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Sample records for sands project area

  1. Sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) abundance and diversity in areas affected by the São Francisco River transposition project in Ceará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Silva, Júlia; Caranha, Lindemberg; Moura Santos, Fabrício Kássio; Dos Santos, Antonio Pereira; Rodrigues da Silva, Luiz Osvaldo; Ferreira Rangel, Elizabeth

    2017-08-29

    Entomological surveillance of sand fly vectors was carried out to support leishmaniasis prevention and control measures in areas affected by the São Francisco River Transposition Project. Sand flies were collected monthly between May 2011 and December 2014 in seven municipalities: Missão Velha, Brejo Santo, Lavras da Mangabeira, Iguatu, Mauriti, Jaguaribe and Jaguaretama, in dwellings, peridomicile and forest areas for three consecutive days, for a period of 12 h each day (18:00 to 06:00 h). Differences in species composition between sites were tested with Shannon's diversity index, the similarity between habitats was estimated by the Sørensen's qualitative similarity index and, for the most abundant species in each municipality, a standardized index of species abundance was applied. The influence of climatic factors on sand fly population densities was analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. A total of 214,213 sand fly specimens belonging to 18 species were captured. The most abundant species in all municipalities was Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The municipalities of Mauriti and Missão Velha stand out in terms of high species richness, with the latter exhibiting the greatest diversity. The number of sand flies in the Iguatu, Jaguaribe and Jaguaretama municipality was higher during the rainy months, whereas the populations declined in the drier months; the sand fly population density in other municipalities (Missão Velha, Brejo Santo, Lavras de Mangabeira and Mauriti) showed negative correlation with rainfall. This study confirms the presence of several Leishmania spp. vectors in the seven municipalities affected by the São Francisco River Transposition Project, with Lu. longipalpis being the most abundant species at all study sites. Vector populations in these municipalities should be monitored, ultimately to assess the associations between environmental changes and sand fly population dynamics and leishmaniasis transmission

  2. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  3. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-09-30

    The status of government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States during August 1978 is summarized. Background information is given in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. One of the largest massive Hydraulic Fracture (MHF) treatment to date was performed on Gas Producing Enterprises Well No. CIGE 2-29. C.H. Atkinson, Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP) Manager and D.C. Bleakly, CER Corporation were observers. Oriented coring operations on the Mitchell Energy well, Muse-Duke No. 1 were observed by Atkinson and Bleakly near Mexia, Texas. The Fourth Annual Department of Energy Symposium on Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Improved Drilling Methods was held on August 29-31, 1978 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The USGS continued geological and geophysical studies in the four primary study areas. Low-level oblique photography of Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks exposed in the Rock Springs Uplift area was completed, and core from the J.C. Paine well in Montana was sampled for petrograhic analysis. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on the improved pressure coring system and anticipates completion of the project by September 30, 1978. Preliminary work began on the Parametric Analysis of MHF Test Data, an Engineering Study of Western Gas Sands, by Intercomp. The National Laboratories, funded by DOE are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1, has reached total depth and was logged on August 31, 1978. The DOE well test facility was moved from the RB-MHF 3 well in Colorado to Vernal, Utah for trailer modifications and checkout.

  4. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  5. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  6. Western Gas Sands Project: status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Progress of the major government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low permeability gas sands of the western United States during March 1978 is summarized. The Bartlesville Energy Research Center (BERC) and participating National Laboratories, funded by DOE, are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on the development of new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling and data analysis. Field Tests and demonstrations active in the Uinta and Piceance Basins include: Gas Producing Enterprises (GPE) Natural Buttes Unit Wells No. 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Well No. F-31-13G, and Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company, Well No. 498-4-1. Gas Producing Enterprises Natural Buttes Unit Well No. 9 was fractured on March 27, 1978. The treatment consisted of 554,000 pounds of sand and 349,000 gallons of gel. Mitchell Energy Corporation of Houston, Texas was awarded Department of Energy Contract EF-78-C-08-1547 on March 15, 1978. Field work under this contract is scheduled to begin on June 15, 1978, with the drilling of a new well.

  7. [Research progress on plant diversity conservation in sand dune areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-min; Ma, Jun-ling

    2008-01-01

    The landscape in sand dune areas is characterized by the alternate distribution of sand dune and interdune lowland, and the unique floras in these areas are some endemic or rare plant species. In recent years, the decrease in plant species richness and the disappearance of some endemic or rare plant species in these areas have been received special attention, which were listed in the Program of International Biodiversity Conservation, and studied in many countries and districts. In this paper, the research progress in these fields was summarized from the aspects of significance of plant diversity conservation, formation mechanisms of plant diversity, ways of plant diversity conservation, roles of plant diversity research in the development of ecological theories, and important issues in operating plant diversity conservation project. To conserve plant diversity in sand dune areas, attentions should be paid to the differences in conservation goals (to maintain high species richness or to conserve endemic or rare species) among different regions, and the balances between the stabilization of active sand and the conservation of endemic or rare species, and the maintenance of high species richness and the conservation of endemic or rare species. It needed also to consider the sand dune and the interdune lowland as a unified landscape unit to explore the impacts of disturbances and habitat fragment on plant diversity.

  8. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  9. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  10. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  11. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  12. Drift sands, lakes, and soils: the multiphase Holocene history of the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; Koster, E.A.; van Geel, B.; Wallinga, J.

    2013-01-01

    A unique complex of multiphased Holocene drift sands and paleosols, with at least two lacustrine phases, was discovered during a major sanitation project in the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands. The complex could be studied in detail, highly facilitated by the excellent and larg

  13. New international developments in oil sands projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercoe, J. [Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Governments and oil companies from a variety of different countries are now working to create alternative oil and gas operations and the policies required to enable their financial success. The Africa Energy Commission was developed to coordinate policy and act as a framework for the African energy sector. Several large oil and gas operators have become involved in the creation of new contracts to develop training and human resources policies for the petroleum industry in Congo. Issues related to national oil companies and value creation in African countries are currently being studied by the World Bank. A biofuel alliance was recently signed between Congo and Brazil, and a Congo Forest Fund has also been created to help the inhabitants of the Congolese rainforest protect their environment. Congo is also offering opportunities for international companies to implement greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs to trade emission credits when requirements are satisfied. It was concluded that several African countries are suitable candidates for oil sands development. 1 fig.

  14. Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  15. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  16. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of sand dunes in... Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.11 Evaluation of sand dunes in...-established with long-standing vegetative cover, such as the placement of sand materials in a...

  17. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    The '500-foot' sand is the major source of water supply for the Memphis area. Thick layers of impervious clay above and below the sand confine the water in the aquifer under artesian pressure and also protect the aquifer from contamination. Recharge from rainfall enters the '500-foot' sand in the outcrop, or intake area south and east of Memphis. Recharge from other aquifers enters the sand wherever the confining beds are breached or absent. Some of the recharge that enters the '500-foot' sand in eastern Arkansas moves down the gradients created by pumping in the Memphis area. All discharge from the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area results from well pumping. Since 1886 continuous withdrawals at gradually increasing rates of pumping have lowered water levels and altered hydraulic gradients in the area. These withdrawals have resulted in changes in direction and velocity of movement of water through the '500-foot' sand. Water in the sand in the southeaster n part of the Memphis area normally moves from the (outcrop area east and south of Memphis northwestward toward points of withdrawal. In the northwestern part of the area, water moves southeastward toward points of withdrawal. A flow-net analysis of the aquifer shows that the rate of water movement through the '500-foot' sand in 1964, toward the major cones of depression in the Memphis area, was about 350 feet per year, or 1 mile in 15 years. A flow-net analysis projected for the year 1975 indicates the rate will increase by about 20 percent in the 12-year period 1964-75. Water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area is generally a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate type. It is soft, low in dissolved solids, high in concentrations of iron and carbon dioxide, and slightly to moderately corrosive. The softest and least mineralized water occurs in the southeastern part of the area, and the water becomes slightly harder and more mineralized as it moves downdip toward Memphis. The hardest and most mineralized

  18. Drift sands, lakes, and soils: the multiphase Holocene history of the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; Koster, E.A.; Geel, van B.; Wallinga, J.

    2013-01-01

    A unique complex of multiphased Holocene drift sands and paleosols, with at least two lacustrine phases, was discovered during a major sanitation project in the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands. The complex could be studied in detail, highly facilitated by the excellent and larg

  19. Drift sands, lakes and soils: the multiphase Holocene history of the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; Koster, E.A.; van Geel, B.; Wallinga, J.

    2013-01-01

    A unique complex of multiphased Holocene drift sands and paleosols, with at least two lacustrine phases, was discovered during a major sanitation project in the Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, the Netherlands. The complex could be studied in detail, highly facilitated by the excellent and larg

  20. Geologic report on the Sand Wash Drilling Project, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.E.; Wayland, T.E.

    1981-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Drilling Project comprises twenty-seven (27) drill holes located in Moffat and Routt Counties, northwest Colorado, having an aggregate depth of 26,107.5 feet (7957.6 m). The holes penetrate the Browns Park Formation of Miocene age, which is a tuffaceous continental sandstone deposited in fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments. Partly based on project drilling results, uranium potential resource estimates for this formation in the $50/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ forward-cost category have been increased by 34,476 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (35,036 metric tons). Three areas between Maybell and Craig, Colorado, considered favorable for uranium occurrences were verified as favorable by project drilling, and a fourth favorable area northwest of Maybell has been expanded. In addition, project drilling results indicate two new favorable areas, one north and northwest and one south of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Anomalous radioactivity was detected in drill holes in all six study areas of the project. The most important factor in concentrating significant amounts of uranium in the target formation appears to be the availability of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons and/or hydrogen sulfide gas as reductants. Where subjacent formations supply these reductants to the Browns Park Formation, project drilling encountered 0.05 percent to 0.01 percent uranium concentrations. Potential, though unproven, sources of these reductants are believed to underlie parts of all six project study areas.

  1. Environmental impact assessment in the Alberta oil sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, I.B.; Herasymuik, G.; Schmidt, N.; Kovats, Z.; Clipperton, K. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the activities associated with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in oil sands operations in Alberta were reviewed with particular reference to key regional issues such as instream flow needs (IFN), basal water management, lake acidification potential, and climate change. The proven approaches to maintain timelines and maximize success were also discussed with reference to the factors that can be managed to promote an efficient application, review and approval process. It was noted that although the EIA process is well-defined and robust, it is evolving due to new challenges such as increasingly complex tools and new regulations. Alberta's Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) continuously refines environmental objectives for NOx, SOx, surface water, and the Muskeg River and the Athabasca River watersheds. In particular, much effort has gone into determining the water withdrawals from the Athabasca River during the winter months and its effect on resident fish populations. Operators must determine the viability of a project if studies of IFN indicate that there is limited river flow available for abstraction. This paper identified several factors that can be addressed to keep the process on schedule. These include planning, understanding issues, completing baseline surveys, and commanding the attention of regulators. 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  2. Integration of the White Sands Complex into a Wide Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Phillip Larry; Horan, Sheila, B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Complex (WSC) satellite communications facility consists of two main ground stations, an auxiliary ground station, a technical support facility, and a power plant building located on White Sands Missile Range. When constructed, terrestrial communication access to these facilities was limited to copper telephone circuits. There was no local or wide area communications network capability. This project incorporated a baseband local area network (LAN) topology at WSC and connected it to NASA's wide area network using the Program Support Communications Network-Internet (PSCN-I). A campus-style LAN is configured in conformance with the International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (ISO) model. Ethernet provides the physical and data link layers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) are used for the network and transport layers. The session, presentation, and application layers employ commercial software packages. Copper-based Ethernet collision domains are constructed in each of the primary facilities and these are interconnected by routers over optical fiber links. The network and each of its collision domains are shown to meet IEEE technical configuration guidelines. The optical fiber links are analyzed for the optical power budget and bandwidth allocation and are found to provide sufficient margin for this application. Personal computers and work stations attached to the LAN communicate with and apply a wide variety of local and remote administrative software tools. The Internet connection provides wide area network (WAN) electronic access to other NASA centers and the world wide web (WWW). The WSC network reduces and simplifies the administrative workload while providing enhanced and advanced inter-communications capabilities among White Sands Complex departments and with other NASA centers.

  3. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  4. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 January 1979--31 January 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-01

    Aim is to increase gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western U.S. Progress is reported on: project management, resource assessment, R and D at various facilities, and field tests and demonstrations. (DLC)

  5. Heavy Equipment Use Areas at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon shapefile showing areas where heavy equipment use is permitted at Sand Creek Massacre NHS. The coordinates for this dataset were heads up...

  6. OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES ON SAND-DUST STORM IN HELAN MOUNTAINOUS AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛生杰; 章澄昌; 孙继明; 樊曙先

    2001-01-01

    According to the observation of the number and mass concentration spectra of atmospheric aerosols, the total suspended particulates (TSP) and their size distribution, micrometeorology,and the solar spectroscopic radiation, even neutron activation treatment of sand dust samples in Helan Mountainous area, the formation law of floating dust, blowing sand and sandstorm weather and the characteristics of climatic variation in this area and the influence of the Helan Mountain are counted and analyzed. In addition, the spectrum characteristics, optical depth and chemical composition of sand aerosol particles are also analyzed and discussed.

  7. Regional Sustainable Development Strategy for the Athabasca Oil Sand Area : progress report July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents an update on the implementation of the Regional Sustainable Development Strategy for the Athabasca Oil Sands Area (RSDS) which was first released in July 1999 as a framework for managing the cumulative environmental effects of oil sands developments in Alberta to ensure sustainable development. The development of the Athabasca deposit has meant significant economic growth for northeastern Alberta, but also significant environmental impacts. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) is a regional multi-stakeholder group composed of government, industry, environmental organizations, and Aboriginal groups. Both CEMA and RSDS are working in partnership to ensure that environmental objectives are met. RSDS outlined activities and timelines for 14 different themes regarding environmental issues. The delivery of initial products is expected from the fall of 2001 to 2002. Individual product reports will be published and made available to the public as soon as objectives are developed and approved. CEMA has established 5 working groups and several subgroups that have established work plans, budgets and funding plans for their projects. The 5 working groups are as follows: (1) the sustainable ecosystems working group which will deal with issues regarding wildlife, landscapes, and cultural resources, (2) the trace metals and air contaminants working group, (3) nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide management working group, (4) the water working group, and (5) the reclamation working group. This paper described the challenges facing each group and the progress that has been made thus far. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  8. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  9. 77 FR 55224 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area... Impact Statement (EIS), for the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA), and by this notice is... Register. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Proposed Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP and CDCA Plan Amendment/Final EIS...

