / Aivar Pau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pau, Aivar

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli rahvusvahelise õiguse õppetooli hoidja Lauri Mälksoo peab mõeldamatuks Eesti ühepoolset otsust loobuda riikidevahelisest hauarahulepingust ja tõsta Estonia vrakk merepõhjast üles. Riigikogu erikomisjoni esimees Margus Leivo on algatanud Estonia vraki ülestõstmiseks internetis allkirjade kogumise kampaania

  3. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  4. 137Cs in forest ecosystems in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jueri; Martin, Ljudmilla; Paern, Henn; Vilde, Raimolt

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In the recently published 'Europe's Environment' (1995) one can find the map on 1 37C s cumulative deposition in Europe after the Chernobyl accident (source: De Corte et al., 1990). On this map most of the Eastern Europe including Baltic Sea region is practically uncovered. In this reason we decided to present data on accumulation of 1 37C s in the forest ecosystems in Estonia. Field sampling for current study has been conducted in 1986 - 1994. 1 37C s concentrations were measured in different compartments of model trees, ground vegetation layers, debris and topsoil. The amount of 1 37C s varied from 1.9 kBq/m 2 in continental Estonia to 28.8 kBq/m 2 in north-eastern Ne part of Estonia. The results obtained correspond to data presented in Wahlstroem et al., (1992) for Finland. According to the 'Europe's Environment' criteria northeastern Estonia belongs to the third cumulative deposition zone (10 to 32 kBq/m 2 ). In Estonia the total deposition of 1 37C s varies in the range from practically zero to 3.9 kBq/m 2 . The calculations of Realo et al. (1994) back to May 1, 1986 gave figures from 0 to 21 kBq/m 2 . In macro lichens Cetraria, Cladina, Cladonia the rapid changes in 1 37C s concentrations were observed: 0.06 - 0.18 kBq/kg in 1982-85, 0.93 - 6.23 kBq/kg in 1986-87, 0.27 -4.26 kBq/kg in 1988-89, 0.05 - 1.46 kBq/kg in 1990-91 and, finally, 0.03 - 0.46 kBq/kg in 1993-94. At the end of the observation period average value of the 1 37C s concentrations was the same as maximum before the CRA and decline of the concentrations was 4 times during six years. Average concentrations of 1 3 7 C s in two common forest mosses Pleurozium shreberi and Hylocomium splendens was 0.43 kBq/kg of dry matter and in forest debris 0.38 kBq/kg. In 1986 the highest concentration in mushrooms - 16.6 kBq/kg was found in Lactarius sp. (Martin, L., et al., 1991). In 1991 samples of 41 different mushroom species from 63 sample sites mostly in Scots pine stands were analyzed. The

  5. Country policy profile - Estonia. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  6. Country policy profile - Estonia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Estonia, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in premium tariff. In addition, investment supports are available for specific types of renewable energy production technologies. To encourage the use of renewable energy sources for heating, investment supports are made available for the construction of CHP plants, as well as for private consumers. In transport, the use of renewable energies is currently mainly encouraged through a support scheme to promote the purchasing of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources (RES Legal Europe, 2014)

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIRS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: THE PERMIAN UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Scheffler, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Upper Minnelusa sandstones form a complex group of reservoirs because of variations in regional setting, sedimentology, and diagenetic alteration. Structural lineaments separate the reservoirs into northern and southern zones. Production in the north is from a single pay sand, and in the south from multi-pay sands due to differential erosion on top of the Upper Minnelusa. The intercalation of eolian dune, interdune, and sabkha sandstones with marine sandstones, carbonates, and anhydrites results in significant reservoir heterogeneity. Diagenetic alterations further enhance heterogeneity, because the degree of cementation and dissolution is partly facies-related.

  8. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  9. Mõnitav kõverpeegel Estonia hukust / Heino Levald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levald, Heino, 1930-

    2003-01-01

    Saksa poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku : stsenarist, produtsent Jutta Rabe : režissöör Reuben Leder. Mereakadeemia professori hinnang filmi sõnumile

  10. Uudised : Rossini "Wilhelm Tell" Estonias. Cavalli ooper Amsterdamis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Gioachino Rossini ooperi "Wilhelm Tell" kontsertettekandest 18. ja 20. dets. Rahvusooper Estonias (peaosas Rauno Elp, külalisesinejaks Mario Zeffiri). Itaalia barokihelilooja Francesco Cavalli ooperi "Ercole amante" lavastamisest Madalmaade Ooperis Amsterdamis (lavastaja David Alden, esietendus 11. jaanuaril)

  11. Estonia film venitab saladuste loori / Heiki Suurkask, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Esilinastuse ja filmi ümber toimuvast. Lisatud lühiintervjuu Riina Kionkaga, Eesti suursaadikuga Saksamaal

  12. Kuulus Ralf Langbacka lavastab Estonias Verdi "Othello" / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia 8. septembril 2005 Rocca al Mares asuvas Coral Clubi spordikeskuses esietenduvast ooperist "Othello", etendus valmib koostöös Tampere Ooperiga. 7. aprillil Tampere Talos toimuvast esietendusest

  13. Henning Witte : Estonia-film tuleb / Villem Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Villem, 1977-

    2000-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et "Estonia" uppus maffiavandenõu tõttu. Stsenaristideks on Juta Rabe, Henning Witte ja Kaj Holmberg. Ka : Nädal nr. 47, lk. 5

  14. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  15. Technical assistance for EBRD-PMU, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The EBRD Energy Sector Emergency Loan to Estonia has resulted in numerous benefits for the Estonian Energy Sector and the Estonian Society and the locals as well as the end users have developed themselves tremendously during the project. The substantial economic, environmental and energy saving effects of the loan project have been: Energy savings and improved energy efficiency in the electricity grid, the district heating networks, the district heating consumer installations, the energy production plants in terms of rehabilitated or converted boilers and burners, industrial consumer installations. The energy efficiency improvements have resulted in energy savings between 5% and 30%; Conversion of boilers from expensive imported heavy fuel oil to indigenous fuels such as peat and wood. The results are higher supply security, improved boiler efficiency, reduced emissions and reduced operation and maintenance costs; Rehabilitated district heating networks resulted in reduced heat and water losses, improved operation of installations and reduced maintenance costs; Rehabilitated electricity grids with fewer break-downs, reduced maintenance costs and improved energy efficiency as results; Improved operation of the larger energy utilities resulting in lower operational costs, improved dispatch of the energy systems and speedier actions in case of break-downs. The economic indicators, pay-back time and Internal Rate of Return show that a large number of the projects have had a substantial impact on the Estonian economy and that the projects have been sound investments. The recommendations for the local completion of the work in Estonia are: The Juri boiler plant should be carefully attended to by the PMU and the Estonian authorities. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Distribution of K, Na, Th and U in sandstones and shales from western Shikoku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Shunso; Sakamaki, Yukio; Mochizuki, Tsunekazu; Terashima, Shigeru; Endo, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    The regional variation of K, Na, Th and U distributions was studied on 58 sandstones, 81 shales and 3 green schists from the sedimentary terrains across western Shikoku. The geological structure of the studied district is explained. The regional characteristics of the sedimentary rocks are best demonstrated in the composition of the sandstones. The sandstones, in the source areas of which granitic and rhyolitic rocks exist and which have been deposited rapidly, were rich in K, whereas those derived mainly from mafic volcanic areas showed high Na content. The sandstones of the Shimanto Supergroup had the intermediate values, and K and K + Na contents became low in the south where the younger Upper Shimanto Group is exposed. Th and U in both sandstones and shales were highest in the Izumi Group, and generally low in the Shimanto Supergroup. The black shales of the Shimanto Supergroup did not show U-anomaly. In each group, highly matured rocks gave slightly higher Th/U ratio. Highly matured polycyclic sediments contained the least amount of radioactive elements. The radioactive anomaly due to the anomalous K contained in sericite, and that due to U in black shale were found in Chichibu and Sambosan belts. Similar anomaly was discovered in the foot wall of Mn deposits in the same zone. The possibility of anomalous U may be the least in the Shimanto Supergroup. (Kako, I.)

  17. Tertiary lithofacies and paleo-geographic framework and interlayer oxidation zone sandstone uranium deposits in Longjiang-Zhaozhou area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenqiang

    2003-01-01

    The main points of views for the experiment are: (1) Yi'an formation is mainly composed of limnetic facies of siltstone and fine sandstone, due to weak surface water, limited sedimentation and simple material source; (2) strengthened surface water and enormous material brought from north and west-north and enlarged sedimentation from north to south, the major deposition during Da'an period are channel facies of conglomerate and river bed facies of sandstone; (3) stronger surface water during Taikang period, led alluvial-flood plain facies brown-yellow conglomerate to develop along western margin of the basin, the channel facies of conglomerate and river bed facies of grey-green sandstone, pelitic siltstone were widely formed southward and eastward; (4) according to the lithofacies criterion for in-situ leachable sandstone uranium ore, Taikang formation is an ideal horizon, river bed facies is suitable for interlayer oxidation type uranium deposit. (author)

  18. Effect of temperature on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus

    Hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers is considered for seasonal energy storage in Denmark. However, an increase in the aquifer temperature might reduce permeability, and thereby increase production costs. An understanding of the factors that control permeability is required in order...... and the Klinkenberg procedure showed the expected correlation between the two measures, however, differences could be around one order of magnitude. In tight gas sandstones, permeability is often sensitive to net stress, which might change due to the pore pressure change in the Klinkenberg procedure. Besides...... affecting the Klinkenberg procedure, the combined effect of slip and changes in permeability would affect production during pressure depletion in tight gas sandstone reservoirs; therefore effects of gas slip and net stress on permeability were combined in a model based on the Klinkenberg equation. A lower...

  19. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  20. University courses on radiation protection in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, Enn

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is given on the educational courses containing topics in the field of radiation protection in the Tallinn Technical University and in the University of Tartu, Estonia. It follows from the analysis that at present there is no complete system for education or training of experts in the field. At the same time a significant deficit in specialists and experts is one of the major barriers in the development of an efficient radiation protection infrastructure in this country. A comparison of the course topics to the syllabus for the training of qualified experts recommended by EC and by IAEA demonstrates the items, which need a further development and an expanded coverage in the existing or in future courses. These items involve, e.g., operational radiation protection and its organisation, waste management, transport, quality assurance, etc. Upgrading of courses for the missing theoretical items is not difficult, but it is not sufficient. The largest void lies in the weakness / absence of an adequate basis for practical work or exercises for students. The examples of co-operation and help provided for the existing courses, especially by the Nordic countries, are encouraging. (au)

  1. Clay squirt: Local flow dispersion in shale-bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Dispersion of elastic-wave velocity is common in sandstone and larger in shaly sandstone than in clean sandstone. Dispersion in fluid-saturated shaly sandstone often exceeds the level expected from the stress-dependent elastic moduli of dry sandstone. The large dispersion has been coined clay...... squirt and is proposed to originate from a pressure gradient between the clay microporosity and the effective porosity. We have formulated a simple model that quantifies the clay-squirt effect on bulk moduli of sandstone with homogeneously distributed shale laminae or dispersed shale. The model...... predictions were compared with the literature data. For sandstones with dispersed shale, agreement was found, whereas other sandstones have larger fluid-saturated bulk modulus, possibly due to partially load-bearing shales or heterogeneous shale distribution. The data that agree with the clay-squirt model...

  2. Petrography and geochemistry of Jurassic sandstones from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Periasamy

    On the basis of geochemical results, sandstones are classified into arkose, ..... Geochemical classification diagram of sandstone samples from the Jhuran Formation based on log(SiO2/Al2O3)– ..... 1993) showing single trend for the Jhuran.

  3. PALEOEVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA'S AJALI SANDSTONES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ajali Sandstone is a major clastic formation of Campanian-Maastrichtian age occuring within the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. ... The result is in line with earlier conclusions of fluvial or fluviodeltaic depositional environment based on analysis of faceis, sedimentary rock which are suitable for morphometrical ...

  4. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  5. Should Estonia have a nuclear power station?(Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries the problem of energy supply can be of paramount importance. Estonia, however, being the small country of a small nation, has to take into account special considerations before deciding on the possible introduction of nuclear electricity. Should another disaster like that of Chernobyl take place on Estonian territory, the whole nation might perish. Therefore, those scientists who place national interests above all have been active looking for alternative sources of energy. The present paper discusses the situation in Northern Europe and draws the readers' attention to the still unsolved problem of nuclear waste disposal. The paper emphasises the fact that the Fifth Estonian Conference on Ecology regarded nuclear energy as entirely unacceptable for Estonia and declared its full support for the decision taken by the Estonian Government not to consider the application of nuclear power in Estonia before the year 2000. (author). 8 figs

  6. Towards unification of terrestrial gravity data sets in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmann, Artu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data in Estonia have been collected by different institutions over many decades. This study assesses the suitability of available gravity data for ensuring a 1 cm geoid modelling accuracy over Estonia and in the Baltic Sea region in general. The main focus of this study is on the determination and elimination of discrepancies between three nationwide datasets. It was detected that one tested historic gravity dataset contained inadmissible systematic biases with respect to other tested datasets. Possible ways of gravity data improvement are discussed. More specifically, new field observation campaigns and aspects of using their outcomes in subsequent regional geoid modelling are suggested.

  7. Domestic fuel consumption in Estonia (The first half of 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1993-01-01

    According to the data of the Estonian Statistics Department the consumption of fuels in Estonia over the period of January-June 1993 was a follows: coal 77,053 t, oil shale 7,981,840 t, fuel peat 127,376 t, peat briquette 42,041 t, firewood 154,511 solid metres, wood chip 55,648 solid metres. The consumption of fuel peat (chiefly for producing briquette) was more considerable in the town of Kohtla-Jaerve and in the districts of Paernu and Tartu where Estonia's major peat-briquette plants are located. The share of peat in the other industries has been less significant. (author)

  8. The Collyhurst Sandstone as a secondary storage unit for CCS in the East Irish Sea Basin (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, D.; Williams, J. D. O.; Kirk, K.; Gent, C. M. A.; Bentham, M.; Schofield, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is key technology for low-carbon energy and industry. The UK hosts a large CO2 storage potential offshore with an estimated capacity of 78 Gt. The East Irish Sea Basin (EISB) is the key area for CCS in the western UK, with a CO2 storage potential of 1.7 Gt in hydrocarbon fields and in saline aquifers within the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Formation. However, this theoretical storage capacity does not consider the secondary storage potential in the lower Permian Collyhurst Sandstone Formation. 3D seismic data were used to characterise the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation in the EISB. On the southern basin domain, numerous fault-bound blocks limit the lateral continuity of the sandstone strata, while on the northern domain the sandstones are intersected by less faults. The caprock for the Collyhurst sandstones is variable. The Manchester Marls predominate in the south, transitioning to the St. Bees evaporites towards the north. The evaporites in the EISB cause overburden faults to terminate or detach along Upper Permian strata, limiting the deformation of the underlying reservoir units. Five main storage closures have been identified in the Permian strata. In the southern and central area these are predominantly fault bounded, occurring at depths over 1000m. Despite the higher Collyhurst sandstone thickness in the southern IESB, the dolomitic nature of the caprock constitutes a storage risk in this area. Closures in the northern area are deeper (around 2000-2500m) and wider, reaching areas of 34Km2, and are overlain by evaporitic caprocks. The larger Collyhurst closures to the north underlie large Triassic fields with high storage potential. The spatial overlap favours storage plans including secondary storage units in the EISB. The results of this work also expand the understanding of prospective areas for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin in locations where the primary Sherwood Sandstone Formation is either too shallow

  9. Radio synovectomy: First results in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, S.; Samarina, G.; Poksi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In Estonia first radiosynovectomy (RSE) was carried out in 2001 at Tallinn Central Hospital, which has remained the only institution in North Estonia performing these procedures. Purpose of this study was to analyze the results and the clinical experience gained during the period of September 2001 January 2005. We performed RSE in 10 knee joints of 7 patients. Our patient population consisted of 3 males and 4 females (mean age 34, range 16-48). There were 6 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic synovitis and 1 patient with haemophilia (HE) who had one episode of haemarthrosis eight month prior to RSE. In RA the duration of the disease was ranging from 2 month to 20 years. All RA patients were resistant to anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants and intraarticular steroid therapy. Prior to RSE, conventional rheumatologic evaluation and MRI scan were carried out, revealing the thickness of synovia of 2-5 mm, and minimal or no cartilage damage. In our HE patient chronic hypertrophic synovitis associated with haemarthrosis did not respond to haematological treatment: replacement of the missing clotting factor, intermittent steroids, immobilization, physical therapy. According to MRI, the thickness of synovia was patchy, 5-26 mm, the cartilage damage was absent. For RSE, intraarticular injection of radiocolloid was carried out in aseptic conditions and under local anesthesia. Treated joints were immobilized for 2 days. In 5 out of 6 RA patients the injection was performed once, in one RA patient four times. In order to minimize local inflammation and lymphatic clearance glucocorticoids were administered together with radioisotope agents. In three patients (2 with RA and 1 with HE) 27 mCi of 166-Ho-FHMA was injected, and in remaining four patients with RA - 4-6 mCi of 90-Y radiocolloid was used. All joints with Ho-FHMA were checked for radiocolloid leakage by subsequent gamma camera imaging. Treatment response was evaluated from 2 to 6 month

  10. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  11. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  12. Estonia taastusravikeskuse termid : Sääse 7, Pärnu = Baths at SPA Estonia : Sääse 7, Pärnu / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2009-01-01

    Estonia taastusravikeskuse basseini- ja vesiravikompleksist, mille arhitektid ning sisearhitektid on Edda Soolep ja Jüri Soolep (Archimedium OÜ). Žürii hinnang kultuurkapitali aastapreemiale esitatud hoonele

  13. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S.; Eensaar, A. [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1995-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  14. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  15. Saksa press käsitleb Estonia huku filmi blufina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe, Kaj Holmberg ja Birgit Stein, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukajadest Saksa ajakirjanduses. Ka Eesti suursaadiku Riina Kionka arvamus

  16. Estonia hukk jõuab suvel kinodesse / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Nädal tagasi alustati Berliinis poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtetega, mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow

  17. A 13th-century kettlehat from Kodasoo, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäll, Jaak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest surviving helmet from Estonia is a 13th-century kettlehat found near village of Kodasoo in northern Estonia. Three samples from different parts of the kettlehat were investigated in a metallographic study. The raw material of the Kodasoo kettlehat was a slag-rich iron of heterogeneous carbon content. It was improved by folding and forge-welding it at least three times, resulting in layered structure with more uniformly distributed carbon content.

    El casco más antiguo encontrado en Estonia es un «chapel de fer» del siglo XIII que proviene de cerca de la aldea de Kodasoo, en el Norte de Estonia. Tres muestras de diversas partes del casco fueron investigadas mediante un estudio metalográfico. El material original del casco de Kodasoo era un hierro de contenido de carbono heterogéneo y con abundantes inclusiones de escoria. Se intentó mejorar su calidad mediante forja, doblándolo y soldándolo a la calda por lo menos tres veces, dando como resultado una estructura estratificada, con el contenido de carbono distribuido más uniformemente.

  18. Elegantne ja värske Rahvusooper Estonia / Maris Takk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Takk, Maris

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooper Estonia publikuruumide renoveerimine. Sisearhitektid Juta Lember ja Aulo Padar, SAB Lember & Padar. Arhitektuurse projekti autor Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. ajaloolise interjööri preemia. J. Lemberist ja A. Padarist, nende tähtsamad tööd, autasud. Ill.: plaan, 16 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  19. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded zoonosis in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Ståhl, Marie; Lassen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Findings Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered t...

  20. The use of mosses in air pollution monitoring in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liiv, S; Eensaar, A [Academy of Sciences of Estonia, Tallinn (Estonia). Tallinn Botanic Garden

    1996-12-31

    Mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens have been proposed as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metals. These mosses are wide-used in biomonitoring studies in Scandinavia as well as in other Nordic countries. Some methodical problems of bryoindication, e.g. other factors than the adsorption of precipitation which influence element concentrations in mosses have been studied in Scandinavia as well. Methodical study for determining the intrasite, local variability in Estonia was started in 1991. Despite of the used uniform methodics in sampling, cleaning, digesting and chemical analysing of moss samples in the same laboratory there is high variability of the content of elements at the reference area. There are many reasons for this variability - errors from instrumental procedures (analytical steps in chemical analysing), biological deviation, etc. In this article the results of the methodical study of intrasite variability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and V in mosses at reference areas of different deposition level in Estonia are presented. The intrasite variability of elemental content in mosses at the reference areas is taken into account in mapping the territorial distribution of the content of elements in mosses, samples of which were collected during the joint Finnish-Estonian-Russian biomonitoring project in 1992 in a more dense network compared with the 1989 and 1990 national moss surveys in Estonia in order to describe more accurately the pollution situation in highly polluted north-eastern Estonia

  1. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  2. Estonia juubelihooaeg tuleb tavalisest sisukam / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia 100. hooaja etendustest: G. Verdi "Othello", G. Puccini ooper "Tosca", Rene Eespere ooper "Gurmaanid-2", P. Mascagni "Talupoja au", R. Leoncavallo "Pajatsid", W. A. Mozarti ooper "Don Giovanni" ja ooperi "La clemenza di Tito" kontsertettekanne, Tiit Härmi ballett "Kameeliadaam", Ludvig Minkuse ballett "Don Quijote". Osavõtust Dalhalla ooperifestivalist Rootsis Puccini ooperiga "Tosca" ja Cannito/Schiavoni balletiga "Cassandra"

  3. Estonia näitas uut logo / Andres Keil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keil, Andres, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Ooperiteatri uue logo autor on Kristjan Kirsfeldt. Liis Kolle lavastab G. Rossini ooperi "Sinjoor Bruschino ehk Poeg juhuse tahtel", kunstnikud Liina Keevallik ja Reili Evart. 2. juunil Rahvusooperis etendunud rahvusooperi näiteringi "Welcome to Estonia" Neeme Kuninga kirjutatud ja lavastatud muusikalist "Minu veetlev Eedi".

  4. Economically viable and environment-friendly hydro energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saks, Ants; Velner, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Hydro energy has been in oblivion in Estonia for about 30 years now. During the 1960s, most of Estonia's small hydropower plants were closed down, just as it was done in the whole Soviet Union. As the only larger hydro plant, the 125 MW plant in Narva, was situated on the Russian side of the Narva River, there were only two or three small hydro plants left. Even those were exploited at low capacity and mainly for heating the buildings. It was not until the 1990s that a number of enthusiasts started to re-establish the hydro plants by reconstructing old installations. The pre-feasibility study 'Hydropower in Estonia' proposed by Estonian and Swedish experts, showed that the restoration of the hydropower plants and watermills is economically feasible and technically possible if advanced technology is used. Hydropower as an alternative ('green') energy source should be used in the best technical-economical way. The first pilot plant in Estonia, the 200 kW Kamari plant was constructed in 1998 with compact-propeller units, in co-operation with Waterpumps WP Oy and ABB. Today, ten new plants have been constructed or are under construction. Hydropower plants/watermills should be reconstructed in accordance with the legislative acts on environment protection

  5. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  6. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  7. Cathodoluminescence characteristics of sandstone and the implications for sandstone type No. 512 uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Guan Taiyang

    1998-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) technique, as a special petrologic tool, has been applied to the studies of uranium hosted sandstone from No. 512 uranium deposit located in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China. The detrital grains including quartz, feldspar, debris and cements display distinguishing CL properties. The quartz grains mainly demonstrate brown and dark blue CL, feldspar grains demonstrate blue and bright blue CL, calcite cement displays bright yellow-orange and orange-red CL with significant CL zoning, while the debris, mud and sand cements have dark red CL, multicolor CL or non-luminescence. The characteristics of overgrowth, fracture healing, and the original contact relations of detrital grains appear much more significant with CL than that with conventional visual methods. Much more information can be contributed by CL technique to decipher the provenance area, to explain the cementation, consolidation and other diagenesis processes of sandstone. The CL technique also provides and efficient tool for identifying detrital grains and cements, and for more precisely estimating the proportions of various detrital grains and cement components in sandstone. The CL emission of uranium hosted sandstone revealed the existence of radiation-damage rims of quartz grains at the places with a little or no uranium minerals nearby, which may imply a uranium-leaching episode during the diagenesis of sandstone

  8. Communication of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Estonia's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale of 20 October 2003 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Estonia providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Estonia. In light of the wish expressed in the Note Verbale, its text is attached hereto

  9. Recent exploration progresses on sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in north-western China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The metallogenic target selection using multiple exploration techniques and drilling program for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits have been intensively carried out for recent years, and big progresses on new discoveries of uranium reserve/resource have been made in the Mesozoic sedimentary basins such as in Yili, Ordos etc. in North-western China The Yili basin is a depression one within the Tianshan Mountain belt in the western part of China. Its basement is composed of Proterozoic-Paleozoic metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and covers of Mesozoic sediments. The early-middle Jurassic Shuixigou Group is major uranium-productive beds which are composed of three Formations such as Badaowan, Sangonghe, Xisanyao and eight sedimentary cycles. Uranium deposits are found in the south margin of the Basin and controlled by the redox zone. The combined exploration techniques of detailed sedimentary facies study, Rn-survey, high-precision magnetic and soil geochemical and seismic surveys have been successfully used to have locate the potential targets and mineralization zones. The enlargement of uranium reserve/resources in the known deposits and new resources in the selected new targets and cycles have been achieved through further drilling programs. The Ordos basin is a large Meso-Cenozoic basin developed in North China Platform, with its size of approximately 250,000 km"2 and is well known as an important “energy resources basin” because of abundance of coal, oil and gas deposits. The Dongsheng sandstone type uranium deposit is a large one discovered in recent years in northeastern Ordos basin. It is a special kind of sandstone type uranium deposit, different from other ordinary sandstone type deposits because of its unique signatures. It is generally controlled by a transitional zone between greenish and grayish sandstones, both of those two kinds of sandstones now indicate reduced geochemical environments. The greenish color of the paleooxidized sandstones mainly

  10. Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad ja palve seoses USA presidendi George W. Bushi visiidiga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Estonia protsessiühingu esimehe Helje Kaskeli ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu esimehe Ülo Veide pöördumises president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese poole tuuakse esile katastroofis hukkunute omaste seisukohad. Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 29. nov. 2006, lk. 4-5, pealk.: Ilves, avita! Estonia katastroofis hukkunute omaste palvekiri Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele; Vaba Eesti Sõna 30. nov. 2006, lk. 3, 10, pealk.: Avalik kiri Eesti Vabariigi presidendile Toomas H. Ilvesele

  11. Kohtumisel Bushiga tuleks tõstatada ka Estonia huku teema / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2006-01-01

    Parvlaeval Estonia hukkunute omaste ühendused avaldasid oma pöördumises Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele soovi, et president arutaks kohtumisel USA presidendi George W. Bushiga USA julgeolekuagentuuri NSA käsutuses olevate laevahukku puudutavate salastatud dokumentide üleandmist Eestile. Pöördumisele on alla kirjutanud Estonia Litigation Associationi esimees Helje Kaskel ja Estonia Hukupõhjuste Väljaselgitamise Mittetulundusühingu (EHVM) juht Ülo Veide

  12. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from the Angkor monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Soukal, L.; Novak, J.K.; Lang, M.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Cunin, O.

    2008-01-01

    We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple. (author)

  13. The migration of uranium through sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.; Lawless, T.A.; Sims, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Three column experiments are described in which the migration of uranium through Clashach Sandstone was studied. A priori predictions of uranium migration in the experiments were made using an equilibrium chemical transport model. The experimental results showed that, even under oxidising conditions, the migration of uranium is strongly retarded owing to the affinity of uranium for mineral surfaces. For the relatively simple chemical system investigated, the chemical transport model was successful in predicting the migration of uranium and its distribution along the column. (author)

  14. Rahmaninov ja Saint-Saens Estonia kontserdisaalis / Tiina Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiina, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    18. novembril Estonia kontserdisaalis toimuvast Sergei Rahmaninovi Klaverikontsert nr 2 ja "Kellad" ettekandest ja 29. novembril Toimuvast Camille Saint-Saensi ooperi "Simson ja Delila" kontsertettekandest

  15. Sajandi sündmus : Estonia teater jõudis Financial Timesi / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Maailmakuulus majandusleht Financial Times avaldas 4. jaanuaril ajakirjanik George Loomis'e artikli, mis kajastab Rahvusooperis Estonia 14. detsembril 2001 esietendunud Carl Orffi ooperit "Tark naine"

  16. Berliner Zeitung annab Estonia-filmile hävitava hinnangu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastus poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Filmi vaieldavast konteptsioonist ja vastukaja Saksa ajakirjanduses

  17. Building up the radiation protection infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, Merle; Muru, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide a timeline overview of the of radiation protection infrastructure following the 1999 declaration of independence. In Estonia, an independent competent authority was inaugurated in 1996 and the first Radiation Act was approved by Parliament the following year, in 1997. This paper will address several important factors and the means which promoted development. International cooperation was and remains an essential factor worthy of discussion. For example participation in International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation programme and co-operation with neighbouring countries greatly facilitated greatly the development. Political choices and the long term goal of accession to the European Union had great importance to the process also. Today, the Republic of Estonia is member of European Union and has built up a well functioning radiation protection system according the international standards and requirements. This paper is intended to share the experience and to facilitate the learning process. (author)

  18. The tourism image of Estonia in Spain: a formulative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katlin Savva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an environment, where information flow is freer than ever. Nowadays everyone has access to global news and can make their own conclu-sions based on the perceived image. Therefore, the role of perception and image is becoming more important for different countries to attract visitors and in-vestors. Tourism is a way of selling the image of a country and the reputation and word of mouth generated from tourism activities are priceless to the image of a destination. This paper analyzes the case of Estonia, which is an emerging tourism market and quite new and unknown for Spain. The authors try to accent the importance of direct promotion, through a survey carried out to 341 Spanish people in Madrid. The result from this quantitative and formulative research method is that Estonia has to promote its tourism image better if the country wants to attract the Spanish tourist.

  19. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbri, T.; Aasmann, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  20. PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF ESTONIA IN A GROWTH ACCOUNTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien MOLNAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the economic growth tendencies in Estonia and other formal post-socialist countries and the interaction between productivity growth and their determinants after the transition decades. So this paper is structured as follows. Firstly we will introduce an alternative growth accounting method to determine the components of productivity growth based on this concept. In Section we will also provide our empirical results in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Hungary compared to the EU-15 countries between 1990 and 2011 how TFP (Total Factor Productivity, Physical and Labour Capital Accumulation can contribute to (increase or decrease economic performance of each country. Finally, we can conclude that the relationship between labour and output growth per capita has obviously and temporarily changed after the mid-1990s, which could be determined by the increasing role of such socio-economic factors as technological changes, capital accumulation and demographical fluctuations etc.

  1. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  2. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisso, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  3. Radiological Cs-137 accidents/incidents in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisso, Mark [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tallin (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Two radiological accidents/incidents in Estonia are reported. The first -21 October 1994, three brothers entered the Tammiku repository and stole a radioactive Cs-137 source and received dangerous doses of radiation. The other incident (early 1995) involved an abandoned source - a discarded metal cylinder containing Cs-137. Chronologies and factual data are considered for both events. Concise descriptions of the incidents, a medical overview of the fate of injured people and lessons learned are presented

  4. Estonia ujub Saksamaa kinodesse / Andres Laasik, Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal Berliinis esilinastub pidulikult 13. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku. Režissöör ja üks stsenariste on Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teeb kaasa Rein Oja. Põhjamaades on filmi linastamine kahtluse all

  5. How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Gurvitsh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How important is business ethics: evidence from Estonia During recent decades, more and more attention has been paid to business ethics. There seems to be an increasing interest in the non-financial aspects of business. Stakeholders all over the world express their concern about embedding the principles of professional and business ethics into companies’ everyday activities. The main subject of this research is business ethics and the purpose is to find out the im-portance of professional and business ethics and determine its place in the modern business world as seen by Estonian business students and practitioners. To achieve the goals, the authors conducted a survey among Estonian graduate and undergraduate accounting and business students at Tallinn University of Technology and Estonian business practitioners. 587 responses were collected in the process. This infor-mation was compiled and analyzed based on status, gender, age, and specialization. The survey revealed that in Estonia people are familiar with business ethics; however, it is not of great interest to them. The results also indicate that professional and business ethics merit more attention and should be included as a required course in the curriculum of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. In general, business ethics in Estonia was not ranked as “high”, which was also the case for both professional ethics at the work-place/university and also the importance and necessity of ethics in the modern business world.

  6. Cerro Largo South orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  7. Examples from the 1.6 Ga Chorhat Sandstone, Vindhyan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper addresses macroscopic signatures of microbial mat-related structures within the 1.6 Ga-old Chorhat Sandstone of the Semri Group –the basal stratigraphic unit of the Vindhyan succession in Son valley.The Chorhat Sandstone broadly represents a prograding succession of three depositional facies ranging from ...

  8. Geothermal characteristics of Buntsandstein sandstone reservoir of Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffen, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The Buntsandstein, located in the Upper Rhine Graben, appears to be an easy target for geothermal exploitation, linking sandstone and clay with the regional thermal anomaly. This study aims at characterizing petrophysical characteristics of these sandstones as well as the fracturing affecting them, with the intention of providing a conceptual model of the formation which will act as guide for future exploitation. The sedimentary facies are composed by five petrographical facies (clean sandstones, sandstones with clayey coating, clay matrix sandstones, silicified sandstones and carbonated matrix sandstones) which split with variable proportions and control a part of petrophysical properties measured at matrix scale. The comparison between petrophysical data, macroscopic data from temperature gradient analysis, modelling data and fracturing, allows the building of a Buntsandstein Sandstones fluids circulation conceptual model. This analysis points the role of the damage zone of fault zones for fluids transfer at large scale, but also that of two sedimentary facies: marginal erg and Playa Lake. The analysis of different outcrops shows that the fracturing evolves according to the situation in the sedimentary pile and according to the situation in comparison with major tectonic accidents. (author) [fr

  9. INTRODUCTION Sandstone beds within Auchi locality are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major framework composition is Q F L which classifies the sandstone as Quartz ... The grains are texturally immature as depicted by their subangular edges but mineralogically ..... Fig 6 : Vertical Section of Bioturbated Sandstone Lithofacies Showing Trace Fossils ..... on Water Quality and Planktonic Production in an.