  10. 75 FR 45653 - Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Re-Opening of Comment Period for the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes... of the comment period on the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan (RAMP) and... So. 4th St., El Centro, California 92243. Copies of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS...

  11. Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

  12. Phleboviruses associated with sand flies in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachraoui, K; Fares, W; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Beier, J C; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Lamballerie, X de; Chelbi, I; Charrel, R N; Zhioua, E

    2016-06-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in 2014 at two sites located in Central Tunisia, one irrigated and another non-irrigated situated in arid bio-geographical areas. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius namely Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are the most abundant sand fly species in the irrigated site. However, in the non-irrigated site, Phlebotomus papatasi of the Phlebotomus genus is the most abundant species. A total of 3191 sand flies were collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection date, were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the polymerase gene and sequenced. Of a total of 117 pools, 4 were positive, yielding a minimum infection rate of sand flies with phleboviruses of 0.12%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial nucleotide and amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that these phleboviruses belonged to four different clusters corresponding to Toscana virus (TOSV), Saddaguia virus (SADV), Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV) and Utique virus (UTIV). This study provides more evidence that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia which may have led to the emergence of phleboviruses. We report the first detection of TOSV from sand flies collected from Central Tunisia.

  13. Unloading Characteristics of Sand-drift in Wind-shallow Areas along Railway and the Effect of Sand Removal by Force of Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Xin, Guo-Wei; Zhi, Ling-yan; Jiang, Fu-qiang

    2017-01-01

    Wind-shield walls decrease the velocity of wind-drift sand flow in transit. This results in sand accumulating in the wind-shadow zone of both windshield wall and track line, causing severe sand sediment hazard. This study reveals the characteristics of sand accumulation and the laws of wind-blown sand removal in the wind-shadow areas of three different types of windshield walls, utilizing three-dimensional numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments and on-site sand sediment tests. The results revealed the formation of apparent vortex and acceleration zones on the leeward side of solid windshield walls. For uniform openings, the vortex area moved back and narrowed. When bottom-opening windshield walls were adopted, the track-supporting layer at the step became a conflux acceleration zone, forming a low velocity vortex zone near the track line. At high wind speeds, windshield walls with bottom-openings achieved improved sand dredging. Considering hydrodynamic mechanisms, the flow field structure on the leeward side of different types of windshield structures is a result of convergence and diffusion of fluids caused by an obstacle. This convergence and diffusion effect of air fluid is more apparent at high wind velocities, but not obvious at low wind velocities. PMID:28120915

  14. Unloading Characteristics of Sand-drift in Wind-shallow Areas along Railway and the Effect of Sand Removal by Force of Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-Jun; Xin, Guo-Wei; Zhi, Ling-Yan; Jiang, Fu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Wind-shield walls decrease the velocity of wind-drift sand flow in transit. This results in sand accumulating in the wind-shadow zone of both windshield wall and track line, causing severe sand sediment hazard. This study reveals the characteristics of sand accumulation and the laws of wind-blown sand removal in the wind-shadow areas of three different types of windshield walls, utilizing three-dimensional numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments and on-site sand sediment tests. The results revealed the formation of apparent vortex and acceleration zones on the leeward side of solid windshield walls. For uniform openings, the vortex area moved back and narrowed. When bottom-opening windshield walls were adopted, the track-supporting layer at the step became a conflux acceleration zone, forming a low velocity vortex zone near the track line. At high wind speeds, windshield walls with bottom-openings achieved improved sand dredging. Considering hydrodynamic mechanisms, the flow field structure on the leeward side of different types of windshield structures is a result of convergence and diffusion of fluids caused by an obstacle. This convergence and diffusion effect of air fluid is more apparent at high wind velocities, but not obvious at low wind velocities.

  15. Metal bioaccumulation and biomarkers of effects in caged mussels exposed in the Athabasca oil sands area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilote, M; André, C; Turcotte, P; Gagné, F; Gagnon, C

    2017-08-11

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit is the world's largest known reservoir of crude bitumen and the third-largest proven crude oil reserve. Mining activity is known to release contaminants, including metals, and to potentially impact the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of oil sands mining on water quality and metal bioaccumulation in mussels from the Fort McMurray area in northern Alberta, Canada. The study presents two consecutive years of contrasting mussel exposure conditions (low and high flows). Native freshwater mussels (Pyganodon grandis) were placed in cages and exposed in situ in the Athabasca River for four weeks. Metals and inorganic elements were then analyzed in water and in mussel gills and digestive glands to evaluate bioaccumulation, estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and determine the effects of exposure by measuring stress biomarkers. This study shows a potential environmental risk to aquatic life from metal exposure associated with oil sands development along with the release of wastewater from a municipal treatment plant nearby. Increased bioaccumulation of Be, V, Ni and Pb was observed in mussel digestive glands in the Steepbank River, which flows directly through the oil sands mining area. Increased bioaccumulation of Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Mo and Ni was also observed in mussel gills from the Steepbank River. These metals are naturally present in oil sands and generally concentrate and increase with the extraction process. The results also showed different pathways of exposure (particulate or dissolved forms) for V and Ni resulting from different river water flows, distribution coefficient (Kd) and BCF. Increasing metal exposure downstream of the oil sands mining area had an impact on metallothionein and lipid peroxidation in mussels, posing a potential environmental risk to aquatic life. These results confirm the bioavailability of some metals in mussel tissues associated with detoxification of

  16. Vegetation change in a lichen-rich inland drift sand area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketner-Oostra, R.; Sykora, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we compare the cryptogam vegetation in the Spergulo-Corynephoretum and Genisto-Callunetum in an inland drift-sand area in three periods (1968, 1993 and 2004). In the early period the lichen diversity in these plant communities appeared to be very high. The aspect was formed by Coryneph

  17. 78 FR 37845 - Meeting of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA) Subgroup of the California Desert...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Meeting of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area (ISDRA) Subgroup of the... 92-463 and 94-579, that the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Subgroup of the California...

  18. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  19. Western Gas Sands Project Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-04-30

    This quarterly basin activities report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activities in the Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. Detailed information is given for each study area for the first quarter of 1979.

  20. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly Basin Activities Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C H

    1979-01-31

    This report is a summation of 3 months' drilling and testing activities in the four primary WGSP study areas: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. The monitoring of basin activities is part of resource assessment. (DLC)

  1. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  2. Numerical simulation of groundwater movement and managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Hurricane Bench area, Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The Hurricane Bench area of Washington County, Utah, is a 70 square-mile area extending south from the Virgin River and encompassing Sand Hollow basin. Sand Hollow Reservoir, located on Hurricane Bench, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily as a managed aquifer recharge project by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. The reservoir is situated on a thick sequence of the Navajo Sandstone and Kayenta Formation. Total recharge to the underlying Navajo aquifer from the reservoir was about 86,000 acre-feet from 2002 to 2009. Natural recharge as infiltration of precipitation was approximately 2,100 acre-feet per year for the same period. Discharge occurs as seepage to the Virgin River, municipal and irrigation well withdrawals, and seepage to drains at the base of reservoir dams. Within the Hurricane Bench area, unconfined groundwater-flow conditions generally exist throughout the Navajo Sandstone. Navajo Sandstone hydraulic-conductivity values from regional aquifer testing range from 0.8 to 32 feet per day. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity is attributed to bedrock fractures that trend north-northeast across the study area.A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate groundwater movement in the Hurricane Bench area and to simulate the movement of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir through the groundwater system. The model was calibrated to combined steady- and transient-state conditions. The steady-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data that represented average conditions for 1975. The transient-state portion of the simulation was developed and calibrated by using hydrologic data collected from 1976 to 2009. Areally, the model grid was 98 rows by 76 columns with a variable cell size ranging from about 1.5 to 25 acres. Smaller cells were used to represent the reservoir to accurately simulate the reservoir bathymetry and nearby monitoring wells; larger

  3. Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of the municipality of Cianorte, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Daniela A; Teodoro, Ueslei; Silveira, Thaís G V

    2009-01-01

    The endemicity of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the Cianorte municipality, Paraná State the occurrence of human cases with the probable infection locus in the urban area, the presence of a permanently preserved modified native forest in the urban perimeter, and the lack of knowledge of the fauna of sand flies in the municipality provided the impetus for this study. The objective of this study was to assess the fauna, frequency and seasonality of the sand flies in the peridomicile, forest and urban area of this municipality. Sand flies were collected using Falcão light traps installed in the peridomicile and forest, from July 2005 to June 2006. A total of 755 sand flies were collected; Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) (84.0%), followed by Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (12.7%) were the predominant species. The number of sand flies collected in the peridomicile was significantly higher than in the forest (P = 0.0068). The small number of sand flies collected, especially in the forest, may be related to the modifications to the environment on the edge of the Parque Cinturão Verde, which surrounds the urban area of the municipality. Five species of sand flies were distinguished in the urban area of Cianorte, with greater frequencies found in the peridomicile, especially from November to April. Our data illustrate the necessity of maintaining the measures that contributed to reduce human contact with sand flies, thereby reducing the transmission risk of ACL.

  4. Western gas sands project. Status report, July-August-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The progress during July, August and September 1981 on increasing gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the WGSP Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, CK GeoEnergy completed the field work in the Rifle Gap area near Rifle, Colorado, as well as the Draft Phase VI report covering the prognosis about reservoir geometry in the Multi-Well site area. The improved pressure coring system project, officially terminated Sept. 30. Accomplishments included increased capabilities for the pressure core barrel, improvements in the low invasion fluid plus various laboratory core intrusion studies and improved designs for PDC drill bits. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the P/sup 2/L/sup 2/ system described last quarter was evaluated further and the decision has been made to abandon further investigation. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Ceramics Materials Group is preparing to fabricate a ceramic sample with cylindrical pores of specified diameters. The NMR data on this type sample will contribute to a better understanding of the parameters affecting NMR relaxation rates in porous media. During the quarter, modifications were made in the operating and application software of the DOE Well Test Facility, which will support additions to the PDP-11/10 computer system. The Multi-Well Experiment well was spudded on Sept. 13 and by Sept. 30, total depth was 3358 ft. Coring operations are expected to begin at a depth of 4150 ft. At the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories completed four additional coreholes for the Fluid Mechanics/ Proppant Transport Experiments.

  5. Western gas sands project. Status report, July-August-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The progress during July, August and September 1981 on increasing gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the WGSP Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, CK GeoEnergy completed the field work in the Rifle Gap area near Rifle, Colorado, as well as the Draft Phase VI report covering the prognosis about reservoir geometry in the Multi-Well site area. The improved pressure coring system project, officially terminated Sept. 30. Accomplishments included increased capabilities for the pressure core barrel, improvements in the low invasion fluid plus various laboratory core intrusion studies and improved designs for PDC drill bits. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the P/sup 2/L/sup 2/ system described last quarter was evaluated further and the decision has been made to abandon further investigation. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Ceramics Materials Group is preparing to fabricate a ceramic sample with cylindrical pores of specified diameters. The NMR data on this type sample will contribute to a better understanding of the parameters affecting NMR relaxation rates in porous media. During the quarter, modifications were made in the operating and application software of the DOE Well Test Facility, which will support additions to the PDP-11/10 computer system. The Multi-Well Experiment well was spudded on Sept. 13 and by Sept. 30, total depth was 3358 ft. Coring operations are expected to begin at a depth of 4150 ft. At the Nevada Test Site, Sandia National Laboratories completed four additional coreholes for the Fluid Mechanics/ Proppant Transport Experiments.

  6. The future of the Canadian oil sands: Engineering and project management advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Peter; Morawski, Jacek

    2010-09-15

    Production technology and project management developments in Canada's oil sands industry, in the context of AMEC's experience as EPCM service provider, are discussed. Effective project management systems and workfront planning are critical to achieve cost and schedule targets and optimum construction execution. Construction Work Packages divide work into discrete pieces and Construction Work Execution Plans influence scheduling of engineering and procurement deliverables. AMEC's Engineering Data Warehouse works with intelligent engineering design tools to ensure information related to a piece of equipment is consistent across all systems. HSSE systems are proactively developed and AMEC's progressive improvement in safety performance is demonstrated.

  7. Offshore Sand Resource Needs, Data Availability and Revaluation, and Beach Nourishment Projects in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, I.; Walsh, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Storms and sea-level rise continue to impact the dynamic coastlines of North Carolina. Since the coastal region is economically critical to the state and yields numerous ecosystem services, many towns have planned beach nourishment projects. However, offshore sands compatible for nourishment are limited, and project costs fluctuate with borrow source proximity to the shoreline. Hurricane Sandy (2012) caused high water levels and waves resulting in localized overwash and erosion in the northeastern part of NC. In response, to effectively meet the rising nourishment demands for recovery after future storm events and for long-term resiliency, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recognized the need to compile and consolidate all geophysical and geologic information in federal waters (3-8 nm) along the East Coast states. A GIS database was created for NC using bathymetric, seismic reflection, sediment and other relevant data from federal, state and private entities. Information will be accessible to the public, coastal planners and managers to allow for informed decision-making and cost-effective project planning. Priority regions for seismic and core collection were determined based on data gaps and needs across the state. In addition, potential sand resource thickness and volume in northeastern NC were revaluated using comparisons of several overlapping datasets. Shoreline volume losses were calculated using long-term erosion rates and compared to historic and future nourishment projects. Finally, tourism-based revenue by town was evaluated and related to short and long-term nourishment costs.

  8. The Significance of Tax Incentives in Attracting Foreign Investment: Lessons from the Canadian Oil Sands Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Restika

    Tax incentives have been used by countries to stimulate foreign investment. Few countries doubt the effectiveness of tax incentives. Canada and Indonesia are among the many countries that offer tax incentives to attract investors. While Canada has a long history of using tax incentives to foster the development of the Alberta oil sands, Indonesia is just embarking on this strategy, especially in promoting foreign investment in remote areas. Drawing on the Canadian development of the Alberta oil sands, this thesis asks what lessons Indonesia can learn from that experience in relying on tax incentives to develop the industry. This thesis acknowledges that there are many important differences between Canada and Indonesia. Since most countries speak of using tax incentives to finance their petroleum industries, it is worth examining at least one instance of that strategy and see whether Indonesia can extract any thing of value from this examination.

  9. Survey of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Environmentally Protected Area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  10. Survey of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in an environmentally protected area in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Saraiva

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003, and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%, these data indicate the circulation of the parasite

  11. Survey of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an environmentally protected area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  12. Assessment of regional acidifying pollutants in the Athabasca oil sands area under different emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunny; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Morris, Ralph; Pauls, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Acid deposition is a potential environmental impact of oil sands development in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Northeastern Alberta. An acid deposition management framework has been established to manage this issue. This framework includes an acid deposition modelling and time-to-effect impact assessment component that was recently implemented for four acidifying emissions cases using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Predicted gross Potential Acid Input (PAI) deposition in the AOSR increases from the historical to existing case with further increases predicted in two future cases due to the projected increase in NOx emissions. On average the total predicted PAI deposition in the AOSR is approximately 40% sulphur deposition and 60% nitrogen deposition. Sulphur deposition decreases by 7% from the historical to existing cases due to the reductions in SO2 emissions that have occurred in the AOSR but increases by 5% from the existing to future case 1 and by 8% from existing to future case 2 even though continued AOSR SO2 emission decreases were modelled. This is likely the result of the deposition reduction associated with a single large reduction in SO2 emissions from one facility's main stack being offset elsewhere in the AOSR by deposition increases due to small increases in SO2 emissions from several in situ sources with shorter stacks. Average nitrogen deposition over the AOSR increases by 10% from the historical to existing case and then further increases by 10.6% from the existing case to future case 1 and by 12.3% from the existing case to future case 2. The increasing relevance of NOx emissions over SO2 emissions in the AOSR suggests that a robust treatment of nitrogen chemistry such as in CMAQ is required for conducting deposition assessments in the region. The modelling results provide information that can be used to inform oil sands emission management priorities in the context of acid deposition and nitrogen eutrophication

  13. Relationship between sand-dust weather and water dynamics of desert areas in the middle reaches of Heihe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Niu; XianDe Liu; Xin Li; YanQiang Wei; Hu Zhang; XiaoYan Li

    2016-01-01

    Sand-dust weather has become an international social-environmental issue of common concern, and constitutes a serious threat to human lives and economic development. In order to explore the responses of natural desert sand and dust to the dynamics of water in desertification, we extracted long-term monitoring data related to precipitation, soil water, groundwater, and sand-dust weather. These data originated from the test stations for desertification control in desert areas of the middle reaches of the Heihe River. We used an algorithm of characteristic parameters, correlations, and multiple regression analysis to establish a regression model for the duration of sand-dust weather. The response char-acteristics of the natural desert sand and dust and changes of the water inter-annual and annual variance were also examined. Our results showed: (1) From 2006 to 2014 the frequency, duration, and volatility trends of sand-dust weather obviously increased, but the change amplitudes of precipitation, soil water, and groundwater level grew smaller. (2) In the vegetative growth seasons from March to November, the annual variance rates of the soil moisture content in each of four studied layers of soil samples were similar, and the changes in the frequency and duration of sand-dust weather were similar. (3) Our new regression equation for the duration of sand-dust weather passed the R test, F test, and t test. By this regression model we could predict the duration of sand-dust weather with an accuracy of 42.9%. This study can thus provide technological support and reference data for water resource management and re-search regarding sand-dust weather mechanisms.

  14. Ashland Area Support Substation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power Light Company's (PP L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP L's Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW's) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  15. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March 1979--31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. During March, National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers generally progressed on schedule. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock-fluid interaction, and log evaluation techniques. Theoretical and experimental work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data continued at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Sandia Laboratories completed preparations for the NTS evaluation test of the borehole seismic system. M.D. Wood, Inc. monitored the formation of a hydraulic fracture in the Wattenburg gas field, Weld County, Colorado. Measurement of bottom-hole pressure in the Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells for the CIG cyclic gas injection project continued. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse--Duke No. 1 was flowing 4,000 MCFD in March. Efforts to clean out Mobil's PCU F31-13G well continued.

  16. Infection of sand flies collected from different bio-geographical areas of Tunisia with phleboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, W; Charrel, R N; Dachraoui, K; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Chelbi, I; de Lamballerie, X; Zhioua, E

    2015-01-01

    An entomological investigation performed in 2013 covering different bio-geographical areas varying from humid in the north to the arid in the center showed that sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius including Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are abundant and widely distributed in Tunisia. A total of 3992 collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection data were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Of a total of 135 pools, 23 were positive, yielding and minimum infection rate of 0.6%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that all these phleboviruses were grouped in one cluster clearly distinct from but closely related to Massilia virus and Granada virus. This putative novel virus, tentatively called Saddaguia virus (SADV), is widely distributed in Tunisia. Together with Toscana, Punique, and Utique viruses, SADV is the fourth recognized phlebovirus to be transmitted by sand flies in Tunisia. The medical and public health interest of SADV remains to be investigated.

  17. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops.

  18. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  19. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertjens, Steve; Wright, Angie; Lieurance, Mike; berguson, bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices and

  20. Catastrophic die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx and Sand Gazelle in the fenced protected area of the arid central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx, and Arabian Sand Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica were recorded from 1999 to 2008 in fenced Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area (PA in western-central Saudi Arabia. Mortalities of animals have been recorded during summer months when the rainfall is negligible or insignificant. Deaths were due to starvation because of reduced availability, accessibility and quality of food plants in the area. In total, 560 oryx and 2815 sand gazelle deaths were recorded since the reintroduction projects began till the end of 2008. Mortalities of animals were higher in 1999-2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Grazing of oryx habitat depends on rainfall and animals move over great distances in response to rain. The fence around Mahazat as-Sayd PA prevents natural movements of animals, and artificially concentrates the ungulate populations into possibly unfavourable habitat. The sand gazelle is a highly gregarious and migratory species, moving long distances in search of good quality pastures. Populations of sand gazelle in Central Asia are also known to migrate over large distances, covering several hundred kilometers. It is therefore likely that by preventing natural movements of sand gazelles and oryx, fencing may have reinforced the effects of stressful conditions such as drought. To reduce the catastrophic effects, a Strategy and Action Plan was developed in August 2008 to manage oryx and gazelle within the reserve and with provision for food and water at the five camps in the reserve as emergency plan to minimize mortalities.

  1. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March-31 March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The March, 1980 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized in this report. A site for the multi-well experiment was approved by the industry review committee; drilling is expected by mid-summer. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock/fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Analysis of data obtained from a test of the borehole seismic unit by Sandia Laboratories continued. The DOE Well Test Facility continued bottom-hole pressure buildup measurements at the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 well.

  2. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    Full Text Available Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  3. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site

  4. Structure contours on top of Coal marker sands, the Deserado Study Area, Lower White River coal field, Colorado (desstrcg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and ARC/INFO coverage of the structure contours on top of the Coal marker sands in the Deserado Study area, Lower White River coal field, Colorado

  5. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by fungi strains isolated from the sand and soil of recreational areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wójcik, Anna; Błaszkowska, Joanna; Góralska, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16). In addition, 13 biotypes characteristic of particular species of fungi were defined. Most strains could be categorized as biotypes C2 – 39.5% and A – 26%. The examined fungal strains isolated from recreational areas have selected biochemical characteristics i.e. production of hydrolases, which demonstrate their pathogenicity. They produce a number of enzymes which are also present in strains isolated from patients with mycoses, including: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11) and alkaline phosphatase (e1). The biotypes identified in the course of this study (A, B3, B4, C1, C6 and D3) have been also reported in cases of fungal infection. Therefore, the fungi present in the sand and soil of recreational have pathogenic properties and are possible factors of fungal infection among children.

  6. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 September 1979-30 September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on rock-fluid interaction and advanced logging techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory continued work on permeability and porosity determination of core samples and geological support studies. Sandia Laboratories continued work on their EGR Instrumentation and Diagnostic Program. Cyclic gas injection continued at Colorado Interstate Gas Company's Miller No. 1 and Sprague No. 1 wells. The DOE Well Test Facility is continuing to provide technical support to the Gas Research Institute/Rio Blanco Natural Gas MHF experiment. The Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc. Natural Buttes Unit wells continued to flow to sales. The Mitchell Energy Corporation Muse-Duke No. 1 was opened after a 28-day shut-in period. The hydraulic fracturing containment experiment continued for the Sandia-mineback program.

  7. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.)

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project's goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  8. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. Phlebotomine sand flies in Porteirinha, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna was carried out in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the municipality of Porteirinha, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Captures were performed with CDC light traps in 7 districts, 5 days per month, during 2 consecutive years (January 2000 to December 2001. A total of 3240 sand flies were captured and identified. Sixteen species were found, among which 15 belonged to the genus Lutzomyia and one to the genus Brumptomyia. Lutzomyia longipalpis, a proven vector of AVL, was the predominant species (71.85% throughout the time period. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall over the populational dynamics of the sand flies was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant correlation among the number of phlebotomine sand flies collected, rainfall, and humidity, whereas the effect of temperature was negligible, in that particular region. The amount of collected phlebotomine, the number of human cases, and the prevalence of canine AVL in the districts of Porteirinha are discussed.

  10. Research on the Pueblo culture settlement system from the North American Southwest: Results of the Sand Canyon-Castle Rock Community Archaeological Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Palonka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigating ancient Pueblo culture from the North American Southwest is challenging task involving cooperationof scientists from different disciplines, mainly archaeology, history, anthropology, and linguistics. There isalso a large body of information in native oral tradition that has enormous potential for enriching our knowledgeof the past and our understanding of how Pueblo societies functioned. The paper focuses on one of the mostintriguing periods of Pueblo Indians culture, the thirteenth century A.D., in the central Mesa Verde region onpresent Utah-Colorado border. It was the time of great development of Pueblo societies and close to the centuryfall of the settlement system and total migration from the area to what is present-day Arizona and New Mexico.One of the projects in the area is Sand Canyon-Castle Rock Community Archaeological Project. The projectfocuses on analysis and reconstruction of the settlement structure and socio-cultural changes that took placein Pueblo culture during the thirteenth century A.D. in Sand Canyon, Rock Creek Canyon and several othersmall canyons located in one subarea within the Mesa Verde region, Colorado.

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Tar Sand Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Tar sands represent a significant source of hydrocarbons in the United States. Also known by several other names including bitumen-bearing rocks, natural asphalt,...

  12. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  13. A new approach to the management of cumulative environmental impacts, the Alberta Oil Sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weagle, K.V. [Cumulative Environmental Association, Wood Buffalo, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Resource development in the oil sand industry of Northeastern Alberta is enjoying a wave of renewed interest fuelled in part by changes made in the tax and royalty structure for oil sands developments in the province, the development of new technology and the price of oil. Announcements were made of investments totalling approximately 51 billion dollars in the oil sand industry over the next ten years in all deposits. The issue of cumulative environmental effects has been amplified accordingly. In June 2000, an association was formed, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), consisting of stakeholders and based on consensus, with a mandate to address 72 issues related to potential cumulative impacts in the expanded development of the Wood Buffalo Region. Five working groups were formed, as well as three standing committees. To mitigate the cumulative effects, the working groups and standing committees are working on management objectives, management systems and research recommendations. The regulatory bodies receive the recommendations, and the implementation process involves the issuance of permits and licenses. Research and monitoring activities play a vital role in the environmental management system and are part of other current environmental initiatives. Some of the initiatives are managed by the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association, Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program, and the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development. These organizations touch on topics including air quality monitoring, aquatics monitoring and environmental research. 1 fig.

  14. Paleoecological interpretation of a Holocene sand body in the coastal area of Phetchaburi, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Robba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Faunal examination is made of 4 samples, 2 from the Recent Ban Laem Phak Bia sand spit, and 2 from the Holocene sand body of Ban Bang Ket. Fossil and modern assemblages are compared on the basis of overall composition, taxa abundances, and of autoecological investigation on life habit, substrate preference, feeding type, depth range and ecological meaning of the identified species. The Holocene assemblage of Ban Bang Ket, compared to the Recent one of Ban Laem Phak Bia, 1 exhibits generally similar overall composition and ecological structure, 2 contains much of the dominant species characterizing the modern assemblage, and 3includes all taxa that are members of the living molluscan community. On this basis, the molluscan assemblage of Ban Bang Ket results to be the Holocene counterpart of the modern one of Ban Laem Phak Bia, and reflects the same environmental conditions recorded for the latter. Thus, the sand body near Ban Bang Ket is interpreted as a Holocene equivalent of the sand spit of Ban Laem Phak Bia.

  15. Beach monitoring project Sand Key Phase II Beach nourishment program (North Redington Beach and Redington Shores) Post-Nourishment Report Part II Offshore Profiles and Wave Data

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    This study presents the third post-nourishment survey (January 1989) results for the Sand Key Phase II beach nourishment project carried out in June, 1988. The monitoring program to this beach nourishment project is a joint effort between the University of South Florida and University of Florida. The field surveys include a total of 26 profiles, encompassing approximately 3 miles of shoreline extending from DNR R-96 to R-1ll. The total calculated volume loss of sand in the n...