  10. Sediment transport direction in fluviatile Karharbari sandstone, Giridih Basin, Bihar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, R C; Casshyap, S M

    1978-01-01

    The sandstone is pebbly, very coarse grained in the lower part, and coarse to medium grained in the upper part. Shale and coal respectively constitute 9 and 5% of the strata Small and large erosional channels and successive sets of large scale cross-bedding characterize the sandstone. Palaeo- currents reveal that the paleodrainage and sediment transport were dominantly directed from SSW to NNE.

  11. Sandstone landforms shaped by negative feedback between stress and erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Soukup, J.; Vaculíková, J.; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Mayo, A. L.; Mašín, D.; Kletetschka, Günther; Řihošek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2014), s. 597-601 ISSN 1752-0894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : sandstone * sandstone landsforms * stress * erosion Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 11.740, year: 2014

  12. Hydrological modelling in sandstone rocks watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponížilová, Iva; Unucka, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The contribution is focused on the modelling of surface and subsurface runoff in the Ploučnice basin. The used rainfall-runoff model is HEC-HMS comprising of the method of SCS CN curves and a recession method. The geological subsurface consisting of sandstone is characterised by reduced surface runoff and, on the contrary, it contributes to subsurface runoff. The aim of this paper is comparison of the rate of influence of sandstone on reducing surface runoff. The recession method for subsurface runoff was used to determine the subsurface runoff. The HEC-HMS model allows semi- and fully distributed approaches to schematisation of the watershed and rainfall situations. To determine the volume of runoff the method of SCS CN curves is used, which results depend on hydrological conditions of the soils. The rainfall-runoff model assuming selection of so-called methods of event of the SCS-CN type is used to determine the hydrograph and peak flow rate based on simulation of surface runoff in precipitation exceeding the infiltration capacity of the soil. The recession method is used to solve the baseflow (subsurface) runoff. The method is based on the separation of hydrograph to direct runoff and subsurface or baseflow runoff. The study area for the simulation of runoff using the method of SCS CN curves to determine the hydrological transformation is the Ploučnice basin. The Ploučnice is a hydrologically significant river in the northern part of the Czech Republic, it is a right tributary of the Elbe river with a total basin area of 1.194 km2. The average value of CN curves for the Ploučnice basin is 72. The geological structure of the Ploučnice basin is predominantly formed by Mesozoic sandstone. Despite significant initial loss of rainfall the basin response to the causal rainfall was demonstrated by a rapid rise of the surface runoff from the watershed and reached culmination flow. Basically, only surface runoff occures in the catchment during the initial phase of

  13. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  14. Rahvusooperi Estonia 99. hooaeg algab nädala pärast / Christel Karits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karits, Christel, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Muusikaturu korraldamisest 18. sept. Estonia teatrihoone taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil. Katri Kaasik-Aaslavi ja Vaino Vahingu näidendi "Teatriromanss" (muusika arranzheerija ja pianist Olav Ehala) esietendusest Estonia kammersaalis 22. oktoobril. Giuseppe Verdi ooperi "Aida" etendamisest Rocca al Mare Onistar Tennisekeskuses 8.-10., 12.-17. oktoobril

  15. The Affective Dimension of Religion and Personal Happiness among Students in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Elken, Ahto; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 150 students in Estonia (119 from a secular university and 31 from a Lutheran theological institute) completed the Oxford Happiness Measure and the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The data show no significant correlation between these two variables; thus the findings challenge the generalizability to Estonia of the…

  16. Tosca Mikiveri mälestuseks. Estonia Turupäev 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lavastaja Mikk Mikiveri 70. sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest Giacomo Puccini ooperi "Tosca" esietendusega 4. sept. Tartus Vanemuise väikeses majas. Rahvusooper Estonia 102. hooaja uuslavastuste tutvustamisest 9. sept. Tallinnas Estonia maja taga ajaloolisel turuplatsil

  17. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  18. Relationship between characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Fengjun; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang; Li Sitian

    2000-01-01

    Like normal deltas, fan-deltas are composed of three parts, i.e., fan-delta plain, fan-delta front and pre-fin-delta, In-situ leachable uranium deposits are commonly distributed along the margins of in-land basins. The author analyzes the possible relationship between the basic characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and uranium mineralization. Two examples, e.g., the fan delta depositional systems in the eastern part of Jungger basin and the southern part of Yili basin, are given to illustrate the fan-delta vertical sequence and planar distribution of sedimentary facies. It has been pointed out that the braided channel sandstone bodies on delta plain, sub-aqueous distributional channel sandstone bodies and delta front sandstone bodies may be the favourable host rocks for in-situ leachable sandstone uranium deposits

  19. Valge Laeva hukk : Estonia katastroof meie peas = The wreck of the White ship : on the catastrophe of the Estonia / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    "Estonia" katasroofist ja meedia osast selle kajastamisel, Juhan Leinbergist ja maltsvetlusest ning "valge laeva" kui priiuse laeva ja lootuse kujundist Eesti kultuuris ning selle tähendusest eestlaste teadvuses

  20. Detrital zircon provenance of the Hartselle Sandstone Unit, Southeastern USA: Insights into sediment source, paleogeography, and setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthy, M. A.; Gifford, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hartselle sandstone is an excellent example of an Oil sand, a resource rich in bitumen. The unit is a light-colored thick-bedded to massive quartzose sandstone, that is widespread across an area from Georgia in the east to Mississippi in the west, and south from Alabama to Kentucky as a northern border. Formation thickness ranges from 0 to more than 150 feet. The unit has been stratigraphically dated to the Middle-Upper Mississippian age. One hypothesis suggests that the sandstone unit formed from the geological remains of barrier islands located in the ocean between Gondwana and Laurentia. The Hartselle is thought to have formed by the movement waves and currents along the shoreline, which carried sand and concentrated it into a set of northwest to southeast trending barrier islands. Transgression-regression events shifted the islands back and forth in relation to the position of the shoreline, leading to the large areal extent of the unit. However, the current data are not enough to explain the geographical position of the Hartselle sandstone unit as it is not running parallel to the ancient shoreline. Another mystery is the source of the sand, some believing the source was from the south (Gondwana) and others that erosion was from the north (Laurentia). Detrital zircon provenance analysis will address the uncertainty in sediment source. We will compare zircon U-Pb age spectra to possible Laurentian and Gondwanan source areas to discriminate between these possibilities. In addition, the age of the youngest detrital zircon population will provide additional constraints on the maximum age of deposition for the unit. These detrital ages will also help us to understand the tectonic setting at the time of Hartselle deposition. Lastly, we aim to explain the widespread nature of the unit and the processes involved in the formation of the Hartselle sandstone. When taken together, these interpretations will illuminate the age, depositional and tectonic setting of a

  1. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  2. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  3. Development and problems of radioactive waste management infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Estonia is one of a few countries where the establishment of radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure started only recently, soon after regaining independence in the beginning of 1990's. Both legislative and regulatory infrastructure had to be built from scratch, in parallel with the beginning of urgent activities and practices to manage waste streams inherited from the past. Despite significant deficiency of local expertise and specialists in the field, the main objectives of the establishment were set up: to enforce national legislation basing on contemporary international principles, criteria, requirements and to implement structures and procedures for an efficient regulation of radiation safety issues, including practices involving radioactive waste management and decommissioning

  4. Historical survey of nuclear non-proliferation in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalmann, I.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview about the project initiated in co-operation between the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (ERPC) to carry out a historical survey of the nuclear activities taken place in the territory of Estonia after the World War II. The main purpose of the project was to create transparency in the State's nuclear related past and to submit the results of the conducted historical survey as a volunteer supplement to the Additional Protocol declaration. (author)

  5. Closed nuclear facilities in Estonia: developments and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.; Realo, K.

    2000-01-01

    At present Estonia has no operating nuclear or a radioactive material production facility. As a legacy of the past the country has become responsible for the decommissioning of two large nuclear cycle facilities of the former USSR. Besides limited funding, major problems arise from deficiencies in legislation, expertise, training and research. International co-operation has been of immense importance to overcome the problems, to establish the national radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure and to launch decommissioning and remediation activities. An overview is given on the status and problems. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Estonia hukk jõuab kinolinale / Anari Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Anari

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal esilinastub 2. oktoobril poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Film jõuab Eestis linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör ja üks stsenariste Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist teevad kaasa Rein Oja ja väikeses rollis Urmas Alenderi lesk Helje Kaskel. Kõlab ka U. Alenderi laul

  7. Nodular features from Proterozoic Sonia Sandstone, Jodhpur Group ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. e-mail: parthageology@gmail.com. The Sonia ..... cement variety in the form of dispersed dark brown clots and .... content within the nodule sandstones bear sig- nature in ..... Carbonates and Evaporites 21 133–143.

  8. provenance of sandstone on the western flank of anambra basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES VOL. 14, 2016: 13-21. COPYRIGHT© ... from Fugar locality. The sandstones each classify as quartz arenites and sublitharenites. ... Tectonic movement in the Santonian times resulted in the ...

  9. Characterization of application of acu sandstone in ceramic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M.; Gomes, Y.S.; Fernandes, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    The sandstone is a sedimentary rock formed mainly by quartz grains. In Rio Grande do Norte, there is the Potiguar Basin with the Jandaira and Acu Formations. The latter consists of thick layers of whitish-colored sandstones. It stands out as a water storage facility in the state, but it is also used for building aggregates. This article aimed at the use of the sandstone of this formation in the ceramic mass for coating. Initially, the material was sampled. It went through the comminution process to achieve the required granulometry. After this, three formulations were made to incorporate this new material into the traditional ones. The methods were performed according to ISO 13816. After sintering at 1200 °C, the specimens were subjected to the physical tests. A positive result was obtained for the use of the Acu sandstone in low concentrations. It is clear, therefore, its use in ceramics for coating

  10. Transport of silver nanoparticles in single fractured sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are used in various consumer products and are one of the most prevalent metallic nanoparticle in commodities and are released into the environment. Transport behavior of Ag-NP in groundwater is one important aspect for the assessment of environmental impact and protection of drinking water resources in particular. Ag-NP transport processes in saturated single-fractured sandstones using triaxial flow cell experiments with different kind of sandstones is investigated. Ag-NP concentration and size are analyzed using flow field-flow fractionation and coupled SEM-EDX analysis. Results indicate that Ag-NP are more mobile and show generally lower attachment on rock surface compared to experiments in undisturbed sandstone matrix and partially fractured sandstones. Ag-NP transport is controlled by the characteristics of matrix porosity, time depending blocking of attachment sites and solute chemistry. Where Ag-NP attachment occur, it is heterogeneously distributed on the fracture surface.

  11. Natural Erosion of Sandstone as Shape Optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostanin, Igor; Safonov, Alexander; Oseledets, Ivan

    2017-12-11

    Natural arches, pillars and other exotic sandstone formations have always been attracting attention for their unusual shapes and amazing mechanical balance that leave a strong impression of intelligent design rather than the result of a stochastic process. It has been recently demonstrated that these shapes could have been the result of the negative feedback between stress and erosion that originates in fundamental laws of friction between the rock's constituent particles. Here we present a deeper analysis of this idea and bridge it with the approaches utilized in shape and topology optimisation. It appears that the processes of natural erosion, driven by stochastic surface forces and Mohr-Coulomb law of dry friction, can be viewed within the framework of local optimisation for minimum elastic strain energy. Our hypothesis is confirmed by numerical simulations of the erosion using the topological-shape optimisation model. Our work contributes to a better understanding of stochastic erosion and feasible landscape formations that could be found on Earth and beyond.

  12. Failure Forecasting in Triaxially Stressed Sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, A.; Bell, A. F.; Curtis, A.; Main, I. G.

    2017-12-01

    Precursory signals to fracturing events have been observed to follow power-law accelerations in spatial, temporal, and size distributions leading up to catastrophic failure. In previous studies this behavior was modeled using Voight's relation of a geophysical precursor in order to perform `hindcasts' by solving for failure onset time. However, performing this analysis in retrospect creates a bias, as we know an event happened, when it happened, and we can search data for precursors accordingly. We aim to remove this retrospective bias, thereby allowing us to make failure forecasts in real-time in a rock deformation laboratory. We triaxially compressed water-saturated 100 mm sandstone cores (Pc= 25MPa, Pp = 5MPa, σ = 1.0E-5 s-1) to the point of failure while monitoring strain rate, differential stress, AEs, and continuous waveform data. Here we compare the current `hindcast` methods on synthetic and our real laboratory data. We then apply these techniques to increasing fractions of the data sets to observe the evolution of the failure forecast time with precursory data. We discuss these results as well as our plan to mitigate false positives and minimize errors for real-time application. Real-time failure forecasting could revolutionize the field of hazard mitigation of brittle failure processes by allowing non-invasive monitoring of civil structures, volcanoes, and possibly fault zones.

  13. Electrical conductivity of sandstone, limestone, and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duba, A.; Piwinskii, A.J.; Santor, M.; Weed, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of cylindrical cores of Westerly granite, Indiana limestone and Nugget, St Peter and Kayenta sandstones was measured at about 25/sup 0/C in vacuo, in air, and after saturation in distilled water, tap water, and 0.1 M NaCl solution. The three-electrode technique with a guard ring and the two-electrode technique without a guard ring were used. Core aspect ratio over the range of 2.00 to 0.25, as well as frequency over the range of 50 Hz to 10 kHz, influences the conductivity of all rocks, especially those measured in vacuo. Measurements from water-saturated samples using a guard ring are not appreciably different from those obtained without a guard ring. The conductivity of rocks saturated in 0.1 M NaCl solution changes least with a change in aspect ratio; for these rocks a linear relationship, known as Archie's Law, exists between log porosity and log conductivity. No simple correlation was found between those factors in rocks saturated with tap or distilled water. Thus, it appears Archie's Law is of questionable value for correlating laboratory data from rocks saturated with low-conductivity fluids.

  14. Do alcohol excise taxes affect traffic accidents? Evidence from Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the association between alcohol excise tax rates and alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia. Monthly time series of traffic accidents involving drunken motor vehicle drivers from 1998 through 2013 were regressed on real average alcohol excise tax rates while controlling for changes in economic conditions and the traffic environment. Specifically, regression models with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) errors were estimated in order to deal with serial correlation in residuals. Counterfactual models were also estimated in order to check the robustness of the results, using the level of non-alcohol-related traffic accidents as a dependent variable. A statistically significant (P traffic accidents was disclosed under alternative model specifications. For instance, the regression model with ARIMA (0, 1, 1)(0, 1, 1) errors revealed that a 1-unit increase in the tax rate is associated with a 1.6% decrease in the level of accidents per 100,000 population involving drunk motor vehicle drivers. No similar association was found in the cases of counterfactual models for non-alcohol-related traffic accidents. This article indicates that the level of alcohol-related traffic accidents in Estonia has been affected by changes in real average alcohol excise taxes during the period 1998-2013. Therefore, in addition to other measures, the use of alcohol taxation is warranted as a policy instrument in tackling alcohol-related traffic accidents.

  15. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 137Cs in soil profiles in NE Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, M.; Realo, K.; Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiocaesium contamination in soil was produced by two fallout's: a global fallout caused by nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere (1950s to 1970s) and a regional one - during/after the Chernobyl accident (1986). The area] distribution of the 137 CS fallout after the 1986 accident was extremely uneven in Estonia. Our previous studies showed that about 60% of its total deposition with the countrywide mean of 2 kBq m -2 occurred predominantly in the north-eastern part of Estonia. In this region the maximum deposition approached the values of 40 kBq m -2 . This is the reason why soil profiles in this region have been of interest. We have also determined the 137 Cs activity concentrations as a function of soil depth during 1991-2000. Attempts have been made to model the found depth-distributions of radiocaesium concentration and to find the possible time-dependent behaviour of these distributions in soil. The migration of radiocaesium into soil is dependent on several factors: soil properties, vegetation, mode of deposition, etc. For this reason, averaged distribution parameters for both total and Chernobyl 137 Cs have been used for deriving general trends of the migration processes. (au)

  17. Design of accounting curriculum: The case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alver Lehte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization sets new requirements for the professional qualification of accountants and auditors. In the business world globalized investment market demands consistent high quality financial information across borders; investors are looking for a global accounting profession to provide it. There is more pressure on accounting professionals to expand and enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities beyond what they are currently likely to possess. Providers of accounting education must take into account the changed world and create contemporary curricula. In Estonia the change from a command to a market economy has inevitably influenced not only the accounting framework but also the entire system of accounting education. It is clear that without a design of accounting curricula it is practically impossible to fulfill requirements of nowadays high quality financial information. Tallinn University of Technology (TUT holds on the advanced level of accounting education the leading position in Estonia. The accounting curriculum (on the graduate level as well as undergraduate level is the most popular among all curricula at the Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration of TUT. It is a joint system, which consists of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Small sub specializations: for example in financial accounting, managerial cost accounting, taxation and auditing become evident while interpreting the graduate and undergraduate programs as one united system. The paper explains a new model of accounting curriculum developed at TUT as well as its educational philosophy and principles of designing. It also describes conditions required for development and continuous improvement of competitive curriculum.

  18. Applying reaction condition index to predict sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongxin; Liu Jinhui; Cheng Hai

    2002-01-01

    On the basic of the explanation of reaction condition index, the deduction of reaction condition index calculation principle, the hydrogeological setting in Gongpoquan basin in Baishan, Gansu province and the study of reaction condition index of its water source point, the north Luotuoquan area in Gongpoquan basin seems to be a favourable place for sandstone type uranium deposit, and the prospect area for sandstone type uranium deposit is delimitated

  19. Micropore Structure Representation of Sandstone in Petroleum Reservoirs Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yong-Qiang; Zhu Xing; Wu Jun-Zheng; Bai Wen-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The pore structure of sandstone in an oil reservoir is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). At nanoscale resolution, AFM images of sandstone show us the fine structure. The real height data of images display the three-dimensional space structure of sandstone effectively. The three-dimensional analysis results show that the AFM images of sandstone have unique characteristics that, like fingerprints, can identify different structural properties of sandstones. The results demonstrate that AFM is an effective method used to represent original sandstone in petroleum reservoirs, and may help geologists to appreciate the sandstone in oil reservoirs fully. (general)

  20. Channel sandstone and bar morphology of the Beaufort group uranium district near Beaufort West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stear, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Sheet-like and lenticular sandstone bodies in the Lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) uranium district occur in megacyclic repetition as superimposed systems of ephemeral fluvial channels that display characteristics of complex lateral and vertical accretion. Channel sandstone bodies are defined on morphological grounds into two types. Sheet sandstone bodies are the commonest type and comprise the bulk of sandstone packages in arenaceous zones of megacycles. Composite sandstone sheets result from multilateral coalescence of individual sandstone bodies. Isolated lenticular sandstone units in argillaceous zones of megacycles comprise sheet and ribbon sandstone types. Multi-storeying is a prominent feature of most channel sandstone bodies and often results in local sandstone thickening. Bedforms relate to the formation of compound bars and record periods of dynamic accretion and erosion. Rarely preserved palaeosurfaces vividly illustrate the fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions that typified ephemeral fluvial sedimentation in a semi-arid environment during Lower Beaufort times

  1. Channel sandstone and bar morphology of the Beaufort group uranium district near Beaufort West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stear, W M

    1980-01-01

    Sheet-like and lenticular sandstone bodies in the Lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) uranium district occur in megacyclic repetition as superimposed systems of ephemeral fluvial channels that display characteristics of complex lateral and vertical accretion. Channel sandstone bodies are defined on morphological grounds into two types. Sheet sandstone bodies are the commonest type and comprise the bulk of sandstone packages in arenaceous zones of megacycles. Composite sandstone sheets result from multilateral coalescence of individual sandstone bodies. Isolated lenticular sandstone units in argillaceous zones of megacycles comprise sheet and ribbon sandstone types. Multi-storeying is a prominent feature of most channel sandstone bodies and often results in local sandstone thickening. Bedforms relate to the formation of compound bars and record periods of dynamic accretion and erosion. Rarely preserved palaeosurfaces vividly illustrate the fluctuating hydrodynamic conditions that typified ephemeral fluvial sedimentation in a semi-arid environment during Lower Beaufort times.

  2. Sensing, Measuring and Modelling the Mechanical Properties of Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, S. J.; Olugbenga, A.; Ozerkan, N. G.

    2018-02-01

    We present a hybrid framework for simulating the strength and dilation characteristics of sandstone. Where possible, the grain-scale properties of sandstone are evaluated experimentally in detail. Also, using photo-stress analysis, we sense the deviator stress (/strain) distribution at the micro-scale and its components along the orthogonal directions on the surface of a V-notch sandstone sample under mechanical loading. Based on this measurement and applying a grain-scale model, the optical anisotropy index K 0 is inferred at the grain scale. This correlated well with the grain contact stiffness ratio K evaluated using ultrasound sensors independently. Thereafter, in addition to other experimentally characterised structural and grain-scale properties of sandstone, K is fed as an input into the discrete element modelling of fracture strength and dilation of the sandstone samples. Physical bulk-scale experiments are also conducted to evaluate the load-displacement relation, dilation and bulk fracture strength characteristics of sandstone samples under compression and shear. A good level of agreement is obtained between the results of the simulations and experiments. The current generic framework could be applied to understand the internal and bulk mechanical properties of such complex opaque and heterogeneous materials more realistically in future.

  3. Geological and petrophysical characterization of the Ferron Sandstone for 3-D simulation of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir. Deliverable 2.5.4, Ferron Sandstone lithologic strip logs, Emergy & Sevier Counties, Utah: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M.L.

    1995-12-08

    Strip logs for 491 wells were produced from a digital subsurface database of lithologic descriptions of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale. This subsurface database covers wells from the parts of Emery and Sevier Counties in central Utah that occur between Ferron Creek on the north and Last Chance Creek on the south. The lithologic descriptions were imported into a logging software application designed for the display of stratigraphic data. Strip logs were produced at a scale of one inch equals 20 feet. The strip logs were created as part of a study by the Utah Geological Survey to develop a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and qualitative characterization of a fluvial-deltaic reservoir using the Ferron Sandstone as a surface analogue. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Geoscience/Engineering Reservoir Characterization Program.

  4. Water-borne radon and hydrogeochemical based uranium exploration in Rajamundry sandstone, W. Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyagopal, A.V.; Rajaraman, H.S.; Som, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    The lithology and sedimentary structures of the Rajamundry Formation of the Mio-Pliocene age covering an area of 1100 sq.km. indicate that it may be a typical valley fill sediment. It is about 600 m thick comprising sandstone and clay with lignite as the main lithounits. It is continental in onshore and marine in the offshore and is in contact with Gondwana sediments and Rajamundry traps. Tertiary sandstones are important hosts for uranium mineralisation. The reducing gas (Methane or other volatile hydrocarbon) moving to uraniferous oxidising water has precipitated uranium in the sediments in South Texas and Northwest Colorado, USA: (a) along faults, (b) above petroliferous aquifers, (c) vertically above hydrocarbon accumulations and (d) oil-water interface at hydrocarbon accumulations i.e., at the points of introduction of reducent into oxidising ground waters. In this context, Rajamundry sandstone lying above the natural gas and petroleum bearing Krishna Godavari basin with faults is an important geological setting for uranium mineralisation. The exploration strategies of hydrogeochemical survey and water-borne Radon (Rn) surveys were selected in this soil-covered area. Hydrogeochemical survey carried out in the Rajamundry sandstone has brought out four hydro-uranium anomalous zones with water samples (10-45ppb) falling around Kadiyadda, Madhavaram, Erramalla and Chinna Malapalle areas of West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh. The zones vary from 9 to 24 sq km area. Water-borne Radon was utilized as a tool for exploration of uranium in this soil covered terrain. Rn contours cluster around two zones around Kadiyadda and SW of Gollagudem wherein the Rn value is >60 counts/50 sec/500 ml. These Rn anomalies fall within the above mentioned hydrouranium anomalous zones. Gamma-ray logging of private bore wells has recorded relatively higher radioactivity in Kommugudem, which also falls in the high hydrouranium - high waterborne radon zone. These data and

  5. Saaremaa lad brings FBI conference to Estonia / Kalle Laanet ; interv. Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laanet, Kalle, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema õpinguid FBI akadeemias, Tallinnas toimuvat FBI konverentsi ning Eesti sisejulgeolekut. Lisa: Estonian Police statistics; Registered crimes in Estonia; From police officer to minister; What happened in April?

  6. Estonia - üks tõeline eestimaine spaa / Dagmar Reinolt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinolt, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Heaoluspaa võtmes renoveeritud Estonia Spa Hotelsi ühest kompleksist. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti arhitektid: Raivo Kotov, Indrek Mikk. Rekonstrueerimisprojekti sisearhitektid: Raili Paling, Liis Lindvere, Kadri Kaldam, Kärt Loopalu. Valmimisaasta: 2015

  7. Reasons for internal migration in Estonia 1989-2000 / Mare Ainsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ainsaar, Mare

    2004-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uurimust "Reasons for move: a study on trends and reasons of internal migration with particular interest in Estonia 1989-2000" (Turku University, 2004) Eesti elanikkonna migratsioonist ja selle põhjustest. Skeemid

  8. Estonia juhti kahtlustatakse ettevõtte varade omastamises / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link, Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Endine Pärnu linnapea, taastusravikeskuse Estonia pikaaegne juht Vello Järvesalu peeti kinni kahtlustatuna ettevõtte varade omastamises suures ulatuses. Kommenteerivad: Mart Viisitamm, Jane Mets ja Ahti Kõo

  9. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  10. Hip-hop ja ooper kohtuvad Estonias / Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lillemägi, Marko

    2006-01-01

    10. juunil Rahvusooperis Estonia etenduvast Mozarti ooperi "Cosi fan tutte" tänapäevasest versioonist, mis valmis Inglismaa Glyndebounre'i festivali, Saksamaa komische operi ja Soome Rahvusooperi koostöös, lavastaja Clare Whistler

  11. Sandstone uranium deposits of Eurasia – from genetic concepts to forecasting and new discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechenkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Along the Eurasian continent’s southern borders lie uranium ore provinces and regions controlling medium-sized and, on rare occasions, large sandstone deposits. Central French, Eastern Rhodope and other regions are known in the west. Large uranium ore provinces were discovered in the south of the Turan Plate and in the depressions of South Kazakhstan, viz. Central Kyzyl Kum, Syr Darya, Chu Sarysu. A common criterion has been established for all objects of the sandstone type, located in oil and gas, coal etc. sedimentary basins – the zone of interlayer or ground-interlayer oxidation, controlling uranium mineralization. In 2003 we were able to justify the concept that the formation of giant deposits in Chu Sarysu province was caused by the collision between the Indian Plate and the southern part of the Eurasian continent. Within the limits of Pacific ore belt there is a zonal distribution of ore deposits. Ordinary mineralization is drawn towards its eastern fringe: gold, tin, copper, tungsten etc. Volcanic and tectonic structures of central type of Mesozoic age are located further west, from the north to the south, that is large calderas – Streltsovskaya (Russia), Dornot (Mongolia), Sian Shan (China), which control large and unique endogene uranium deposits. In the far west, in the region of subsiding tectonic tensions, there are sandstone deposits of uranium in Transbaikalia, Mongolia and Yunnan, which are specially connected to young basalts. Infiltration deposits of Vitim region are adjacent to endogene deposits of Streltsovsky region in the southern-easterly direction, and to the east of the deposits of Yunnan at the same latitude lay the Sian Shan caldera with geothermal deposits of uranium and other metals. We combined them into the unified submeridional Baikal-Southern China uranium ore belt. After examining the southern extremities of the Eurasian continent, the region of the collision of the Indian Plate, a distinct similarity can be perceived between

  12. Estonia ballett üle seitsme aasta taas Pärnus / Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia balleti kunstiline juht Toomas Edur Estonia balletitrupist ja 20. veebruaril toimuvast kolmest lühiballetist koosnevast balletiõhtust Pärnu kontserdimajas. Esitatakse Bohuslav Martinu "Enne öö saabumist" (koreograaf Nils Christe), Arnold Schönbergi "Pelléas ja Mélisande" (koreograaf Tiit Härm), Robert Schumanni "Teine sümfoonia" (koreograaf Uwe Scholz)

  13. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  14. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    acquired wide popularity (and probably snob appeal ). Kafka, Ionesco and Dostoyevsky were available to Soviet Estonians earlier than to the Russian reading...Estonia . chided as snob appeal ). Of Estonia’s 757 general schools, 556 (i.e. 71) use Estonian, 90 use Russian and 60 are mixed. 2 The same applies to...novels whicr combine literary quality with national appeal ro 2 ’), collective farm realism at its best (M. Traatl), realisti> lezcription of city life

  15. Radiological accidents/incidents with caesium-137 in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisoo, M.

    1998-01-01

    A report is provided of an accident and an incident involving radioactive sources in Estonia. In the 1994 occurrence, looters of a depository of radioactive waste manipulated a source containing 137 Cs and received dangerous doses of radiation. One of the persons involved died, others suffered minor burns. Another event, which occurred in early 1995, did not have a tragic outcome: an abandoned 137 Cs source was found in the vicinity of the highway linking Tallinn and Narva and was disposed of safely. Both these accidents draw attention to the potential dangers caused by the insufficient survey of the territory, radiation protection structures not yet fully operable, and the lack of equipment and know-how. The lessons to be drawn from these events are considered on the basis of the chronologies and factual data. The report contains concise descriptions of the accidents, a medical overview of the fate of the injured persons and the lessons learned from these accidents. (author)

  16. "Estonia" müsteerium / Jüri Liim

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liim, Jüri

    2001-01-01

    Järgneb 26. okt., 2.,9.,16.,23.,30. nov., 7.,14. dets. ; 2002, 4.,11.,18.,25. jaan., 1.,8.,15.,22. veebr., 1.,8.,15.,22. märts, 5.,12.,26. aprill, 3.,10.,17.,24.,31. mai, 7.,14.,28. juuni, 5.,12.,19.,26. juuli, 2.,9.,16.,23. aug., 6.,13.,20.,27. sept., 4.,11.,25. okt., 1.,8.,15.,22.,29. nov., 13.,20. dets. ; 10.,17.,24., 31. jaan., 2003, 14. veebr., 7.,28. märts, 4.,11.,25. apr., 16.,23. mai, 6.,27. juuni, 11.,18. juuli. Reisilaev "Estonia" mõistatuslikust hukust

  17. On eco-efficiency and sustainable development in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randla, T.; Kurissoo, T.; Vilu, R.

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of sustainable development is a firm understanding that all resources, renewable as well as non-renewable, are limited. Human activities should not exceed the buffering capacity of the earth's ecosystems and the replenishment potential of material cycles. Use of non-renewable, mainly mineral, resources should be kept at the minimum possible level, postponing the depletion of resources as far as possible. Concepts of environmental space and dematerialisation lie at the foundation of the practical launching of sustainable development. Analysis of regional sustainability and ecological efficiency of energy production, the balance of CO 2 , water, etc. were analysed for Estonia and Ida-Virumaa, north-eastern region of the country. The analysis carried out should be considered as a first step in the development and implementation of a national 'green' accounting system and environmental tax system based on the concept of environmental space. (author)

  18. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION IN ESTONIA AND SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mesner Andolšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis is to make a comparison of HRM practices among New Member States (especially Estonia and Slovenia and how these practices help to create the conditions to develop a knowledge organization. In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of knowledge management concept and its relations with HRM was used. For empirical research a simple exploratory analysis statistical technique was used on Cranet (the Cranfield Network on Comparative Human Resource Management data on HRM practices across countries was used. Major findings allow stating that two important prerequisites for knowledge organization are met and they are successfully implemented through HRM practices especially in organizations in one country. The empirical research findings showed the trends in global economy and the ability of organizations in the New Member States to adapt through institutionally developed HRM practices.

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Lophodermium seditiosum Epidemics in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANSO, MÄRT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The needle trace method (NTM, created and developed by the Finnish forest pathologists prof. T. Kurkela, dr. R. Jalkanen and T. Aalto during the last decade of the XX century, has been already used by several researchers of different countries for retrospective analysis of needle diseases (Hypodermella sulcigena, by R. Jalkanen et al. in Finland or herbivorous insect pests of Scots pine (Diprion pini, by T. Kurkela et al. in Finland; Bupalus piniaria, by H. Armour et al. in Scotland, but as well of pests of Sitka spruce (Gilpinia hercyniae, by D.T. Williams et al. in England. Scots pine in forest nurseries and young plantations of Estonia is often but irregularly suffering from the epidemics of the needle cast fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. Current environmental regulations exclude from the regulatory (control measures all the others except of well-argued prophylactic systems, built up on reliable prognoses. The last is inconceivable without the availability of a reliable, as well, and long-lasting retrospective time-series of L. seditiosum epidemics, which, as it is known from the last half of the XX century, are occupying large forest areas, usually not least than a half of (the small Estonia. An appropriate time-series would be useful, as well, for the more basic understanding of the accelerated mortality processes during the stand formation in early pole-age Scots pine plantations. Methodological principles of the use of NTM in an appropriate investigation together with the preliminary results of our research work, looking back for more than a century, are introduced and discussed in this investigation.

  20. Research and application of information system for sandstone-type uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Huang Shutao; Hou Huiqun

    2003-01-01

    The GIS (Geographical Information System) technique is applied to the exploration and evaluation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits and the GIS application system of desktop is created for non-GIS professionals. ArcView3.2 is taken as compositive platform of the information system. The secondary design is developed through the AVENUE language provided by ArcView3.2 on the software functions. According to the needs of multi-source information management and integrated evaluation, a series of new functions are appended to the basic platform through AVENUE language on a basis of sufficiently inheriting ArcView3.2 software functions and a friendly graphic user interface is also created, so that the system implements the following functions better, including information query, data base management, editing graphics, geologic mapping, image processing, spatial analysis, model analysis and result output. In order to manage the plenty of borehole data better and quickly realize the borehole mapping, a system software of borehole data management and mapping on the base of GIS software platform is developed. The system software has been applied to uranium survey project in the west of Hailaer basin. Based on multi-source geoscience information database including geologic, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data, the system software has been used to perform the integrated analysis of spatial data for realizing the deep analysis and studies of the metallogenic geologic environments of sandstone-type uranium deposits. In the Kelulun basin, the weights of evidence analysis have been used to quantitatively predict the prospective areas of sandstone uranium deposits. Information system has also been applied to the integrated evaluation of uranium resource in the south of Yili basin, Songliao basin and other areas. (authors)

  1. Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Lower Saxony Basin. The Gildehaus Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellepiane, S.; Weiel, D. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Barnstorf (Germany); Gerwert, D.; Mutterlose, J. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik

    2013-08-01

    During the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian - Aptian) the Lower Saxony Basin (LSB) formed the southernmost extension of the North Sea Basin. Sedimentation patterns of the LSB were controlled by divergent dextral shear movement causing differential subsidence related to early rifting in the North Sea. Up to 2000m of fine grained mudstones accumulated in the basin centre, while marginal marine, coarser grained siliciclastics were deposited along the western and southern margins of the LSB. The western marginal facies, outcropping along the Dutch-German border, is characterised by shallow marine sandstones of Valanginian - Hauterivian age. These units, which are separated by clay rich intervals, include the Bentheim Sdst., the Dichotomites Sdst., the Grenz Sdst., the Noricum Sdst. and the Gildehaus Sdst. These sandstones form a series of overall backstepping units, controlled by a main transgressive trend. Economically important are the Bentheim Sdst. and the Gildehaus Sdst., with a long oil producing history. The Bentheim Sdst. (early Valanginian) has been interpreted as an overall retrograding unit related to an incised valley infill with material mainly coming from the South. Tidal processes dominated the deposition of the Bentheim Sdst. The origin and genesis of the Gildehaus Sdst. (mid Hauterivian) is, however, less well understood. Here we present data from two wells drilled to the Gildehaus Sdst. (Emlichheim oil field) which provide evidence for a two fold subdivision of the unit. A well sorted massive quartz sandstone is followed by an interval composed of reworked coarse clastics of massflow origin. Micropalaeontological evidence suggests a fully marine, hemi-pelagic origin of the mud dominated matrix throughout the Gildehaus Sdst. These findings indicate a depositional environment quite different from that of the Bentheim Sdst. Short termed pulses of substantial input of clastic material from two different sources in the West to Southwest punctuated the overall

  2. Geological principles of exploration for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    Although the importance of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits has seemingly faded in recent years due to the discovery of large, high -grade deposits elsewhere, a forecasted energy shortage in the near future will probably necessitate a new look at sedimentary basins as a source of uranium. Back-arc basins adjacent to calcalkaline source areas are especially favourable if they are filled with fluvial, post-Devonian sediments. Syn- and post-depositional tectonics play an important role in the sedimentation-mineralisation process and should be investigated. The oxidation-reduction state of the sandstones is a valid prospecting tool. Sedimentological environments govern the permeability and vegetal matter content of sandstones and directly control uranium mineralisation

  3. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... each stone, but electroosmosis in the poultices may have caused suction/pressure over the interface between stone and poultice causing the differences in poultice water content. The transport numbers for Cl− and Na+ differed in the two stones and were highest in the most porous Cotta sandstone in spite...... of similar high pore water concentrations and the same applied electric current. The hypotheses is that a layered structure of the sandstones could be the cause for this, as the electric current may preferentially flow in certain paths through the stone, which are thus desalinated first. After...

  4. On the migration of uranium isotopes in sandstone aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Gellermann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of natural 238 U and 234 U activity in groundwater of sandstone aquifers have been used to study the migration of these uranium isotopes. Regarding the uranium exchange between liquid phase and rock surface during migration, two different models were applied for evaluating the experimental results. Values of corresponding parameters (retardation factor K, removal rate R) reflecting different behaviour concerning this exchange were determined. For example, the values obtained for 238 U in a Triassic sandstone aquifer of the GDR are K = 8.6 x 10 6 and R = 1.3 x 10 -3 a -1 , respectively. It was found that, under the conditions of the sandstone aquifer concerned, the removal rate model is better suited for calculating uranium-isotope migration in groundwater. (author)

  5. Diagenetic effect on permeabilities of geothermal sandstone reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kristensen, Lars

    The Danish subsurface contains abundant sedimentary deposits, which can be utilized for geothermal heating. The Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic continental-marine sandstones of the Gassum Formation has been utilised as a geothermal reservoir for the Thisted Geothermal Plant since 1984 extracting...... and permeability is caused by increased diagenetic changes of the sandstones due to increased burial depth and temperatures. Therefore, the highest water temperatures typically correspond with the lowest porosities and permeabilities. Especially the permeability is crucial for the performance of the geothermal......-line fractures. Continuous thin chlorite coatings results in less porosity- and permeability-reduction with burial than the general reduction with burial, unless carbonate cemented. Therefore, localities of sandstones characterized by these continuous chlorite coatings may represent fine geothermal reservoirs...

  6. Metallogenic geologic conditions and prospecting direction of sandstone type uranium mineralizations in Yili basin of Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daisheng; Wang Ruiying; Li Shengxiang; Zhang Kefang

    1994-09-01

    Yili basin is a Mesozoic down-warped basin superimposed on the late Paleozoic volcanic taphrogenic basin. Uranium mineralizations are hosted in the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing series. The depositions environment in the basin is turbulent in the east and relatively stable in the west. It is characterized by coarse-grained sequence with thin thickness in the eastern part and fine-grained with thick thickness in the western part. On the analytical basis of sedimentary facies indices, it is the first time to present a sedimentary model of 'alluvial fan-braided stream-(narrow) lakeshore delta-lacustrine facies and marsh facies' for the coal-bearing series. The authors have summarized the basic geologic features of U-mineralizations in the interlayer oxidation zone, analyzed the difference and cause of U-mineralizations between the south and north, as well as the east and west. The genetic mechanism of U-mineralizations in the basin is discussed. Finally, seven items of geologic prerequisites for the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits have been suggested and the potential of sandstone type U-mineralizations in the basin has been evaluated. Four promising target areas are selected

  7. Fluvial-deltaic sedimentation and stratigraphy of the ferron sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.B.; Chidsey, T.C.; Ryer, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    East-central Utah has world-class outcrops of dominantly fluvial-deltaic Turonian to Coniacian aged strata deposited in the Cretaceous foreland basin. The Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale records the influences of both tidal and wave energy on fluvial-dominated deltas on the western margin of the Cretaceous western interior seaway. Revisions of the stratigraphy are proposed for the Ferron Sandstone. Facies representing a variety of environments of deposition are well exposed, including delta-front, strandline, marginal marine, and coastal-plain. Some of these facies are described in detail for use in petroleum reservoir characterization and include permeability structure.

  8. Sandstone-type uranium deposits. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1985-01-01

    The similarity of most of the deposits described in this report is striking even though they occur in sandstone host rocks ranging in age from Carboniferous to Tertiary and on every continent outside the polar regions. Geologic environments of the uranium deposits consist of distinctive sets of tectonic and sedimentary-depositional systems, all of which have some common threads of favorable geologic processes. In this summary paper it is hoped that this report has sharpened an understanding of the deposit's ''home environment'' that will aid future exploration for these resource-important sandstone-type uranium ores

  9. Elevated Uranium in Aquifers of the Jacobsville Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, H.; Gierke, J.

    2003-12-01

    The EPA has announced a new standard for uranium in drinking water of 30 parts per billion (ppb). This maximum contaminant level (MCL) takes effect for community water supplies December 2003. The EPA's ruling has heightened awareness among residential well owners that uranium in drinking water may increase the risk of kidney disease and cancer and has created a need for a quantified, scientific understanding of the occurrence and distribution of uranium isotopes in aquifers. The authors are investigating the occurrence of elevated uranium in northern Michigan aquifers of the Middle Proterozoic Jacobsville sandstone, a red to mottled sequence of sandstones, conglomerates, siltstones and shales deposited as basin fill in the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift. Approximately 25% of 300 well water samples tested for isotopic uranium have concentrations above the MCL. Elevated uranium occurrences are distributed throughout the Jacobsville sandstone aquifers stretching across Michigan's Upper Peninsula. However, there is significant variation in well water uranium concentrations (from 0.01 to 190 ppb) and neighboring wells do not necessarily have similar concentrations. The authors are investigating hydrogeologic controls on ground water uranium concentrations in the Jacobsville sandstone, e.g. variations in lithology, mineralogy, groundwater residence time and geochemistry. Approximately 2000' of Jacobsville core from the Amoco St. Amour well was examined in conjunction with the spectral gamma ray log run in the borehole. Spikes in equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from the log are frequently associated with clay and heavy mineral layers in the sandstone core. The lithology and mineralogy of these layers will be determined by analysis of thin sections and x-ray diffraction. A portable spectrometer, model GRS-2000/BL, will be used on the sandstone cliffs along Lake Superior to characterize depositional and lithologic facies of the Jacobsville sandstone in terms of

  10. Hydrogeology of the Potsdam Sandstone in northern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Franzi, David A.; Romanowicz, Edwin A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The Potsdam Sandstone of Cambrian age forms a transboundary aquifer that extends across northern New York and into southern Quebec. The Potsdam Sandstone is a gently dipping sequence of arkose, subarkose, and orthoquartzite that unconformably overlies Precambrian metamorphic bedrock. The Potsdam irregularly grades upward over a thickness of 450 m from a heterogeneous feldspathic and argillaceous rock to a homogeneous, quartz-rich and matrix-poor rock. The hydrogeological framework of the Potsdam Sandstone was investigated through an analysis of records from 1,500 wells and geophysical logs from 40 wells, and through compilation of GIS coverages of bedrock and surficial geology, examination of bedrock cores, and construction of hydrogeological sections. The upper several metres of the sandstone typically is weathered and fractured and, where saturated, readily transmits groundwater. Bedding-related fractures in the sandstone commonly form sub-horizontal flow zones of relatively high transmissivity. The vertical distribution of sub-horizontal flow zones is variable; spacings of less than 10 m are common. Transmissivity of individual flow zones may be more than 100 m2/d but typically is less than 10 m2/d. High angle fractures, including joints and faults, locally provide vertical hydraulic connection between flow zones. Hydraulic head gradients in the aquifer commonly are downward; a laterally extensive series of sub-horizontal flow zones serve as drains for the groundwater flow system. Vertical hydraulic head differences between shallow and deep flow zones range from 1 m to more than 20 m. The maximum head differences are in recharge areas upgradient from the area where the Chateauguay and Chazy Rivers, and their tributaries, have cut into till and bedrock. Till overlies the sandstone in much of the study area; its thickness is generally greatest in the western part, where it may exceed 50 m. A discontinuous belt of bedrock pavements stripped of glacial drift extends

  11. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael C; Griswold, Terry; Pitts, James P; Parker, Frank D

    2016-09-12

    Humanity has long been fascinated by animals with apparently unfavorable lifestyles [1]. Nesting habits are especially important because they can limit where organisms live, thereby driving population, community, and even ecosystem dynamics [2]. The question arises, then, why bees nest in active termite mounds [3] or on the rim of degassing volcanoes, seemingly preferring such hardship [4]. Here, we present a new bee species that excavates sandstone nests, Anthophora (Anthophoroides) pueblo Orr (described in Supplemental Information, published with this article online), despite the challenges already inherent to desert life. Ultimately, the benefits of nesting in sandstone appear to outweigh the associated costs in this system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  13. Discussion on the origin of bleached sandstone of Qianjiadian uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Yaqing; Xiang Weidong; Li Tiangang; Chen Xiaolin; Xia Yuliang

    2007-01-01

    Qianjiadian uranium deposit is a sandstone-type uranium deposit that has been discovered in Songliao Basin in recent years. Uranium ore bodies are planar or lenticular in shape and under the control of the contact between gray sandstones and bleached sandstones. The bleached sandstone is white in color, cemented loosely, nearly without TOC and pyrite contained and rich in uranium. Geochemical characteristics and types and assemblages of clay minerals of the bleached sandstone reveal that the bleached sandstone is the product of oxidation of the interlayer oxidation zone, and it is a part of the interlayer oxidation zone. The main reasons for white color of the bleached sandstone are transfer of iron ion, oxidation of TOC and kaolinization of sandstone. (authors)

  14. Petrographic study of core plugs from lower goru sandstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M.K.; Tunio, A.; Leghari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Petrographic rock type description is a fundamental component in the reservoir description processes and typically included measurement to identify sediment source, texture, composition and mineralogy. Petroleum workers have long used the Petrographic microscope as an in put device to aid in the study of pore systems. Standard Petrographic thin sections are typically 30 micrometers thick and are usually illuminated by transmitted light. Experienced examiners have trained themselves to see information such as pore size, mineralogy, compaction, etc by disregarding artifacts produced by passing light through a section. This method is adequate for qualitative interpretation of data from thin sections. Rocks in thin section under a microscope display great complexity in pore sizes and shapes. Petrographic study provides measurement on rock texture. Texture deals with the size, shape and arrangement of the component minerals of a rock. It is essentially the micro geometry of the rock. Permeability of collected core plugs of lower Goru sandstones was measured. From this Petrographic study we have identified as the sandstone of Lower Goru constitute almost entirely of quartz. The grains range in size from very fine to medium, moderately well sorted to well sorted and rounded to sub rounded in shape. Particularly attention was paid to mineral content present in Lower Goru Sandstone. The mineral composition from these core plugs of Lower Goru Sandstone as identified contain about 70-80% Quartz with traces of feldspar, muscovite, biotite, Epidote and hornblende. Calcite was present as cementing material and it was about 15 -30% of the total rock. (author)

  15. Provenance of sandstone on the western flank of Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrographic and heavy mineral studies were carried out on clastic deposits that crop out in Ikpeshi, Auchi and Fugar localities in order to determine the provenance of the ... The heavy mineral suites and the petrographic signatures of the sandstones suggest derivation mainly from acid igneous rocks, gneisses and older ...

  16. A new bee species that excavates sandstone nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many wonder why animals act in seemingly injurious ways. Understanding the behavior of pollinators such as bees is especially important because of the necessary ecosystem service they provide. The new species Anthophora pueblo, discovered excavating sandstone nests, provides a model system for addre...

  17. Modal analysis and geochemistry of two sandstones of the Bhander ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and tectonic setting interpretations are based on modal analysis and whole rock geochemistry. The average ... that major part of the sediments were derived from the granitic source area. The sandstone ...... The geochemical gap shown by trace and rare ... of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research,. New Delhi, in ...

  18. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  19. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  20. Influence of fluvial sandstone architecture on geothermal energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Weltje, G.J.; Donselaar, M.E.; Bruhn, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sandstone reservoirs composed of stacked meander belts are considered as potential geothermal resources in the Netherlands. Net-to-gross, orientation and stacking pattern of the channel belts is of major importance for the connectivity between the injection and production well in such

  1. Diagenesis, provenance and depositional environments of the Bunter Sandstone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Weibel, Rikke; Friis, Henrik

    The Bunter Sandstone Formation in the northern North German Basin has large geothermal potential with high porosity and permeability (generally >15% and >100 mD, respectively) and with pore fluid temperatures that are adequate for geothermal energy production (c. 55–60˚C). A combined investigation...

  2. A complex investigation of building sandstones from Saxony (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, Jens; Siedel, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a methodology for the investigation and characterization of building sandstones. This analytical scheme was designed for distinguishing mature arenites, which in general show very similar properties and are difficult to distinguish. This is shown for Cretaceous sandstones from various occurrences in Saxony (Germany), which have been used for centuries as building materials. The procedure is mainly based on the combination of macroscopic rock description, thin section polarizing microscopy (phase composition, texture, grain-size distribution) and cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy (quartz types, feldspar and kaolinite content) coupled with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy (accessories, pore cement, diagenetic grain surface features), and analysis of pore space data. Sometimes, additional data from X-ray diffraction or chemical analyses (major and trace elements) can be used. Especially in the case of quartz rich arenites, CL is a powerful tool for provenance analysis. The detailed analysis of sandstone material in most cases allows us to assign historically used building material to a specific sandstone occurrence. These results are important for both interpreting the weathering behaviour of the building material and the conservation, reconstruction and stone replacement of historical monuments

  3. Aeromagnetic gradient survey used in sandstone type uranium deposits prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaolu; Chang Shushuai

    2014-01-01

    The principle, advantage and data processing of aeromagnetic gradient survey approach is introduced in this paper which was used in sandstone type uranium deposits prospecting to study the shallow surface faults, uranium ore-forming environment and depth of magnetic body, which proved to be a good results. (authors)

  4. Container transport direct call – logistic solution to container transport via Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tolli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Container transport in the world grows up to 12 % every year. Chinese container transport contributes majority of container flows in international container transport. Many world seaports compete for Chinese container flows and make eff orts to get investments and direct calls from China to their ports. Estonia has a possibility to decrease its large dependence and risks due to the transit of oil and oil products and coal with the help of container flows from China. In addition to a favorable geographical location Estonia has several other important arguments, like suffi cient land in the harbours for developing a container terminal to launch extensive container transport transit from China. Port of St. Petersburg, container transport port closest to Estonia by the Baltic Sea, is overloaded. Estonia can compete for container flows directed to Moscow, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan and Kaluga. Construction of an international high-tech container terminal in Port of Tallinn serves as one important precondition for directing Russian transit container flows through Estonia. Such a container terminal could service also larger vessels and container flows from China. Container lines and container terminals operating as alliances are jointly able to substantially increase container flows through countries.

  5. Sandstone Relief Geohazards and their Mitigation: Rock Fall Risk Management in the Bohemian Switzerland National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Zuzana; Zvelebil, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2005), s. 53-58 ISSN 1682-5519. [Sandstone Landscapes in Europe. Past, Present and Future. International Conference on Sandstone Landscapes /2./. Vianden, 25.05.2005-28.05.2005] Keywords : sandstones * rock-slope instability * rock fall * risk evalution and mitigation * monitoring net * remedial works Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  6. Moving the Field Forward: A Micro-Meso-Macro Model for Critical Language Planning. The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates "de facto" language policy in Estonia. It investigates how language choices at the micro (or individual) level are negotiated within the macro (or social and historical) context: how official language policy and other features of the discursive environment surrounding language and its use in Estonia translate into…

  7. Radiocarbon dating in the quarternary geology and archaeology of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilves, Eh.; Liiva, A.; Punning, Ya.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work of the Tartusk radiocarbon laboratory for the last 15 years is presented. Methodological problems of the radiocarbon method are discussed. The geochemistry of carbon isotopes, principles of radiocarbon dating, and areas of its application are considered. Methods of recording natural radiocarbon and materials used for radiocarbon dating are discussed. Preliminary treatment of the samples and synthesis of the radioactive carbon carrier are presented. The preparation of the counter compound in the form of a liquid scintillator from the synthesized natural radiocarbon carrier is described. The scintillator efficiencies of different scintillators are compared. Data are given on the development of criteria for selecting the photoelectron multiplier. Construction of alumina cuvettes used for scintillation counting is described. It is noted that, in the counter apparatus system, amplitude analyzers with two differential discriminators are used, which allows directing the recording of activity to two 14 C regions. The results of using the radiocarbon method for different aspects of natural science and archeology are considered. Problems of geology of the late Pleistocene and the Pre-Baltic Holocene are considered: base of the mid-Valdaisk Karukyulask interglacier, history of deterioration of the final glacial mantle, development of a drainage system and late glacier, development and paleography of the Holocene, and others. New material on the chronology of primeval cultures in the Estonia region and on growth of meteoric craters are presented

  8. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 , as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  9. Women in Physics in Estonia: Many Duties, One Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Helle

    2009-04-01

    In Estonia, women and men have equal legal rights. Women are expected to earn their living like men—and unlike men, to be the main (often the only) caregiver for the children. In the family women do most of the unpaid work, spending twice the amount of time on household duties as men. Laws about public preschool child care and child support obligations for noncustodial parents exist, but these laws are not always realized in practice. A generous policy of benefits for children under 1.5 years provides some relief for mothers. It is a challenge to balance a woman's traditional load of unpaid duties with the high demands of a science career. As in many other countries, with every step up the academic ladder the underrepresentation of women in science becomes more evident. Physics and engineering are perceived as male areas and women active in these areas are often treated as exceptions. Most obstacles met by women in science are difficult to recognize and neutralize because they are deeply informal. Activities for "gender and science" that exceed the limits of sociological study have no long tradition here and are yet finding their place in Estonian society.

  10. Partnership dynamics among migrants and their descendants in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Rahnu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive scholarly literature documents the decline in marriage and increase in non-marital cohabitation and divorce across regions and countries of Europe, but we know less about the extent to which these new family behaviours that have emerged in host societies are adopted by migrants. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine partnership transitions among the migrants and their descendants in Estonia, who mainly originate from the European part of Russia. By investigating an East European context, the study contributes to a more comprehensive account of migrant populations in different socio-economic and cultural settings. Methods: The study is based on the Estonian Generations and Gender Survey (2004/2005 and the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey (1994/1997, and employs proportional hazards models. Results: The results show that new family formation patterns, associated with the Second Demographic Transition, are less prevalent among migrants. The difference between migrants and native Estonians is most pronounced in the mode of partnership formation and outcomes of cohabiting unions, whereas the results pertaining to union dissolution reveal a less systematic difference between population groups. Reflecting the relatively slow integration, the second-generation migrants exhibit partnership behaviour that differs from that of the native population. The observed differences between migrants and the native population appear largely similar for both men and women. Conclusions: The results lend support to socialisation, cultural maintenance, and adaptation hypotheses, and underscore the importance of contextual factors. The analysis reveals disruption effects of migration on partnership processes.

  11. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  12. District heating rehabilitation project. Viljandi - Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The main objective of the project has been to assist Viljandi Municipality with the rehabilitation of their district heating system, and thereby to support the positive development of the district heating system in Viljandi to a more energy efficient and rational system and to achieve a significantly decrease in the pollution from the production of heat energy in Viljandi. The project has also included technical assistance to Viljandi DH company, in order to make them capable of operation and maintaining of the new substations, and also training of the local operational staff for operation of the complete district heating system. Viljandi is a county and is centrally located in Estonia, which makes Viljandi very suitable as recipient for a demonstration project. One important objective was the projects significantly positive environmental impact in reduction of the generated emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, as the project includes installation of more efficient energy systems and supply of heat from the 2 existing district heating plants (both are partly fired with wood chips) instead of heating by very old and worn-out coal fired boilers and inexpedient designed substations with the present operational conditions. (EG)

  13. On the lower boundary of the Floian Stage in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helje Pärnaste

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The lower boundary of the Second Stage of the Lower Ordovician Series, the Floian Stage, is defined by the first appearance of the graptolite Tetragraptus approximatus. In the stratotype section of Diabasbrottet at Hunneberg, southern Sweden, the boundary falls within the Megistaspis planilimbata trilobite Zone and within the Oelandodus elongatus–Acodus deltatus deltatus conodont Subzone of the Paroistodus proteus Zone, and within the Hunneberg Regional Stage. Graptolites, including the index species T. approximatus, are missing in the terrigenous sediment of Estonia. The earliest trilobites are poorly preserved in this terrigenous succession. They represent an interval older than the Megalaspides dalecarlicus Zone but probably younger than the M. planilimbata Zone, and are correlative to the Prioniodus elegans conodont Zone. Thus the lower boundary of the Second Stage can be detected using mainly conodonts. In accordance with conodont occurrence, the base of the Floian (i.e. somewhat higher than the base of the O. elongatus–A. d. deltatus Subzone falls within the Joa Member of the Leetse Formation. Probable levels have been suggested in some localities. Thus the lower part of the Leetse Formation belongs to the Tremadoc Stage, and to the Hunneberg Regional Stage.

  14. Hazardous substances in the aquatic environment of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Ott; Roose, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to regulate the management of European surface water bodies. Directive 2008/105/EC, which establishes the environmental quality standards of priority substances and certain other pollutants, the content of which in the surface water should be monitored, has been transposed by the Estonian Ministry of Environment 9 September 2010 Regulation No. 49. Sampled hazardous substances were selected primarily based on their toxicity, as well as their lifetime in environment and ability to accumulate in living organisms (bioaccumulation). The contents of hazardous substances and their groups determined from Estonian surface waters remained below the limits of quantifications of used analysis methods in most cases. However, the content of some heavy metals, mono- and dibasic phenols in the surface water/waste water and sewage sludge/bottom sediments can still reach the delicate levels in the Estonian oil shale region in particular. Among new substances analysed in Estonia historically first time in 2010, amounts of organotin compounds in sediments and some alkylphenols, their ethoxylates and phthalates were found in various sample matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-01-01

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  16. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  17. Fast evolving conduits in clay-bonded sandstone: Characterization, erosion processes and significance for the origin of sandstone landforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Svetlik, D.; Soukup, J.; Schweigstillová, Jana; Válek, Jan; Sedláčková, M.; Mayo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 177, December (2012), s. 178-193 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : sandstone * erosion * piping * tensile strength * conduit * landform Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2012

  18. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  19. Predictors and consequences of job insecurity: Comparison of Slovakia and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ištoňová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a significant current social issue in many European countries. Slovakia and Estonia significantly differ in the prevalence of job insecurity. The main aim of the present study was to compare Slovakia and Estonia in regard to job insecurity by looking at socio-demographic, job and organisational predictors and individual and social consequences based on ESS round five data. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between job insecurity and its predictors as well as job insecurity and its consequences. The analysis covered employed people with unlimited or limited contracts, working 40-50 hours per week, within the age range of 20-60. The results suggested significant differences in the predictors of job insecurity for Slovakia and Estonia. However, the individual, social and economic consequences of job insecurity were similar for both countries. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of job insecurity predictors and consequences in the European region.

  20. Distinguishing of uranium-bearing sandstone by the geochemical characteristics in northern Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wangzhang; Zhang Zhufeng; Wang Yunliang; Sun Shuqin.

    1994-01-01

    Expounding geochemical characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan, the authors demonstrate the favourable and unfavourable conditions for enrichment of uranium on the basis of element abundances and ratios of U, Th and K measured by the gamma-ray spectroscopy surveying. The differences between uranium-bearing and non-uranium sandstones and between red sandstone (clay stone) and greenish sandstone can be determined by the gamma-ray spectroscopy (measuring U, Th and K) and XRF analysis (measuring As and Ba). Therefore, the prospecting of the sandstone-type uranium deposits in northern Sichuan can be concentrated in a certain range

  1. Different Labelling of Obstructive Airway Diseases in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallasaho, Paula; Meren, Mari; Raukas-Kivioja, Aet; Roenmark, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Large differences in prevalence of asthma have been reported between westernised countries and the former Eastern European countries, and still no consensus about the reasons for the differences exists. The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic labelling of obstructive airway diseases, comparing subjects with respiratory symptoms and the diagnoses obtained in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to population-based random samples, and 44,483 (76%) answers were obtained from the 58,661 invited in 1996. Among men, current smoking was most common in Estonia, 60%, followed by Finland, 39%, and Sweden, 28%. In all three countries, 30% of women were current smokers. Most respiratory symptoms including wheezing were most common in Estonia, also among non-smokers. The prevalence of asthma was 2.0% and chronic bronchitis 10.7% in Estonia, while the opposite was found in Sweden with an asthma prevalence of 7.8% and a chronic bronchitis prevalence of 3.1%. The pattern in Finland was similar to that of Sweden. The same differences between the three countries were found also among young subjects. The total proportion of diagnosed obstructive lung diseases in subjects with respiratory symptoms was similar, but the diagnosis of asthma was considerably more common in Finland and Sweden. Chronic bronchitis was favoured in Estonia, also among young adults irrespectively of what symptoms were present. In a multivariate model with correction for confounders, the risk (OR) for having a diagnosis of asthma was 5.65 (95% CI: 4.86-6.56) when living in Sweden, and 3.51 (95% CI: 3.00-4.12) in Finland, whereas risk for chronic bronchitis was 0.28 (0.25-0.31) and 0.22 (0.19-0.25), respectively, compared to Estonia. The study indicates differences in diagnostic practices of obstructive lung diseases between the three countries

  2. Traces of the heritage arising from the Macelj sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golež, Mateja

    2014-05-01

    The landscape of Southeast Slovenia and its stone heritage principally reveal itself through various Miocene sandstones. The most frequently found type on the borderline between Slovenia and Croatia, i.e. east of Rogatec, is the micaceous-quartz Macelj sandstone. This rock ranges in colour from greenish grey to bluish grey and yellowish, depending on the content of glauconite, which colours it green. In its composition, the rock is a heterogeneous mixture of grains of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, microcline, anorthite and glauconite. The average size of grains is 300μm. In cross-section, they are oblong, semi-rounded or round. The mechanical-physical and durability properties of the Macelj sandstone, which have been characterised pursuant to the applicable standards for natural stone, reveal that the rock exhibits poor resistance to active substances from the atmosphere, particularly in the presence of salt. In the surroundings of Rogatec, there are around 45 abandoned quarries of the Macelj sandstone, which are the result of the exploitation of this mineral resource from the 17th century on. The local quarrymen earned their bread until 1957, when the Kambrus quarry industry closed down. From the original use of this mineral resource as construction and decorative material, the useful value of the Macelj sandstone expanded during the development of the metals industry to the manufacture of large and small grindstones for the needs of the domestic and international market. Therefore, traces of quarrying can not only be seen in the disused quarries, but also in the rich architectural heritage of Rogatec and its surroundings, the stone furniture - from portals, window frames, wells, various troughs, pavements to stone walls - and other. The living quarrying heritage slowly passed into oblivion after World War II, although the analysis of the social image of the people residing in Rogatec and its surroundings revealed that there was an average of one stonemason in

  3. Integrated geomechanical, petrographical and petrophysical study of the sandstones of the Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed

    2018-07-01

    The Cambro-Permian siliciclastic succession in southwestern Saudi Arabia is represented by the Wajid Group, which consists mainly of fluvial, shallow marine, aeolian, and glacial sandstones. The Wajid Group comprises the Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Qalibah, Khusayyayn, and Juwayl Formations. It is exposed in the Wadi Al-Dawasir area and extends to Najran City. The sandstones of the Wajid Group serve as groundwater aquifers in the Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas and host hydrocarbon (mainly gas) reservoirs in the Rub' Al-Khali Basin. This study aims to characterize the geomechanical properties (rock strength and Young's modulus) of the sandstones of the Wajid Group using field and experimental techniques. A further objective is to investigate the relationships between the geomechanical properties and the petrographical and petrophysical properties of the studied sandstones. The geomechanical properties of the studied sandstones vary from glacial to non-glacial sandstones, as the glacial sandstones display high values of the geomechanical properties with high variability indices. Four geological factors including grain size, cement content, porosity and permeability were observed as the main controls on the geomechanical behaviour of the studied sandstones except for the Khusayyayn sandstone, where the mineral composition was also important. Significant correlations were observed between the petrographical and petrophysical properties and the geomechanical properties of the glacial sandstones. Predictive models of the geomechanical properties (RN, UCS, and E) were generated using regression analysis to account for the glacial sandstones.

  4. Sedimentary uranium occurrences in Eastern Europe with special reference to sandstone formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.; Hahn, L.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentary uranium deposits, especially in sandstones, play an important role in uranium mining in Eastern Europe. The paper reviews recent publications on uranium occurrences in sandstone formations in the German Democratic Republic, Poland, CSSR, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania. The uranium deposits in sandstones in Yugoslavia are described in a separate paper in this volume. Sandstone deposits of the USSR are not reviewed. Uranium mineralizations occur in sandstones from Ordovician to Tertiary age. Major deposits are developed in Upper Carboniferous sandstones in association with coal (GDR, Poland), in Permian strata (CSSR, Hungary, Romania), in Cretaceous sandstones (GDR, CSSR), and in Tertiary sediments (CSSR). The Permian deposits can be compared with deposits of similar age in Northern Italy and Northern Yugoslavia. Roll-type orebodies are developed in some of the Cenomanian sandstones. Tertiary deposits are mainly associated with lignites. Uranium deposits in sandstones of Albania and Bulgaria are not described in the literature. Geologic similarities with sandstone basins in adjacent countries suggest the presence of uranium mineralizations in Permian, Lower Triassic, and Tertiary sandstones. (author)

  5. Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone consists of up to 450 ft (140 m) of nearshore marine wave-dominated delta and barrier island-tidal channel sandstones which overlie offshore deposits of the Pierre Shale and which are overlain by delta-plain and fluvial deposits of the Laramie Formation. Uranium, which probably originated from volcanic ash in the White River Formation, was transported by groundwater through the fluvial-channel deposits of the White River into the sandstones of the Laramie and Fox Hills formations where it was precipitated. Two favorable depositional settings for uranium mineralization in the Fox Hills Sandstone are: (1) the landward side of barrier-island deposits where barrier sandstones thin and interfinger with back-barrier organic mudstones, and (2) the intersection of barrier-island and tidal channel sandstones. In both settings, sandstones were probably reduced during early burial by diagenesis of contained and adjacent organic matter. The change in permeability trends between the depositional strike-oriented barrier sandstones and the dip-oriented tidal-channel sandstones provided sites for dispersed groundwater flow and, as demonstrated in similar settings in other depositional systems, sites for uranium mineralization

  6. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  7. Estonia in the system of global climate change. Publication 4/1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia is among the countries who signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) at the UN Conference in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The FCCC calls on its parties to inventory national sources, to reduction in greenhouse gases and to development of projects responding to climate change. In 1994, an Estonian Country Study Project was initiated within the U.S. Country Studies Program. The Estonian Country Study Project is comprehensive, covering all sectors and directions of activity in Estonia that might impact climate change or be influenced by Global Climate Change. This book contains a collection of papers, covering the aims of the Estonian Country Study Project

  8. Distribution characteristics of Shihongtan uranium deposits calcareous sandstone and discussion on their genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huanqiao; Jia Heng; Xu Gaozhong; Li Zhanyou

    2007-12-01

    It is considered that the calcareous sandstone appear at layer along of a bunch of pear lens on and off, localled near up and down surface of sandbody or washed surface, has sandstone of more macro-grain and more gradation through statistics and analysis of calcareous sandstone in goal layer in Shihongtan uranium deposits. The calcareous sandstone accumulation thickness chorogram demonstrated that the calcareous sandstone centralized distribution in the ore body growth area, thus it can be seen, in the oxidation reduction intermediate belt the calcareous sandstone forms with the uranium mine has the certain origin relation. Choropleth map of summed thickness of calcareous sandstone deserves that it mainly appear in area of uranium body and related cause of formation of ore body of interlayer deacidizing--oxidation belt. (authors)

  9. Formation conditions and prospecting criteria for sandstone uranium deposit of interlayer oxidation type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1994-01-01

    This paper comprehensively analyses the geotectonic setting and favourable conditions, such as structure of the basin, sedimentary facies and paleogeography, geomorphology and climate, hydrodynamics and hydrogeochemistry, the development of interlayered oxidation etc, necessary for the formation of sandstone uranium deposit of interlayered oxidation type. The following prospecting criteria is proposed, namely: abundant uranium source, arid climate, stable big basin, flat-lying sandstone bed, big alluvial fan, little change in sedimentary facies, intercalation of sandstone and mudstone beds, shallow burying of sandstone bed, well-aquiferous sandstone bed, high permeability of sandstone bed, development of interlayered oxidation, and high content of reductant in sandstone. In addition, the 6 in 1 hydrogenic genetic model is proposed

  10. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers` heat demand in the `do nothing`scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town`s heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken. (ARW)

  11. Status and management of noble crayfish Astacus astacus in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Noble crayfish Astacus astacus (L. is an indigenous and the only crayfish species in Estonia. It is potentially endangered by invasion of alien species, diseases and habitat deterioration but does not have legal protected status and is fished only for recreational purpose. Crayfish Working Group of Ministry of Environment and Department of Aquaculture of the Estonian University of Life Sciences have developed crayfish conservation and management plan. Since 1994 standardized test fishing with traps (which catch only crayfish over 7 cm TL has been carried out and database of these fishings shows, that crayfish is dwelling in more than 255 sites in the lakes, rivers, streams, artificial reservoirs. In 52% of monitored sites populations are weak, catch per trap night is below 1 specimen. Exceptionally rich is the stock on the island Saaremaa, where in 59% of populations catch per trap night is over 4 and can reach 50. Licensed recreational catch is allowed in regions, where monitoring data show good status of crayfish stock. It is not allowed to sell the crayfish caught on recreational license. Crayfishing season is limited with August, size limit in recreational fishery is 11 cm TL. There are 10 operating crayfish farms and 15 are under construction. The farms produce yearly around 1000 kg of commercial size crayfish for export to Finland. Over 200000 juveniles are produced for restocking yearly. Restocking projects e.g. restoration of populations, which have been lost because of plague have been successful. The main threat factor is crayfish plague. In 2006–2007 it destroyed the stock of crayfish farms of companies Veteko, Pähkla, Astacus and wild population of Põduste river on the island Saaremaa.