  16. Diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, Solomon; Gebresilassie, Araya; Akililu, Essayas; Deribe, Kebede; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2017-07-13

    The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a.s.l) and 2300m a.s.l. In each locality, sand flies were collected using standard CDC light traps and sticky traps during the active sand fly season from December 2012 to May 2013. Shannon-Weiner species diversity index and Jaccard's coefficient were used to estimate species diversity and similarity between altitudes and localities, respectively. A total of 89,044 sand flies (41,798 males and 47, 246 females) were collected from the seven localities/towns throughout the study period. Twenty-two species belonging to 11 species in the genus Phlebotomus and 11 species in the genus Sergentomyia were documented. Of these, Sergentomyia clydei (25.87%), S. schwetzi (25.21%), S. africana (24.65%), S. bedfordi (8.89%), Phlebotomus orientalis (6.43%), and S. antennata (4.8%) were the most prevalent species. The remaining 10 Phlebotomus species and six Sergentomyia were less frequent catches. In CDC light trap and sticky trap, higher species diversity and richness for both male and female sand flies was observed at low altitude ranging from 550 to 699m a.s.l in Adebay village in Kafta Humera district whereas low species richness and high evenness of both sexes were also observed in an altitude 1950-2300m a.s.l. The results revealed that the presence of leishmaniasis vectors such as P. orientalis, P. longipes, P. papatasi, and P. duboscqi in different altitudes in northwest Ethiopia. P. orientalis a vector of L. donovani, occurred between altitude 500-1100m

  17. Sources of organic compounds in fine soil and sand particles during winter in the metropolitan area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2005-11-01

    Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.

  18. Effects of Sand Dune and Vegetation in the Coastal Area of Sri Lanka at the Indian Ocean Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Norio; Sasaki, Yasushi; Mowjood, M. I. M.

    This study explored the effects of coastal vegetation and sand dune on tsunami protection based on field observations carried out after the Indian Ocean tsunami on December 26, 2004. The representative vegetation was classified into six types according to their habitat and the stand structures of the trees. The impact of vegetation structure on drag forces was analyzed using the observed characteristics of the tree species. The drag coefficient, including the vertical stand structures of the trees, Cd-all, and the vegetation thickness in a unit area, dNu (d: reference diameter of trees, Nu: number of trees per unit area), varied greatly with the species classification. Based on the field survey and data analysis, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophora apiculata-type), kinds of mangroves, and Pandanus odoratissimus, representative tree that grows in beach sand, were found to be especially effective in providing protection from tsunami-damage due to their complex aerial root structures. The breaking moment of the trees was investigated through a pulling test for the representative trees. The threshold value for breaking moment was compared to the drag-force moment acting on the trees located at the tsunami-damaged site. The breaking moment equation represents well the limitation of the representative species with the tsunami height. It arrives at a hypothesis about which species could better withstand the effects of a tsunami wave. Sand dune and lagoon is a typical landscape in most part of the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. The combination of the sand dune followed by vegetation toward landside played an important role in retarding tsunami. Two layers of forest in the vertical direction with P. odoratissimus and Casuarina equisetifolia and a horizontal forest structure of small and large diameter trees were also important for increasing drag, trapping floating objects, broken branches, houses, and people. These information should be considered in

  19. Petrography and geochemistry of sands from the Chachalacas and Veracruz beach areas, western Gulf of Mexico, Mexico: Constraints on provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Balaram, Vysetti; Natalhy-Pineda, Olmedo

    2015-12-01

    Compositional and geochemical analyses of sands collected from the Chachalacas (CHA) and Veracruz (VER) beach areas along the western Gulf of Mexico were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic setting of the source region. The modal composition showed that the proportion of quartz (Q) is lower in CHA than in VER sands. The average quartz-feldspar-lithic fragment (QFL) ratios for the CHA and VER sands are Q75F8L17 and Q86F4L10, respectively. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with EDAX spectrometer (SEM-EDS) data revealed that the CHA sands were abundant in heavy minerals like magnetite, ilmenite, and zircon. The rare earth element concentration (REE) is higher in CHA than in VER sands, which is due to the concentration of heavy minerals in CHA sands. The weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration (CIA), plagioclase index of alteration, and A-CN-K (A = Al2O3, CN = CaO∗ + Na2O, K = K2O) plot suggested that the intensity of weathering in the source area was low to moderate. The index of chemical variability (ICV) for the CHA (˜1.9-3.0) and VER (˜0.82-1.33) sands indicated that the compositional maturity was higher for the VER sands. The concentrations of Co, Cr, Ni, and V are lower in VER sands than in CHA sands, indicating that the CHA sands were derived from the intermediate source rocks. Provenance modelling revealed that the CHA sands were associated with the mixture of basalt, andesite, dacite, and trachyandesite in the ratio of 5:20:25:50. The VER sands were best matched with a mixture having 75-90% dacite and 25-10% andesite compositions. The provenance difference between the two beach areas suggested that longshore current play a less significant role in mixing and homogenization of sands. The multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams revealed rift and collision settings for the VER and CHA beach areas, respectively, which is consistent with the general geology of the study areas.

  20. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1987-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep

  1. Observations regarding the movement of barchan sand dunes in the Nazca to Tanaca area of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gay, S.

    1999-03-01

    Significant studies of sand dunes and sand movement made in coastal southern Peru in 1959-1961 [Gay, S.P., 1962. Origen, distribución y movimiento de las arenas eólicas en el área de Yauca a Palpa. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica del Perú 37, 37-58] have never been published in the English language and consequently have never been referred to in the standard literature. These studies contain valuable information, not developed by later workers in this field, that may be of broad general interest. For example, using airphotos of barchan dunes and plotting the rates of movement vs. dune widths, the author quantified the deduction of Bagnold [Bagnold, R.A., 1941. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Methuen, London.] that the speed of barchan movement is inversely proportional to barchan size (as characterized by height or width). This led to the conclusion that all barchans in a given dune field, regardless of size, sweep out approximately equal areas in equal times. Another conclusion was that collisions between smaller, overtaking dunes and larger dunes in front of them do not result in destruction or absorption of the smaller dunes if the collision is a `sideswipe'. The dunes simply merge into a compound dune for a time, and the smaller dune then moves on intact, i.e., passes, the larger dune, whilst retaining its approximate original size and shape. Another result of the 1959-1961 studies was a map that documents the Pacific coast beaches as the source of the sand ( Fig. 1), which is then blown inland through extensive dune fields of barchans and other dune forms in great clockwise-sweeping paths, to its final resting place in huge sand masses, sometimes called `sand seas' [Lancaster, N., 1995. Geomorphology of Desert Dunes. Routledge, London], at higher elevations 20 to 60 km from the coast. A minor, but nevertheless interesting, discovery was a small heavy mineral dune located directly in the lee of a large barchan, evidently formed by the winnowing

  2. 沿海地区填砂造陆工程实例%An Example of Land Reclamation by Filling Sand at Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐焰军

    2001-01-01

    介绍在深圳妈湾港区 3 5万吨级水泥、建材多用途码头陆域形成工程中,采用水上直接填砂造陆的施工工艺,通过合理的设计、严谨的施工,取得了投资省、质量好、收效快的工程成功实例。%It introduces a successful example of land reclamation engineering by filling sand directly in water for the 35,000 DWT Cement & Building Materials Multi-Purpose Wharf at Shenzhen Mawan Port Area. Owing to the rational design and strict construction, the project achieved the results of less investments, good quality and quick returns.

  3. Investigation of seasonal river-aquifer interactions in a tropical coastal area controlled by tidal sand ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-08-01

    Water exchanges between streams and aquifers influence the quantity and quality of water in both domains. Seasonal river-aquifer interactions were investigated in a tropical coastal area where tidal sand ridges control river discharge to the sea. The study site is located in southwestern Nicaragua, dominated by humid tropical hydro-climatic conditions. The aquifer provides water to the rural town of Ostional. Connectivity between the river and the aquifer influences water quality and water availability for humans and for the downstream estuarine ecosystem. The effect of stream stage fluctuations on river-aquifer flows and pressure propagation in the adjacent aquifer was investigated analyzing high temporal resolution hydraulic head data and applying a numerical model (HYDRUS 2-D). Tidal sand ridges at the river outlet control the flow direction between the river and the aquifer. Surface water accumulation caused by these features induces aquifer recharge from the river. Simulations show groundwater recharge up to 0.2 m3 h-1 per unit length of river cross section. Rupture of the sand ridges due to overtopping river flows causes a sudden shift in the direction of flow between the river and the aquifer. Groundwater exfiltration reached 0.08 m3 h-1 immediately after the rupture of the sand ridges. Simulated bank storage flows are between 0.004-0.06 m3 h-1. These estimates are also supported by the narrow hysteresis loops between hydraulic heads and river stage. The aquifer behaves as confined, rapidly transmitting pressure changes caused by the river stage fluctuations. However, the pressure wave is attenuated with increasing distance from the river. Therefore, we concluded that a dynamic pressure wave is the mechanism responsible for the observed aquifer responses. Pressure variation observations and numerical groundwater modeling are useful to examine river-aquifer interactions and should be coupled in the future with chemical data to improve process understanding.

  4. Initial spreading of a mega feeder nourishment : Observations of the Sand Engine pilot project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, Matthieu A.; de Vries, Sierd; Ruessink, Gerben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360; de Zeeuw, Roeland C.; Rutten, Jantien; van Gelder-Maas, Carola; Stive, Marcel J F

    2016-01-01

    Sand nourishments are a widely applied technique to increase beach width for recreation or coastal safety. As the size of these nourishments increases, new questions arise on the adaptation of the coastal system after such large unnatural shapes have been implemented. This paper presents the initial

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Jessica I; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the Alberta oil sands (AOS), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), have been widely debated. Studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. We measured PAHs in Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (Alces americanus), and Grey wolf (Canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. Our results suggest a distinction of PAH level and source profile (petro/pyrogenic) between study areas and species. Caribou samples indicated pyrogenic sourced PAHs in the study area previously devastated by forest fire. Moose and wolf samples from the high oil production area demonstrated PAH ratios indicative of a petrogenic source and increased PAHs, respectively. These findings emphasize the importance of broadening monitoring and research programs in the AOS.

  6. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  7. Effects of sand burial on dew deposition on moss soil crust in a revegetated area of the Tennger Desert, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rong-liang; Li, Xin-rong; Liu, Li-chao; Pan, Yan-xia; Gao, Yan-hong; Wei, Yong-ping

    2014-11-01

    Sand burial and dew deposition are two fundamental phenomena profoundly influencing biological soil crusts in desert areas. However, little information is available regarding the effects of sand burial on dew deposition on biological soil crusts in desert ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sand burial at depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mm on dew formation and evaporation of three dominant moss crusts in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert (Northern China) in 2010. The results revealed that sand burial significantly decreased the amount of dew deposited on the three moss crust types by acting as a semi-insulator retarding the dew formation and evaporation rates. The changes in surface temperature cannot fully explain the variations of the formation and evaporation rates of dew by moss crusts buried by sand. The extension of dew retention time was reflected by the higher dew ratios (the ratio of dew amount at a certain time to the maximum value in a daily course) in the daytime, and may to some extent have acted as compensatory mechanisms that diminished the negative effects of the reduction of dew amount induced by sand burial of moss crusts. The resistances to reduction of dewfall caused by sand burial among the three moss crusts were also compared and it was found that Bryum argenteum crust showed the highest tolerance, followed by crusts dominated by Didymodon vinealis and Syntrichia caninervis. This sequence corresponds well with the successional order of the three moss crusts in the revegetated area, thereby suggesting that resistance to reduction of dewfall may act as one mechanism by which sand burial drives the succession of moss crusts in desert ecosystems. This side effect of dew reduction induced by sand burial on biological soil crusts should be considered in future ecosystem construction and management of desert area.

  8. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  9. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  10. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  11. A Survey on Software Project Management Report Part I Importance of Project Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Kadir Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    Visit research website for more information and reports http://faculty.nps.edu/kdemir/spm.htm The objectives of this study are to identify (i) the importance of various project management areas and (ii) project management challenges in software projects.

  12. Sand flies naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) mexicana in the peri-urban area of Chetumal city, Quintana Roo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2010-06-01

    The surveillance of prevalent Leishmania sand fly vectors is an important issue for epidemiological studies in populated areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, we collected sand flies from a peri-urban area in the southeast of Mexico. Natural infection with Leishmania (L.) mexicana was studied by PCR using a Leishmania internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene for amplification. Infected Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca, Lu. shannoni and Lu. cruciata sand flies were collected mainly during the high transmission season (November to March), coinciding with the highest sand fly densities. Additionally, positive specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca were also captured during July and August. The infected sand flies were from primary forest (subperennial forest) and secondary forest (18-25 years old and 10-15 years old respectively). Sand flies collected with Disney and Shannon traps were the ones found to be infected with L. (L.) mexicana. We conclude that the high-risk period in which L. (L.) mexicana is transmitted in the peri-urban area of Chetumal City is from July to March and that transmission is associated with both the subperennial forest and the secondary forest. 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh.

  14. Simulation of groundwater flow and chloride transport in the “1,200-foot” sand with scenarios to mitigate saltwater migration in the “2,000-foot” sand in the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Charles E.; Lovelace, John K.; Griffith, Jason M.

    2015-07-16

    Groundwater withdrawals have caused saltwater to encroach into freshwater-bearing aquifers beneath Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The 10 aquifers beneath the Baton Rouge area, which includes East and West Baton Rouge Parishes, Pointe Coupee Parish, and East and West Feliciana Parishes, provided about 184.3 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) for public supply and industrial use in 2012. Groundwater withdrawals from the “1,200-foot” sand in East Baton Rouge Parish have caused water-level drawdown as large as 177 feet (ft) north of the Baton Rouge Fault and limited saltwater encroachment from south of the fault. The recently developed groundwater model for simulating transport in the “2,000-foot” sand was rediscretized to also enable transport simulation within the “1,200-foot” sand and was updated with groundwater withdrawal data through 2012. The model was recalibrated to water-level observation data through 2012 with the parameter-estimation code PEST and calibrated to observed chloride concentrations at observation wells within the “1,200-foot” sand and “2,000-foot” sand. The model is designed to evaluate strategies to control saltwater migration, including changes in the distribution of groundwater withdrawals and installation of scavenger wells to intercept saltwater before it reaches existing production wells.