  12. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The main deficiencies of the district heating system in Sillamae (Estonia) were identified as being inefficiency of the heat and power production plant, which has a very low capacity, lack of means for consumers to control their energy consumption due to the existing constant flow system, pollution from heat and power production based on oil shale, water and heat losses from the network and unclear agreements between the Silmet factory and Sillamae municipality. The available capital for funding is limited. It was investigated where in the system investments would have the greatest effect. A scenario where heat is supplied from individual gas-fired boilers was calculated. A financially viable scenario would be to change from cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) based on oil shale to either individual natural gas supply or peat-fueled heat production. The Sillamae municipality and the Estonian government should agree on a solution for Sillamae. There will be a cash flow problem if the project is implemented. This can be partly solved by introducing a longer loan period. it is expected that there will be no substantial changes in the consumers' heat demand in the 'do nothing'scenario, and in other scenarios ca. 520 Tj/p.a. from the Solmet factory, 530 Tj/p.a. from the town and 260 Tj/p.a. as heat losses, totaling 1310 Tj/p.a.. In another scenario - the introduction of natural gas - the town's heat demand will be 530 Tj/p.a. and there will be no heat losses. More detailed studies of environmental impacts should be undertaken

  13. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites...... to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation...... not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx...

  14. Remediation and decommissioning of radioactive waste facilities in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear training facility at Paldiski was constructed in the early 1960's by the former USSR Navy. The hull sections of Delta and Echo class submarines each housing a full-sized ship reactor were installed in the main building of the site for training of navy personnel in safe operation of the submarine nuclear reactor systems. The first reactor was commissioned in 1968 and the second in 1982, while both was shut down in 1989. After Estonia's reproclamation of independence in 1991 the responsibility for the clean up and decommissioning of the Paldiski site became a subject of negotiations between Russia and Estonia. As the result Estonia took the ownership and control of the site in September 1995. Before the take over the Russian authorities defuelled the reactors and transported the spent fuel to Russia, dismantled the hull sections not related with reactor systems, seal-welded the hull sections housing the reactor vessels with their primary circuitry and enclosed those in reinforced concrete sarcophagi. The auxiliary facilities and radioactive waste were left intact. Main goals of the Conceptual Decommissioning Plan for the Paldiski facilities, developed under the auspices of the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (Pier, a group established at the request of the Estonian government to advise local authorities to maintain the decommissioning and waste management at Paldiski) were defined as following: Establishing the waste management system and a long term monitored interim storage, corresponding to internationally accepted safety standards and capable to condition, receive and store all the waste generated during decommissioning of the facility; Reductions of the extent of radiologically controlled areas as much as possible, in order to minimise maintenance requirements. To achieve these goals the following main tasks were addressed in the short and medium term site management action plans: Rearrangement of site for the needs of

  15. Strength curves for shales and sandstones under hydrostatic confining pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Sikka, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental data for the effect of confining pressures on the fracture stress have been analysed for shales and sandstones. The normalized compressive strengths are found to lie in a narrow region so that Ohnaka's equation for crystalline rocks, can be fitted to the data. The fitted parameters are physically reasonable and indicate that the functional dependence of strength on porosity, strain rate and temperature is independent of the confining pressures. (author)

  16. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  17. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  18. Lattice strain measurements on sandstones under load using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischbutter, A.; Neov, D.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Vrána, M.; Walther, K.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron diffraction methods (both time-of-flight- and angle-dispersive diffraction) are applied to intracrystalline strain measurements on geological samples undergoing uniaxial increasing compressional load. The experiments were carried out on Cretaceous sandstones from the Elbezone (East Germany), consisting of >95% quartz which are bedded but without crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz. From the stress-strain relation the Young's modulus for our quartz sample was determined to be (72.2±2.9) GPa using results of the neutron time-of-flight method. The influence of different kinds of bedding in sandstones (laminated and convolute bedding) could be determined. We observed differences of factor 2 (convolute bedding) and 3 (laminated bedding) for the elastic stiffness, determined with angle dispersive neutron diffraction (crystallographic strain) and with strain gauges (mechanical strain). The data indicate which geological conditions may influence the stress-strain behaviour of geological materials. The influence of bedding on the stress-strain behaviour of a laminated bedded sandstone was indicated by direct residual stress measurements using neutron time-of-flight diffraction. The measurements were carried out six days after unloading the sample. Residual strain was measured for three positions from the centre to the periphery and within two radial directions of the cylinder. We observed that residual strain changes from extension to compression in a different manner for two perpendicular directions of the bedding plane.

  19. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  20. Experimental deformation in sandstone, carbonates and quartz aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Cecilia See Nga [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The first part of my thesis is mainly focused on the effect of grain size distribution on compaction localization in porous sandstone. To identify the microstructural parameters that influence compaction band formation, I conducted a systematic study of mechanical deformation, failure mode and microstructural evolution in Bleurswiller and Boise sandstones, of similar porosity (~25%) and mineralogy but different sorting. Discrete compaction bands were observed to develop over a wide range of pressure in the Bleurswiller sandstone that has a relatively uniform grain size distribution. In contrast, compaction localization was not observed in the poorly sorted Boise sandstone. My results demonstrate that grain size distribution exerts important influence on compaction band development, in agreement with recently published data from Valley of Fire and Buckskin Gulch, as well as numerical studies. The second part aimed to improve current knowledge on inelastic behavior, failure mode and brittle-ductile transition in another sedimentary rock, porous carbonates. A micritic Tavel (porosity of ~13%) and an allochemical Indiana (~18%) limestones were deformed under compaction in wet and dry conditions. At lower confining pressures, shear localization occurred in brittle faulting regime. Through transitional regime, the deformation switched to cataclastic flow regime at higher confining pressure. Specifically in the cataclastic regime, the (dry and wet) Tavel and dry Indiana failed by distributed cataclastic flow, while in contrast, wet Indiana failed as compaction localization. My results demonstrate that different failure modes and mechanical behaviors under different deformation regimes and water saturation are fundamental prior to any geophysical application in porous carbonates. The third part aimed to focus on investigating compaction on quartz aggregate starting at low (MPa) using X-ray diffraction. We report the diffraction peak evolution of quartz with increasing

  1. Properties and durability assessment of glauconitic sandstone: A case study on Zamel sandstone from Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Vavro, M.; Ščučka, Jiří; Mašláň, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, 3/4 (2010), s. 175-181 ISSN 0013-7952 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP101/07/P512; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/07/1662 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : building stone * sandstone * physical properties Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science

  2. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  3. Estonia teater - helikindel ja sinine = Estonian National Opera - soundproof and blue / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Rahvusooperi Estonia maja teatritiiva interjööri renoveerimine. Sisekujundus: Juta Lember (kavandas ka uued valgustid), Aulo Padar (SAB Lember & Padar). Arhitekt Indrek Suigusaar (AB Pluss OÜ). Restaureerimistööd: KAR-Grupp. Projekt ja valmis 2005. Ill.: 8 värv. sisevaadet

  4. Increasing ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Vågerö, Denny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the change in ethnic differences in mortality in Estonia 1989-2000. DESIGN: Two unlinked cross sectional census based analyses were compared. Total and cause specific mortality was analysed for ethnic Estonians and Russians. The absolute differences in mortality

  5. Between Consumerism and Protectionism: Attitudes towards Children, Consumption and the Media in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Margit; Kalmus, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This study measures attitudes towards children's vulnerability or empowerment within consumer culture, based on data from a representative population survey (N = 1475) conducted in Estonia in 2005. The study use indices comprised of assessments of consumption practices and assertions pertaining to the "endangered vs empowered child"…

  6. Film Estonia katastroofist jääb tegelikkusest kaugele / Kristjan Jaak Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Kristjan Jaak

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastroofifilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe, kes koos advokaat Kaj Holmbergiga lõi selleks puhuks stuudio Top Story. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  7. Estonia huku filmi eesmärk : alustada tuleb uut uurimist / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Saksamaa toimuvad poliitilise põnevusfilmi "Baltic Storm" võtted. Film mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, režissöör Reuben Leder, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Filmivõtetest räägib assistent Helje Kaskel

  8. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  9. When Public Acts Like Private: The Failure of Estonia's School Choice Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…

  10. When Language becomes Power: Russian-Speaking Teachers in the Bilingual General Education System in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    After the re-establishment of independent Estonian statehood in 1991, Russian lost its privileges as the dominant and official language in Estonia, and Estonian continued as the only official language. This paper attempts to map the position of a Russian-speaking teacher within the sociological categories of power and language, based on the…

  11. Welcome to Estonia märk on kaotanud oma sära / Kadi Heinsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsalu, Kadi, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus loodab parandada Welcome to Estonia märgi mainet. Märki kasutavad ettevõtjad ei näe märgist olulist kasu toodete müügil. Kommenteerivad Evelin Int-Lambot, Leena Murd ja Olaf Merisalu

  12. Climatic trends in Estonia during the period of instrumental observations and climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaagus, J.

    1996-01-01

    Weather conditions in Estonia are quite variable. Long-term periodical fluctuations have been observed in meteorological values. At the same time, the climate change during the last 100-150 years is marked. As a general tendency, the climate has become more maritime. Air pressure is characterized by an increasing trend in spring and summer, and by a decreasing trend in autumn and winter. Mean air temperature has increased, particularly over the colder half of the year. Precipitation area totals have risen, most of all in autumn and winter. Snow cover duration has decreased significantly. General circulation model-based climate change scenarios expect a general increase in air temperature in Estonia with warming in winter more significant than that in summer. Moreover, they indicate an increase in precipitation, but the results of the individual models are quite variable. The transient scenario shows that the main increase in precipitation will not occur during next decades, but only at the end of the transient period, around 2070. It can be stated that observed tendencies of climate change in Estonia concur with expected changes caused by global warming. According to the long-term fluctuations of meteorological values in Estonia, changes different from general trends can take place during the next decade. An increase in mean air pressure, sunshine duration and snow cover duration, as well as a decrease in mean air temperature and precipitation is expected in the following years

  13. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  14. Restrictions to Pharmacy Ownership and Vertical Integration in Estonia-Perception of Different Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Marit; Volmer, Daisy

    2016-04-19

    From 2020, the ownership of community pharmacies in Estonia will be limited to the pharmacy profession, and the vertical integration of wholesale companies and community pharmacies will not be allowed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of different stakeholders in primary healthcare toward the new regulations of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. A qualitative electronic survey was distributed to the main stakeholders in primary healthcare and higher education institutions providing pharmacy education ( n = 40) in May 2015. For data analysis, the systematic text condensation method was used. The study participants described two opposing positions regarding the development of community pharmacies in the future. Reform supporters emphasized increased professional independence and more healthcare-oriented operation of community pharmacies. Reform opponents argued against these ideas as community pharmacists do not have sufficient practical experience and finances to ensure sustainable development of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia. Based on the current perception of all respondents, the future operation of the community pharmacy sector in Estonia is unclear and there is urgent need for implementation criteria for the new regulations.

  15. The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidi Kallaste

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The recertification of the professional accounting qualification in Estonia: the requirements and quality of CPD As the purpose of a professional qualification should be to ensure quality to employers/customers, appro-priate requirements for professional training should not be too low. On the other hand, too high require-ments for the amount of training would lead to the situation where maintaining the level is expensive and if the labour market does not consider having a professional certificate necessary, recertification will be discarded. The purpose of the research was to identify the factors that influence an accountant’s decision whether to recertify his/her professional qualification or not. The conditions of recertification were ana-lysed and compared to other countries as were the requirements set up for auditors. The results of the survey revealed that in Estonia the decision not to recertify one’s professional qualification was mainly due to not having fulfilled the required number of qualification hours or not having certificates proving one’s participation in qualification training sessions. At the same time, compared to other countries, the requirements in Estonia are very low. So that the increase in the amount of training would not hinder recertification, alternative solutions for Estonia are proposed in the article.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  17. Estonia vormelitel täitus juba pool sajandit / Tõnu Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Tõnu, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    November tehnika ajaloos: 50 aastat möödus Estonia-1 esimesest võistlusstardist Leningradis Nevski ringrajal. 85 aastat tagasi sai Jacob Schick patendi elektrilisele habemeajamismasinale. 60 aastat tagasi konstrueeris Auguste Piccard batüskaafi. 10 aastat tagasi sai 77aastasest USA senaatorist John Glennist maailma vanim astronaut

  18. Education Policy as Normative Discourse and Negotiated Meanings: Engaging the Holocaust in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevick, E. Doyle

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a socio-cultural approach to analyze the formation and implementation of Estonia's Holocaust Day Policy, a day of both commemoration for victims of the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity, and education about the Holocaust. It investigates both the multi-level development of the policy in light of external pressure (from…

  19. Learning and Developing as a University Teacher: Narratives of Early Career Academics in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmik, Marvi; Karm, Mari; Lepp, Liina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the higher education context in Estonia, as in most European countries, has changed a lot. All changes have an impact on university teachers' practice and their work organisation, and are presenting new challenges. The current research aims at developing an understanding of Estonian early career academics' professional identity by…

  20. Digoxin: use pattern in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähkla, R; Irs, A; Oselin, K; Rootslane, L

    1999-10-01

    In comparison with neighbouring Scandinavian countries, the use of digoxin in Estonia is high. The present study was carried out to determine the use pattern of digoxin in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader preparation in comparison with Lanoxin. Drug use data were evaluated from the annual reports of wholesale companies. For the bioequivalence study, a single-blind cross-over randomised two-way single-dose comparative bioavailability study was performed using 14 healthy volunteers. Digoxin concentrations in serum samples and urine were measured by chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay. The use of digoxin in Estonia has increased by 35% during the period 1994-97. The steady market leader was the local generic drug. No statistically significant differences were found in any pharmacokinetic parameter between the generic preparation and Lanoxin. All parameters showed considerable variability. The total amount of drug excreted was the parameter with lowest inter- individual variation. The present study indicates that the generic digoxin preparation studied is bioequivalent to Lanoxin. The increasing use of digoxin in Estonia is not caused by low bioavailability of the local market leader but by therapeutic traditions.

  1. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  2. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  3. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian

  4. Impact of the increase in broadband access on South African national security and the average citizen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack, flooding Web sites or Internet Service Providers. DDOS attacks are often launched from numerous computers that have been hacked to obey commands of the perpetrator. Network Sabotage: Modification... sector. Cyber attacks with political connotation were seen in Estonia, Georgia and South Korea in the last few years. South Korea, a country with advanced IT developments experienced a distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack in July 2009...

  5. Technical-economic parameters of the new oil shale mining-chemical complex in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmiv, I.; Fraiman, J.

    2006-01-01

    The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize the experience of the activities of these branches and to make into a whole the results of their research developments in the past years, as well as to form a notion about perspectives of oil shale in Estonia. Variants of the mining-chemical oil shale complex production and trade patterns differed from used ones. Mining methods, thermal processing of oil shale, and solid, liquid, and gas waste recovery have been studied, analyzed, and worked out up to the present. Setting up a flexible trade structure within the framework of that complex is considered the main economic mechanism capable of balancing production costs of such a complex with its earnings, which could respond properly to any, even peak, fluctuations of the market for final products processed from oil shale. Data of the working 'Estonia' oil shale mine were used as the basis of the analysis and practical conclusions. Information on the mine being projected in the region of Ojamaa in the northeast of Estonia was taken as the data of the worthwhile supplier. Oil shale processing chemical complex is considered in two structural alternatives: in technological chain with the 'Estonia' mine (the first variant), and the projected mine of a new technical level (the second variant). (author)

  6. A feasibility study of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash utilisation in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Hakan; Frey, Ruedi; Voronova, Viktoria; Koroljova, Arina

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the alternative environmental management options for the utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (FA), which is generated at Iru Power Plant where MSW is incinerated in Estonia. To determine sustainable and economically feasible environmental management options for MSW incineration FA in Estonia, CO 2 sequestration with a further carbonation process was examined. A partial Cost & Benefit Analysis has been conducted to compare the carbonation process to the current situation. Two carbonation options were developed. Option 1 is to use carbonated FA in any other processes based on the waste-to-product principle. Option 2 is to send carbonated FA to the non-hazardous landfill in Tallinn, Estonia. Important parameters, such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) and Break Even Point (BEP), have been calculated for carbonation options and the current case. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to examine its robustness. The results showed that the best option is carbonation Option 1 with NPV of 9,209,662 EUR, IRR of 43%, BCR of 2.63 and BEP between 2018 and 2019. Both Options 1 and 2 constitute more sustainable and environmentally friendly management options compared to the current situation. It can be concluded that this preliminary feasibility study showed that running a carbonation plant may be profitable and sustainable for Estonia. Currently, there is no treatment technology for MSW incineration FA in Estonia and FA is sent to a neighbouring country for further utilisation. This is the first study to demonstrate FA management options with economic and environmental benefits.

  7. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  8. Discussion on distribution characteristics of calcareous sandstone in Shihongtan uranium deposit and its genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huanqiao; Qiao Haiming; Jia Heng; Xu Gaozhong

    2007-01-01

    Based on the observation and statistics on the calcareous sandstone in the ore host layer in Shihongtan uranium deposit, this paper finds that the calcareous sandstone occurs on and off near the top or wash surface of the sandbody as beads-strings lens along the layer and concentrates in the area where the ore bodies are rich. In lithology, the calcareous sandstone is of coarse grain and fairly well sorted. According to the analysis on the lithogeochemical features and the carbon and oxygen isotopes of calcareous sandstones, it is realized that there some genetic relation between the formation of calcareous sandstone and uranium mineralization in the oxidation-deoxidation transitional belt, that is the precipitation and enrichment of uranium is accompanied by the deposition of carbonate and formation of calcareous sandstone. (authors)

  9. Cense Explosion Test Program. Report 1. Cense 1. Explosions in Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    series, "Analysis and Summary of CENSE Data." 10 * _ CHAPTER 2 APPROACH 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF TEST SITE An exposed outcrop of Kayenta sandstone with 180...ft/s seismic velocity previously determined (References 12-14) for the unweathered upper zone of the Kayenta sandstone. 16 I The P-wave propagation...Propagation along the horizontal radial was 8400 ft/s. The seismic velocity pre- viously determined for Kayenta sandstone in this area was 7500 ft/s

  10. Armastus kui vale(m) : Mari Vihmandi ooperi "Armastuse valem" lavastusest Estonias / Ester Võsu ja Kristel Pappel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Võsu, Ester, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Argentiina kirjaniku Esther Vilari romaani "Nina Glucksteini matemaatika" ainetel valminud Mari Vihmandi ooperist "Armastuse valem", libreto Maimu Berg, lavastaja Liis Kolle, tantsu- ja liikumisseaded Ana Mondini. Esietendus 17. oktoobril 2008 Rahvusooperis Estonia

  11. [Anu Mai Kõll. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Kõll, Anu Mai. The village and the class war : anti-kulak campaign in Estonia (Historical studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, 2). Central European University Press. Budapest and New York 2013

  12. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  13. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  14. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor

    2014-01-01

    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...... benthic biodiversity in this clastic-dominated shallow-water palaeoenvironment situated along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The faunas from the Stairway Sandstone are generally of low diversity and dominated by bivalves but include several animal groups, with trilobites representing 25......% of the entire shelly fauna. Thirteen trilobite taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; the fauna displays a high degree of endemism. One new species, Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described....

  15. Water Vapor Diffusion and Adsorption of Sandstones: Influence of Rock Texture and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keppert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term sandstone is used for wide range of rocks containing quartz clasts which can be cemented by secondary precipitated quartz or calcite; moreover the space between clasts can be filled by matrix. These facts result in existence of numerous rocks having highly various properties. Sandstones have been used as construction materials due to their good accessibility and workability. Since most of sandstones are porous, water vapor can penetrate through sandstone constructions. The rate of water vapor diffusion, as well as the vapor sorption isotherm, was determined for range of sandstone types. The diffusion resistance factor was found to be dependent on the total porosity of sandstone but the sorption behavior was strongly influenced by nature of the particular sandstone; the specific surface area of stone and presence of clay matrix are determining its sorption isotherm. The published data enable estimating (i diffusion resistance factor of a sandstone via knowledge of its total porosity and (ii the sorption isotherm via knowledge of the stone’s nature and specific surface area. This approach can significantly reduce the time necessary to acquire vapor-related properties of a sandstone.

  16. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  17. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  18. Thermal study of sandstones from different Czech localities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plevová, Eva; Vaculíková, Lenka; Kožušníková, Alena; Daněk, T.; Ritz, M.; Simha Martynková, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2011), s. 835-843 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1398; GA ČR GP105/07/P416 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP105/09/397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : thermomechanical and differential thermal analysis * optical microscopy * sandstones Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/71n5427j2707g331/

  19. Provenance of Late Ordovician Sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for the Tectonic Model of the Taconic Orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J. C.; Herrmann, A. D.; Haynes, J.

    2017-12-01

    A provenance study of sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains has been conducted in order to test the current volcanic arc-continent collision and foreland basin formation model of the Taconic Orogeny. Samples along the southeastern Appalachians were taken from sandstone sequences deposited between 460-450 Ma. Results from these sandstones show three dominate age ranges: 465-685 Ma, 980-1300 Ma, and 1300-1500 Ma. The 980-1300 Ma and 1300-1500 Ma ages are seen throughout the study area and are compatible with previously reported ages of the Grenville Orogeny and the Rhyolite-Granite Province. The northernmost samples have a small quantity of 465-685 Ma zircons which is attributed to an accretionary wedge that formed as a result of the continent-island arc collision and acted as a physical barrier keeping sediment from depositing within the basin. The younger age signal becomes stronger to the south, as samples in Georgia and Alabama show strong concentrations of 465-685 zircons. These ages are attributed to exotic terranes (Dalhonega Terrane and Carolina Terrane) that were accreted onto Laurentia during the Taconic Orogeny and/or a possible change in subduction direction leading to a back-arc basin model for the southern Appalachian Taconic Orogeny. The results from this provenance analysis support previous studies indicating that the model for the Taconic Orogeny is a combined A-type subduction for the north and a B-type subduction model for the southern part of the orogeny.

  20. Ühe (suure kultuurinarratiivi saatus: Noor-Eesti. The Fate of a (Great Cultural Narrative: Young-Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Veidemann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This focus of this article is the fate of the cultural narrative that has most influenced Estonian culture of the 20th century – Young Estonia. The point of departure for the analysis is Tiit Hennoste’s 2005 essay ”Young Estonia – An Unfinished Project for Self-Colonization”, which I interpret as the interruption of Young Estonia’s ”great narrative”. Hennoste’s demythologizing approach should be regarded in the context of postmodernism (or of postcolonial treatments of literature and art. I argue that the fact that Young Estonia’s models for cultural movements were located in Europe did not automatically lead to the assimilation of 20th century Estonia (literary culture. Neither did they engage in an automatic copying of European culture; their activities might better be regarded as a process of intertexual enrichment. In what follows, the fate of the narrative of Young Estonia will be traced both in terms of the literary field of Soviet Estonia in the 1950s and 1960s, and in exile. I claim that renewed awareness of the narrative of Young Estonia can be traced to the publication of a collection of Gustav Suits’ Poems in 1959, edited and with an afterword by Endel Sõgel. If one lowers the volume on the vulgar Soviet ideologization in Sõgel’s text, key words that characterize the Young Estonia canon remain in place undisturbed: innovativeness, intellectual greatness, turning point, the social nature of art and literature, consonance of the aesthetic and the ethical. Sõgel’s framing of Young Estonia stands in contrast to its apologetic treatment in the postwar Estonian diaspora. On the one hand, this line of interpretation follows the basic outlines of a critical narrative that developed in the 1920s; on the other, since most of Young Estonia’s authors and followers among the Estonian literary elite had gone into exile in 1944, diaspora interpretations represent a definite literary-political position. In the 1960s a

  1. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  2. Modelling of a diffusion-sorption experiment on sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1989-11-01

    The results of a diffusion-sorption experiment on a sample of Darley Dale sandstone, using simulated groundwater spiked with a mixture of 125 I, 85 Sr and 137 Cs, are modelled by a one-dimensional porous medium approach in which sorption is described by Freundlich isotherms. The governing equations are solved analytically for the special case of a linear isotherm, and numerically using the computer code RANCHDIFF for non-linear isotherms. A set of time-dependent, ordinary differential equations is obtained using the Lagrange interpolation technique and integrated by Gear's variable order predictor-corrector method. It is shown that the sorption behaviour of 85 Sr can be modelled successfully by a linear isotherm, using a sorption parameter consistent with batch-sorption tests. The behaviour of 137 Cs may be modelled by a non-linear isotherm, but the amount of 137 Cs sorbed is less than that anticipated from batch-sorption tests. 125 I is assumed to be non-sorbing and is used to determine the porosity of the sandstone. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  3. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  4. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E.; Kump, P.

    2010-01-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  5. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E. [Hydroconsult SRL, Asuncion (Paraguay); Kump, P. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  6. Clay minerals in sandstone uranium deposits: radwaste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Clay minerals play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones. They incorporate the rate earths (REE), U, Sb, Th, Cs, Rb, Sr, Y, Ba, and even small amounts of chalcophiles. These minerals possess analog elements for many of the radwaste fission products as well as actinides and some actinide daughters. In sandstone uranium deposits, clay minerals are also associated with sulfide minerals, usually pyrite, and organic carbonaceous matter. The primary clay minerals are usually smectites, illites, chlorites and mixed layer varieties. The integrity of these clay minerals is demonstrated by their retention of formational-mineralization ages determined by Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation of the Grants Mineral Belt of the United States. The importance of the clay minerals as analog for parts of the multi-barrier concept in radwaste disposal is their ability to impede water penetration into - and movement of key elements out of uranium rich zones. The clay minerals further sorb and in other ways incorporate into their structures many fission products and actinide analogs from man-made nuclear wastes. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Measuring the zeta potential. The relationships with sandstone fineness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of the zeta potential technique in the area of construction materials and Portland cement is quite recent. The initial research work involved the study of cement suspensions or suspensions of one of the components of cement, such as alite, tricalcium alumínate, in the presence of additives and, more specifically, superplasticizers. The studies of this sort were extended with the mixing of active additions into cement (fly ashes, etc.. The present study discusses the application of siliceous materials (sandstone as a basis of the research into the behaviour of sandstone mortars containing repair products.

    La aplicación de la técnica del potencial zeta en el campo de los materiales de construcción y del cemento portland es muy reciente. Las primeras investigaciones se refieren al estudio de suspensiones de cemento o de alguno de sus compuestos que lo forman como alita, aluminato tricálcico, en presencia de aditivos y, más concretamente, de superfluidificantes. Con la incorporación de adiciones activas al cemento (cenizas volantes,... se amplían los estudios de este tipo de cementos. En este trabajo se considera la aplicación a los materiales silíceos (arenisca como base para la investigación del comportamiento de los morteros de arenisca conteniendo productos de reparación.

  8. Pore network properties of sandstones in a fault damage zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossennec, Claire; Géraud, Yves; Moretti, Isabelle; Mattioni, Luca; Stemmelen, Didier

    2018-05-01

    The understanding of fluid flow in faulted sandstones is based on a wide range of techniques. These depend on the multi-method determination of petrological and structural features, porous network properties and both spatial and temporal variations and interactions of these features. The question of the multi-parameter analysis on fluid flow controlling properties is addressed for an outcrop damage zone in the hanging wall of a normal fault zone on the western border of the Upper Rhine Graben, affecting the Buntsandstein Group (Early Triassic). Diagenetic processes may alter the original pore type and geometry in fractured and faulted sandstones. Therefore, these may control the ultimate porosity and permeability of the damage zone. The classical model of evolution of hydraulic properties with distance from the major fault core is nuanced here. The hydraulic behavior of the rock media is better described by a pluri-scale model including: 1) The grain scale, where the hydraulic properties are controlled by sedimentary features, the distance from the fracture, and the impact of diagenetic processes. These result in the ultimate porous network characteristics observed. 2) A larger scale, where the structural position and characteristics (density, connectivity) of the fracture corridors are strongly correlated with both geo-mechanical and hydraulic properties within the damage zone.

  9. Holocene vegetation and climate change on the Haanja heights, South-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarse, Leili; Rajamaee, Raivo

    1997-01-01

    The development of forests on the Haanja Heights has been controlled by external factors, including climate, soils, hydrology, and human impact. The sediment sequence from Lake Kirikumaee, which covers about 12 000 years, records the vegetation history throughout the Late Glacial and Holocene. In the Alleroed, woodland tundra with sparse birch and willow was established. Grass-shrub tundra in the Younger Dryas was replaced by birch forest in the Pre-Boreal. During the Holocene two major shifts in vegetation dynamics occurred: the first about 8500 BP with a sharp decline in Betula-Pinus forest and development of broad-leaved forest, and the second about 3500 BP, with a decline in broad-leaved forest and regeneration of Pinus-Betula forest with a high share of Picea. The climate modelling, based on pollen record and lake-level changes, suggest cold, severe climate with low precipitation values in the early Pre-Boreal. Between 9500-8500 BP the climate was rather stable. The lake level first rose, then stabilized, and finally dropped. The sharp climate amelioration in the late Boreal together with the humidity increase resulted in a lake-level rise. The decreased precipitation and rather high summer temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and reduced water balance are characteristic of the Sub-Boreal. Since 3500 BP, the climate deteriorated and mixed coniferous forest started to dominate. Several small climatic fluctuations, including the Little Ice Age cooling, have been traced by modelling. (author)

  10. President Ilves spoke about e-Estonia at the University of South Florida in Tampa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese esinemisest Lõuna-Florida Tampa ülikoolis. Riigipea rääkis Eesti edust ja e-riigi arengust. Pärast loengut vastas Eesti president kuulajate küsimustele küberturvalisuse, ID-kaardi kasutusvõimaluste, Eesti osalemise kohta NATO sõjalistel operatsioonidel, Eesti valimissüsteemi ja Eesti rolli kohta Euroopa Liidus. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  11. Preliminary discussion on uranium metallogenic models of China's in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Xu Gaozhong; Chen Anping; Wang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    By comprehensively analyzing metallogenic environments and main ore-controlling factors of important uranium metallogenic regions of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits at the southern margin of Yili basin, at the south-western margin of Turpan-Hami basin and in the northeastern Ordos basin, the authors of this paper discuss the metallogenic models of China's in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits, and suggest that the interlayer oxidation zone type uranium deposits in Yili and Turpan-Hami basins are basically controlled by favourable structures, sedimentary formations and interlayer oxidation zone, and are characterized by multistage uranium concentration, namely the uranium pre-concentration of ore-hosting sedimentary formation, the uranium ore-formation in the stage of supergenic epigenetic reworking, and the further superimposition enrichment of post-ore tectonic activity. However, the interlayer oxidation zone type uranium deposit in the northeastern Ordos was formed after the formation of the secondary reduction. So, paleo-interlayer oxidation zone type uranium mineralization has the mineralization size much greater than the former two. (authors)

  12. Sandstone-body and shale-body dimensions in a braided fluvial system: Salt wash sandstone member (Morrison formation), Garfield County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.W.; McCabea, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Excellent three-dimensional exposures of the Upper Jurassic Salt Wash Sandstone Member of the Morrison Formation in the Henry Mountains area of southern Utah allow measurement of the thickness and width of fluvial sandstone and shale bodies from extensive photomosaics. The Salt Wash Sandstone Member is composed of fluvial channel fill, abandoned channel fill, and overbank/flood-plain strata that were deposited on a broad alluvial plain of low-sinuosity, sandy, braided streams flowing northeast. A hierarchy of sandstone and shale bodies in the Salt Wash Sandstone Member includes, in ascending order, trough cross-bedding, fining-upward units/mudstone intraclast conglomerates, singlestory sandstone bodies/basal conglomerate, abandoned channel fill, multistory sandstone bodies, and overbank/flood-plain heterolithic strata. Trough cross-beds have an average width:thickness ratio (W:T) of 8.5:1 in the lower interval of the Salt Wash Sandstone Member and 10.4:1 in the upper interval. Fining-upward units are 0.5-3.0 m thick and 3-11 m wide. Single-story sandstone bodies in the upper interval are wider and thicker than their counterparts in the lower interval, based on average W:T, linear regression analysis, and cumulative relative frequency graphs. Multistory sandstone bodies are composed of two to eight stories, range up to 30 m thick and over 1500 m wide (W:T > 50:1), and are also larger in the upper interval. Heterolithic units between sandstone bodies include abandoned channel fill (W:T = 33:1) and overbank/flood-plain deposits (W:T = 70:1). Understanding W:T ratios from the component parts of an ancient, sandy, braided stream deposit can be applied in several ways to similar strata in other basins; for example, to (1) determine the width of a unit when only the thickness is known, (2) create correlation guidelines and maximum correlation lengths, (3) aid in interpreting the controls on fluvial architecture, and (4) place additional constraints on input variables to

  13. Joint implementation demo project between Denmark and Estonia - Phase 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This project is meant to contribute to form the basis of co-operation between Denmark and Estonia as regards Joint Implementation (JI) and thus gather experience in preparation for practical use of JI. A number of questions can be raised for discussion within this project: What is the scope for JI? What is the role of the host country government? Will JI survive the emerging Emission Trading? The project report gives a status of the present situation within the area of JI both internationally and in Estonia, including a resume of the Estonian National Climate Programme. Furthermore, a stakeholder analysis is presented, along with an illustration of the effect of Joint Implementation in the various energy sectors. (BA)

  14. The Path to and Lessons from the Economic Crisis in Estonia: Employee Compensation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Reiljan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe Estonia’s economic development strategy in the Baltic Sea region primarily from the perspective of labour costs as a factor in international competitiveness. Estonia’s position in the international division of economic activities will be explored based on expert assessments in the context of a study of theoretical literature about labour compensation as a factor in international competitiveness. The differences between the impact of the economic boom and crisis periods on the level and dynamics of employee compensation (labour related expenditures, and gross and net salary in Estonia at the national level will be empirically analysed. An empirical analysis will also be performed to describe the changes in the structure of economic activities (NACE-classification in Estonia

  15. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  16. Labour market adjustments in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available his article provides an assessment of labour market adjustments occurring in Estonia during the 2008/2011 crisis. The strategy of internal devaluation succeeded in shrinking the real (hourly unit labour costs by 25 % per year in 2010 and 2011, thus helping Estonian enterprises gain international competitiveness. The whole gamut of tools available in terms of flexibility was used, at least in the worst time of the financial crisis: massive lay-offs, reduced working time and wage cuts. In 2011, Estonia stood as one of the most dynamic EU countries to recover with exports growth. On the social side, however, the track record is not positive: the purchasing power of workers has been reduced and unemployment still remains strong and persistent despite economic recovery.

  17. Research Policies Rewarding Quantity: Estonia and Ukraine. Kvantiteeti tasustav teaduspoliitika: Eesti ja Ukraina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ukrainski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is resting on the theoretical model of Braun (2003 describing the delegation modes for public funding of research in the principal-agent framework. It aims to show by using the conceptualisation of utility functions of principal and agents on the various levels, how different motivations for producing different kinds of research outputs emerge for researchers and universities or public research organisations in Estonia and Ukraine. The article attempts to offer one explanation to why in some quantitative research output indicators both countries perform very well compared to much lower levels of innovation system indicators otherwise. Estonia is rewarding publications and Ukraine is rewarding utility model applications throughout different levels of the system.

  18. E-Participation in the Legislative Process Lessons from Estonia for Enhancing Democratic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Glencross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the success of an innovative national e-participation project in Estonia. To carry out this task, the paper combines quantitative (aggregate user data, content analysis via tagging and qualitative (individual user survey and interviews with public officials data analysis. The analysis is conducted with two principal research objectives in mind. Firstly, to explain how e-participation has fared in Estonia, both in terms of citizen mobilization and government responses. The second goal is to evaluate a series of procedural and technological changes for enhancing e-participation. The Estonian case provides ample lessons for ensuring that e-participation in practice can better meet the expectations of users and government officials alike.

  19. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Estonia, 1946-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremaee, Ello; Tankler, Hain; Putnik, Henno; Maalmann, Iige

    2003-12-01

    The report presents a historical survey on two of the nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards in Estonia - Sillamaee Uranium Extraction Factory and the Paldiski Submarine Training Centre. These facilities were a Soviet legacy and shall be decommissioned and it is only through a close international co-operation and technical assistance that it would be possible to solve all the problems arising at these facilities. The historical survey represents the best available information the authors were able to give on the nuclear facilities, which have functioned on the territory of Estonia. The historical survey was a joint co-operation initiative by the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The historical survey will be presented to the IAEA as a volunteer supplement to the State Declaration according to the Additional Protocol (author)

  20. Spatial Planning in Estonia – From A Socialist to Inclusive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart HIOB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning in Eastern Europe has gone through major changes during the years after the Soviet occupation ended around 1990. New planning standards were eagerly accepted but the practice was often carried out in a socialist manner. This article gives an overview of planning law and practice in Estonia during the transition period. The example presented is a district in Tartu, the second largest city of 100,000 inhabitants. The article analyses different master planning documents covering the whole district and compares both their process of compilation and their content to former Soviet era plans. The conclusion is that the transition from socialist to inclusive planning in Estonia has taken at least two decades, and the process is still not fi nished. This shows that the legal framework alone is not suffi cient to transform planning practice – a new ideology has to be accepted by the specialist as well as the politicians and the general public.

  1. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  2. Commented list of rare and protected vascular plants of inland water bodies of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Mäemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This presented overview of rare and protected hydrophytes, emergent plants and hygrophytes of inland water bodies of Estonia includes 60 species. In the commented list are indicated their position in the state protection categories I–III (last version in 2014, and under the Red List of Estonia (last version in 2008; marked are Natura 2000 species of the European Union. Most typical habitats for these rare species are: I. soft-water oligotrophic and semidystrophic lakes; II. mesotrophic lakes with Najas (Caulinia flexilis and Potamogeton rutilus; III. alkaline fens and wet meadows; IV. brackish or freshwater coastal lagoons; V. undamaged river stretches; VI. open shallow littoral of the largest lakes of Peipsi (Pskovsko-Chudskoe and of Võrtsjärv. Main threats of these habitats are briefly concerned, as well as the problem of conservation value of hybrids, based on the example of Sparganium species.

  3. Business environments versus corporate survival in Estonia and Poland in 2001–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Gołębiowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate longevity is - in essence - determined by a company's intrinsic competitive advantage (sometimes dubbed a "moat" as well as exogenous factors: from business doing ease - to broader, macroeconomic and strategic factors. In this study, we have endeavoured to compare the business environments and corporate sectors of two recent entrants into the European Union: Estonia and Poland. Overall, Estonia, thanks to greater resolve in post-communist liberal transition, has consistently ensured a superior corporate governance framework. Surprisingly, it is the macroeconomic and strategic steadiness that led to higher corporate survival in Poland. The global economic crisis of 2007-2009 is expected to further back this claim, as the patterns of macroeconomic growth for both countries are set to widen.

  4. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2014-01-01

    -water palaeoenvironment along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone are of low diversity and represent ca 9% of the entire shelly fauna. Five brachiopod taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; all are endemic to the Amadeus Basin at species level. Two new species...

  5. Brief analysis on relationship between red beds and sandstone-type uranium ore-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zengxian

    2006-01-01

    Red beds are sandy gravel beds deposited under the arid and hot climates and correspondent to the oxidation environment of continental basins. As an exogenetic epigenetic uranium deposit, the formation of the sandstone-type uranium deposit needs a large chronologic gap between the diagenesis and the subsequent uranium metallogenesis of the ore-hosting target layer with a sedimentary discontinuity and an alternative humid-arid climate. Red beds are the product of this time. The evolutionary times of red beds are in accordance with the formation of the sandstone-type uranium deposit. Both domestic and abroad researches indicate that each times evolution of a red bed might be associated with uranium ore-formation in one or more sandstone layers in the region. In China, red beds are developed in many geologic periods, but sandstone-type uranium mineralization occurs mostly in Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Taking five known sandstone-type uranium deposits as examples, the author makes a primary analysis on the relationship between red beds and the subsequent sandstone-type uranium mineralization. It is suggested that the deposition of red beds and sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis are of 'cogenesis and coexistence' and that the deposition of red beds and its evolutionary times can be regarded as the prerequisites to judge the potential of sandstone-type uranium mineralization in a Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin. (authors)

  6. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China)

    1999-07-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed.

  7. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed

  8. Different effects of temperature and salinity on permeability reduction by fines migration in Berea sandstone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Kjøller, Claus; Riis, Jacob Fabricius

    2015-01-01

    Hot water injection into geothermal aquifers is considered in order to store energy seasonally. Berea sandstone is often used as a reference formation to study mechanisms that affect permeability in reservoir sandstones. Both heating of the pore fluid and reduction of the pore fluid salinity can...

  9. The Bentheim Sandstone: Geology, petrophysics, varieties and it's use as dimension stone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Nijland, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The shallow-marine Bentheim Sandstone was deposited in one of the NW-SE trending basins north of the London-Brabant and Rhenish massifs during the Valanginian (Early Cretaceous). The Bentheim Sandstone forms an important reservoir rock for petroleum, but has also proven itself as a very durable

  10. Environmental priority action programme for Leningrad, Leningrad Region, Karelia and Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Finnish Government has drawn up a plan of action concerning co-operation in the near future with Eastern European countries. Go-operation in the field of environmental protection occupies a central position in the plan. In connection with the plan, an Environmental Review and Priority Action Programme for Leningrad, Leningrad region, Karelia and Estonia has been made to determine the main environmental problems and the main measures to reduce them

  11. Uudised : "Eesti väärtorelid" 3. Verdi festival Estonias. Leedu ooper 80 / Tiina Mattisen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattisen, Tiina

    2001-01-01

    6. jaan. esitleti Jaani kirikus sarja "Eesti väärtorelid" kolmandat CDd, mis jäädvustab A. Terkmanni 1913.a valminud oreli kõla. G. Verdi 100. surma-aastapäevale pühendatud Verdi festivalist Rahvusooperis Estonia 19.-27. jaan. Leedu Rahvuslik Ooperi- ja Balletiteater tähistas leedu ooperikunsti 80. sünnipäeva 30. dets. galakontserdiga, Estoniat esindas M. Palm

  12. Decline in alcohol consumption in Estonia: combined effects of strengthened alcohol policy and economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Jarno

    2011-01-01

    To describe alcohol policy changes in parallel to consumption changes in 2005-2010 in Estonia, where alcohol consumption is among the highest in Europe. Review of pertinent legislation and literature. Alcohol consumption decreased since 2008, while alcohol excise tax, sales time restrictions and ad bans have increased since 2005. An economic downturn started in 2008. The precise roles of policy changes and the economic downturn in the decline of alcohol consumption, and whether the decrease will be sustained, are still unclear.

  13. Cruziana traces from the Late Silurian (Pridoli carbonate shelf of Saaremaa, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Pridoli Cruziana traces have recently been found in carbonate shelf sediments of the Ohesaare Formation on Saaremaa Island, Estonia. Cruziana isp. is interpreted here as a locomotory trace (repichnia of an arthropod, possibly a trilobite. Cruziana traces previously known from the Silurian of Baltica differ from Cruziana isp., indicating that the diversity of Cruziana traces in the late Silurian of Baltica was higher than previously thought.

  14. Estonia hukk jõuab Eesti kinodesse sügisel / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Saksamaal peatselt esilinastuv poliitiline põnevusfilm "Balti torm" ("Baltic Storm"), mis kujutab parvlaev "Estonia" hukku venelaste vandenõu tulemusena, jõuab Eestis siinse levitaja Mati Seppingu sõnul linale novembri alul. Produtsendid on Jutta Rabe ja Kaj Holmberg, peaosades Greta Scacchi ja Jürgen Prochnow. Kaasa teeb ka Donald Sutherland USA kindrali rollis. Eesti näitlejaist on kapten Arvo Kallase rollis Rein Oja

  15. Geochemistry of vanadium in an epigenetic, sandstone-hosted vanadium- uranium deposit, Henry Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Northrop, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The epigenetic Tony M vanadium-uranium orebody in south-central Utah is hosted in fluvial sandstones of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). Measurements of the relative amounts of V+3 and V +4 in ore minerals show that V+3 is more abundant. Thermodynamic calculations show that vanadium was more likely transported to the site of mineralization as V+4. The ore formed as V+4 was reduced by hydrogen sulfide, followed by hydrolysis and precipitation of V+3 in oxide minerals or chlorite. Uranium was transported as uranyl ion (U+6), or some complex thereof, and reduced by hydrogen sulfide, forming coffinite. Detrital organic matter in the rocks served as the carbon source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Vanadium most likely was derived from the dissolution of iron-titanium oxides. Uranium probably was derived from the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies have shown that the ore formed at the density-stratified interface between a basinal brine and dilute meteoric water. The mineralization processes described above occurred within the mixing zone between these two fluids. -from Authors

  16. Laps(epõlv 19. sajandi teise poole Eestis omaelulooliste tekstide näitel. Child(hood in 19th Century Estonia: a Study of Autobiographical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ave Mattheus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss autobiographical texts which focus on children and childhood in late 19th century Estonia. Childhood memories as well as other autobiographical material became popular in Estonia in the 1920s-1930s, when most of the studied works--the memoirs by Anna Haava, Mait Metsanurk, Jaan Lattik, Jaan Vahtra, Friedebert Tuglas, August Kitzberg and Marta Sillaots--were written. Some texts come from the 19th century (e.g. Lilli Suburg’s autobiographical works or early 20th century (e.g. manuscripts by Hans Leoke, and Johannes Kõrv. Childhood as described in these autobiographical texts covers a period of circa 1850-1900, and the majority of the authors come from the families of South-Estonian peasants or manorial servants. In addition to being written in Estonian and having the same theme, they were all also written by authors of fiction for children or by people who had close contact with children, such as schoolteachers. The article offers a novel approach in the Estonian context by presenting a typology of childhood stories and looking at childhood recollections as an important part of childhood studies. The researchers of childhood investigate how society understands and values children and childhood, what children’s everyday life is like, what possibilities there are for development and if there exists a specific children’s culture in society (such as clothing, food, language, leisure activities, or independent creative work. Childhood studies as a separate discipline does not exist in Estonia, although some important works have been published by educational scholars and art historians. The autobiographical texts under discussion show that in the late 19th century, the majority of Estonian children lived in the countryside in patriarchal families, and childhood was short because children had to help their parents with farmwork quite early, at the age of six. The boundary of childhood was around the age of 10-11, when

  17. The sandstone's chromatic alteration of the florentine cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettori, S.; Pecchioni, E.; Cantisani, E.; Ricci, M.; Fratini, F.; Garzonio, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Pietra Serena is one of the materials more used in Florentine architecture. It is a sandstone that outcrops in the hills north of the city in the municipality of Fiesole and it has been employed mainly for ornamental purposes. This litotype belongs to the the Macigno Formation (Oligocene Upper- Miocene Lower) which consists of beds of turbiditic sandstones separated by pelitic levels which are the finest components of each single turbidity layer. Petrographically, Pietra Serena can be defined as a medium-coarse-grained greywacke made of quartz, feldspars, micas, fragments of metamorphic and magmatic rocks. The clayey matrix is quite abundant, mainly composed by illite, kaolinite and chlorite-vermiculite (present only in some quarries). It is well known that the processes of decay of the sandstones are related to the type of matrix, the amount of cement, the kind of clay minerals and to the pore size distribution, which lead to water infiltrations, swelling of the clay minerals, separation of the clayey matrix, with resulting exfoliation and peeling of the stone artefacts. Pietra Serena has a bluish-grey colour in fresh cut, but many times it is easily oxidized acquiring an ochraceous-reddish brown colour on buildings. Such changes in colour, appear to be due in part to the oxidation of iron, proceeding very quickly from the surface to the inside, though the cohesion is not affected. It is possible to hypothesize that the chromatic changes not necessarily involve a progressive state of alteration of the artefact, but they may often to represents a natural patina acquired with the time. Nevertheless it is necessary to remember that the oxidized layer and its hardness could also be the result of treatments performed in the past. In Florence, several monuments and buildings are affected by such phenomenon, in particular it is possible to note an intense and diffuse reddish colouring on the Pietra Serena utilized for columns and for façade's decorations. In this work

  18. Elementary analysis on the main factors affecting the permeability of sandstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Binli

    2006-01-01

    Researches show that in the early stage of sandstone diagenesis, compaction, pressure solution, cementation and replacement reduce both the porosity and the permeability. The cementation of authigenic kaolinite may preserve the tiny intergranular pore-space, and slightly influence the porosity, and even increase the permeability. During the middle to late stage of diagenesis, the organic matter becomes matured, hydrocarbon and acidic water are produced, which forms secondary porosity by the dissolution and the corrosion, and greatly increases the permeability of sandstones and provides a favorable prerequisite for the formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits. The interlayered oxidation alteration, oil-gas reduction and low-temperature hydrothermal alteration also produce secondary porosity in epigenetic reforming stage, which finally decides the permeability after the formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits. This is an important condition for in-situ leaching of sandstone-type uranium deposit. (authors)

  19. Age, sedimentary environments, and other aspects of sandstone and related host rocks for uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Project II of the Uranium Geology Working Group was assigned to the study of sedimentary basins and sandstone - type uranium deposits. About 40% of the worlds's uranium resources are contained in sandstone-type deposits, which has led to extensive research. The research was carried out mainly by correspondence, and the results reported by 21 geologists from 10 nations are summarized in this report. It investigated five topics dealing with important aspects of the geology of uranium ores in sandstone host formations: age of host rock; partitioning of uranium between continental and marine sediments; latitude limitation on formation of sandstone deposits; effect of rock formation dip on sandstone ores; usefulness of stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies. The results of studies on these subjects form part of a wider programme of the Working Group, whose final results will be presented at the 27th International Geological Congress in Moscow in 1984

  20. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  1. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  2. The Phenomenon of Trust in Flat Owners’ Collective Renovation Strategies in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Ojamäe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilising fl at owners into renovating residential blocks in post-socialist countries has been a complicated process. Evidence from Estonia shows that the success of collective renewal strategies depends not only on economic issues but also on ways investments are organised and, signifi cantly, the relationship of trust between diff erent actors. The paper aims at conceptualising the issue of institutional trust upon the experience of urban housing renewal in Estonia. It is contended that trust is crucial for the joint decision-making in a block as well as for facilitating negotiations between fl at owners’ associations, local municipalities and market actors. The paper draws on three qualitative studies conducted in Estonia during the 2000s, which allow asserting that trust towards new strategies of housing renewal can be achieved and maintained by ‘best practices’, which by concentrating expert knowledge also denote direct communication between experts and fl at owners. While it is important to raise the residents’ technical knowledgeability, it is indispensable to develop abilities to manage and communicate the renovation process between diff erent parties. The public sector is conceived to be a central actor in sustaining trust between actors who have no previous positive experience from collective residential strategies

  3. 25 Years of Change in Management Control Systems and Business Education in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Pärl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, the Estonian economy has transitioned from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented, globally open, highly competitive economy. Although during these years there has been fast growth and Estonians could tell a lot of success stories, research shows that management practices are still less advanced compared to those in enterprises from developed countries. Increased competition, openness and innovation increased the significance of more sophisticated management control systems (MCS. Researchers accentuate the role of managers and their education and training in using and developing more sophisticated MCS in companies. The objective of the current paper is to better understand how changes in the business environment, managerial training and education are connected to developments in MCS in Estonia. This article provides an overview of the statistics and studies completed in Estonia over the last 25 years. As this study shows, the last decade has brought a different level of internationalization and development in the business environment and business education. The problems associated with developments in MCS , using cloud technology, business education and managerial training are the same in Estonia as in developed countries. To develop the business and economic environment in the country, Estonian entrepreneurs need high-level data processing, analytical and financial education, and practical training courses.

  4. New airborne geophysical data from the Waterberg coalfield. South Africa's major future energy source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation (110m thick in the south) • Recent cover is from the weathering of gneiss of the Limpopo Mobile Belt and the Karoo rock in the north; but from Waterberg sandstones in the south • Intrusive rocks – the most important of these rocks are those... 2) shows the northern contact of the Ellisras Basin clearly. It also shows the large block faulting and radioactive material eroding from the source (Waterberg Sandstones) in the south into the sediment load of the north-flowing Mokolo River...

  5. Benefits of a horizontal well in sandstone waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is a case study which describes the planning and results of a horizontal well in a shallow Wilcox sandstone waterflood unit in central Louisiana. The Tremont H-13-1 was OXY USA Inc.'s first horizontal well. Analysis will include examination of the selection criteria, planning, execution, completion, and production. A variety of well and field data is presented and reviewed to access the value of this information as it applies towards other applications. The Cruse Waterflood Unit is a 2100 ft. Wilcox formation in central Louisiana. Production improvements have been 500% or greater for the horizontal well versus adjacent vertical wells. The horizontal well paid out in less than 4 months Results from this well indicate that not only was this project an economic success, but that other fields will similar conditions can be produced in a more profitable manner with horizontal wells

  6. The influence of climate on early and burial diagenesis of Triassic and Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian – Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Rikke; Olivarius, Mette; Kjøller, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Climate changes preserved in sandstones are documented by comparing the sediment composition and early diagenetic changes in sandstones deposited during arid to semi-arid conditions, the Skagerrak Formation, with sandstones of the Gassum Formation deposited in a humid well-vegetated environment...

  7. Geochemical dispersion associated with uranium deposits in sandstone roll front type and its relationship to the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, J.

    2014-01-01

    In Venezuela, there is a potential for the formation of uranium deposits in areas such as the Guiana Shield, the south of the Eastern Basin, the Andes and the massif of Baúl, among other areas. Especially great interest is the exploration of uranium redox interface type (roll front), in areas such as the southern part of the Orinoco Oil Belt, north and northwest of the Guiana Shield, where groundwater uranium collecting the weathering shield flowing northward in the sandstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous to Quaternary formations, which constitute the southern boundary of the Eastern basin Venezuela. The presence of gas, extra-heavy crude oil, bitumen and lignite of the Orinoco Oil Belt can be an effective barrier for uranium in solution, which may have precipitated at the redox interface of this groundwater. This process certainly was more effective before the Orinoco river take its course to the east and the waters of small rivers and large draining shield contributed to uranium aquifers became more deep north. This work was based on a qualitative model describing geochemical dispersion associated with uranium deposits in sandstone, roll front type, which indicates that the daughter isotopes "2"3"8U, which can migrate extensively are: "2"2"2Rn, "4He, and in a smaller proportion: "2"2"6Ra and "2"2"2Rn daughters ("2"1"4Bi, "2"1"0Pb). The main exploration methods were established, which can be applied in areas of the Orinoco Oil Belt, north of the Guiana Shield, and areas west of this, among the most important are: soil measurements of radon and helium near faults, sampling soils with gamma spectrometry analysis, log interpretation of oil wells in the area of interest to establish gamma – lithological anomalies, ground water analysis of uranium, radon, radium, helium, vanadium, selenium, molybdenum, analysis of samples oil drilling cores to locate anomalous stratigraphic levels. This research will provide the basis to establish methodologies for uraniferous

  8. Saksa kirjandus Noor-Eesti ajal. Young Estonia and German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by a desire to free themselves from the German influence that had dominated the development of Estonian literature, and from the one-sided relation of cultural dependence that had lasted several hundred years, the Young Estonia movement sought to modernize Estonian literature through borrowing from other European literatures, in particular from French, Scandinavian, and Finnish. This article seeks to clarify the relative importance and selection criteria of translations from German literature for the literary field of the Young Estonia era. Further, I seek to elucidate Young Estonia’s contribution to the renewal of these selection criteria in the first, but more importantly the second decade of the 20th century. The long list of translations from German to Estonian at the beginning of the century speaks of the ”light Muse” of German family newspapers, with an admixture of the following: naturalist light fiction with a social theme and social drama; the historical novel (great favourite of the era of historicism, trendy fiction for both feminine and masculine audiences, and an overwhelming proportion of ”Heimatskunst” (literature of local colour. In the first and second decade of the new century, new names appear on the Estonian literary scene that signal a change in taste. For example, naturalist authors (Kretzer, Hauptmann, Halbe, Dehmel crop up sporadically amidst texts meant for leisure reading. Although the first translations of Nietzsche only appeared in 1901, already in 1902 critics had reason to speak of ”Nietzsche in Estonian literature”. 1910 marked the breakthrough of Viennese modernism in the Estonian literary field (Schnitzler, Altenberg, Bahr. Under the influential protection of the Young Estonians (Suits, Kallas, and published by the Young Estonia Publishing House, Baltic German novellawriter Eduard Keyserling enters the Estonian literary scene. Though ”mass consumption” literature from Germany continued

  9. The state-church relations in Estonia during the years 1944 - 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepochatova Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article features an analysis of the nature and dynamic of church-state relations in Estonia during the first years following its integration into the USSR. In 1944 the religious situation in the republic was characterized by a number of distinctive attributes. The local population, which had lived prior to the accession of the Baltics to the USSR in 1944 in an atmosphere of relative religious freedom, presented the Soviet authorities with a new phenomenon that would have to be reckoned with. The Plenipotentiaries for Estonia appointed by the Council on ROC Affairs at the USSR Council of Ministers were able to convince their superiors of the need to tread carefully in light of the local specifics. The article deals with an analysis of the distinctive features of the Estonian Orthodox Church. As a secondary denomination in the region, it felt the powerful influence of Lutheran customs and rites. The ethnic heterogeneity of the fold and pronounced language barrier determined the choice of candidacy for the ruling eparchy. The Estonian diocese was rather well endowed with cathedrals, meaning that the main problem of church life in the USSR since the easing of persecution in 1944-1947 - the opening of new parishes - was not an issue in Estonia. On the whole, the church-state relations that dominated the republic in 1944-1947 were quite stable, just as they were around the country; moreover, they were typified by a cautious policy on the part of the Soviet authorities. In 1948-1949 the situation began to deteriorate across the country and Estonia was no exception. The difference was in the methods used: in Estonia, the decision was made to fight the Church and its clergy primarily through collectivization, which was actively pursued in the Baltics beginning in the early 1950s. Collectivization left rural parishes and their clergy in dire straits, and religious life in the countryside began to wane. Yet, the arrival from the central regions

  10. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    A goal of the Mesaverde project was to better define the depositional system of the Mesaverde in hopes that it would provide insight to new or by-passed targets for oil exploration. The new, detailed studies of the Mesaverde give us a better understanding of the lateral variability in depositional environments and facies. Recognition of this lateral variability and establishment of the criteria for separating deltaic, strandplain-barrier, and estuarine deposits from each other permit development of better hydrocarbon exploration models, because the sandstone geometry differs in each depositional system. Although these insights will provide better exploration models for gas exploration, it does not appear that they will be instrumental in finding more oil. Oil in the Mesaverde Group is produced from isolated fields on the Chaco slope; only a few wells define each field. Production is from sandstone beds in the upper part of the Point Lookout Sandstone or from individual fluvial channel sandstones in the Menefee. Stratigraphic traps rather than structural traps are more important. Source of the oil in the Menefee and Point Lookout may be from interbedded organic-rich mudstones or coals rather than from the Lewis Shale. The Lewis Shale appears to contain more type III organic matter and, hence, should produce mainly gas. Outcrop studies have not documented oil staining that might point to past oil migration through the sandstones of the Mesaverde. The lack of oil production may be related to the following: (1) lack of abundant organic matter of the type I or II variety in the Lewis Shale needed to produce oil, (2) ineffective migration pathways due to discontinuities in sandstone reservoir geometries, (3) cementation or early formation of gas prior to oil generation that reduced effective permeabilities and served as barriers to updip migration of oil, or (4) erosion of oilbearing reservoirs from the southern part of the basin. Any new production should mimic that of

  11. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  12. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  13. Improving conditions for transferring family enterprises in Estonia. Pereettevõtte üleandmise võimalustest Eestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Güldenkoh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprise is a business entity that belongs to the family. In Estonia the concept of family business, family entrepreneur, or family enterprise has not been defined in legislation. The concepts of business and enterprise have been defined in several pieces of law with some dissensions in their interpretations, however. Differences in legal definitions become obvious when transferring a business. The aim of the article is to assess the legislative conditions of family enterprises in Estonia. Family enterprises can be transferred either by way of transferring the holding status or by transferring the enterprise. Holding can be transferred in companies; a sole proprietor should transfer the business entity either as a whole or transfer the business entity into a company to have a holding there. Family businesses operating as sole proprietors may incur tax liability by transferring the family enterprise. The paper outlines special features of transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. Business transfers have been few and there is no unambiguous practice in this sphere. Transfer of family enterprises is identified with transfer of enterprises; differences arise when family business has been registered as a sole proprietor. The paper provides a brief description of the differences in transferring enterprises, including family enterprises in Estonia. A purpose was to evaluate the legal environment of transferring family enterprises. In Estonia guidelines should be formulated for transferring the business of a self-employed family member and legal regulations should be introduced to avoid ill-intentioned transfer of enterprises.

  14. Architecture and quantitative assessment of channeled clastic deposits, Shihezi sandstone (Lower Permian, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengye Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lower Permian Shihezi sandstone in Ordos Basin is the largest gas reservoir in China. Architecture elements of channel, overbank and floodplain facies of braided channel deposits were identified through an outcrops survey, and their proportion of channel facies have been quantitatively estimated from well logging. Characteristics of architecture elements, such as sand thickness, bounding surfaces and lithofacies were investigated through outcrops and core. Petrology of Shihezi sandstone has also been studied in detail. Analysis on sandstone components shows that monocrystalline quartz with approximately 76% bulk volume, and lithic up to 5%–45% bulk volume, are the two main components. Litharenite and lithic quartz sandstone are the main rock types. Compaction is concluded by former researchers as the control factor of low permeability. Examination through thin section reveals that secondary pores developed well in coarse sand. Inter-granular dissolution is included as the positive effect to increasing porosity, and is concluded as the control factor to the generation of net pay. Scale of coarse grained channel fills and channel bar sandstone bodies are quantitatively estimated. Strike-oriented, dip-oriented, and vertical distribution of channel fills and channel bar sandstone bodies have been investigated. The geometry of sand bodies can be depicted as an elongated lens. Subsurface mapping reveals that channel sandstone bodies distribute widely from both lateral and longitudinal cross section profiles, and are poorly connected.

  15. Diagenetic controls on porosity variations within an aeolian sandstone reservoir, borehole Kudu 9A-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, J.E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Three boreholes, Kudu 9A-1, 9A-2 and 9A-3, were drilled approximately 125 km west of the Orange River mouth to test a gas-bearing structure of Barremian age. The reservoir interval comprises an upper unit of interbedded shallow marine sandstones, limestones and volcaniclastic mass flow deposits, and a lower non-marine unit of interbedded aeolian sandstones, basaltic lavas and volcaniclastic deposits. Despite the overall good poroperm characteristics of the aeolian sandstone and its apparent mineralogical homogeneity, as implied by a gamma ray trace, the core analysis results show an extreme variation in porosity and permeability values. In order to assist in reservoir quality prediction and to assess the regional prospectivity of the sandstone, it was necessary to explain these variations. The resuls of the study indicate that compositionally and texturally the sandstones are extremely homogeneous. It is concluded that the marked variation in the poroperm characteristics of the aeolian sandstones is a result of a relatively complex diagenesis. A fluctuating water table resulted in the formation of a pattern of calcite, anhydrite and quartz cements within an aeolian dune sandstone. 7 refs., 1 fig

  16. Sedimentological Characteristics and Re-interpretation of the Paleoenvironment of Lokoja Sandstone, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O. J.; Akande, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    Detail mapping of the Lokoja Formation consisting predominantly of sandstones exposed along Okene-Abuja highway near the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue in the southern Bida Basin was undertaken in an attempt to reconstruct their depositional history. The analyses of the lithofacies characteristics, pebble morphogenesis and ichnofossil content of the Lokoja sandstones in the study area reveal their depositional environments which evolved from alluvial fans through braided stream into nearshore shallow marine conditions. The massive, immature, matrix to grain supported conglomerate subfacies can be interpreted as debris flow. The conglomeratic sandstone facies (massive, cross stratified and graded subfacies) reflect deposits of deep braided channels. The bioturbated and herringbone cross stratified conglomeratic sandstones indicate shallowing to marginal marine environments. The fine to medium grained sandstones, siltstones and claystones are interpreted as channel bars and floodplain deposits.Results of pebble morphogenesis analysis indicate predominance of fluvial processes. Minor high energy (probably beach) condition is indicated by some individual clasts from the conglomeratic sandstone facies with sphericity and OP index values less that 0.66 and -1.5 respectively.The study is significant because it represents the first sedimentological evidence of influence of shallow marine in the development of Lokoja sandstones during Campanian-Maastrichtian times

  17. Effects of Pisha sandstone content on solute transport in a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Qing; Zheng, Jiyong; He, Honghua; Han, Fengpeng; Zhang, Xingchang

    2016-02-01

    In sandy soil, water, nutrients and even pollutants are easily leaching to deeper layers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of Pisha sandstone on soil solute transport in a sandy soil. The miscible displacement technique was used to obtain breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Br(-) as an inert non-adsorbed tracer and Na(+) as an adsorbed tracer. The incorporation of Pisha sandstone into sandy soil was able to prevent the early breakthrough of both tracers by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity compared to the controlled sandy soil column, and the impeding effects increased with Pisha sandstone content. The BTCs of Br(-) were accurately described by both the convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R), and the T-R model fitted the experimental data slightly better than the CDE. The two-site nonequilibrium model (T-S) accurately fit the Na(+) transport data. Pisha sandstone impeded the breakthrough of Na(+) not only by decreasing the saturated hydraulic conductivity but also by increasing the adsorption capacity of the soil. The measured CEC values of Pisha sandstone were up to 11 times larger than those of the sandy soil. The retardation factors (R) determined by the T-S model increased with increasing Pisha sandstone content, and the partition coefficient (K(d)) showed a similar trend to R. According to the results of this study, Pisha sandstone can successfully impede solute transport in a sandy soil column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sajand hiljem. Mida Noor-Eesti tegi ja mida ta ei teinud. A Century Later: What Young Estonia Did – and What it Did Not Do

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the position of Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti in four different fields of influence: 1. What is the position of the Young Estonia movement in literary history, i.e. in the different monographs and articles on Estonian literature? What position is given to the movement by the writer(s of the various sketches on Estonian literature between 1908 and 2007, and how important are the writers of the group in the eyes of literary historians? 2. How is the movement represented in the collective (public memory of Estonia, e.g. do we find members of the movement on stamps or banknotes or in street names? 3. How do people in Estonia remember the literary production of the members of the group: what are the most important texts people read today, and how are these texts linked to the Young Estonia movement? 4. Finally, how is the movement represented outside Estonia, i.e. in the reception of Estonian literature abroad? Which texts have been translated, which authors are well-known abroad? In answering these questions the author concludes that the Young Estonia movement was much less important than has been assumed with respect to the production of literature, i.e. yielding literary texts that have been recognized and read up till the present. Rather, the lasting importance of Young Estonia has been in the organization of literary life.