  15. Contributions of different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province to the material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyan; TIAN Yuhong; DING Deng

    2003-01-01

    Different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province are linked to a material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing based on results of field vegetation and soil survey and laboratory works. Results of grain size analysis show that dust release potential in per unit area of moving sandy land is small, while lowland meadow and meadow steppe in stony hillshave high potential of releasing dusts in per unit area during sand stormy weather occurrence. Further considering the effects of vegetation, it is inferred that the moving sandy land served as a material source of past dust storm and the possibility of dust release in per unit area is low in current time. Typical steppe in stony hills is undergoing desertification and its dust release possibility in per unit area is high. Farmland has strong potential of release dusts when they are ploughed in spring, but a large amount of therophytes grow and thus prevent dusts from release when cultivation was terminated. Potentials of dust release in per unit area in fixed sand dunes, stony mountain meadow steppe and lowland meadow are low due to high cover of perennials. Sand dune reactivation and desiccation of lakes and lowlands under estimated future climatic change will makethem serve as a future material source of sand stormy weather.

  16. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

    2008-12-03

    Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6°) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  17. Soil Moisture Eff ects on Sand Saltation and Dust Emission Observed over the Horqin Sandy Land Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolan; ZHANG Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the eff ects of soil moisture on sand saltation and dust emission over the Horqin Sandy Land area are investigated, based on observations of three dust events in 2010. The minimum friction velocity initiating the motion of surface particles, namely, the threshold friction velocity, is estimated to be 0.34, 0.40, and 0.50 m s−1 under the very dry, dry, and wet soil conditions, respectively. In comparison with the observations during the dust events under the very dry and dry soil conditions, the dust emission fl ux during the wet event is smaller, but the saltation activities of sand particles (d≧50 µm) are stronger. The size distributions of airborne dust particles (0.1≦d≦20 µm) show that concentrations of the fi ner dust particles (0.1≦d≦0.3 µm) have a secondary peak under dry soil conditions, while they are absent under wet soil conditions. This suggests that the surface soil particle size distribution can be changed by soil moisture. Under wet soil conditions, the particles appear to have a larger size, and hence more potential saltating particles are available. This explains the occurrence of stronger saltation processes observed under wet soil conditions.

  18. Mapping the productive sands of Lower Goru Formation by using seismic stratigraphy and rock physical studies in Sawan area, southern Pakistan: A case study

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, K.

    2011-02-24

    This study has been conducted in the Sawan gas field located in southern Pakistan. The aim of the study is to map the productive sands of the Lower Goru Formation of the study area. Rock physics parameters (bulk modulus, Poisson\\'s ratio) are analysed after a detailed sequence stratigraphic study. Sequence stratigraphy helps to comprehend the depositional model of sand and shale. Conformity has been established between seismic stratigraphy and the pattern achieved from rock physics investigations, which further helped in the identification of gas saturation zones for the reservoir. Rheological studies have been done to map the shear strain occurring in the area. This involves the contouring of shear strain values throughout the area under consideration. Contour maps give a picture of shear strain over the Lower Goru Formation. The identified and the productive zones are described by sands, high reflection strengths, rock physical anomalous areas and low shear strain.

  19. [Spatio-temporal change of sand-fixing function and its driving forces in desertification control ecological function area of Hunshandake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Tian, Mei-rong; Gao, Ji-xi; Qian, Jin-ping

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in Hunshandake Desert, and the sand-fixing function determines the degree of ecological security in the entire region. In order to clarify the situation of windbreak and sand fixation in Hunshandake area, and to guide the prevention and treatment of desertification on regional scale, based on the meteorological and remote sensing data, this paper quantitatively analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of windbreak and sand fixation ability between 2000-2010 by the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, meanwhile, the driving forces for each county ( or banner) in the functional zone were analyzed with the method of principal component analysis. The results showed that there was a fluctuation of the sand fixing capacity in Hunshandake over time, generally rendering a decline trend. The coniferous forest and grassland had strong windbreak and sand fixation capacity in unit area among the various land categories. In terms of spatial distribution, the windbreak and sand fixation function in western and southeastern region was weak and needed to be strengthened with ecological restoration efforts. Through the study of the social driving forces of each administrative region in the function zone, there were 3 main social driving forces of soil erosion in the administrative functions: the intensity of input-output, the level of economic development and the level of agriculture-husbandry development.

  20. A Survey on Software Project Management Report Part I Importance of Project Management Areas (Short Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Kadir Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    Visit research website for more information and reports http://faculty.nps.edu/kdemir/spm.htm Objectives of this Study: The objectives of this study are to identify (i) the importance of various project management areas and (ii) project management challenges in software projects. This study is conducted to form a basis for a software project management framework. This report focuses on the first part of the objective. The project management areas are identified through extensiv...

  1. The Role of Views of Nature in Dutch Nature Conservation: the case of the Creation of a Drift Sand Area in the Hoge Veluwe National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, E.; Hisschemoller, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Nature conservation requires choices about what sort of nature should be protected in what areas and includes value judgments on what nature is and/or should be. This paper studies the role of differing views of nature in nature conservation. A case study on the creation of a drift sand area in the

  2. Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine Project Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge Pine-grassland Project includes 261 ac of mid– to late-rotation loblolly pine which were managed with a heavy pine thin (50-60...

  3. 7 CFR 634.12 - Eligible project areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... areas or sources of pollutants significantly contributing to the water quality problems are eligible for..., toxics (pesticides and heavy metals), or high pathogen levels. Generally, the project areas will be less..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Project Authorization and...

  4. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves de; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region.

  5. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  6. Beach Nourishment Techniques. Report 3. Typical U.S. Beach Nourishment Projects Using Offshore Sand Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Cooperative Beach Erosion Control Project at Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie , Pennsylvania ," Buffalo, N. Y. U. S. Army Engineer District, Charleston. 1963 (Mar...104 Presque Isle , Pa .. .. ..................... 109 REFERENCES .. ............................ 115 2A BEACH NOURISHMENT...RIVER COUNTY, FL T PRESQUE ISLE . PA Figure 1. Beach fill projects location map ...../ ...... studies have been authorized, or which are publicly owned

  7. The effects of ground-water development on the water supply in the Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T.E.; Hearne, Glenn A.

    1976-01-01

    Water-level declines in the Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex., have been accompanied by slight but progressive increases in the concentration of dissolved solids in water withdrawn from the aquifer. Projected water-level declines through 1996 are estimated from a digital simulation model to not exceed 200 feet (61 metres). A conceptual model of water quality provides three potential sources for water that is relatively high in dissolved solids: brine from the Tularosa Basin to the east, slightly saline water beneath the subjacent aquatard, and very slightly saline water from the less permeable units within the aquifer itself. Management of the well field to minimize drawdown and spread the cone of depression would minimize the rate of water-quality deterioration. A well designed monitoring network may provide advance warning of severe or rapid water-quality deterioration.. The Soledad Canyon area 10 miles (16.1 kilometres) south of the Post Headquarters offers the greatest potential for development of additional water supplies.

  8. Application of Participatory Method to Selection of Project Demonstration Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Sino-Japan cooperation project of "Vegetation Rehabilitation Demonstration and Planning in Sandstorm Jeopardized Area around Beijing" introduced participatory method to select the project area. Through investigating the socioeconomic indicators of 9 villages in Beijing and Hebei Province as well as the farmers’ willingness to participate in forestry operation activities, the vegetation restoration demonstration areas were selected, including Hantai Village, Baicaowa Village and Xiabachi Village, respect...

  9. The Soil-Land use System in a Sand Spit Area in the Semi-Arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    0.01 M CaCl2 at a soil-solution ratio of 1:2.5. ... In former days, as long back as historical evidences allow, the study area ..... Canadian International Development Agency and Republic of Ghana, Ministry of Agriculture, Accra. Ahn P. M. (1970).

  10. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  11. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande.

  12. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanci Akemi Missawa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%, followed by L. evandroi (16.26%, L. lenti (7.69%, L. whitmani (4.92%, L. sallesi (2.34% and L. termitophila (1.32%. The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande.

  13. Projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Preuss, P; Jürgens, U

    1976-02-13

    In 5 squirrel monkeys the anatomical projections from the 'cingular' vocalization area were studied by the autoradiographic tracing technique. The 'cingular' vocalization area lies around the sulcus cinguli at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum; its electrical stimulation yields purring and cackling calls. The following efferent connections were found: corticocortical fibers could be traced into the orbital cortex (areas 10 and 11), dorsomedial frontal cortex (areas 9, 8 and 6), limbic cortex (areas 25, 24 and 23), Broca's area (area 44), frontal operculum (area 50), insula (areas 13 and 14), and auditory association cortex (area 22). Subcortical terminal fields within the telencephalon were found in the nucleus caudatus, putamen, claustrum, globus pallidus, olfactory tubercle, preoptic region and nucleus centralis and basolateralis amygdalae. Fibers reached most of these structures along different trajectories. In the diencephalon terminal fields lay in the dorsal hypothalamus, the subthalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, and the following thalamic nuclei: nucleus reticularis, ventralis anterior, centralis medialis, centralis superior lateralis, centralis inferior, submedius, medialis dorsalis and centrum medianum. In the midbrain, the periaqueductal gray was the only projection area, extending into the parabrachial nuclei at the pontomesencephalic transition. The most caudal terminal field was found in the medial pontine gray. No terminals were detected in the nucleus ambiguus, nucleus n. hypoglossi or in any other cranial motor nucleus involved in phonation processes. A comparison of this projection system with the whole of structures producing vocalization when electrically stimulated yielded only partial overlap. Not all vocalization areas lie within the 'cingular' projection system, and inversely, not the whole projection system yielded vocalization. Overlap took place in the anterior limbic cortex, preoptic region, central amygdaloid nucleus

  14. First detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species in Sergentomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from an outbreak area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Kato, Hirotomo; Puplampu, Naiki; Desewu, Kwame; Odoom, Shirley; Wilson, Michael D; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Boakye, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  15. First detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species in Sergentomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae from an outbreak area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonso O Nzelu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  16. Ashland Area Support Substation Project : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides wholesale electric service to the City of Ashland (the City) by transferring power over Pacific Power & Light Company`s (PP&L) 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines and through PP&L`s Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. The City distributes power over a 12.5-kV system which is heavily loaded during winter peak periods and which has reached the limit of its ability to serve peak loads in a reliable manner. Peak loads under normal winter conditions have exceeded the ratings of the transformers at both the Ashland and Oak Knoll Substations. In 1989, the City modified its distribution system at the request of PP&L to allow transfer of three megawatts (MW`s) of electric power from the overloaded Ashland Substation to the Oak Knoll Substation. In cooperation with PP&L, BPA installed a temporary 6-8 megavolt-amp (MVA) 115-12.5-kV transformer for this purpose. This additional transformer, however, is only a temporary remedy. BPA needs to provide additional, reliable long-term service to the Ashland area through additional transformation in order to keep similar power failures from occurring during upcoming winters in the Ashland area. The temporary installation of another 20-MVA mobile transformer at the Ashland Substation and additional load curtailment are currently being studied to provide for sustained electrical service by the peak winter period 1992. Two overall electrical plans-of-service are described and evaluated in this report. One of them is proposed for action. Within that proposed plan-of-service are location options for the substation. Note that descriptions of actions that may be taken by the City of Ashland are based on information provided by them.

  17. 78 FR 63481 - Therapeutic Area Standards Initiative Project Plan; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    .... This therapeutic area (TA) Project Plan will be the primary document for guiding all major aspects of... Project Plan will be the primary document for guiding all major aspects of FDA's multi-year initiative to... submit either electronic comments regarding this document to http://www.regulations.gov or written...

  18. Assessment of Habitats Area Sand Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum Genus in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIDANA ÇUNI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed soils on serpentine rocks occupies a large area in Albania which contains huge reserves of, nickel, chromium and cobalt. The purpose of our study was to identify the species, the habitats of metal’s hyperaccumulator Alyssum genus in Albania and to analyze the metals content in soils and plants too. There are accomplished several field trips investigated the mine, ultramafic and mafic soil in different areas of Albania. The soil samples and plants are taken randomly in each habitat for chemicals analyzes and species identifications. The sample of Alyssum sp. was identified according to the Flora Europea.Alyssum muralewasrepresented by three different varieties. Alyssum murale; var. chlorocarpumwas was represented in 11 habitats in south and southeast Albania. Alyssum muralevar. chalcidicum was identified in three habitats and Alyssum murale var. subvirescens also was identified in two habitats. Alyssum markgrafiiwas represented only in one habitat in North Albania. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total Ca, Co, Cr, Mg and Ni. Based on results, each site exhibited a high concentration of one or more metals. The nickel content in soils varied between 1050 and 5650 mg kg-1dry matter. The soils pH values varied from 6.12 to 8.12. The nickel content in plant of Alyssum murale varies from 6900 to 18300 mgkg-1 dry matter. The nickel content in plants of Alyssum markgrafii is from 13770 to 22640 mg kg-1 dry matter. These results confirmed that hyperaccumulatorAlysum sp. is developed as one endemic plant on Albanian serpentine soils. Alyssum muraleis represented in four location and 16 habitats by three different varieties. Alyssum markgrafii is represented only in one isolated habitat in North Albania.

  19. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  20. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activitie in the four primary study areas of the WGSP: Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin.

  1. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood.

  2. Development of water quality objectives and management systems for the lower Athabasca River in the oil sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noton, L. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Water Quality; McEachern, P. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Regional Environmental Management

    2004-07-01

    This paper addressed environmental concerns related to the increased oil sands activity along the lower Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta. The concerns include potential effects on water quality of the river even though wastewaters do not currently reach the Athabasca River, nor do they have any significant effects. However, as the industry expands, there is concern that releases of wastewater may increase significantly. A multi-stakeholder group called the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) has addressed some of these environmental management issues in the Athabasca area by establishing a water quality task group that examines water quality protection and management activities. The task group intends to develop and recommend water quality objectives and management options on the lower Athabasca River. Their 4 part process includes: (1) defining the problem, (2) setting goals, (3) measuring performance, and (4) managing and adapting to potential impacts. The group has identified and defined about 35 water quality variables of potential concern. It has also identified the uses of water it wants to protect and intends to prevent the degradation of water quality. A plan for developing site specific water quality objectives has been established following a review of water quality guidelines. Performance will be measured using water quality models that simulate full development scenarios. The modelling work will be instrumental in designing management schemes for any potential impacts.

  3. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  4. First deep azimuthal electromagnetic resistivity and rotary steerable system geonavigation project result in complex sands for Bare field in Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, P.; Guzman, R.; Rojas, C.; Ache, A. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Hazboun, N.K.; Gonzalez, K. [Schlumberger, Piso (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) in the Mucura District has been evaluating the use of new technologies that facilitate reaching reservoirs with complex geologies, such as thin sands, uncertain dip changes, and unconsolidated sands. The objective was to improve overall operational efficiency. PDVSA carried out a pilot project in a thin and unconsolidated package where a very high drilling rate was expected. The selected sand, known as TL sand in the Oficina formation of the Bare field, was initially planned for cold production, with expected implementation of thermal enhanced oil recovery processes in the future. This paper discussed the pilot project, with particular reference to geology; well placement for thermal processes; planning; and objectives and challenges of the high viscosity of the oil contained in the Bare field. Details of the pre-job modelling were presented along with updates of the geological model. Achievements were also presented. It was concluded that the greatest value that this technology brings resides in the ability to measure the boundary distance in real time, allowing for appropriate action to be taken. 3 refs., 19 figs.

  5. Man-biting sand fly species and the natural infetion with Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli ...

  6. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  7. Molecular typing of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from areas endemic for Leishmaniasis in Ecuador by PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yoshimi; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Uezato, Hiroshi; Calvopiña, Manuel; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2008-09-01

    Surveillance of the distribution of sand fly species is important for prediction of the risk and expansion of Leishmania infection in endemic and surrounding areas. In the present study, a simple and reliable method of typing New World Lutzomyia species circulating in endemic areas in Ecuador was established by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes with the restriction enzyme AfaI and subsequently HinfI successfully identified seven sand fly species in nine endemic areas in Ecuador. Although intraspecific genetic-diversity affecting the RFLP-patterns was detected in a species, the patterns were species specific. The method promises to be a powerful tool for the classification of New World Lutzomyia species.

  8. SAND FLY SPECIES COMPOSITION (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE: PHLEBOTOMINAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CANTAGALO , AN AREA WITH SPORADIC CASES OF HUMAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezia Nunes PERES-DIAS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The municipality of Cantagalo is an area with sustained transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. Monthly sand fly collections were performed for three years (June 2012 - May 2015 using a CDC light trap. A total of 3,310 specimens belonging to 12 species were trapped: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Micropygomyia quinquefer, Brumptomyia brumpti, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Sciopemyia sordellii, and Evandromyia edwardsi. The last seven species have not been previously recorded in this area. The highest abundance of species occurred between October and March. October was the month with the highest number of captured sand flies, one month before the peak in the summer rainfall. In October the highest number of Ny. intermedia, Ny. whitmani and Mg. migonei, were also collected, the three epidemiologically most important species. The high abundance of species with epidemiological importance for ACL transmission might explain the sporadic occurrence of the disease in the area.

  9. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  10. Effect of the coastal conservation due to beach nourishment of Totori sand dune coast

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Shibutani; Matsubara, Y.; Kuroiwa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tottori Sand Dune Coast located at western part of Japan is a sandy beach with a length about 8km facing Sea of Japan. The coast has been eroded starting around 1940s and the beach nourishment project has been carried out to restore the shoreline since 2005 at Tottori Sand Dune Coast. In the project, the deposition sands at port and river mouth were transported to the erosional area and injected in the region of the offshore erosional area and the backshore area and the total volumes of the s...

  11. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  12. Temporal variation in the deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds in snow in the Athabasca Oil Sands area of Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Carlos A; Muir, Derek; Kirk, Jane; Teixeira, Camilla; Siu, May; Wang, Xiaowa; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Schindler, David; Kelly, Erin

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) via and onto snow, and their releasing during spring snowmelt has been a concern in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta. This study was designed to evaluate the concentrations, loadings, and distribution of PACs in springtime snowpack and how they have changed since the first study in 2008. Snowpack samples were collected in late winters 2011-2014 at varying distances from the main developments. PAC concentration and deposition declined exponentially with distance, with pyrenes, chrysenes, and dibenzothiophenes dominating the distribution within the first 50 km. The distribution of PACs was different between sites located close to upgraders and others located close to mining facilities. Overall, PAC loadings were correlated with priority pollutant elements and water chemistry parameters, while wind direction and speed were not strong contributors to the variability observed. Total PAC mass deposition during winter months and within the first 50 km was initially estimated by integrating the exponential decay function fitted through the data using a limited number of sites from 2011 to 2014: 1236 kg (2011), 1800 kg (2012), 814 kg (2013), and 1367 (2014). Total loadings were estimated to have a twofold increase between 2008 and 2014, although the increase observed was not constant. Finally, kriging interpolation is presented as an alternative and more robust approach to estimate PAC mass deposition in the area. After a more intensive sampling campaign in 2014, the PAC mass deposition was estimated to be 1968 kg.

  13. Assessment of sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae) control using cypermethrin in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2011-11-01

    Montes Claros in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was considered an intense transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis. This study evaluated sand fly fauna after insecticide application. Captures were performed in 10 districts from September 2005 to August 2006 with CDC light traps inside and outside each residence. Cypermethrin was sprayed in two cycles during November/2005 and May/2006. The 636 specimens collected, belonging to 10 species, were predominantly Lutzomyia longipalpis (79%), and most frequently males (70%). The highest percentage of specimens were captured in areas surrounding domiciles (85.8%). The main species were observed to be sensitive to treatment with the insecticide. The results showed a reduction in the number of sand flies collected after use of cypermethrin in homes and annexes, and with residual effect lasting from two to four months.

  14. Study on natural breeding sites of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in areas of Leishmania transmission in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael José; Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bejarano, Eduar E; Peña, Horacio Cadena; Estrada, Luis Gregorio; Florez, Fernando; Ortega, Edgar; Aparicio, Yamileth; Muskus, Carlos E

    2015-02-22

    The location of the microhabitats where immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia develop is one of the least-known aspects of this group of medically important insects. For this reason strategies of source reduction approach for their control have not been possible in contrast to other insect vectors (such as mosquitoes), because their juvenile stages in terrestrial microhabitats is difficult to detect. Direct examination of soil samples, incubation of substrates and the use of emergence traps were the methods used to identify juvenile stages in 160 soil samples from urban and forest habitats within the foci of Leishmania transmission in Colombia. Immatures collected were identified subsequent from the rearing and emergence of adults using taxonomic keys or the analysis of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I. Plant species associated with the natural breeding sites were identified and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. A total of 38 (23.7%) sampling sites were identified as breeding sites, 142 phlebotomine sand flies were identified, belonging to 13 species of the genus Lutzomyia and two of Brumptomyia. The greatest numbers of immature were found within the tabular roots (51 immature sand flies from eight positive sites) and bases of trees (35 immature sand flies from 11 sites). The characterization and presence of the tree species (mainly Ceiba pentadra, Anacardium excelsum, Pseudosamanea guachapale) and the physicochemical properties (relative humidity and carbon/nitrogen ratio) of the soils associated with these breeding sites are significant factors in explaining the diversity and abundance of phlebotomine sand flies. Immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia in Colombia can be found in a wide variety of breeding sites rich in organic matter, high relative humidity and are associated with a typical vegetation of each locality. These results provide new perspectives for the study of the ecology of the

  15. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; Fuzari, Andressa A; Filho, José Dilermado Andrade; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Britto, Constança; Reginaldo P Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Background Notifications concerning American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis have increased in recent years in the state of Acre, Brazil. Despite identification of distinct Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous lesions, there are still no records of visceral leishmaniasis in the state. However, studies on the sand fly fauna in this region are still limited. Findings Insects were collected from April 2011 to April 2012, using HP light traps distributed in four residential areas and one recreation...

  16. Termites of the Savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, P

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the termite fauna of the Savanna Ecosystem Project study area at the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, with an illustrated key for identification of species. Twenty-one species of fifteen genera and two families are recorded, and notes...

  17. 75 FR 14623 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Management Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... . Fax: (760) 337-4490. Mail: 1661 So. 4th St., El Centro, California 92243. Copies of the Draft Imperial Sand Dunes RAMP/EIS are available in the El ] Centro Field Office at the above address and at the BLM...: Recreation; transportation and public access; wildlife and botany; cultural resources and paleontology...

  18. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  19. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  20. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  1. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure and paucity of fund. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  2. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure, paucity of fund etc. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  3. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis.

  4. Energy secretary's priorities include San Francisco area research projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Widener, A

    2003-01-01

    "Bay Area research labs got a big boost Monday when the Secretary of Energy unveiled his priorities for major research projects his agency hopes to fund over the next two decades. Among the agency's 28 top priorities are a major computer expansion and an experiment examining the expanding universe that could be housed at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and a powerful X-ray laser planned for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center" (1 page).

  5. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area rehabilitation project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States). Environmental Div.

    1991-12-01

    Intensive and continued use of the Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) for military training activities had resulted in serious environmental problems, exemplified by a lack of vegetative cover and severe erosion by water and wind. The project`s goal was to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The major factors limiting rehabilitation efforts were the sandy, infertile, and acidic soils. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase I demonstrated and evaluated three separate rehabilitation treatments ranging in cost from moderate to expensive. Each treatment used a different type of soil amendment (fertilizer and straw, compost, or chicken manure), but all used identical seedbed preparation methods and seed mixtures. Phase I was conducted on relatively small replicated plots and was monitored three times during each growing season. All three treatments satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion. Because of their small size, the Phase I demonstration plots had only a minor stabilizing effect on the erosion problems of the LTA as a whole. The Phase II treatment was based on lessons teamed from Phase I and from other revegetation projects in Germany. Phase II revegetated a large area of the LTA, which included nearly all of the most severely disturbed land. Phase II, which was monitored in the same way as Phase I but for a shorter period of time, was highly successful in stabilizing most areas treated. The revegetation plant community was dominated by native grasses and legumes that stabilized the loose, sandy soils and improved the training realism of a major portion of the LTA.

  6. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2016-08-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) - also called sand replenishment or nourishment - was placed on the Dutch coast. The intention is that the sand is redistributed by wind, current, and tide, reinforcing local coastal defence structures and leading to a unique, dynamic environment. In this study we investigated the potential effect of the long-term morphological evolution of the large sand replenishment and climate change on fresh groundwater resources. The potential effects on the local groundwater system were quantified with a calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) groundwater model, in which both variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport were simulated. Model simulations showed that the long-term morphological evolution of the Sand Engine results in a substantial growth of fresh groundwater resources, in all adopted climate change scenarios. Thus, the application of a local sand replenishment could provide coastal areas the opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of the local fresh groundwater availability.

  7. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  8. Nivelstein sandstone, weakly lithified pure silica sands from the Dutch-German border area, intermittently used in architecture for two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Timo G.; Wim Dubelaar, C.

    2017-04-01

    The current paper provides a concise overview of the geological setting of the Nivelstein sandstone in broad sense, its petrographic and physical characteristics, and its use as natural stone. Miocene pure silica sands occur around Heerlen in the southeastern part of the Dutch province of Limburg and Herzogenrath in adjacent Germany, as well as in the Belgian province of Limburg near Opgrimbie. In Dutch Limburg and in Germany are three large active exploitations, quarrying the sands for industrial purposes. On top of the unconsolidated sands in the Herzogenrath quarry, lithified banks of sandstone occur, known as Nivelstein (or more rarely Herzogenrath) sandstone. This sandstone has been used as dimension stone and ornamental stone since Roman times. In the 11th century the quarry was reopened and after a long period of disuse sandstone blocks were again quarried in the second half of the 19th century. The lithification of the Nivelstein sandstone usually is very weak, with grain to grain contacts and some newly formed quartz rims only. The clay content is extremely low and is restricted to tiny booklets of kaolinite. Despite the weak cementation the Nivelstein sandstone has proved to be very time-resistant building stone that forms a major element in the stone cultural heritage of the Dutch- German border area.

  9. Modeling the transport of shigella in silty and fine sand in shallow aquifers in Caostal area of bonny Niger delta; rivers state of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Ndubuisi Eluozo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the transport of shigella in silty and fine sand formation in shallow aquifer has been developed, the model were generated to monitor the transport of shigella in coastal area of bonny, as coastal environment  there are lots of  influence in the soil formation, the major variable were considered in the development of the theoretical model, this condition were assessed and were integrated , this variables were  considered and it  develop a system that generated the model equation since the microbes are  found to be in exponential phase ,because of high degree of porosity and permeability of the soil formation, the mathematical equation  were found to  consider  these variables to ensure it predict the rate of deposition of shigella in  silty and fine sand formation, the model developed predict the transport of shigella in the coastal area of bonny, Niger Delta area of Nigeria, the model will be one of the baseline to reduce high rate of shigella  in the study area, the study has also provide a design benchmark for practicing  engineers and scientist to ensure that thorough ground are provide by application of the these design model.  