  19. Physical and chemical properties for sandstone and bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties such as porosity, pore-size distribution, dry density, solid density, mineralogy and chemical composition, which are important parameters for the understanding and analysis of the diffusion phenomena of radionuclides and ions in bentonite and in the geosphere, were measured. The measurements were performed for sandstone, of which fundamental data and information are limited. For bentonite, 3 kinds of bentonites with different smectite contents (Kunigel-V1, Kunipia-F, MX80) were used. In the measurements of the physical and chemical properties of rock, the measurements of solid density by pychnometer, the measurements of porosity, dry density and solid density by water saturation method, the measurements of porosity, dry density, solid density, pore-size distribution and specific surface area of pores by Hg porosimetry, the identifications of constituent minerals by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), the measurement of chemical composition by whole rock analysis, the observations of micropore structure by Laser Confocal Microscope (LCM), the measurements of water vaporization curves and the measurements of the homogeneity of the rock by penetration of KMnO 4 were performed. While, in the measurements of the physical and chemical properties for bentonite, water basis water content, water content, porosity, dry density, solid density and their distributions in samples were measured, and the degree of inhomogeneity was quantitatively evaluated by comparing with data and information reported up to date. The porosities of sandstone are 15.6±0.21% for water saturation method and 15.5±0.2% for Hg porosimetry, and similar values were obtained in both methods. The solid densities ranged 2.65-2.69 Mg/m 3 for 3 methods, and the average value was 2.668±0.012 Mg/m 3 . The average pore size was 88.8±0.5nm, and pore sizes ≤10μm shared 80% of total pore volume and pore sizes ≤1μm shared 40%. The specific surface area of the pores is 4.09±0.017 m

  20. Facies architecture of the Bluejacket Sandstone in the Eufaula Lake area, Oklahoma: Implications for the reservoir characterization of the Bartlesville Sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liangmiao; Yang, Kexian [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Outcrop studies of the Bluejacket Sandstone (Middle Pennsylvanian) provide significant insights to reservoir architecture of the subsurface equivalent Bartlesville Sandstone. Quarry walls and road cuts in the Lake Eufaula area offer excellent exposures for detailed facies architectural investigations using high-precision surveying, photo mosaics. Directional minipermeameter measurements are being conducted. Subsurface studies include conventional logs, borehole image log, and core data. Reservoir architectures are reconstructed in four hierarchical levels: multi-storey sandstone, i.e. discrete genetic intervals; individual discrete genetic interval; facies within a discrete genetic interval; and lateral accretion bar deposits. In both outcrop and subsurface, the Bluejacket (Bartlesville) Sandstone comprises two distinctive architectures: a lower braided fluvial and an upper meandering fluvial. Braided fluvial deposits are typically 30 to 80 ft thick, and are laterally persistent filling an incised valley wider than the largest producing fields. The lower contact is irregular with local relief of 50 ft. The braided-fluvial deposits consist of 100-400-ft wide, 5-15-ft thick channel-fill elements. Each channel-fill interval is limited laterally by an erosional contact or overbank deposits, and is separated vertically by discontinuous mudstones or highly concentrated mudstone interclast lag conglomerates. Low-angle parallel-stratified or trough cross-stratified medium- to coarse-grained sandstones volumetrically dominate. This section has a blocky well log profile. Meandering fluvial deposits are typically 100 to 150 ft thick and comprise multiple discrete genetic intervals.

  1. Discussion on metallogenic prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Yabulai basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lianshe; Li Xiangping

    2003-01-01

    Based on characteristics of initial basin type and tectonic reworking process, this article analyses the distribution features of depositional system and subsequent alteration of the target horizon of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Yabulai basin. Guided by prognostic criteria of sandstone-type uranium deposits, authors suggest that the post-depositional tectonic reworking in the basin was quite intense, and uranium metallogenic prospects are unfavorable. However, the Lower Cretaceous in the paleo-slope at the middle of the basin does show certain metallogenic prospects for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  2. Quantifying the effect of squirt flow dispersion from compliant clay porosity in clay bearing sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Compliant porosity in the form of cracks is known to cause significant attenuation and velocity dispersion through pore pressure gradients and consequent relaxation, dubbed squirt flow. Squirt flow from cracks vanish at high confining stress due to crack closing. Studies on clay bearing sandstones......-squirt flow on the bulk modulus of a clay bearing sandstone. The predicted magnitude of the clay-squirt effect on the bulk modulus is compared with experimental data. The clay-squirt effect is found to possibly account for a significant portion of the deviances from Gassmann fluid substitution in claybearing...... sandstones....

  3. Stable isotopic mass balance in sandstone-shale couplets. An example from the Neogene Pannonian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyas, J.; Geologisches Institut.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratios of carbonate cements in the Neogene sandstones of the Pannonian Basin show distinct variations: early calcites 3-6 per mille lighter than the late calcites from the same location and depth. This shift is thought to be related to the isotopically heavy oxygen released from the mixed-layer illite/smectite during illitisation. For sandstones dominated by compactional flow, closed system mass balance calculations predict an isotopic shift comparable to that deducted from petrographic and geochemical observations. The model suggests that variations of geothermal gradient has little effect on isotopic evolution; much more significant is the sandstone: shale ratio in the couplets. (author)

  4. Preliminary study on features of mineralogical zoning of epigenetic alteration at sandstone-type uranium deposit, Dongsheng area, Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xinjian; Li Ziying; Chen Anping

    2004-01-01

    Sandstone-type uranium deposits located in Dongsheng area, northern Ordos basin, occur in Zhiluo Formation, Middle Jurassic. The Zhiluo Formation is divided into two members. The lower member is further divided into two submembers. The lower submember is dominantly composed of grey sandstone being the ore-hosting horizon; the upper submember consists of grey-green sandstone and mudstone. The upper member of Zhiluo Formation is made of mottled medium-fine grained sandstone and mudstone. Through the microscopic observation and study on sandstones of Zhiluo Formation, authors have established a vertical zonation of epigenetic alteration (from the top to the bottom): the limonitization + clayization + carbonation in the mottled fine-grained sandstone of the upper member of Zhiluo Formation; the green alteration (II) (mainly the chloritization of biotite, as well as the chloritization and epidotization of feldspar) + clayization + carbonation in the grey-green sandstone of the upper submember of the lower member of Zhiluo Formation; and the green alteration (I) (mainly the epidotization of feldspar) + carbonation in grey, grey-white sandstone of the lower submember. The epigenetic alteration basically occurs in grey-green sandstone. The sandstone shows grey-green color because it contains much green biotite (not chlorite). The epigenetic alteration in sandstone layer is closely associated with the uranium ore-formation

  5. Leisure-time Physical Activity Among Different Social Groups of Estonia: Results of the National Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmägi Peeter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Eurobarometer (European Commission, 2010, 39% of the Estonian adult population is not physically active at all. This percentage is relatively high compared to other countries that are culturally close to Estonia; the corresponding figure of close neighbors Finland and Sweden is below 10%. The article aims to present the results of a survey of physical activity (n=1,009 conducted in Estonia in 2013 and analyzes physical activity levels across various social groups. The results of the article show that employment, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors for engaging in leisure-time physical activity in Estonia. Non-ethnic Estonians, the less educated, the elderly, the unemployed, and those on maternity leave are less engaged in regular leisure exercise than people in other social groups. The results of the article were used to develop Estonia’s Sports 2030 strategy.

  6. Temperature dependent elasticity and damping in dehydrated sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, T. W.; Struble, W.

    2013-12-01

    Work reported previously at this conference, outlining our observation of anomalously large elastic softening and damping in dehydrated Berea sandstone at elevated temperatures, has been analysed to study shear and compressional effects separately. Modeling of the sample using COMSOL software was necessary to identify modes, as the vibration spectrum of the sample is poorly approximated by a uniform isotropic solid. The first torsional mode of our evacuated, dry, core softens at nearly twice the rate of Young's modulus modes (bending and compressional) and is also damped nearly twice as strongly as temperature increases. We consider two possible models for explaining this behavior, based on the assumption that the mechanical properties of the sandstone are dominated by the framework of quartz grains and polycrystalline cementation, neglecting initially the effects of clay and feldspar inclusions. The 20cm x 2.54cm diameter core is dry such that the pressure of water vapor in the experiment chamber is below 1e-6 Torr at 70C, suggesting that surface water beyond a small number of monolayers is negligible. Our models consider (1) enhanced sliding of grain boundaries in the cementation at elevated temperature and reduced internal water content, and (2) strain microcracking of the cementatioin at low water content due to anisotropic expansion in the quartz grains. In model (1) interfaces parallel to polyhedral grain surfaces were placed in the cement bonds and assigned frictional properties. Model (2) has not yet been implemented. The overall elasticity of a 3-D several-grain model network was determined by modeling quasistatic loading and measuring displacements. Initial results with a small number of grains/bonds suggests that only the first model provides softening and damping for all the modes, however the details of the effects of defect motioin at individual interfaces as the source for the frictional properties is still being evaluated. Nonlinear effects are

  7. Application potential of sequence stratigraphy to prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposit in continental depositional basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengxiang; Chen Zhaobo; Chen Zuyi; Xiang Weidong; Cai Yuqi

    2001-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy has been widely used in hydrocarbon exploration and development, and great achievements have been achieved. However, its application to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits is just beginning. The metallogenic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits and those of oil and gas are compared, and the relationship between sandstone-type uranium metallogenesis and the system tracts of sequence stratigraphy is studied. The authors propose that highest and system tracts are the main targets for prospecting interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and the incised valleys of low stand system tracts are favourable places for phreatic oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposits, and transgressive system tracts are generally unfavorable to the formation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Finally, the authors look ahead the application potential of sequence stratigraphy to the prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits in continental depositional basins

  8. Characterization of the Lower Cambrian sandstone aquifer in the Swedish Baltic Sea area - assessment regarding its potential suitability for storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlström, M.; Sivhed, U.

    2012-04-01

    In the Baltic region the Cambrian sandstone is considered to have great economic value concerning its aquifer and reservoir properties. Its potential as petroleum reservoir is well known, especially from the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian sectors of the Baltic Sea where oil and gas has been found in anticline traps in the sandstone sequence. Offshore exploration in the Swedish sector has so far not encountered any significant findings of oil and gas. However, the extensive exploration has generated data, which is now being used for assessing the overall properties regarding suitability for storage of CO2. The Swedish primary industry has a great interest in finding potential sites for storage of CO2. A suitable site in the Baltic Sea would be a most favourable alternative in comparison to more remote alternatives such as deep saline aquifers in the North Sea. The Lower Cambrian is in the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea composed of three main sandstone units varying in thickness between 5 and 50 m occurring within an up to 250 m thick Cambrian sequence dominated by fine-grained terriclastic sediments. The limit of Lower Palaeozoic sequence in the Baltic area is today defined by erosional truncation because of the gently dipping Lower Palaeozoic sequence. To the north and northwest, the limit is found in the Pre-Quaternary, whereas the erosional limit is deeply buried beneath Permian and Mesozoic sediments to the south. Here the Lower Palaeozoic limit is buried to depths reaching more than 2 km. The Cambrian sequence in the distal parts of the Swedish sector occurs at depths of c. 1300 m while it constitutes the bedrock surface in a narrow zone trending from Öland to the north of of Gotland. Sandstone beds constitute 40-60% of the total Cambrian sequence. The main sandstone units have a regional distribution of several thousands of square kilometres. The up to 50 m thick Faludden sandstone member exhibits the best reservoir properties including porosities in the

  9. Noor-Eesti antifuturismist.On the Anti-Futurism of Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Sarapik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Young Estonia persists in Estonian cultural memory as a movement of renewal, among other factors through its impetus to the development of urban culture. This article undertakes to juxtapose Young Estonia’s efforts at cultural renewal, its rhetoric of the future, and futurism as a cultural phenomenon. (As such, futurism was vitally engaged with contemporary urban culture, industry, and technology. Four parameters serve as points of departure: (1 Young Estonia’s rhetoric of the new and the future. Though specific about what they rejected, Young Estonia’s texts do not outline a clear vision of the future. Frequently used key words for what they opposed included German- or Russian-mindedness, a people in servitude, the old, flat land, the lack of a unified whole, lack of style. (2 The place of the city in Young Estonia’s texts. Though in earlier publications there were only a few passing references to urban culture, the problems of the city come to the fore in several programmatic texts and in the visual design of the fourth Young Estonia album in 1912. By then the core members of Young Estonia also had had real experience of a large metropolis. If their earlier attitude toward the city had been critical, then in these Young Estonian texts the city finds its positive face. (3 Industry and the proletariat. The Young Estonia movement received stimulus from such general phenomena as factories, technology, and industry. In their imagination working people and educated people seem to live in separate worlds, with different wishes and needs. However, the freedom of the educated would be impossible without political freedom. Although they believed that technological development was a precondition for the creation of urban culture, neither their own literary works nor their other aspirations bore this out. (4 Futurism and film. Young Estonia’s later period coincided with the intensive use of term ”futurism” in Estonian journalism. Young

  10. Pilot projects for the remediation of Sillamaee uranium tailings in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    2001-01-01

    First Estonian uranium, produced in a pilot plant at Narva, was presented to Soviet military administration in 1945 and just a year later - 1946 - installation of an uranium production plant was started at Sillamaee, Estonia. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0,026% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. The uranium mine, having been activated from 1947 to 1952, was left in status of 'active conservation' for 17 years, until finally closed in 1969. Potential threats of this hidden legacy have never been revealed. After close-down of local uranium mine, more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany were processed at Sillamaee. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca. 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides together its power generating facilities ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards of the history, however, remain: - Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; - stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; - uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental remediation project, done by Wismut, is now complete and first implementation steps are underway. The project for mine area restoration is in initiation phase; it shall reveal the current and potential environmental hazards of the facility and create the concept for necessary rehabilitation

  11. Environmental remediation of the former Soviet military uranium milling site at Sillamae, Estonia: Features of approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassik, T.; Siinmaa, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quick launch of the nuclear program was a high priority for the Soviet military, as a uranium production plant installation was started at Sillamae, Estonia, in 1946. Estonian local ore - alum shale - containing only 0.03% of uranium was used for uranium production for nearly five years, after the plant was launched in 1948. Altogether more than 4 million tons of ore, imported mostly from Central and East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Eastern Germany) were processed at Sillamae. These activities have left a large tailings impoundment with the total volume of ca 8 million cubic meters in the immediate vicinity of the Baltic Sea. Today the plant is privatized, converted to civil purposes and provides ca. 1200 jobs in the socially sensitive area of North-East Estonia, while environmental hazards from the past; however, remain: Continuous seepage of tailing waters into the sea contributes and would contribute over long term to the pollution of the Baltic Sea; stability of the tailings dam seaside under present conditions can not be guaranteed thus risking a sudden release of partly liquid tailings due to potential dam failure; and uncovered surface of the tailings presents a health hazard due to dusting and radon release and hinders the revitalization of the area. The conceptual design of the Estonia's largest environmental project is now complete, the completion of practical remedial works by the end of 2005 will render Sillamae project a pioneer among Central and East European restoration projects of this character. This paper presents characteristic features of Sillamae remediation project, planning the use of best technical solutions, especially considering the vulnerability of geotechnical stability. (author)

  12. The earliest cornulitid on the internal surface of the illaenid pygidium from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olev Vinn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The earliest cornulitid Cornulites sp. appears in the Darriwilian (Lasnamägi Regional Stage of Estonia. Internal annulation is present in all Middle Ordovician cornulitids and could be a plesiomorphic character for the group. The encrusted trilobites are rare in the Ordovician of Estonia. Illaenid pygidia and cranidia were encrusted by cornulitids and trepostome bryozoans. The encrustation of both Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobites took place post mortem. The studied hard substrate communities of Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobite pygidia and cranidia are typical of the Ordovician.

  13. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  14. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyščák, Ondřej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action...... in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common...... salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice: a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 5–11days it was possible to reduce the chloride...

  15. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov

    2011-01-01

    Post-depositional remobilization and injection of sand are often seen in deep-water clastic systems and has been recently recognised as a significant modifier of deep-water sandstone geometry. Large-scale injectite complexes have been interpreted from borehole data in the Palaeocene Siri Canyon...... of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilised sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional...... sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downward injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic...

  16. Application status and vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Yu Jinshui; Han Shuqin

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy is a newly developed subject based on seismostratigraphy, and has been widely applied in the exploration of hydrocarbon and other sedimentogenic mineral deposits and great achievements have been obtained. However, the application of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits is just at the beginning. In this paper, some primary research achievements of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are summarized, and problems and their reasons of the application of sequence stratigraphy are discussed. Further more, according to characteristics of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits and the development of sequence stratigraphy, the application vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are estimated. Finally, application directions are proposed, and some specific suggestions are given. (authors)

  17. Characteristics of isotope geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Turpan-Hami Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Xia Yuliang; Lin Jinrong; Fan Guang

    2003-01-01

    This paper expounds the isotope characteristics of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit of Shihongtan in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. The results suggest that uranium mineralization age of 48 ± 2 Ma and 28 ± 4 Ma are obtained. The ages of the porphyritic granite and gneissic granite from the southwestern area are 422 ± 5 Ma and 268 ± 23 Ma. The U-Pb age of clastic zircons from ore-bearing sandstone is 283 ± 67 Ma, which is corresponding to the age of gneissic granite of the provenance area indicating the material source of uraniferous sandstone.Based. The sources are uraniferous sandstone accumulated during the deposition and the uranium leached from provenance area rocks by weathering. (authors)

  18. Local diversity versus geographical distribution of arthropods occuring in a sandstone rock labyrinth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Mlejnek, R.; Šmilauer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2010), s. 533-544 ISSN 1505-2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : sandstone * microclimate * paleorefugium Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010

  19. Brittle to Semibrittle Transition in Quartz Sandstone: Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Taka; Hirth, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Triaxial compression experiments were conducted on a quartz sandstone at effective pressures up to 175 MPa and temperatures up to 900°C. Our experiments show a transition from brittle faulting to semibrittle faulting with an increase in both pressure and temperature. The yield behavior of samples deformed in the semibrittle regime follows a compactant elliptical cap at low strain, but evolves to a dilatant Mohr-Coulomb relationship with continued compaction. Optical microscopy indicates that semibrittle deformation involves cataclastic flow through shear-enhanced compaction and grain crushing; however, transmission electron microscopy shows evidence for dislocation glide in limited portions of samples. To constrain the relative contribution of brittle and crystal plastic mechanisms, we estimate the partitioning of the inelastic work into the dissipation energy for microcracking, intergranular frictional slip, and dislocation glide. We conclude that semibrittle deformation is accommodated primarily by cataclastic mechanisms, with only a limited contribution from crystal plasticity. Mechanical data, acoustic emission records, and analysis of surface energy all indicate the activation of subcritical cracking at elevated temperature. Hence, we infer that the enhancement of subcritical cracking is responsible for the transition to semibrittle flow through promoting distributed grain-scale fractures and millimeter-scale shear bands. Subcritical cracking promotes the nucleation of microfractures at lower stresses, and the resulting decrease in flow stress retards the propagation of transgranular microfractures. Our study illuminates the important role of temperature on the micromechanics of the transition from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow in the Earth.

  20. Attrition of Tyee Formation Sandstone in a Natural Fluvial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    brandes, J. B.; Sanfilippo, J. D.; Lancaster, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    The data from this study will provide a rate of attrition with respect to change in volume, time and distance in a natural stream setting. Sandstone gravel attrition has been observed in previous studies with the use of rock tumblers, but measurements in natural systems are rare or absent. This study will use rocks with implanted passive integrated transponders (PIT) tags to track sediment movement. The study area is a natural mountain stream of approximately 4m width and 1m depth. This study is part of larger study of sediment transport. The rock volumes will be recorded prior to placement in an active channel using water displacement, the specific location along the channel will be recorded, and each tracer rock will be tracked using its individual radio frequency identification (RFID) number. Tracer rock deployment will occur before the annual high-water season. After one rainy season, the rocks will be located and removed from the stream using a radio frequency mobile radio frequency tracker. Their travel distances will be recorded and final volumes determined. Differences between initial and final volumes and travel distances will yield a distribution of attrition rates and, therefore, a mean gravel attrition rate.

  1. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  2. Groundwater management for pollution control: a case study for oil shale mining in Northeast Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erg, K.; Raukas, A.

    2001-01-01

    In Estonia oil shale is produced by underground and surface mining. The excavation methods used cause serious damage to the environment, especially to the topography, which hampers the further use of the mined-out areas. The oil shale mining has a serious impact on the environment also due to the pollution of surface and groundwater by polluted mine drainage waters, lowering of groundwater level, changing of soil properties and high air pollution rate. Decline in mining activities and the introduction of new technologies together with economic measures has improved the situation but much should be done during coming years. (author)

  3. Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the steppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saag, Lehti; Varul, Liivi; Scheib, Christiana Lyn

    2017-01-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to farming in Europe was brought upon by arrival of new people carrying novel material culture and genetic ancestry. The exact nature and scale of the transition—both material and genetic—varied in different parts of Europe [1–7]. Farming-based economies...... Age populations, and European Late Neolithic/Bronze Age populations, while their X chromosomes are in addition equally closely related to European and Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. These findings suggest that the shift to intensive cultivation and animal husbandry in Estonia was triggered...

  4. Quality control and patient dose from X-ray examinations in some hospitals in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Rannikko, S.; Parviainen, T.; Holmberg, P.; Kuus, E.; Mueuersepps, T.; Jaerv, V.

    1995-01-01

    Quality control measurements of X ray diagnostic units were carried out in four hospitals in Estonia. Measurements were focused on the unit's technical performance, on image quality and on patient dose and film processing. The main problems are in the areas of image receptors and film processing: image receptors are of low speed type causing high patient doses and manual film processing results in low contrast and high base plus fog. Spatial resolution, both in film imaging and in image intensifiers, is reasonably good. It is recommended that quality assurance programmes be established, that basic measuring equipment be acquired and personnel assigned to perform such measurements be trained. (Author)

  5. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Hepatitis e Virus in Veterinarians in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi

    2017-01-01

    positive with both tests. Antibody-positive samples were further examined for the presence of HEV RNA. Three (2.6%) of the 115 veterinarians tested positive for immunoglobulin G antibodies against HEV, whereas no immunoglobulin M antibodies against the virus were detected. The antibody......-positive veterinarians were small animal practitioners. Pigs comprised no or small part of their working time or patients. No HEV RNA was detected in the antibody-positive samples. The prevalence of antibodies against HEV in veterinarians in Estonia was lower than what has been observed in veterinarians in other...

  6. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  7. Socio-demographic Model of Gender Gap in Expected and Actual Wages in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Kristjan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille

    2014-01-01

    Estonia ranks consistently on top of the list of countries with the largest gender pay gap. However, irrespective of abundant aggregate level evidence, little is known what motivates the gap at the individual level. In this paper we precisely address the issue of gender pay gap at the individual level. We examine how large is the gender pay gap in actual and expected wages and how it can be explained. We use a rich dataset from Estonian Labour Force Survey on actual wages, and the data from C...

  8. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  9. Geophysical signature recognition of aquifuge and relatively impermeable interbed in ore-hosting sandstone layer at sandstone-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xigang; Wu Hanning; Bai Guanjun; Zhu Huanqiao; Jia Heng

    2006-01-01

    Geophysical signature recognition of aquifuge and relatively impermeable interbed in ore-hosting aquifer has been carried out a Shihongtan uranium deposit by using comprehensive logging data. The spatial distribution of above aquifuge and impermeable interbed is discussed, and the relation of these layers to sandstone-type uranium deposit, and their impact to in-situ leach mining technology are discussed. It is suggested that the aquifuge and relatively impermeable interbed bring about significant effect to the formation of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposit, as well as to in-situ leach mining of the deposit. (authors)

  10. Analyzing the Sand-fixing Effect of Feldspathic Sandstone from the Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, lu; Ban, Jichang

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was aimed to study the sand fixing effect of feldspathic sandstone in Mu Us Sandy Land, to provide a scienticic basis for desertification control, soil and water conservation and development of farming there. Methods of mixing feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil according to 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 5, and 0: 1 mass ratioes, the graded composition and characteristics were studied with laser particle size analyzer. The result showed that these features of sand-based, loosely structured, easy to wind erosion of aeolian sandy soil were changed before feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil compounding. The <0.05 mm particle mass increased with feldspathic sandstone mass increasing. The texture presented this kind of change from sand to sandy loam to loam to silt loam. The small particle size distribution, good homogeneity and other features of aeolian sandy soil were improved to a certain degree, and the particle size distribution became broad before feldspathic sandstone and aeolian sandy soil compounding. The particle grading was continuous, and the grading characteristic was good when m(F): m(S) was 1: 5(Cu was 54.71 and Cc was 2.54) or when m(F): m(S) was 1: 2(Cu was 76.21, Cc was 1.12). The conclusion is that feldspathic sandstone has sand-fixing effect in texture characteristics, which heightens with feldspathic sandstone mass increasing, and when the mass ratio of feldspathic sandstone: aeolian sandy soil is 1: 2 or 1: 5 which compound better.

  11. Temperature Effects on Stiffness Moduli of Reservoir Sandstone from the Deep North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlander, Tobias; Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    We investigate effect of testing temperature on the dynamic frame stiffness of quartz-bearing North Sea sandstone from depths of 5 km. We show that at low stress levels, the rock frame stiffens with increasing temperature and we propose an explanation for the controlling mechanisms. While...... temperature. This is unfortunate and hence, we designed a testing program with the intension of separating and quantifying effects of temperature and stress, specifically for the sandstone material subject to this study....

  12. Remote sensing information acquisition of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianjun

    2000-01-01

    The author briefly describes the genesis and ore-formation mechanism of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit in Nuheting area. Techniques such as remote sensing digital image data processing and data enhancement, as well as 3-dimension quantitative analysis of drill hole data are applied to extract information on metallogenic environment of paleo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposit and the distribution of paleo-channel

  13. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  14. A method of quantitative prediction for sandstone type uranium deposit in Russia and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Shushuai; Jiang Minzhong; Li Xiaolu

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the foundational principle of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits in Russia. Some key methods such as physical-mathematical model construction and deposits prediction are described. The method has been applied to deposits prediction in Dahongshan region of Chaoshui basin. It is concluded that the technique can fortify the method of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits, and it could be used as a new technique in China. (authors)

  15. Elastic Dispersion and Attenuation in Fully Saturated Sandstones: Role of Mineral Content, Porosity, and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Lucas; Borgomano, Jan V. M.; Fortin, Jérôme; Guéguen, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Because measuring the frequency dependence of elastic properties in the laboratory is a technical challenge, not enough experimental data exist to test the existing theories. We report measurements of three fluid-saturated sandstones over a broad frequency band: Wilkenson, Berea, and Bentheim sandstones. Those sandstones samples, chosen for their variable porosities and mineral content, are saturated by fluids of varying viscosities. The samples elastic response (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) and hydraulic response (fluid flow out of the sample) are measured as a function of frequency. Large dispersion and attenuation phenomena are observed over the investigated frequency range. For all samples, the variation at lowest frequency relates to a large fluid flow directly measured out of the rock samples. These are the cause (i.e., fluid flow) and consequence (i.e., dispersion/attenuation) of the transition between drained and undrained regimes. Consistently, the characteristic frequency correlates with permeability for each sandstone. Beyond this frequency, a second variation is observed for all samples, but the rocks behave differently. For Berea sandstone, an onset of dispersion/attenuation is expected from both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at highest frequency. For Bentheim and Wilkenson sandstones, however, only Young's modulus shows dispersion/attenuation phenomena. For Wilkenson sandstone, the viscoelastic-like dispersion/attenuation response is interpreted as squirt flow. For Bentheim sandstone, the second effect does not fully follow such response, which could be due to a lower accuracy in the measured attenuation or to the occurence of another physical effect in this rock sample.

  16. ) Sediment petrographic characterisation and diagenetic pathways of the Miocene Agbada sandstone, Niger delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaegbobi, I. M; Gaupp, R.; Fischer, C.

    2003-01-01

    Combined petrophysical and petrographic investigations of he Agbada sandstone interbeds has been undertaken in order to determine the controlling factors on the reservoir quality of he paralic sandstone facies. Well logs, petrophysical data and a set of core samples from two wells located in the eastern onshore of he Niger delta spanning a depth interval of 3200 to 330m, formed the basic material for the present study. Four sandstone and siltstone facies units ranging form coastal bar sands through transgressive sands to marine claystones were identified based on petrophysical log signatures. Thin section analysis of a selected set of sandstone samples revealed essentially a unimodal, homogeneous grain size distribution of the detrital mineral components. Quantitative assessment of the mineralogical composition using point count method (300 points) revealed the predominance of dring. etrital quartz (85%) over feldspar minerals (9%) and lithic fragments (6%). A database generated from the point counting of the sandstones provided a broad perspective to the relative variations of the intergranular porosities (28%), cementation and matrix. These are remarkable indicators for low compaction. Authigenic kaoline and illite were identified. The partial leaching of detrital feldspars are responsible for the low percentages of intragranular volume (secondary porosity). The main controlling factor on the high porosity can be traced to either low compactional effects (overpressure?) or total leaching of unknown early cements. We suggest that the excellent reservoir properties of the Agbada sandstones are due to under compaction, caused by continuous long-term over pressuring

  17. Effects of Heating Rate on the Dynamic Tensile Mechanical Properties of Coal Sandstone during Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coal layered combustion and the heat injection rate on adjacent rock were examined in the process of underground coal gasification and coal-bed methane mining. Dynamic Brazilian disk tests were conducted on coal sandstone at 800°C and slow cooling from different heating rates by means of a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB test system. It was discovered that thermal conditions had significant effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the sandstone including longitudinal wave velocity, density, and dynamic linear tensile strength; as the heating rates increased, the thermal expansion of the sandstone was enhanced and the damage degree increased. Compared with sandstone at ambient temperature, the fracture process of heat-treated sandstone was more complicated. After thermal treatment, the specimen had a large crack in the center and cracks on both sides caused by loading; the original cracks grew and mineral particle cracks, internal pore geometry, and other defects gradually appeared. With increasing heating rates, the microscopic fracture mode transformed from ductile fracture to subbrittle fracture. It was concluded that changes in the macroscopic mechanical properties of the sandstone were result from changes in the composition and microstructure.

  18. Temperature effect on microstructure and P-wave propagation in Linyi sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui; Sun, Qiang; Deng, Wenni; Zhang, Weiqiang; Lü, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass loss rate, P-wave velocity change rate and damage factor increase exponentially as temperatures rise. • The damage threshold temperature of sandstone samples is 300 °C and limit temperature is 900 °C. • P-wave velocity change rate of sandstone exhibits excellent linearity with mass loss rate. • Damage factor can be well expressed by mass loss rate. - Abstract: In order to study the effect of high temperature on the sandstone, scanning electron microscope (SEM) experiments and primary wave (P-wave) velocity tests have been carried out on sandstone specimens heated to different temperature. The results showed that: (1) the mass loss rate increases exponentially with the increase of temperature and reaches 2.97% at 900 °C; (2) the P-wave velocity change rate increases exponentially with the increase of temperature while there is some fluctuation before 500 °C; (3) the damage threshold temperature of sandstone samples is 300 °C and the limit temperature is 900 °C; (4) there is a good linear relationship between the mass loss rate and the P-wave velocity change rate, and the correlation coefficient (R) of the fitting line is 0.989; (5) the damage caused by high temperature can be reflected better by the mass loss rate than P-wave velocity change rate. The results obtained in this paper will be good for predicting the properties of sandstone when exposed to high temperature.

  19. Geohydrology of the Navajo sandstone in western Kane, southwestern Garfield, and southeastern Iron counties, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Navajo and Lamb Point aquifers in the Navajo Sandstone are the principal source of water for the city of Kanab, irrigation, stock, and for rural homes in the study area. Well logs and outcrop descriptions indicate the Navajo Sandstone consists of the Lamb Point Tongue and an unnamed upper member that are separated by the Tenney Canyon Tongue of the Kayenta Formation. The main Kayenta Formation underlies the Lamb Point Tongue. The Lamb Point Tongue and the upper member of the Navajo Sandstone are saturated and hydraulically connected through the Tenney Canyon Tongue. Available data indicate that precipitation percolates to the groundwater reservoir where the Navajo Sandstone crops out. Estimates of the rate of recharge at the outcrop range from 0.1 to as much as 2.8 in/yr. Water level data indicate that water moves from the upper member of the Navajo Sandstone, through the Tenney Canyon Tongue, and into the Lamb Point Tongue. Lateral flow is generally from the outcrop areas toward the incised canyons formed by tributaries of Kanab Creek and Johnson Wash. Direction and rate of groundwater movement and the location and character of the natural hydrologic boundaries in the northern part of the area where the Navajo Sandstone is buried cannot be determined conclusively without additional water level data. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  1. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  2. Laboratory-determined transport properties of Berea sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily, W.D.; Lin, W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report laboratory measurements of electrical resistivity water permeability k, and compressional wave velocity V/sub p/ for both intact and fractured Berea sandstone samples as functions of temperature from 20 C to 200 C and effective pressure P/sub e/ from 2.5 MPa to 50 MPa. For the intact sample, V/sub p/ increases from 3.52 km/s to 4.16 km/s as P/sub e/ goes from 3 to 50 MPa. With increasing temperature, V/sub p/ decreases at rates of about 3% per 100 C at P/sub e/ of 5 MPa and about 1.5% per 100 C at P/sub e/ of 38 MPa. Data from the fractured sample are qualitatively similar, but velocities are about 10% lower. For both intact and fractured samples, p increases less than 15% as P/sub e/ increases from 2.5 MPa to 50 MPa. Although both samples show a larger decrease in resistivity with increasing temperature, most of this change is attributed to the decrease in resistivity of the pore fluid over that temperature range. For both samples, k decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. The intact sample permeability varies from 23 mD at 3 MPa and 20 C to less than 1 mD at 50 MPa and 150 C. The permeability of the fractured sample varies from 676 mD at 3 MPa and 20 C to less than 1 mD at 40 MPa and 190 C. The effect of the fracture on k vanishes after several pressure cycles and above about 100 C. These laboratory data are used to demonstrate the possibility of using resistivity and velocity measurements to estimate in-situ permeability of a reservoir. 25 references, 10 figures

  3. The influence of clay minerals on acoustic properties of sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Olav

    1997-12-31

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of the relationship between the acoustic properties and the petrophysical/mineralogical properties in sand-prone rock. It emphasizes the influence of clay minerals. The author develops a method to deposit clay minerals/mineral aggregates in pore space of a rigid rock framework. Kaolinite aggregates were flushed into porous permeable Bentheimer sandstone to evaluate the effect of pore filling minerals on porosity, permeability and acoustic properties. The compressional velocity was hardly affected by the clay content and it was found that the effect of minor quantities of pore filling minerals may be acoustically modelled as an ideal suspension, where the pore fluid bulk modulus is modified by the bulk modulus of the clay minerals. The influence of clays on acoustic velocities in petroleum reservoir rocks was investigated through ultrasonic measurements of compressional- and shear-waves on core material from reservoir and non-reservoir units on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The measured velocities decrease as the porosity increases, but are not strongly dependent on the clay content. The measured velocities are less dependent on the petrophysical and lithological properties than indicated by previous authors and published mathematical models, and stiffness reduction factors are introduced in two of the models to better match the data. Velocities are estimated along the wellbores based on non-sonic well logs and reflect well the actual sonic log well measurements. In some wells the compressional velocity cannot be modelled correctly by the models suggested. Very high compressional wave anisotropy was measured in the dry samples at atmospheric conditions. As the samples were saturated, the anisotropy was reduced to a maximum of about 30% and decreases further upon pressurization. Reservoir rocks retrieved from 2500 m are more stress dependent than those retrieved from less than 200 m depth. 168 refs., 117 figs., 24

  4. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  5. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  6. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  7. Perceived Status and National Belonging: The Case of Russian Speakers in Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Anna Renvik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research on disadvantaged minority group members, the research field on the ramifications of low group status is largely split between more material and psychological lines of explanation. There is also a lack of research on how subjectively perceived socio-economic status and discrimination cumulatively affect the sense of national belonging of ethnic minority group members. This survey study was conducted among Russian-speaking immigrants in Finland ('N' = 316 and Estonia ('N' = 501. The results in Estonia showed that for national identification to be high, both indicators of subjective group status had to be perceived as relatively high. In Finland, there was no interaction between the two indicators of subjectively perceived low group status. The study shows how perceptions of cumulative disadvantage may provoke a backlash in the form of immigrants’ psychological distancing from the national ingroup. The findings are discussed in relation to the pervasiveness of low status in different intergroup contexts and minority group members’ perceived investments to society.