  10. Seasonal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in an artificial sand-binding vegetation area in Shapotou, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuYan Zhou; XuanMing Zhang; XiaoHong Jia; JinQin Ma; YanHong Gao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, seasonal variation characteristics of surface soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) of an artificial vegetation area located in Shapotou for different time periods were studied using the chloroform fumigation method, and the results were compared with those of near-natural vegetation areas and mobile dunes. Results showed that the MBC and MBN levels in the 0-5 cm soil layer were higher in autumn than in summer and spring. As the prolongation of vegetation restoration raised the MBC and MBN levels in summer and autumn, no clear variation was found in spring. However, the MBC and MBN in 5-20 cm had no obvious seasonal variation. During summer and autumn, the variation trend of MBC and MBN in the vertical direction was shown to be 0-5>5-10>10-20 cm in the vegetation area, while for mobile dunes, the MBC and MBN levels increased as the depth increased. The natural vegetation area was shown to possess the highest MBC and MBN levels, and yet mobile dunes have the lowest MBC and MBN levels. MBC and MBN levels in artificial sand-binding vegetation increased with the prolongation of vegetation restoration, indicating that the succession of sand-binding vegetation will result in the ac-cumulation of soil carbon and nitrogen, as well as the restoration of soil fertility.

  11. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  12. Leaf Area Index in Earth System Models: evaluation and projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mahowald

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The amount of leaves in a plant canopy (measured as leaf area index, LAI modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2, and other trace gases, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. The latest generation of Earth system models (ESMs simulate LAI, as well as provide projections of LAI in the future to improve simulations of biophysical and biogeochemical processes, and for use in climate impact studies. Here we use satellite measurements of LAI to answer the following questions: (1 are the models accurately simulating the mean LAI spatial distribution? (2 Are the models accurately simulating the seasonal cycle in LAI? (3 Are the models correctly simulating the processes driving interannual variability in the current climate? And finally based on this analysis, (4 can we reduce the uncertainty in future projections of LAI by using each model's skill in the current climate? Overall, models are able to capture some of the main characteristics of the LAI mean and seasonal cycle, but all of the models can be improved in one or more regions. Comparison of the modeled and observed interannual variability in the current climate suggested that in high latitudes the models may overpredict increases in LAI based on warming temperature, while in the tropics the models may overpredict the negative impacts of warming temperature on LAI. We expect, however, larger uncertainties in observational estimates of interannual LAI compared to estimates of seasonal or mean LAI. Future projections of LAI by the ESMs are largely optimistic, with only limited regions seeing reductions in LAI. Future projections of LAI in the models are quite different, and are sensitive to climate model projections of precipitation. They also strongly depend on the amount of carbon dioxide fertilization in high latitudes. Based on comparisons between model simulated

  13. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF Leishmania IN PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES IN A CUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso Guimarães

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several phlebotomine sand fly species have been regarded as putative or proven vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania in Brazil, but data for the northeastern region remains incipient. In this study, a total of 600 phlebotomine sand flies were grouped in pools of 10 specimens each and tested by a Leishmania genus-specific PCR and by a PCR targeting Leishmania (Leishmania infantum. Fourteen out of 60 pools were positive by the genus-specific PCR, being five pools of L. migonei, seven of L. complexa, one of L. sordellii and one of L. naftalekatzi, which correspond to a minimal infection rate of 2.3% (14/600. Our results, associated with their known anthropophily and their abundance, suggest the participation of L. migonei and L. complexa as vectors of Leishmania in northeastern Brazil. Remarkably, this is the first time in this country that the detection of Leishmania DNA in L. sordellii and L. naftalekatzi has been reported, but future studies are necessary to better understand the significance of these findings.

  14. Effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of Sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. The study was conducted in the farm of the University of Messina (Italy). Light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from May to November; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag being changed every 2h; for 30 days, at different heights from 18:00 to 6:00. A total of five species (i.e., Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Sergentomyia minuta), three of which are proven vectors of Leishmania infantum, were captured. The most abundant species was P. perniciosus (73.3%) followed by S. minuta (23.3%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in August and September with a peak of collection recorded in the evening (i.e., from 20:01 to 22.00). The number of phlebotomine sand flies collected at 50cm above the ground was significantly higher (P=0.041) than that captured at 150cm. Results of this study shed light on the ecology of main phlebotomine species in the Mediterranean area, and on the influence of some factors, such as time and height of traps, on the light trap capture efficiency.

  15. Hydraulic fracture model and diagnostics verification at GRI/DOE multi-site projects and tight gas sand program support. Final report, July 28, 1993--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over twenty years. Early production experiments included nuclear stimulations and massive hydraulic fracture treatments. This work culminated in the US Department of Energy (DOE)`s Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory designed to study the reservoir and production characteristics of low permeability sands. A key feature of MWX was an infrastructure which included several closely spaced wells that allowed detailed characterization of the reservoir through log and core analysis, and well testing. Interference and tracer tests, as well as the use of fracture diagnostics gave further information on stimulation and production characteristics. Thus, the Multiwell Experiment provided a unique opportunity for identifying the factors affecting production from tight gas sand reservoirs. The purpose of this operation was to support the gathering of field data that may be used to resolve the number of unknowns associated with measuring and modeling the dimensions of hydraulic fractures. Using the close-well infrastructure at the Multiwell Site near Rifle, Colorado, this operation focused primarily on the field design and execution of experiments. The data derived from the experiments were gathered and analyzed by DOE team contractors.

  16. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  17. Sediment mathematical model for sand ridges and sand waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Daming; WANG Xiao; WANG Xin; LI Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    A new theoretical model is formulated to describe internal movement mechanisms of the sand ridges and sand waves based on the momentum equation of a solid-liquid two-phase flow under a shear flow. Coupling this equation with two-dimensional shallow water equations and wave reflection-diffraction equation of mild slope, a two-dimensional coupling model is established and a validation is carried out by observed hydrogeology, tides, waves and sediment. The numerical results are compared with available observations. Satisfactory agreements are achieved. This coupling model is then applied to the Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field area to quantitatively predict the movement and evolution of submarine sand ridges and sand waves. As a result, it is found that the sand ridges and sand waves movement distance increases year by year, but the development trend is stable.

  18. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Sand Key Lighthouse, 2005 - 2007 (NODC Accession 0040080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  19. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Sand Key Lighthouse, 2007 - 2010 (NODC Accession 0093065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  20. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Sand Key Lighthouse, 1990 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0012769)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  1. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  2. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  3. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-14

    Suncor Energy Inc. filed 2 applications to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for their proposed North Steepbank Mine Extension and Voyageur Upgrading Facility in the Fort McMurray area. This document provided an outline to the board of the location of the proposed projects, along with technical details concerning sulphur recovery, coke gasification, and by-product storage and use. The applications shared a common environmental impact assessment report, which presented details of tailings management programs; environmental effects to air, terrestrial resources, surface water, and groundwater; potential health effects to human populations; and traditional land use and ecological knowledge of the lands in the areas of the proposed upgrades. The social and economic effects of the projects were considered by the board, as well as the efforts of Suncor to engage with public consultation processes. It was noted that the projects are expected to provide $7.1 billion in federal taxes paid over the life of the project, in addition to $3.6 billion in provincial taxes and a further $23 million in municipal taxes. Details of several interventions filed by various First Nations groups were presented. It was noted that the Oil Sands Environmental Coalition (OSEC) has filed interventions stating concerns over consultation practices; cumulative effects; environmental monitoring; water usage; reclamation policies; and socio-economic issues. Various other groups have expressed concerns over the impacts of rapid development in the region and the subsequent strains on public infrastructure, housing and community resources. While the project is expected to provide employment, the current labour shortage in the region means that further development will be a disadvantage rather than a benefit to the communities in the region. Although a number of conditions were placed on Suncor before full acceptance of the project could be given, the board concluded that the Voyageur project was

  4. An Evaluation of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Traps at Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Livestock Area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F S; da Silva, A A; Rebêlo, J M M

    2016-05-01

    A study to evaluate the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies at two animal pens in a livestock area in Brazil was performed. Light-suction traps were operated overnight with the following light sources: green, blue, and incandescent (control) lights. In total, 22 individual collections were made at each site and 44 with each trap type. In total, 2,542 specimens belonging to 14 phlebotomine species were collected. The most abundant species in the light traps were Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia evandroi, Micropygomyia goiana, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata Taking the two sites together, the green-LED light was the most attractive, followed by the blue and incandescent lights, and the difference between the green-LED and the control was statistically significant. Most species were green-biased at both sites, but some species-specific differences were observed. However, even with these differences, the standard incandescent light was outcompeted by LEDs. The green-LED-biased response observed in the present study, together with numerous advantages in favor of LEDs, suggests that the green-LED light source can be used as an effective substitute for the currently used incandescent bulb in monitoring traps for phlebotomine sand flies in Brazil. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  6. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit level...

  7. Machine Learning for benthic sand and maerl classification and coverage estimation in coastal areas around the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gauci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the seabed composition over a large spatial scale is an interesting yet very challenging task. Apart from the field work involved, hours of video footage captured by cameras mounted on Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs have to be reviewed by an expert in order to classify the seabed topology and to identify potential anthropogenic impacts on sensitive benthic assemblages. Apart from being time consuming, such work is highly subjective and through visual inspection alone, a quantitative analysis is highly unlikely to be made. This study investigates the applicability of various Machine Learning techniques for the automatic classification of the seabed into maerl and sand regions from recorded ROV footage. ROV data collected from depths ranging between 50 m and 140 m and at 9.5 km from the northeast coastline of the Maltese Islands, is processed. Through the application of the presented technique, 5.23 GB of data corresponding to 2 h and 24 min of footage which was collected during June 2013, was initially cleaned and classified. An estimate for the percentage cover of the two benthic habitats (sandy seabed and maerl was also computed by using artifacts encountered during the ROV survey and of known dimensions as a reference. Unlike other automatic seabed mapping techniques, the presented prototype processes video footage captured by a down-facing camera and not through acoustic backscatter. Image data is easier and much cheaper to capture. Promising results that indicate a very good degree of agreement between the true and predicted habitat type distribution values, were obtained.

  8. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  9. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SAND-DUST STORM DISASTER AND COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As a kind of natural disasters, sand-dust storms frequently occur in deserts and their surrounding areas.The occurrence of this disaster in China's northwest and north China has exerted an extremely adverse effect upon the environ-ment in China. The management of sand-dust storms is of a systematic project closely related with the environment suchas agriculture, ecosystem, forestry, water conservancy, meteorology and other aspects. Therefore, studies of the forma-tion, the basic features, causes, temporal-spatial distribution, developing-trend and related disasters of sand-dust stormsin China are conducted based on satellite data. The experience of sand-dust storms control and countermeasures in the Unit-ed States and some other countries are referred. Meanwhile, preliminary countermeasures relating to sand-dust storms inChina are proposed.

  10. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  11. Laboratory Seismic Monitoring and X-ray CT imaging of Supercritical CO2 Injection in Reservoir Sand: WESTCAB King Island Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Harper, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Valley of California contains promising locations for on-shore geologic CO2 storage. DOE's WESTCARB (West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership) project drilled and cored a borehole (Citizen Green Well) at King Island (near Stockton, CA) to study the CO2 storage capability of saline and gas-bearing formations in the southwestern Sacramento Basin. Potential reservoirs encountered in the borehole include Domengine, Mokelumne River (primary target), and Top Starkey formations. In anticipation of geophysical monitoring of possible CO2 injection into this particular borehole and of the long-term migration of the CO2, we conducted small-scale CO2 injection experiments on three core samples retrieved from the well (Mokelumne River sand A and B) and from a mine outcrop (Domengine sandstone). During the experiment, a jacketed core sample (diameter 1.5 inches, length 4.0-6.0 inches) saturated with brine- (1% NaCl aq.) was confined within a pressure vessel via compressed nitrogen to 3,500-4,000psi, and supercritical CO2 was injected into the core at 2,000-2,500psi and 45-60 degrees C. The CO2 pressure and temperature were adjusted so that the bulk elastic modulus of the CO2 was close to the expected in-situ modulus--which affects the seismic properties most--while keeping the confining stress within our experimental capabilities. After the CO2 broke through the core, fresh brine was re-injected to remove the CO2 by both displacement and dissolution. Throughout the experiment, seismic velocity and attenuation of the core sample were measured using the Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar method (Nakagawa, 2012, Rev. Sci. Instr.) at near 1 kHz (500Hz--1.5 kHz), and the CO2 distribution determined via x-ray CT imaging. In contrast to relatively isotropic Mokelumne sand A, Domengine sandstone and Mokelumne sand B cores exhibited CO2 distributions strongly controlled by the bedding planes. During the CO2 injection, P-wave velocity and attenuation of the layered

  12. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  13. 内蒙古拐子湖地区风沙运动若干参数计算%Several caculations of parameters of wind-sand movement at Guaizi Lake area of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何清; 胡文峰; 杨兴华; 艾力·买买提明; 赵聪敏

    2012-01-01

    . The research on dust storms was strengthened by observations , several characteristics of sand movement were studied, calculated by using the classical formula and analysing the records of the site actual measurement as well. The conclusions are as follows ; the critical sand-moving velocity at 2 m height is 4.55 m/s; the critical friction velocity is about 0.318 m/s; the average surface roughness is about 9.42 mm; the sand-moving average friction speed of April 5, 2011 is about 0.371 85 m/s; the friction velocity is positively correlated with the wind speed . The results indicate as follows; the threshold of sand-moving wind velocity, the roughness and the critical friction velocity are extremely small, which is one of the main reasons of sand-drifting activities. To sum up, it is very significant to calculate the parameters mentioned above for the sand storm control in Guaizi Lake area and this study fills the gap in some related parameters about wind-sand movement in this area.%利用内蒙古拐子湖地区风沙观测场2011年3~5月的沙尘暴强化观测资料,分析计算了巴丹吉林沙漠北缘平坦沙地的地表粗糙度、临界摩擦速度、临界起沙风速等风沙运动关键参数。初步结论如下:观测期间地表粗糙度的变化范围为1.0×10-7~9.0×10-1cm,平均粗糙度为0.942 cm;临界摩擦速度约为0.34 m/s;2 m高度的起沙风速约为4.6 m/s。

  14. Mapping of semi-arid iron bearing red sands on emerged areas around lake marshes (Tablas de Daimiel, Spain using hyperspectral DAIS 7915 spectrometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Beisl

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are particularly sensitive environments receiving attention from the natural sciences community due to their wealth of both flora and fauna, and often considered as natural parks. In the Tablas de Daimiel (La Mancha, Central Spain, Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data (DAIS 7915 have been analyzed to map geological processes on areas around the receding wetland which have never been flooded by water in the past. Sediments permanently exposed to the atmosphere dehydrate and oxide, developing different mineralogical associations arranged on planation surfaces. Such planation surfaces are key in the geological knowledge of recent climate change and landscape evolution. Progressive iron oxide/hydroxide rate and decarbonation can be spectrally followed on the Holocene sands framing the current marshy area. Such mineralogical changes are geologically registered on flat surfaces at different heights over the receding shore of the paleolake. Interacting erosion and sedimentation processes are responsible for the development of the flat morphological surfaces with increasing dryness. Maps are built for four different morphological units consisting of planation surfaces following chronologically the receding marsh during the last 2000 years before the present. Interactive spectral responses of mineralogical associations are described on the imagery, field and laboratory spectra.