  8. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  9. Gentrification in a Post-Socialist Town: The Case of the Supilinn District, Tartu, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele NUTT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the changes that have taken place in the Supilinn district in Tartu, Estonia due to the gentrification process. The gentrification process affects the cultural, social, economic, and physical environment of the area. People have been interested in this topic since the 1960s. Nowadays, there is also reason to discuss this issue in the context of Estonia and of the Supilinn district. Studying and understanding the processes that take place in the living environment, provides an opportunity to be more aware about them and to influence the development of these processes. This article provides an analysis of the conditions necessary for gentrification in the Supilinn district, describes the process of gentrification, and tries to assess the current developmental stage of the gentrification process. Cities are shaped by their people. Every area has a unique look that is shaped not only by the physical environment, but also by the principles, values, and wishes of its residents. Local residents influence the image of the mental and the physical space of the area. What changes has the development of the Supilinn district caused in the population of the area, and how have the residents, in turn, changed the district?

  10. Estland im Sog der Russischen Volkswirtschaft? Estonia Being Caught Up in Russian Turmoil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Friedrich Laaser

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the Ukraine crisis and Russia’s economic problems, the authors pose the question to what extent the Estonian economy still relies on foreign trade with Russia and which costs Estonia might bear in the course of an aggravation of the lingering East-West conflict. Estonian trade relations with Russia as well as Estonia’s integration in the European and global division of labor are analyzed by a gravity model which also incorporates the trade foreign trade of the Baltic neighbors Latvia and Lithuania as benchmark countries. The authors find that even before the crisis Estonia’s trade with Russia lost weight and the dependency on Russian export and import markets diminished. By an in-depth analysis of Estonia’ sectoral trade patterns these findings were confirmed for the majority of industries. Only in the case of the Estonian milk industry the authors observe significant effects of Russian sanctions. In contrast to this particular case, Estonia becomes increasingly independent from imports of Russian natural gas which in the past made the country vulnerable to political blackmail. The authors conclude that regional and sectoral diversification of Estonian trade patterns induced by the current crisis will help the country to improve its international competitiveness and its economic integration into world markets.

  11. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  12. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. A rapid situation assessment of the market for surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Lang, Katrin; Raju, Kadi; Väli, Marika; McKee, Martin

    2007-01-01

    To understand the phenomenon of consumption of surrogate and illegal alcohols in Tallinn, capital of Estonia. This study, conducted in Tallinn in May 2006, used rapid situation assessment. Interviews with key informants in relevant settings such as emergency departments of hospitals, accommodation for the homeless, police etc. (n = 22), with alcohol abusers (n = 33), natural observations of surrogate sale and consumption venues (n = 46), and tracking of trade data were carried out. Key informants confirmed that consumption of illegal and surrogate alcohols are widely used by alcohol abusers, a finding confirmed by the alcohol abusers. Availability of surrogates varied by area of the city, mainly sold from street kiosks. Illegally produced spirits were also easily available. Sales of surrogates appear to have increased in recent years. A range of alcohol-containing substances that appear to be easily available at low cost, and that have high concentration of ethanol or contaminants known to be toxic, were identified in Tallinn. Alcohol policies in Estonia should address the consumption and availability of these substances.

  14. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  15. Detection and characterization of Babesia species in Ixodes ticks in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, Olga; Geller, Julia; Vasilenko, Veera; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Järvekülg, Lilian; Vene, Sirkka; Lundkvist, Åke; Golovljova, Irina

    2011-07-01

    The presence of Babesia spp. was studied in 2603 Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected at seven sites in Estonia. By reverse line blot screening, Babesia spp. was detected in 36 (1.4%) ticks, among them 18 (0.7%) were further recognized by a Babesia microti probe, 3 (0.1%) by a Babesia divergens probe, and the other 15 (0.6%) were recognized only by the universal Babesia spp. "catch all" probe. Sequence analyses of 6 of these 15 samples revealed that all of them belonged to Babesia sp. EU1. B. microti was detected in both tick species I. ricinus and I. persulcatus at the seven sites, whereas B. divergens-like and Babesia sp. EU1 were found only in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus, respectively. Genetic characterization based on partial 18S rRNA showed that the Estonian sequences of B. microti, B. divergens-like, and Babesia sp. EU1 share a high rate of similarity and are closely related to sequences from other European countries, Siberia, and United States. The present study demonstrated for the first time the existence and distribution of Babesia spp. in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks in Estonia.

  16. ANALYSIS OF OIL-BEARING CRETACEOUS SANDSTONE HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS, EXCLUSIVE OF THE DAKOTA SANDSTONE, ON THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-01-01

    An additional 450 wells were added to the structural database; there are now 2550 wells in the database with corrected tops on the Juana Lopez, base of the Bridge Creek Limestone, and datum. This completes the structural data base compilation. Fifteen oil and five gas fields from the Mancos-ElVado interval were evaluated with respect to the newly defined sequence stratigraphic model for this interval. The five gas fields are located away from the structural margins of the deep part of the San Juan Basin. All the fields have characteristics of basin-centered gas and can be considered as continuous gas accumulations as recently defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. Oil production occurs in thinly interbedded sandstone and shale or in discrete sandstone bodies. Production is both from transgressive and regressive strata as redefined in this study. Oil production is both stratigraphically and structurally controlled with production occurring along the Chaco slope or in steeply west-dipping rocks along the east margin of the basin. The ElVado Sandstone of subsurface usage is redefined to encompass a narrower interval; it appears to be more time correlative with the Dalton Sandstone. Thus, it was deposited as part of a regressive sequence, in contrast to the underlying rock units which were deposited during transgression

  17. Significance of action plans in the development of occupational well-being in the schools of Finland and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Pertel, Tiia; Hansen, Siivi; Lepp, Kädi; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a long term project "Promoting the Occupational Well-Being of School Staff-Action Research Project in Finland and Estonia, 2009-2014." The purpose of this article is to describe the significance of action plans in the promotion of the occupational well-being of primary and upper secondary school staff in Finland and Estonia from 2010 to the turn of the year 2011-2012. An electronic open questionnaire was sent to occupational well-being groups in Finland (N=18) and in Estonia (N=39). In Finland, the questionnaire was responded to by 16 (n=16) occupational well-being groups, and in Estonia, by 38 (n=38) groups. The qualitative data were analyzed using the inductive-deductive method and content analysis. The obtained results indicate that the schools had named goals for action plans in all aspects of the promotion of occupational well-being in schools (worker and work, working conditions, professional competence, working community) and that these goals were mainly realized in the schools in a systematic way. Schools felt that the action plan for occupational well-being helped them to set goals for occupational well-being and that the planned actions were realized in a more systematic way than before. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Russian in Estonia's Public Sector: "Playing on the Borderline" between Official Policy and Real-Life Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkina, Maimu

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of Russian in state communication in officially monolingual Estonia. Drawing on interviews with high-level public employees in four central state institutions and an analysis of these institutions' websites, the article shows that while Russian is not specifically mentioned in the laws, it is "de facto"…

  19. Youth sexual health improvement in Estonia, 1990-2009: The role of sexuality education and youth-friendly services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldre, K.; Part, K.; Ketting, E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A new school curriculum was introduced in Estonia in 1996 comprising for the first time sexuality education (SE) topics. The first youth counselling centres (YCCs) addressing sexual health matters were set up in 1991-1992. This study describes the development of school-based SE

  20. Does School Admission by Zoning Affect Educational Inequality? A Study of Family Background Effect in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin; Veski, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We indicate the size of family background effects in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia--countries that differ in both the rhetoric and extensiveness of the system-level school choice policies. Family background effect is defined as the dependence of student achievement on family background characteristics, such as parental education, income, and social…

  1. Bilingual Voicing: A Study of Code-Switching in the Reported Speech of Finnish Immigrants in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Maria; Riionheimo, Helka

    2013-01-01

    Through a conversation analytic investigation of Finnish-Estonian bilingual (direct) reported speech (i.e., voicing) by Finns who live in Estonia, this study shows how code-switching is used as a double contextualization device. The code-switched voicings are shaped by the on-going interactional situation, serving its needs by opening up a context…

  2. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  3. Community orientation of services for persons with a psychiatric disability. Comparison between Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Zsolt Bugarszki; Karin Hanga; Dagmar Narusson; Koidu Saia; Marju Medar

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the way mental health services and social services are orientated on assisting people with a psychiatric disability to participate in different areas of community life. A large research project about community participation in three different countries (Estonia, Hungary and the

  4. Late-glacial to Holocene aeolian deposition in northeastern Europe - The timing of sedimentation at the Iisaku site (NE Estonia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalinska-Nartisa, Edyta; Nartiss, Maris; Thiel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The Late-glacial and Holocene aeolian inland dune complex at Iisaku (NE Estonia) has been investigated using an accurate and detailed compilation of the sedimentary properties and chronological framework. The quartz grains forming the dunes are very variable, reflecting aeolian, weathering...

  5. Sedimentological reservoir characteristics of the Paleocene fluvial/lacustrine Yabus Sandstone, Melut Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, M. I.; Padmanabhan, E.; Abdullatif, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    Melut Basin in Sudan is regionally linked to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Central and Western African Rift System (CWARS). The Paleocene Yabus Formation is the main oil producing reservoir in the basin. It is dominated by channel sandstone and shales deposited in fluvial/lacustrine environment during the third phase of rifting in the basin. Different scales of sedimentological heterogeneities influenced reservoir quality and architecture. The cores and well logs analyses revealed seven lithofacies representing fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine depositional environments. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately-sorted and sub-angular to sub-rounded, arkosic-subarkosic to sublitharenite. On the basin scale, the Yabus Formation showed variation in sandstone bodies, thickness, geometry and architecture. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies vertically and laterally within Yabus Sandstone where it shows progressive fining upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The lower part of the reservoir showed well-connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to the upper parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenetic changes such as compaction, cementation, alteration, dissolution and kaolinite clays pore fill and coat all have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability. The estimated porosity in Yabus Formation ranges from 2 to 20% with an average of 12%; while permeability varies from 200 to 500 mD and up to 1 Darcy. The understanding of different scales of sedimentological reservoir heterogeneities might contribute to better reservoir quality prediction, architecture, consequently enhancing development and productivity.

  6. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  7. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of paralic and shallow marine Upper Jurassic sandstones in the northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen, Peter N.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Paralic and shallow marine sandstones were deposited in the Danish Central Graben during Late Jurassic rifting when half-grabens were developed and the overall eustatic sea level rose. During the Kimmeridgian, an extensive plateau area consisting of the Heno Plateau and the Gertrud Plateau was situated between two highs, the Mandal High to the north, and the combined Inge and Mads Highs to the west. These highs were land areas situated on either side of the plateaus and supplied sand to the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus. Two graben areas, the Feda and Tail End Grabens, flanked the plateau area to the west and east, respectively. The regressive–ransgressive succession consists of intensely bioturbated shoreface sandstones, 25–75 m thick. Two widespread unconformities (SB1, SB2 are recognised on the plateaus, forming the base of sequence 1 and sequence 2, respectively. These unconformities were created by a fall in relative sea level during which rivers may have eroded older shoreface sands and transported sediment across the Heno andGertrud Plateaus, resulting in the accumulation of shoreface sandstones farther out in the Feda and Tail End Grabens, on the south-east Heno Plateau and in the Salt Dome Province. Duringsubsequent transgression, fluvial sediments were reworked by high-energy shoreface processes on the Heno and Gertrud Plateaus, leaving only a lag of granules and pebbles on the marine transgressive surfaces of erosion (MTSE1, MTSE2.The sequence boundary SB1 can be traced to the south-east Heno Plateau and the Salt Dome Province, where it is marked by sharp-based shoreface sandstones. During low sea level, erosion occurred in the southern part of the Feda Graben, which formed part of the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus, and sedimentation occurred in the Norwegian part of the Feda Graben farther to the north. During subsequent transgression, the southern part of the Feda Graben began to subside, and a succession of backstepping back

  8. A special kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit related to Jurassic palaeochannel systems in the northeastern Ordos Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziying; Fang Xiheng; Xia Yuliang; Sun Ye; Jiao Yangquan; Chen Anping; Zhang Ke

    2010-01-01

    Dongsheng sandstone-type uranium deposit is a large one discovered in recent years in the northeastern Ordos Basin, China. It is a special kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit,different from other ordinary sandstone-type deposits because of its unique signatures. It is generally controlled by a transitional zone between greenish and grayish sandstones, both of those two kinds of sandstones now indicate reduced geochemical environments. The greenish color of the palaeo-oxidized sandstones mainly results from chloritization and epidotization related to oil and gas secondary reduction processes. The deposit genetically is different from ordinary sandstone uranium deposits,which is of more complex origin,undergoing not only palaeo-oxidization mineralization process, but also oil-gas fluid and hydrothermal reworking processes. It is spatially related to Jurassic Zhiluo Formation with braided palaeo channel systems. The uranium mineralization zone with higher grade usually exists in the branching area of the distributary channels of main braided streams, whose sandstone heterogeneity shows a transfer sedimentary facies from the braided stream sedimentary system to the braided delta sedimentary system. Statistical results show that medium and fine-grained sandstones are the most favorable rock types for uranium mineralization. (authors)

  9. Analysis on depositional system and prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposits of Bayanhua formation in Yilemen basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Li Guoxin; He Fayang; Wei Yunjie

    2002-01-01

    Yilemen basin is a typical Mesozoic intra-mountain one. The author analyses characteristics of depositional system and the prospect of sandstone-type uranium deposit in the sedimentary cover of the Bayanhua Formation, Lower Cretaceous. Authors suggest that the conglomerate, sandstone-conglomerate and sandstone beds of braided stream and delta are favourable horizons for locating phreatic and interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits, i.e. the northwestern side of Dalai uplifted zone, the Chagantaigebuqi narrow sag, and the southern area of Baolinbuqi

  10. Cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusions and trace element data for the syntaxial quartz cementation in the sandstones of Ora Formation, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Quartz cements of the quartz arenitic sandstones from the Chalky Nasara and Ora section of the (Devonian-Carboniferous) Ora Formation in northern Iraq have been studied. A combination of Hot-Cathodoluminescence (CL), LA-ICP-MS and fluid inclusions microthermometry revealed three syntaxial quartz......-bedded sandstones than in the6 thickly-bedded sandstones filling most of remaining pore space during mesogenesis. The Q3 was formed during early telogenesis stage fully cementing the sandstones and the fractures were filled by hydrothermal chlorite and sulfides. Significant amount of trace elements Al, Li, Ge...

  11. Estimation of uranium migration parameters in sandstone aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malov, A I

    2016-03-01

    The chemical composition and isotopes of carbon and uranium were investigated in groundwater samples that were collected from 16 wells and 2 sources in the Northern Dvina Basin, Northwest Russia. Across the dataset, the temperatures in the groundwater ranged from 3.6 to 6.9 °C, the pH ranged from 7.6 to 9.0, the Eh ranged from -137 to +128 mV, the total dissolved solids (TDS) ranged from 209 to 22,000 mg L(-1), and the dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged from 0 to 9.9 ppm. The (14)C activity ranged from 0 to 69.96 ± 0.69 percent modern carbon (pmC). The uranium content in the groundwater ranged from 0.006 to 16 ppb, and the (234)U:(238)U activity ratio ranged from 1.35 ± 0.21 to 8.61 ± 1.35. The uranium concentration and (234)U:(238)U activity ratio increased from the recharge area to the redox barrier; behind the barrier, the uranium content is minimal. The results were systematized by creating a conceptual model of the Northern Dvina Basin's hydrogeological system. The use of uranium isotope dating in conjunction with radiocarbon dating allowed the determination of important water-rock interaction parameters, such as the dissolution rate:recoil loss factor ratio Rd:p (a(-1)) and the uranium retardation factor:recoil loss factor ratio R:p in the aquifer. The (14)C age of the water was estimated to be between modern and >35,000 years. The (234)U-(238)U age of the water was estimated to be between 260 and 582,000 years. The Rd:p ratio decreases with increasing groundwater residence time in the aquifer from n × 10(-5) to n × 10(-7) a(-1). This finding is observed because the TDS increases in that direction from 0.2 to 9 g L(-1), and accordingly, the mineral saturation indices increase. Relatively high values of R:p (200-1000) characterize aquifers in sandy-clayey sediments from the Late Pleistocene and the deepest parts of the Vendian strata. In samples from the sandstones of the upper part of the Vendian strata, the R:p value is ∼ 24, i.e., sorption processes are

  12. Apxs Chemical Composition of the Kimberley Sandstone in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, R.; Boyd, N.; Campbell, J. L.; VanBommel, S.; Thompson, L. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Berger, J. A.; Clark, B. C.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Yen, A. S.; Fisk, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Kimberley was chosen as a major waypoint of the MSL rover Curiosity on its way to Mount Sharp. APXS data before drilling showed interestingly high K, Fe and Zn. This warranted drilling of the fine-grained sandstone for detailed investigations with SAM and Chemin. With significantly lower Na, Al and higher K, Mg and Fe, the composition of the drill target Windjana is very distinct from the previous ones in the mudstones at Yellowknife Bay. Up to 2000 ppm Br and 4000 ppm Zn post-brush were among the highest measured values in Gale Crater. The excavated fines, stemming from about 6cm, showed lower Br, but even higher Zn. Preliminary Chemin results indicate K-feldspar and magnetite being major mineral phases in Windjana, which is consistent with the pre drill APXS result and derived CIPW norms. Inside the accessible work volume of the arm at the drill site ChemCam exposed a greyish, shinier patch of rock underneath the dust, dubbed Stephen. ChemCam sees a high Mn signal in most of the spots. An APXS integration revealed high MnO as well (~4%), in addition to high Mg, Cl,K,Ni,Zn,Br,Cu,Ge and for the first time an APXS detectable amount of ~300 ppm Co. The surface might reflect a thin surface layer and may underestimate the higher Z elemental concentration since the APXS analysis assumes an infinite sample. Important elemental correlations are likely not impacted. A four spot daytime raster of Stephen before leaving the drill site showed a good correlation of Mn with Zn, Cu and Ni. All spots have 3-3.5% Cl, the highest values measured on Mars so far. While the stratigraphic setting of the Stephen sample is discussed elsewhere, the similarity with Mn deep-sea nodules is striking, e.g. the APXS calibration sample GBW07296. Whatever process formed Stephen, the process of Mn scavenging high Z trace metals from solutions seems to have happened similarly at this site on Mars.

  13. The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Ryst Kuil 351 Beaufort West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1979-06-01

    A study of the sedimentology of some uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Ryst Kuil 351 was made in order to assess possible relationships between the mineralisation and the sedimentary facies and/or the palaeo-environment. Use was made of 6 vertical profiles, derived from horizontal traverses. 12 sedimentary facies were recognised according to grain-size and sedimentary structure. The transitions between these facies, as derived from the vertical profiles, were subjected to Markov analysis. Only 3 Markov-dependent transitions were derived, but several facies transitions and associations occurred with greater than random frequency. These, together with the vertical profiles, were used to interpret the palaeo-environmental succession. This succession is fluvial meandering and two sub-environments - channel and flood plain - were delineated according to the prevalence of sandstone or mudstone facies. The uranium-bearing sandstones occur in the lower part of a thick (29 - 46m) multistorey point bar sequence within the channel sub-environment. The mineralisation is associated with koffieklip and is restricted to two sedimentary facies - massive very fine-to-finegrained sandstone and horizontally bedded, very fine- to fine-grained sandstone. The mineralisation normally occurs near the bases of the point bars

  14. Experimental Investigation on Shock Mechanical Properties of Red Sandstone under Preloaded 3D Static Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Yong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Triaxial impact mechanical performance experiment was performed to study the mechanical properties of red sandstone subjected to three-dimensional (3D coupled static and dynamic loads, i.e., three confining pressures (0, 5, and 10 MPa and three axial pressures (11, 27, and 43 MPa. A modified 3D split Hopkinson pressure bar testing system was used. The change trend in the deformation of red sandstone and the strength and failure modes under axial pressures and confining pressures were analyzed. Results show that, when the confining pressure is constant, the compressive strength, secant modulus, and energy absorbed per unit volume of red sandstone initially increases and subsequently decreases, whereas the average strain rate exhibits an opposite trend. When the axial pressure is constant, both the compressive strength and secant modulus of red sandstone are enhanced, but the average strain rate is decreased with increasing confining pressure. The energy absorbed per unit volume is initially increased and subsequently decreased as the confining pressure increases. Red sandstone exhibits a cone-shaped compression–shear failure mode under the 3D coupled static and dynamic loads. The conclusions serve as theoretical basis on the mechanical properties of deep medium-strength rock under a high ground stress and external load disturbance condition

  15. Sandstone-filled normal faults: A case study from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Alsop, G. Ian; Grippa, Antonio; Zvirtes, Gustavo; Phillip, Ruy Paulo; Hurst, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Despite the potential of sandstone-filled normal faults to significantly influence fluid transmissivity within reservoirs and the shallow crust, they have to date been largely overlooked. Fluidized sand, forcefully intruded along normal fault zones, markedly enhances the transmissivity of faults and, in general, the connectivity between otherwise unconnected reservoirs. Here, we provide a detailed outcrop description and interpretation of sandstone-filled normal faults from different stratigraphic units in central California. Such faults commonly show limited fault throw, cm to dm wide apertures, poorly-developed fault zones and full or partial sand infill. Based on these features and inferences regarding their origin, we propose a general classification that defines two main types of sandstone-filled normal faults. Type 1 form as a consequence of the hydraulic failure of the host strata above a poorly-consolidated sandstone following a significant, rapid increase of pore fluid over-pressure. Type 2 sandstone-filled normal faults form as a result of regional tectonic deformation. These structures may play a significant role in the connectivity of siliciclastic reservoirs, and may therefore be crucial not just for investigation of basin evolution but also in hydrocarbon exploration.

  16. An experimental study of the response of the Galesville sandstone to simulated CAES conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, R L; Stottlemyre, J A; Smith, R P

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to determine how the mineralogical and physical characteristics of host rock formations are affected by environmental conditions anticipated for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous, permeable rock. In this study, Galesville sandstone cores were reacted in autoclave pressure vessels supporting one of four environments: dry air; heated, air-water vapor; heated, nitrogen-water vapor mixtures; and heated, compressed, liquid water. The simulated CAES environments were maintained in autoclave pressure vessels by controlling the following independent variables: temperature, pressure, time, oxygen content, carbon dioxide content, nitrogen content, and liquid volume. The dependent variables studied were: apparent porosity, gas permeability, water permeability, and friability. These variables were measured at ambient temperature and pressure before and after each sandstone sample was reacted in one of the CAES environments. The experiments gave the following results: the Galesville sandstone exhibited excellent stability in dry air at all temperatures tested (50/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and significant physical alterations occurred in sandstone samples exposed to liquid water above 150/sup 0/C. Samples shielded from dripping water exhibited excellent stability to 300/sup 0/C; sandstone may be a suitable storage media for heated, humid air provided elevated temperature zones are relatively free of mobile liquid water; and observed changes in the physical properties of the rock may have been caused, in part, by the lack of confining stress on the sample. The inability to apply confining pressure is a severe limitation of autoclave experiments.

  17. Provenance of zircon of the lowermost sedimentary cover, Estonia, East-European Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konsa, M.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bulk and accessory mineral composition of fresh and weathered crystalline rocks, and sedimentary deposits overlying the crystalline-sedimentary unconformity have been examined in core samples from 28 drill holes in Estonia. Before the Late Vendian to Early Cambrian regional subsidence and sedimentation, the region represented a flat plateau within the Svecofennian Domain. Palaeo-and Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks, regardless their different initial mineral composition, subcrop under the Upper Vendian/Lower Cambrian sedimentary cover as usually intensely weathered rocks (saprolites composed of residual quartz, altered micas and prevailing clay minerals mainly of the kaolinite group. Thus, the bulk mineral composition of any basement crystalline rocks imparts no specific inherited rock-forming minerals into the covering sedimentary rocks. From the variety of accessory and opaque minerals of crystalline rocks, only zircon populations survived in saprolites. Crystalline rocks of different origin yield different zircons. Relationships between the zircon typology of the basement rocks having specific areas of distribution and the sedimentary rocks immediately overlying those crystalline rocks were the main subject of this study. The result is that siliciclastic sedimentary rocks covering weathered crystalline rocks only in places inherited zircons with typological features characteristic of specific basement areas. In northeastern Estonia, local lenses of the Oru Member (the earliest Upper Vendian sedimentary rocks in Estonia resembling the debris of weathered crystalline rocks yield accessory zircon which in a 1-2 m thick layer above the basement surface is similar to the zircons of the underlying weathering mantle of certain crystalline rocks. In the next unit, the Moldova Member, up to 43 m above the basement surface, a mixture of zircons resembling those of various local basement rocks has been found. Further upwards, in the Vendian and Lower

  18. Estonia-filmi peaosas mängib Greta Scacchi : Jutta Rabe on leidnud oma filmile mõjuvõimsad toetajad / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Kavandatavast katastrooffilmist "Baltic Storm", mis on ajendatud väidetest, et parvlaev "Estonia" uputati. Stsenaristiks ja produtsendiks on saksa teleajakirjanik Jutta Rabe. Peaosalisi mängivad Greta Scacchi (41) ja Jürgen Prochnow (60)

  19. [Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Martin Klesment. Fertility development in Estonia during the second half of the XX century: the economic context and its implications. Tallinn: Tallinna Ülikool, 2010. (Tallinna Ülikooli sotsiaalteaduste dissertatsioonid, 46)

  20. Architecture of an Upper Jurassic barrier island sandstone reservoir, Danish Central Graben:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    An unusually thick (c. 88 m), transgressive barrier island and shoreface sandstone succession characterizes the Upper Jurassic Heno Formation reservoir of the Freja oil field situated on the boundary of Denmark and Norway. The development and preservation of such thick transgressive barrier island...... sands is puzzling since a barrier island typically migrates landwards during transgression and only a thin succession of back-barrier and shoreface sands is preserved. Investigation of the development and geometry of the Freja reservoir sandstones is problematic since the reservoir is buried c. 5 km...... and seismic resolution is inadequate for architectural analysis. Description of the reservoir sandstone bodies is thus based on sedimentological interpretation and correlation of seven wells, of which five were cored. Palaeotopography played a major role in the position and preservation of the thick reservoir...

  1. Concurrent nitrate and Fe(III) reduction during anaerobic biodegradation of phenols in a sandstone aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette; Crouzet, C.; Arvin, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of phenols (similar to 5, 60, 600 mg 1(-1)) under anaerobic conditions (nitrate enriched and unamended) was studied in laboratory microcosms with sandstone material and groundwater from within an anaerobic ammonium plume in an aquifer, The aqueous phase was sampled and analyzed...... for phenols and selected redox sensitive parameters on a regular basis. An experiment with sandstone material from specific depth intervals from a vertical profile across the ammonium plume was also conducted. The miniature microcosms used in this experiment were sacrificed for sampling for phenols...... and selected redox sensitive parameters at the end of the experiment. The sandstone material was characterized with respect to oxidation and reduction potential and Fe(II) and Fe(III) speciation prior to use for all microcosms and at the end of the experiments for selected microcosms. The redox conditions...

  2. Study of lixiviant damage of a sandstone deposit during in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Wensheng; Wang Limin; Jiang Yan; Jiang Guoping; Tan Yahui

    2014-01-01

    The permeability of sandstone deposit is a key factor for economical uranium recovery during in-situ leaching uranium. Low permeability sandstone uranium deposits behave low push-pull capacity, and show formation damage in leaching operations. It is important to study formation damage of permeability, therefore, and to stabilize even improve the push-pull power of drillholes during in-situ leaching. In this paper, formation damage caused by lixiviants was investigated based on a low permeability sandstone uranium deposit. The resulted showed that, under the conditions of in-situ leaching, the salinity of leaching fluid has no harm to formation permeability, on the contrary, the increment of salinity of lixiviant during in-situ leaching improve the permeability of the deposit. The alkalinity, hydrogen peroxide and productivity of the lixiviant cause no significant formation damage. But the fine particles in the lixiviant shows formation damage significantly, and the quantity of the particles should be controlled during production. (authors)

  3. Reviews on the metallogenic and geological features of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Chengkai; Huang Xianfang; Zhang Baoju

    2006-01-01

    Regional geologic settings of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan are firstly analyzed. The regional tectonic evolution characteristics of 'Green tuff region' and 'Non green tuff region' and their relationship with uranium mineralization are elaborated in depth. Based on those mentioned above, the uranium sources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan are discussed deeply and the most favorable uranium sources are considered to come from the basement and the surrounding granites. Their intrusive epochs range from Later Cretaceous to Palaeogene (about 60 to 70 Ma ago). The characteristics of ore-bearing host rocks, matter compositions of the deposits, ore formation enrichment factors, the hydrogeologic conditions and so on are described by taking Ningyo-Toge and Tono deposits as examples. Finally, the prospecting measures for the palaeo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposits (basal type) are reviewed. (authors)

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Strength and Deformation Behavior of Cataclastic Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Shao, J. F.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, W.

    2015-05-01

    This work is devoted to characterization of the deformation and strength properties of cataclastic sandstones. Before conducting mechanical tests, the physical properties were first examined. These sandstones are characterized by a loose damaged microstructure and poorly cemented contacts. Then, a series of mechanical tests including hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial compression tests were performed to study the mechanical strength and deformation of the sandstones. The results obtained show nonlinear stress-strain responses. The initial microcracks are closed at hydrostatic stress of 2.6 MPa, and the uniaxial compressive strength is about 0.98 MPa. Under triaxial compression, there is a clear transition from volumetric compressibility to dilatancy and a strong dependency on confining pressure. Based on the experimental evidence, an elastoplastic model is proposed using a linear yield function and a nonassociated plastic potential. There is good agreement between numerical results and experimental data.

  5. Possible application of underground leaching of uranium in ''sandstone'' deposits by drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareja, E.

    1988-01-01

    Underground leaching as the method for excavation of uranium from its sandstone deposits is applied in many countries. A preliminary examination of a possible use of this method to sandstone deposits in Poland suggests it to be analysed against the uranium mineralization, noted within sediments of the Lower Triassic age in the Peribaltic Syneclise in the Krynica Morska - Paslek area. Before a definite decision on such exploitation of uranium, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions should be studied of individual uranium-bearing beds, particularly their permeability and insulation by impermeable claystone series as well as extraction of uranium from its bearing sandstones. The depth at which uranium-bearing beds occur, forms a very important item. The depth at which uranium ores described in literature and exploited by this method occur, does not exceed 700 m. 7 refs. (author)

  6. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  7. Midwifery at the crossroads in Estonia: attitudes of midwives and other key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Rasch, Vibeke; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    were obtained by sending a 32-question questionnaire, based on an agenda developed through semistructured interviews, to all midwives in Estonia. A nominal group technique was employed with key stakeholders to determine the extent of their agreement with the questionnaire's major findings. RESULTS......: The response rate to the questionnaire was 75%. There was no significant association between work satisfaction and independent variables of age, ethnicity, work abroad, increased responsibility, and involvement in postpartum care and counseling. There was, however, a significant association between work...... satisfaction and salary. The group process revealed that although there is no agreement on the role of family doctors and midwives in antenatal care, there is a general agreement that midwives should be more involved in postpartum care and that their tasks need to be better defined. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half...

  8. Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars B; Sardinha, Luis B; Froberg, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of overweight have increased and fitness has decreased in children. Potentially, these changes may be a threat to future health. Numerous studies have measured changes in body mass index (BMI), but few have assessed the independent effects of low fitness, overweight and physical...... inactivity on cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study including 1 769 children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal. The main outcome was clustering of CVD risk factors. Independent variables were waist circumference, skinfolds, physical activity and cardio......-respiratory fitness. RESULTS: Both waist circumference and skinfolds were associated with clustered CVD risk. Odds ratios for clustered CVD risk for the upper quartiles compared with the lowest quartile were 9.13 (95% CI: 5.78-14.43) and 11.62 (95% CI: 7.11-18.99) when systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, insulin...

  9. Meteorite impact craters and possibly impact-related structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plado, Jüri

    2012-10-01

    Three structures (Neugrund, Kärdla, and Kaali) of proven impact origin make Estonia the most cratered country in the world by area. In addition, several candidate impact structures exist, waiting for future studies to determine their origin. This article is an overview of these proven and possible impact structures, including some breccia layers. It summarizes the information and descriptions of the morphology; geological characteristics; and mineralogical, chemical, and geophysical data available in the literature. The overview was prepared to make information in many earlier publications in local journals (many of which had been published in Estonian or Russian) accessible to the international community. This review summarizes the facts and observations in a historical fashion, summarizing the current state of knowledge with some additional comments, and providing the references.

  10. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  11. Perception of emotional nonsense sentences in China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on the identification of emotions in cross-cultural conditions on different continents and among subjects with divergent language backgrounds. The aim was to investigate whether the perception of the basic emotions from nonsense vocal samples was universal, dependent on voice quality, musicality, and/or gender. Listening tests for 350 participants were conducted on location in a variety of cultures: China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA. The results suggested that the voice quality parameters played a role in the identification of emotions without the linguistic content. Cultural background may affect the interpretation of the emotions more than the presumed universality. Musical interest tended to facilitate emotion identification. No gender differences were found.

  12. Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomik, Arvi; Liblik, Valdo

    1998-01-01

    As the world's largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of natural and artificial structure are formed, as well as 'mountainous' and hilly reliefs in the form of waste heaps, ash plateaus, coke-ash dumps etc. Deformed (stable) and undeformed (unstable) areas from underground mining currently cover about 220km 2 . About 90km 2 (80%) of the area damaged by open pits are recultivated and reformed as forested and agricultural (grassland) areas. The total area occupied by solid waste has reached up to 26km 2 . New technogenic landscape units, i.e. made by technical means, will essentially influence the environment

  13. Long-term deposition patterns of airborne wastes in the North-East of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasik, M.; Kaasik, H.

    1999-01-01

    The deposition loads of fly ash and sulfur have been high in the North-East Estonia since the late fifties, when the oil shale energetics, chemical and cement industry achieved the remarkable extent. The combined effects of both pollutants have seriously damaged sensitive ecosystems (forest on podsolic soils and bog). Most of sulphur deposition is closely related to the oil shale fly ash deposition. The main effects are related with alkalisation due to accumulation of fly ash components and the Sphagnum growth inhibition due to sulfur load. These effects have the time scale of several years or even more. The pollution loads have been changed during recent 40 years due to launching and reconstruction of enterprises (incl. purification systems) and variations of production capacity. First representative data on air pollution deposition originate from the middle of eighties. Only model estimations could be used to quantify the deposition fluxes before that time, as well as for assessing the future scenarios

  14. Changes in time series of some climate elements in Estonia in early spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russak, Viivi

    1999-01-01

    Systematic changes in some climate elements have become evident in Estonia during the latest decades; the greatest changes have been observed in March. Two possible causes may have led to the observed warming: changes in general atmospheric circulation and in radiation budget. Due to small solar evaluation and shortness of day the role of solar radiation in air temperature formation is not considerable in March. The absence of any significant trend in the time series of net long wave radiation in March seems to be caused by simultaneous and opposite influence of changes in downward and upward infrared radiation fluxes on temperature conditions near ground. In other seasons a significant increase in greenhouse effect has been established. Therefore, the changes in general atmospheric circulation should be considered the main reason of warming, while the role of solar radiation and greenhouse effect is not considerable in March

  15. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  16. The need and possible options for the use of renewable energy in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merdikes, M.; Kivistik, J.

    2002-01-01

    The decrease in fossil fuel and the environmental problems arising from their burning force the mankind to change the structure of energy production. In the Estonian primary energy balance of renewable natural resources wood and peat are on the first place with the percentage of ca 11%. Wind, water and solar energy have not up till now been widely used in Estonia. The foundation of a wind plant and the construction of bioenergy boiler plants are promising from the financial point of view. For the feedstock of bioenergy production, waste from logging and timber industry, energy fast-growing trees and grasses, bulrush and biogas produced by fermentation of organic matter, could be used. One of the options is to produce energy field crops - rape and turnip rape. The authors hope that this paper will emphasise the importance of conducting more extensive research of renewable energy resources and the introduction of such projects. (author)

  17. Organization and implementation of a national programme of regulatory control of sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation and radioactive material in fields such as medicine, industry, teaching and research is constantly increasing. Consequently, any country using ionizing radiation and radioactive material in these applications must ensure that they are used safely. In order to achieve this goal a country must establish appropriate national infrastructure related to radiation protection and safety. This requires appropriate regulatory mechanism together with an enforcement ability. The national infrastructure adopted in a country will depend on the actual needs of the country, the size and the complexity of the regulated practices and sources, as well as on the regulatory tradition in the country. The national infrastructure in Estonia comprises of three main components: legislation, regulatory authority, resources. (author)

  18. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  19. One Country, Two Polarised Audiences: Estonia and the Deficiency of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Jõesaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that until recent times, the Estonian media policy has mainly been interpreted as an economic issue and it did not account for the strategic need to build a comprehensive media field to serve all groups in society. This has happened despite the fact the Estonian media policy is in line with the European Union (EU media policy, which should ensure freedom of information, diversity of opinion and media pluralism. Findings of the Estonian case study show that despite these noble aims, Estonia has two radically different information fields: one for Estonian speaking audiences and one for Russian speakers. Events in Ukraine have added to the democratic media policy paradigm a question of national security. Now it is a challenge for the policy makers to unite polarised media fields and how to minimise the impact of Russian propaganda. On the EU level, one supportive measure could be a revision of the Audiovisual Media Service Directive.

  20. Intergenerational solidarity in family communication and childrearing among Russians living in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järva I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to ascertain the importance of intergenerational solidarity in communication within the family and childrearing among the Russians living in Estonia. Generations see the world differently enough. One of the reasons for that is individualistic worldview which characterizes not only the younger generation, but individualistic tendencies have percolated into other generationsas well. All generations admit the presence of a generation gap, but they disclaim presence of intergenerational conflict. At the same time respondents affirm that there is solidarity between generations in their families and it is based on love and respect. Solidarity between generations in families is revealed both on spiritual level (communicating, love, trust, mutual understanding, common interests as well as in real help given by generations to each other as far as homework, children's upbringing, and economical aid are concerned.

  1. Website Operators’ Liability for Offensive Comments: A Comparative Analysis of Delfi as v. Estonia and MTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlauskienė Jūratė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 and 2015, the ECtHR in the famous case of Delfi AS v. Estonia recognised the possibility for a website operator to be liable for the delayed removal of illegal comments of internet users. In this case the ECtHR formulated criteria for a website operator’s liability for damage caused to a third party by its visitor comments. The judgment of 2016 in the case of MTE & Index v. Hungary the ECtHR modified the criteria for a website operator’s liability, interpreting it to the benefit of web managers. This article seeks to reveal the criteria for the liability of a website operator and to draw some general guidance that can be applied in similar cases.

  2. The sedimentology of uranium-bearing sandstones on the farm Riet Kuil 307, Beaufort West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1980-10-01

    The sedimentology of four sandstones was studied in outcrop and in the subsurface on the farm Riet Kuil 307, near Beaufort West. Only two of these sandstones are mineralised. These are four surface and two subsurface uranium anomalies and one surface uranium anomaly. The sedimentological study was made by means of 47 vertical profiles measured across and adjacent to the surface anomalies as well as 11 core-logs, which intersected the subsurface anomalies. The unmineralised sandstones are included in this study. A total of 19 sedimentary facies was recognised within the fluvial sandstone sequence according to the criteria of grain-size and sedimentary structure. Transitions between the facies were subjected to a Markov chain analysis in order to delineate Markov-dependent transitions. Uranium mineralisation is almost entirely confined to the coarser-grained sedimentary facies, which probably acted as suitable aquifers for the transport of uraniferous solutions prior to the precipitation of the uranium. Horizontally bedded sandstone facies comprises 60 per cent of the total cumulative thickness of mineralisation. The nature of the bedding of this facies may have provided a more effective permeability zone for the transport of uraniferous solutions. This facies contains an abundance of carbonaceous material which acted as an important indirect reductant for the precipitation of uranium from solution. The direct reductant was most probably H 2 S produced by enaerobic bacteria acting on this carbonaceous material shortly after deposition of the sediments. Carbonaceous material also occurs in the other mineralised facies and is considered to be the major control on the mineralisation in the uranium-bearing sandstones

  3. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  4. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  5. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  6. Wettability of Chalk and Argillaceous Sandstones Assessed from T1/T2 Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Saidian, M.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    ratio can quantify the affinity between the rock and wetting pore fluid. The affinity is a measure directly linked to wettability. In order to investigate the T2-shortening, we performed T1-T2 NMR experiments on different samples of chalk, Berea sandstone, and chloritic greensand, saturated either...... with water, oil or oil/water at irreducible water saturation. The T1/T2 ratio obtained from T1-T2 maps reflects the T2-shortening. We compare the T1/T2 ratio for the same type of rock, saturated with different fluids. The chalk shows high affinity for water, Berea sandstone has no clear preference for oil...

  7. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...... burial depth from 340 to 2150 m. The carbonate cement is dominantly ferroan dolomite that occurs as dispersed patches of poikilotopic crystals. Temperatures of dolomite precipitation, based on delta O-18 values, range from 27 degrees C in the shallow buried to 95 degrees C in the deep buried sandstones...

  8. Low field NMR surface relaxivity studies of chalk and argillaceous sandstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Fordsmand, Henrik; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    the accuracy of predictions of petrophysical properties of various rocks with the use of NMR spectrometry. We perform laboratory transverse relaxation (T2) measurements on water saturated Gorm field chalk, Stevns Klint chalk, Solsort field greensand and Berea sandstone. These rocks are of particular interest...... field chalk and Solsort field greensand have higher ρ at higher Larmor frequency. By contrast, ρ of the purely calcitic Stevns chalk and quartzitic Berea sandstone proved not to be affected by the changes in frequency. T2 distributions at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 60 °C provided comparison...

  9. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from Khmer temples in Angkor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Novak, J.K.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Soukal, L.

    2009-01-01

    INAA was used to determine 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 21 Khmer temples in Angkor, Cambodia. The sandstone samples were also characterized by conventional optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The aim of this work was to examine the hypothesis that a particular elemental and/or mineral composition of the building materials can be characteristic of a particular architectural style/building period in the history of constructing the Angkor monuments. Preliminary results of this study are presented

  10. The effects of impure CO2 on reservoir sandstones: results from mineralogical and geomechanical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbler, H.; Erickson, K. P.; Schmidt, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Pöllmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    An experimental study of the behaviour of reservoir sandstones from deep saline aquifers during the injection and geological storage of CO2 with the inherent impurities SOX and NOX is part of the German national project COORAL*. Sample materials were taken from outcrops of possible reservoir formations of Rotliegend and Bunter Sandstones from the North German Basin. A combination of mineralogical alteration experiments and geomechanical tests was carried out on these rocks to study the potential effects of the impurities within the CO2 pore fluid. Altered rock samples after the treatment with CO2 + SOX/NOX in an autoclave system were loaded in a triaxial cell under in-situ pressure and temperature conditions in order to estimate the modifications of the geomechanical rock properties. Mineralogical alterations were observed within the sandstones after the exposure to impure supercritical (sc)CO2 and brine, mainly of the carbonatic, but also of the silicatic cements, as well as of single minerals. Besides the partial solution effects also secondary carbonate and minor silicate mineral precipitates were observed within the pore space of the treated sandstones. These alterations affect the grain structure of the reservoir rock. Results of geomechanical experiments with unaltered sandstones show that the rock strength is influenced by the degree of rock saturation before the experiment and the chemical composition of the pore fluid (scCO2 + SOX + NOX). After long-term autoclave treatment with impure scCO2, the sandstone samples exhibit modified strength parameters and elastic deformation behaviour as well as changes in porosity compared to untreated samples. Furthermore, the injected fluid volume into the pore space of sandstones from the same lithotype varies during triaxial loading depending on the chemistry of the pore fluid. CO2 with NOX and SOX bearing fluid fills a significantly larger proportion of the sandstone pore space than brine with pure scCO2. * The

  11. Thermophysical behavior of St. Peter sandstone: application to compressed air energy storage in an aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The long-term stability of a sandstone reservoir is of primary importance to the success of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers. The purpose of this study was to: develop experimental techniques for the operation of the CAES Porous Media Flow Loop (PMFL), an apparatus designed to study the stability of porous media in subsurface geologic environments, conduct experiments in the PMFL designed to determine the effects of temperature, stress, and humidity on the stability of candidate CAES reservoir materials, provide support for the CAES field demonstration project in Pittsfield, Illinois, by characterizing the thermophysical stability of Pittsfield reservoir sandstone under simulated field conditions.

  12. Detrital zircons from samples of five Neo proterozoic sandstone units deposited on Uruguay and Argentina: about evolution of paleographic Rio de la Plata craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Poire, D.G.; Pamoukaghlian, K.; Gomez Peral, L.; Finney, S.; Valencia, V.; Blanco, G.

    2007-01-01

    We report U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from samples of five Neoproterozoic sandstone units deposited on the Rio de la Plata Craton (RPC) in Uruguay and Argentina. Quartz-arenites of the Piedras de Afilar Formation show typical Transamazonian ages, with peaks at 2.00-2.07, 1.87 and 1.78 Ga. However, the most important zircon population is Mesoproterozoic, showing maxima at 1.49, 1.35, 1.25 and 1.0 Ga. Zircons recovered from two sandstone levels in the Arroyo del Soldado Group (Yerbal and Cerros San Francisco formations) are mostly Archean in age, with maxima at 3.2 and 2.7 Ga. Palaeoproterozoic zircons are also prominent in this unit, with peaks at 2.45 and 2.18, with the latter a typical Transamazonian age. Two samples from the Sierras Bayas Group in Tandilia (Argentina) show different age spectra. Sandstones of the Villa Monica Formation show a unimodal zircon population of Transamazonian age (peak at 2.13 Ga). Sandstones of the Cerro Largo Formation are characterized by a dominant Transamazonian zircon population (peaks at 2.15, 2.0 and 1.79), but also important Archean-lowermost Palaeoproterozoic (3.33, 2.99, 2.7, 2.47 Ga) and Mesoproterozoic peaks (1.55, 1.23 and 1.06). The abundance of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons is surprising. A proto-Andean, Mesoproterozoic belt is suggested as the source of the Mesoproterozoic detritus. Archean rocks of the RPC crop out only in the Nico Perez Terrane in Uruguay, suggesting that the Nico Perez Terrane was much closer to Tandilia than it is today. The sinistral reactivation of the Sarandi del Yi Shear Zone in the Cambrian, as a result of tangential collision of the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas Terrane, may explain this observations. The absence of Neoproterozoic zircons shows that the studied units were deposited in a stable continental margin opening to the East and South. These Neoproterozoic basins had obviously no contribution whatsoever from Brasiliano-Pan African belts, supporting the idea of Cambrian terrane

  13. Multinomial Logistic Regression & Bootstrapping for Bayesian Estimation of Vertical Facies Prediction in Heterogeneous Sandstone Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhafar, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Precisely prediction of rock facies leads to adequate reservoir characterization by improving the porosity-permeability relationships to estimate the properties in non-cored intervals. It also helps to accurately identify the spatial facies distribution to perform an accurate reservoir model for optimal future reservoir performance. In this paper, the facies estimation has been done through Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) with respect to the well logs and core data in a well in upper sandstone formation of South Rumaila oil field. The entire independent variables are gamma rays, formation density, water saturation, shale volume, log porosity, core porosity, and core permeability. Firstly, Robust Sequential Imputation Algorithm has been considered to impute the missing data. This algorithm starts from a complete subset of the dataset and estimates sequentially the missing values in an incomplete observation by minimizing the determinant of the covariance of the augmented data matrix. Then, the observation is added to the complete data matrix and the algorithm continues with the next observation with missing values. The MLR has been chosen to estimate the maximum likelihood and minimize the standard error for the nonlinear relationships between facies & core and log data. The MLR is used to predict the probabilities of the different possible facies given each independent variable by constructing a linear predictor function having a set of weights that are linearly combined with the independent variables by using a dot product. Beta distribution of facies has been considered as prior knowledge and the resulted predicted probability (posterior) has been estimated from MLR based on Baye's theorem that represents the relationship between predicted probability (posterior) with the conditional probability and the prior knowledge. To assess the statistical accuracy of the model, the bootstrap should be carried out to estimate extra-sample prediction error by randomly

  14. The controlling role of positive structures over the metallogenesis and emplacement of inter layer oxidation sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kangheng; Chen Zuyi

    2010-01-01

    The positive structures in this paper mean the geological structures related to the occurrence of U-metallogenic zones or U-deposit such as anticlines, uplifts and uplifted fault-blocks. Occurrence features of interlayer oxidation sandstone type deposit at the southern margin of Yili basin and southwestern margin of Turpan-Hami basin, the northeastern margin of Jiudong basin illustrate that the sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, the U-mineralized sections and the uranium occurrences are always selectively emplaced on/in positive structures. The reasons for this lie in the formation mechanism of sandstone-hosted U-deposits. The positive structures raised the elevation of ore-hosting sandstone horizon and make it close to ground surface or exposed at the ground surface, which result in the infiltration of uranium and oxygen bearing groundwater from recharge area into host sandstone horizon, and the interlayer oxidation of host sandstone, as well as the dissolution and the migration of uranium in host sandstone, and the reduction mineralization at the oxidation-reduction interface. Sufficient attention should be paid to the controlling role of positive structures over the metallogenesis and emplacement of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits. They could act as an important criterion for recognizing and prognosticating potential uranium mineralized areas in uranium metallogenic zones or uranium-productive sedimentary basins. (authors)

  15. Permeability model of tight reservoir sandstones combining core-plug and miniperm analysis of drillcore; longyearbyen co2lab, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnabosco, Cara; Braathen, Alvar; Ogata, Kei

    2014-01-01

    Permeability measurements in Mesozoic, low-permeability sandstone units within the strata cored in seven drillholes near Longyearbyen, Svalbard, have been analysed to assess the presence of aquifers and their potentials as reservoirs for the storage of carbon dioxide. These targeted sandstones are

  16. Lack of inhibiting effect of oil emplacement on quartz cementation: Evidence from Cambrian reservoir sandstones, Paleozoic Baltic Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molenaar, Nicolaas; Cyziene, Jolanta; Sliaupa, Saulius

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the question of whether or not the presence of oil in sandstone inhibits quartz cementation and preserves porosity is still debated. Data from a number of Cambrian sandstone oil fields and dry fields have been studied to determine the effects of oil emplacement on quartz cementation. T...

  17. Characterizing flow pathways in a sandstone aquifer: Tectonic vs sedimentary heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, G.; West, L. J.; Mountney, N. P.

    2016-11-01

    Sandstone aquifers are commonly assumed to represent porous media characterized by a permeable matrix. However, such aquifers may be heavy fractured when rock properties and timing of deformation favour brittle failure and crack opening. In many aquifer types, fractures associated with faults, bedding planes and stratabound joints represent preferential pathways for fluids and contaminants. In this paper, well test and outcrop-scale studies reveal how strongly lithified siliciclastic rocks may be entirely dominated by fracture flow at shallow depths (≤ 180 m), similar to limestone and crystalline aquifers. However, sedimentary heterogeneities can primarily control fluid flow where fracture apertures are reduced by overburden pressures or mineral infills at greater depths. The Triassic St Bees Sandstone Formation (UK) of the East Irish Sea Basin represents an optimum example for study of the influence of both sedimentary and tectonic aquifer heterogeneities in a strongly lithified sandstone aquifer-type. This fluvial sedimentary succession accumulated in rapidly subsiding basins, which typically favours preservation of complete depositional cycles including fine grained layers (mudstone and silty sandstone) interbedded in sandstone fluvial channels. Additionally, vertical joints in the St Bees Sandstone Formation form a pervasive stratabound system whereby joints terminate at bedding discontinuities. Additionally, normal faults are present through the succession showing particular development of open-fractures. Here, the shallow aquifer (depth ≤ 180 m) was characterized using hydro-geophysics. Fluid temperature, conductivity and flow-velocity logs record inflows and outflows from normal faults, as well as from pervasive bed-parallel fractures. Quantitative flow logging analyses in boreholes that cut fault planes indicate that zones of fault-related open fractures characterize 50% of water flow. The remaining flow component is dominated by bed-parallel fractures

  18. The Upper Permian sandstones of Mountains Mecsek: form elements of uranium ore mineralization and facies relations Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, Janos; Somogyi, Janos

    1984-01-01

    The ore mineralization in the Upper Permian sandstones of Mountais Mecsek, Hungary, was brought about at the oxidation-reduction front between the grey and red sandstones; the predominant rock colour here is green. The sandstones of different colour are oxidation-reduction species. The formation is a megacycle containing in its core grey sandstones of reduced state with coalified plant remains and in its mantle oxidized red sandstones. Uranium accumulates mainly in the transitional green facies. Uranium content gets enriched to a commercial concentration only if the difference in potential of neighbouring beds is in the range of 400-480 mV. The relationship between organic matter and uranium content in the individual facies is shown. The principles of oxidation-reduction processes in the formation of boundary facies are discussed. (V.N.)

  19. Study on U-Ra equilibrium coefficient of the in-situ leaching sandstone-type uranium deposits: A case study of Qianjiadian uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Xiu Qunye; Han Jun; Li Linqiang; Zheng Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the U-Ra equilibrium coefficient (K-p) of mineralized sandstone and mudstone, and unmineralized sandstone and mudstone for the in-situ leaching sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is surprised that all of the mineralized sandstone and mudstone are both relatively to be partial to uranium, but all of the unmineralized sandstone and mudstone are both relatively to be partial to radium. Meanwhile the uranium in mineralized mudstone is relatively richer than that in mineralized sandstone, and the radium in unmineralized mudstone is relatively richer than that in unmineralized sandstone. It is suggested that mudstones were permeable at the uranium mineralized phase and the unmineralized mudstone and sandstone could serve as important mineralized uranium source. (authors)

  20. Early cretaceous Obernirchen and Bentheim sandstones from Germany used as dimension stone in the Netherlands: geology physical properties, architectural use and comparative weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubelaar, C.W.; Nijland, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands, with only scarce occurrences of outcropping or shallow buried natural stone, has over centuries imported huge quantities of Early Cretaceous Bentheim Sandstone and Obernkirchen Sandstone from Germany. The present paper provides an overview of their distribution and properties

  1. ‘Looking like my favourite Barbie’ – Online Gender Construction of Tween Girls in Estonia and in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Siibak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse how tween girls in Estonia and in Sweden describe and discover their gender identities when selecting profile images for social networking sites (SNSs. To this end, interviews with tweens in Estonia (N=21 and in Sweden (N=31 were carried out. As SNSs largely exist without the recognisable surveillance of adults, children can explore the social matrix of relating to others, and they also feel safe to try out and display different constructions and reconstructions of their identity. At the same time, in communicating online, impression management is formulated with constant worry about how to construct one’s virtual identity so that it will be appreciated and accepted by one’s peer group. In this article, our analysis focuses on the most popular posing strategies used by tween girls, which, it turns out, are often marked by reproduction of the dominant heterosexual cultural norms and values.

  2. [The self-perception of their professional role of the primary care physicians of Estonia and Finland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virjo, I O; Mattila, K J; Lember, M; Kermes, R; Pikk, A; Isokoski, M K

    1997-05-15

    To find out how experienced primary care physicians working in different societies see themselves as doctors. A cross-sectional study. Primary health care in Estonia and Finland. Estonian district doctors (n = 110) and Finnish specialists of general practice (n = 211). In a postal questionnaire the respondents were asked to evaluate how well 18 different expressions described them as doctors on a 5-step scale from "1 = very poorly" to "5 = very well". Four of the five expressions that were thought most accurate and telling--"Listener", "Vocational doctor", "Helper", and "Family physician"--were the same in Estonia and Finland. Even though there are differences in health care systems, the self-images of primary care doctors in both countries were more or less consistent with the international definitions of the general practitioner's job and role.

  3. Independence and Interdependence Values in Changing Societies: A Three-Generation Comparative Study in Estonia, Germany, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirko Tõugu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Independent and interdependent self-construal values of three generations and the intergenerational similarity of self-construal was compared in three countries. The participants were 837 adolescents, their mothers (227 from Russia, 311 from Germany, and 299 from Estonia and 293 maternal grandmothers. In Germany, all three generations displayed higher scores on independence than participants from other countries. Russian participants had higher scores on interdependence compared to participants from other countries. Adolescents scored significantly higher on the interdependent self-construal than the two older generations, and higher than the mothers’ generation on the independent self-construal. Grandmothers’ self-construal was related to mothers’ in all three countries. In Germany and Estonia, mothers’ interdependent self-construal was related to adolescents’ interdependent self-construal. Grandmothers’ (but not mothers’ independent self-construal predicted adolescents’ independent self-construal. The results are discussed in light of the Family Change Theory and the different roles the participants have.

  4. The oldest ascocerid cephalopod from the Silurian of Estonia and notes on the biogeography of the order Ascocerida (class Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Aubrechtova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The early Palaeozoic order Ascocerida is a group of morphologically unique and rare cephalopods known from the Ordovician and Silurian rocks of Avalonia, Baltica, Laurentia and Perunica. The limited Estonian record of Silurian ascocerids is complemented with a specimen from the Pähkla locality (Island of Saaremaa; Paadla Regional Stage, Ludlow Series representing the stratigraphically oldest known occurrence of ascocerids in the Silurian of Estonia. The strata that were formerly exposed in Pähkla are likely correlated to the Hemse Group of the Island of Gotland (Sweden having a remarkable record of ascocerids. The appearance of Silurian ascocerids in Estonia is confined to a time interval when the group had the highest species diversity and the widest geographic dispersion, reaching also outside Baltica for the first time.

  5. Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Renata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

  6. Reconnaissance of promising areas for sandstone type uranium deposits in the Urmia-Naqadeh-Mahabad basin, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hezareh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Urmia-Naqadeh-Mahabad basin is a part of the south and west Urmia Lake drainage basin that covers some parts of East-and-West Azerbaijan and northern Kurdistan. This study is the integration of geological, hydrological, remote sensing, geochemical and airborne geophysical data classifying promising areas that are related to sandstone type uranium (U mineralization in Iran. Based on positive factors such as favorable source, host rocks and suitable hydrological pattern, this basin is a favorable basin in Iran. According to the characteristics of lithology, tectonic, sedimentary environment, geotectonics and etc. the basin could be classified into favorable, promising and possible subbasins for mineralization of U sandstone type. Material and methods Geological data show that this region is a part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone and consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks which are covered by younger sedimentary and volcano-sedimentary rocks that are influenced by different metamorphic phases. More than 7597 stream sediment samples from the area have been analyzed for Se،V، Mo، As،Cu، Ag، Zn، Co، Ni، Pb، Ti، Th، Zr، P and Sn. The basin is divided into 11 individual sub-basins. Radiometric data of the basin have been acquisitioned during 1976-1978 by an Australian-German- French Company with line separation of 500 meters and 120 meters of nominal terrain clearance. Remote sensing data reveals that the western subbasin is suitable for sandstone type uranium mineralization. Based on geochemical evidences, the Au, Zn, Sn, As and Pb elements were enriched. Geophysical investigation reveals that the Eastern basin includes high amounts of U and low amounts of Th. Hydrogeological study demonstrates that the trend of groundwater is from the west to the east. Geochemical data revealed that we can divide the basin into 11 subbasins which are characterized as follows: 1. Ghara Aghaj (126 Km2, North to south trend is situated at the

  7. Problems faced by Western expatriate managers in Eastern Europe: Evidence provided by Finnish expatriates in Russia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A common human resource management strategy among Western companies in international operations is the use of home-country expatriate managers although expatriate adjustment has been found to involve difficulties. In the light of this the present study analyses the issues faced by Finnish expatriate managers working in Russia or Estonia. Three aspects were studied: adaptation to society, adaptation at the work place, and company-level management problems with which expatriates have to deal in...

  8. Rahvusooper Estonia annab 5. V oma 99. hooaja viimase etenduse "Luikede järv" / Kaido Padar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padar, Kaido

    2005-01-01

    Kella 12-15 on linnaelanikud ja külalised kutsutud hooaega lõpetama ja saatma Estonia maja remonti. Tutvustatakse remondi-ehitusprogrammi, ekraanidel näeb videot Estoniast, lapsed saavad rasvakriidiga joonistada "Unistuste ooperimaja" ja tutvuda kostüümidega, saalis on noorteprojektides osalenute paremate tööde näitus, saab pildistada ja filmida teatri ruume jpm.

  9. Cross-cultural comparisons of bullying among university students : perspectives from Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Maili; Cvancara, Kristen; Kaal, Esta; Tampere, Kaja; Torres, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The chapter compares bullying experiences among university students between four countries and aims to provide an understanding of the cultural features which might affect these experiences. We start by providing a summary of the results from a cross-cultural survey conducted among undergraduate students in Argentina, Estonia, Finland and the United States. We continue discussing the ways in which the current cultural, political, historical and economic status and challenges in...

  10. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  11. Prediction of calcite Cement Distribution in Shallow Marine Sandstone Reservoirs using Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, N.E.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis investigates how calcite cemented layers can be detected by reflection seismic data and how seismic data combined with other methods can be used to predict lateral variation in calcite cementation in shallow marine sandstone reservoirs. Focus is on the geophysical aspects. Sequence stratigraphy and stochastic modelling aspects are only covered superficially. Possible sources of calcite in shallow marine sandstone are grouped into internal and external sources depending on their location relative to the presently cemented rock. Well data and seismic data from the Troll Field in the Norwegian North Sea have been analysed. Tuning amplitudes from stacks of thin calcite cemented layers are analysed. Tuning effects are constructive or destructive interference of pulses resulting from two or more closely spaced reflectors. The zero-offset tuning amplitude is shown to depend on calcite content in the stack and vertical stack size. The relationship is found by regression analysis based on extensive seismic modelling. The results are used to predict calcite distribution in a synthetic and a real data example. It is found that describing calcite cemented beds in shallow marine sandstone reservoirs is not a deterministic problem. Hence seismic inversion and sequence stratigraphy interpretation of well data have been combined in a probabilistic approach to produce models of calcite cemented barriers constrained by a maximum amount of information. It is concluded that seismic data can provide valuable information on distribution of calcite cemented beds in reservoirs where the background sandstones are relatively homogeneous. 63 refs., 78 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Gravity-induced stress as a factor reducing decay of sandstone monuments in Petra, Jordan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řihošek, J.; Bruthans, J.; Mašín, D.; Filippi, Michal; Carling, G. T.; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1 May (2016), s. 415-425 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Decay * Petra * sandstone monument * stability * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016

  13. Spherical and ellipsoidal cavities in European sandstones: a product of sinking carbonate dissolution front

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří; Mikuláš, Radek; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 123-149 ISSN 0372-8854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806; GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : symmetrical cavities * solutional landforms * cavernous weathering * tafoni * sandstone * concretions * carbonate dissolution front Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  14. Prospect analysis for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the northern margin of Qaidam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Song Xiansheng; Feng Wei; Song Zhe; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    Affected by the regional geological structural evolution, a set of sedimentary structure, i.e. the construction of coal-bearing classic rocks which is in favor of the sandstone-type uranium mineralization has deposited in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin since Meso-Cenozoic. A NWW thrust nappe tectonic belt, i.e. the ancient tectonic belt which is the basis for the development of ancient interlayer oxidation zone formed by the tectonic reverse in late Jurassic and Cretaceous. The Mid and late Jurassic layer was buried by the weak extension in Paleogene and the depression in early Neogene. The extrusion reversal from late Neogene to Quaternary made the basin into the development era of the modern interlayer oxidation zone. It can be concluded that the layer of the northern margin of Qaidam Basin has the premise for the formation of sandstone-type uranium ore. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the thrust belt, the structure of the purpose layer, the sand body, the hydrogeology, the interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization, the results indicated that the ancient interlayer oxidation zone is the prospecting type of sandstone-type uranium ore. Beidatan and the east of Yuqia are the favorable prospective area of sandstone-type uranium mineralization. (authors)

  15. Application research on remote sensing geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiwu

    2002-01-01

    Based on remote sensing images and practical materials, and new ideas of laying particular emphasis on the research of regional geologic structures, and large in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits, applying the theory of plate tectonics, the author makes a comprehensive analysis on the uranium metallogenic environments, characteristics of regional geologic structures, the ore-controlling mechanism and factors, and uranium metallogeny. Authors propose that large interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits are controlled by the combination of the stable block in Meso-Cenozoic compressive-shearing faulted subsided basin on the Yili multiphase massif in Tianshan paleo-island arc system, and the specific paleo-geographic environments and its' structural terrace'. The origin of hydrogenic sandstone-type uranium deposits is summarized by the authors as the 'mixing and neutralization' genetic model, and the 'eight ore-controlling factors merge into an organic whole' prospecting model. The above mentioned provides clear prospecting direction and new ideas for the forecasting direction for prospecting large sandstone-type uranium deposits

  16. A new biostratigraphical tool for reservoir characterisation and well correlation in permo-carboniferous sandstones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Cremer, H.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Guasti, E.; Abbink, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Permo-Carboniferous sandstones are important reservoir rocks for natural gas in the Southern North Sea basin. This is a mature area which makes tools for reservoir characterization and well to well correlation important for field optimalisation and ongoing exploration activities. Within the

  17. Recent Atmospheric Deposition and its Effects on Sandstone Cliffs in Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Dobešová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 220, 1/4 (2011), s. 117-130 ISSN 0049-6979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : acid deposition * sandstone percolates * chemical weathering * salt efflorescence * Black Triangle * aluminum * sulfates Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.625, year: 2011

  18. Sensibility test for uranium ores from Qianjiadian sandstone type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingyu

    2005-01-01

    Sensibility tests for uranium ores from Qianjiadian sandstone type uranium deposit in Songliao Basin which is suitable to in-situ leach are carried out, including water sensibility, velocity sensibility, salt sensibility, acid sensibility and alkaline sensibility. The sensibility critical value of this ore is determined. Some references on mining process and technical parameter are provided for in-situ leaching of uranium. (authors)

  19. Combined rock-physical modelling and seismic inversion techniques for characterisation of stacked sandstone reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, Y.; Diephuis, G.; Veenhof, R.; Pringle, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to characterise the Triassic massive stacked sandstone deposits of the Main Buntsandstein Subgroup at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The

  20. Structure and fluid evolution of Yili basin and their relation to sandstone type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juntang; Wang Chengwei; Feng Shirong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the summary of strata and structure distribution of Yili basin, the relation of structure and fluid evolution to sandstone type ur alum mineraliation are analyzed. It is found that uranium mineralization in Yili basin experienced ore hosting space forming, pre-alteration of hosting space, hosting space alteration and uranium formation stages. (authors)