  15. Local Area Networks--The ENFI Project (Writing on the College Campus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Linda

    1989-01-01

    Describes Electronic Networks for Interaction (ENFI), a local area network project developed at Gallaudet University to empower students with hearing impairments. Notes that this project can be adapted easily for use with traditional students. (MM)

  16. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  17. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    1975-01-01

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  18. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  19. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) – also called sand replenishment or nourishment – was placed on

  20. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  1. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  2. Some Equal-area, Conformal and Conventional Map Projections: A Tutorial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Map projections have been widely used in many areas such as geography, oceanography, meteorology, geology, geodesy, photogrammetry and global positioning systems. Understanding different types of map projections is very crucial in these areas. This paper presents a tutorial review of various types of current map projections such as equal-area, conformal and conventional. We present these map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for them in detail. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  3. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  4. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  5. Development of the Gran Desierto sand sea, northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Grady; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1990-08-01

    Three major eolian sand populations can be recognized in the Gran Desierto sand sea of northwestern Mexico by using spectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper in conjunction with textural and mineralogical studies of surface sands. Each sand population has distinct textural, mineralogic, and spectral properties that can be related to sand-dune morphology and position with reference to source areas and transport paths of the sands. The oldest eolian sediment in the sand sea was derived from the early to middle Pleistocene Colorado River that flowed through the area of the western Gran Desierto. Subsequent inputs of eolian sands came from the area of the present Colorado River valley and the coast south of the sand sea. The spatial and temporal pattern of eolian deposition in the region has been controlled by Quaternary tectonic and climatic changes, resulting in the episodic input and deposition of sand.

  6. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  7. Airborne Wide Area Imager for Wildfire Mapping and Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced airborne imaging system for fire detection/mapping is proposed. The goal of the project is to improve control and management of wildfires in order to...

  8. ENSAR, a Nuclear Science Project for European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzó, Ketel; Lewitowicz, Marek; Harakeh, Muhsin N.

    2015-01-01

    During the period from September 2010 to December 2014, the European project European Nuclear Science and Applications Research (ENSAR) coordinated research activities of the Nuclear Physics community performing research in three major subfields: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nuclear

  9. Birds of Golden Pride Project area, Nzega District, central Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the rehabilitated areas becomes more structurally complex, the number of bird ... Tropical fauna and flora have suffered declines from a variety of destructive ... found in native forest or natural unmined areas (Brady & Noske 2010; Gould ...

  10. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs. PMID:27783667

  11. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  12. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. Insights on the injection mechanisms inferred from AMS fabrics of sand injectites in a turbiditic system, the exemple of Bevon area of the SE Basin (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robion, Philippe; Mehl, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    We propose to investigate the set up mechanisms of sands injection in the case of dykes injected in host marls of Aptian-Albian age in the Vocontian basin (SE France). Several models have been proposed for a downward injection of the dyke in the Bevons area and we guess that AMS fabric investigations can be used to infer the flow direction. 144 drill cores distributed on 14 sites were sampled, among which 8 sites in the injectites and 6 sites in the host rocks. The studied dykes are generally of a few decimeters thick and are setting up in both in vertical or oblique position with respect to the subhorizontal bedding of the host rocks. There were sampled from one side to the other in order to track the flow direction by identification of imbricated fabric. Magnetic mineralogy, i.e. unblocking temperature inferred from IRM 3 axes demagnetization, indicates that the ferromagnetics s.l. mineralogy is dominated by an assemblage of magnetite (unblocking temperature Tub=580°C) and pyrrhotite (Tub=325°C). Magnetic susceptibility is low, typical for siliciclastic rocks, ranging from 4x10-5 up to 1.7x10-4 SI. Degree of magnetic anisotropy is likely representative of AMS measurements in sedimentary rocks with weak values, below than 5 %. In marly host rocks magnetic mineralogy is dominated by pyrrhotite associated with magnetite and both the magnetic susceptibility and degree of anisotropy are slightly lower than for injectites. Regarding magnetic fabric axes distribution, despite some dispersion, the results show that minimum axes of AMS (K3) are parallel to the dyke plane, and maximum axes (K1) are roughly in horizontal position. In marly host rocks, the magnetic fabric is related to tectonic shortening. We interpret that the host rocks have recorded the regional tectonic imprint while the magnetic fabric of the injectites are related to early sedimentary processes. The mechanism of set up proposed to explain the magnetic fabric in the Bevon injectites is a step

  14. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  15. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  16. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G.

    2016-09-23

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  18. It's in the sand

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  19. Resolving the Orientation of Cylinders and Cuboids from Projected Area Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TN-0759•MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Resolving the Orientation of Cylinders and Cuboids fromProjected AreaMeasurements by Richard Saucier...2016 US Army Research Laboratory Resolving the Orientation of Cylinders and Cuboids fromProjected AreaMeasurements by Richard Saucier Survivability...

  20. A Fire Detector for Monitoring Inaccessible Areas in Aircrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — En'Urga Inc. will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing reflected, multi-wavelength, near infrared radiation for detecting fires in inaccessible areas within...

  1. Novel Surveillance Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the current research is to develop the concept, algorithms and software necessary for enabling a novel surveillance system for airports ramp areas....

  2. Contribution to improving of the sands-bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.; Muñoz, M. E.; Santamaría, A.

    2012-09-01

    Algeria is a country made up of about 75% desert. It is a country rich in sand dune. Roads made in these regions have had very significant damage. Their repairs are very expensive because there are generally isolated roads and supporting low traffic. Aggregates represent about 94% of the asphalt mixture. Aggregate quarries which have good characteristics for bituminous concrete are found in northern Algeria. The transport of these aggregates from north to south is extremely expensive. This makes the project to the south of Algeria very expensive. In order to overcome the lack of aggregates, the use of local materials becomes a necessity. In this study we were interested in the sand dunes in two regions of southern Algeria: El-Oued and Ouargla. The objective of this work is to find ways to improve the mechanical properties of these sands to increase the life of pavements with low traffic in these areas. We have associated with these sands: crushed sand of the north, cement, lime and sulfur. Hubbard Field test, Marshall test, and Duriez test were applied to the different bituminous mixtures. This study showed that some associations have given encouraging results.

  3. Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

  4. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.

    2008-01-01

    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  5. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2015-11-12

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness). The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  6. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M. Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness. The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  7. [Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem.

  8. Study on Sand Flies as a Vector(s of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Nested PCR in Rural Areas of Damghan District, Semnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is caused by obligatory intracellular parasite of genus Lieshmania. The disease is reported from more than half of Iran's provinces. Various species of sand flies are vector of the disease. Determination of vectors and gaining knowledge about them are important for devising of control program. Materials & Methods: This survey was performed as a cross-sectional study in order to determine the vector(s of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Damghan district during 2008-2009. Sand flies were collected from indoors and outdoors by sticky traps twice in month from April to November. Head and last abdominal segments of the samples were removed and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium and identified. The rest of the sand flies' bodies was subjected to DNA extraction for molecular detection of Leishmania parasite by Nested PCR using specific primers of minicircle kinetoplast DNAResults: Totally, 6110 sand flies in 8 species were collected. P. papatasi had high density (46.7%. Examination of 280 female sand flies by Nested PCR showed that 28 sand flies (10%include 24 specimens P.papatasi (85.7% and 4 specimens P.caucasicus(14.3%were found naturally infected with L.major. The highest rate of infected sandflies were observed in rodents burrow (42.9%. Maximum rate of sand fly infection was in September (89.3%. Conclusion: With respect to high density of P.papatasi and isolation of L.major from it, this species was the main vector of the disease. Detection of L.major from P.caucasicus shows that this species was the secondary vector in rodent burrow. The highest rate of sand leis infected was in September, so personal protection in this month is very important and necessary. Regarding to the high density of vectors and high infection rate of them taking actions to decrease the sand fly abundance and prevention of human biting are suggested.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:47-52

  9. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: potential vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric System in Western Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. METHODS: Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leishmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season, May/June (dry season, and September/October (intermediary season using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m. RESULTS : A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root (36.67%, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira (8.51%, Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha (6.14%, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira (5.74%, and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira (5.25%. These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found.

  10. City of Huntsville Public Housing Areas STEM Initiative Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Tomeka; Smith, Cydale; Pugh, Marcus; Budak, Satilmis; Muntele, Claudiu

    2012-02-01

    Students in high-poverty and high-minority schools are entering the classroom without the knowledge and skills they need to succeed. In order to bridge the gaps in opportunity and achievement that separate low-income students and students of color from other young Americans, we have introduced elementary and middle school students to the basic concepts of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Within the project, we have provided students with excellent learning opportunities, engaging hands-on experiences, and outstanding advising and mentoring. We have assessed student development and impact before, during, and after the program.

  11. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  12. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  13. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  14. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  15. ESTCP Pilot Project Wide Area Assessment for Munitions Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    images their shape and texture information. The measure of the effective scattering size of a radar target is its radar cross section (RCS), which...clear of munitions debris and into which 24 simulated UXO targets were placed. There was also an area containing a trihedral corner reflector used for...closely spaced objects in range) is proportional to the bandwidth of the radar . Cross -range resolution (the ability to separate two closely spaced

  16. The Centre for Food Innovation -- Research Areas and Potential Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Defence feeding needs and requirements. Possible research areas identified for the CFI include:  dairy products ,  long-shelf-life foods such as...and successful transition to Australian Industry of innovative food products and processes is a high priority for the CFI. Such products are expected...Centre is keen to support collaborative work, the current research portfolio is focussed on pre-farm gate primary production aspect of dairy (breeding

  17. Optimal array of sand fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  18. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  19. Numerical research on evolvement of submarine sand waves in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qikun; Hu, Guanghai; Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Xiaohui; Song, Yupeng; Dong, Lifeng; Dong, Changming

    2016-05-01

    Submarine sand waves, vital to seabed stability, are an important consideration for oceanic engineering projects such as oil pipe lines and submarine cables. The properties of surface sediment and the evolvement of submarine sand waves in a specified area in the South China Sea are studied using both a hydrological model and field observational data. The bottom flow field data between 2010 and 2011 in the study area are simulated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). The migration of submarine sand waves is calculated using Rubin's formula along with typhoon data and bottom flow field data, which allows for the analysis of sand wave response under the influence of typhoons. The migration direction calculated by Rubin's formula and bottom flow are very similar to collected data. The migration distance of different positions is between 0.0 m and 21.8 m, which reciprocates cumulatively. This shows that Rubin's formula can predict the progress of submarine sand waves with the bottom flow simulated by ROMS. The migration distances of 2 sites in the study area are 2.0 m and 2.9 m during the typhoon "Fanapi". The proportion of the calculated migration distance by the typhoon is 9.17% and 26.36% of the annual migration distance, respectively, which proves that the typhoon can make a significant impact on submarine sand waves.

  20. Numerical research on evolvement of submarine sand waves in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qikun; Hu, Guanghai; Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Xiaohui; Song, Yupeng; Dong, Lifeng; Dong, Changming

    2017-03-01

    Submarine sand waves, vital to seabed stability, are an important consideration for oceanic engineering projects such as oil pipe lines and submarine cables. The properties of surface sediment and the evolvement of submarine sand waves in a specified area in the South China Sea are studied using both a hydrological model and field observational data. The bottom flow field data between 2010 and 2011 in the study area are simulated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). The migration of submarine sand waves is calculated using Rubin's formula along with typhoon data and bottom flow field data, which allows for the analysis of sand wave response under the influence of typhoons. The migration direction calculated by Rubin's formula and bottom flow are very similar to collected data. The migration distance of different positions is between 0.0 m and 21.8 m, which reciprocates cumulatively. This shows that Rubin's formula can predict the progress of submarine sand waves with the bottom flow simulated by ROMS. The migration distances of 2 sites in the study area are 2.0 m and 2.9 m during the typhoon "Fanapi". The proportion of the calculated migration distance by the typhoon is 9.17% and 26.36% of the annual migration distance, respectively, which proves that the typhoon can make a significant impact on submarine sand waves.

  1. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  2. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews II. Projections of four nuclei to areas of visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Patterns of thalamocortical connections were related to architectonically defined subdivisions of the pulvinar complex and the dorsolateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri). Tree shrews are of special interest because they are considered close relatives of primates, and they have a highly developed visual system. Several distinguishable tracers were injected within and across cortical visual areas in individual tree shrews in order to reveal retinotopic patterns and cortical targets of subdivisions of the pulvinar. The results indicate that each of the three architectonic regions of the pulvinar has a distinctive pattern of cortical connections and that one of these divisions is further divided into two regions with different patterns of connections. Two of the pulvinar nuclei have similar retinotopic patterns of projections to caudal visual cortex. The large central nucleus of the pulvinar (Pc) projects to the first and second visual areas, V1 and V2, and an adjoining temporal dorsal area (TD) in retinotopic patterns indicating that the upper visual quadrant is represented dorsal to the lower quadrant in Pc. The smaller ventral nucleus (Pv) which stains darkly for the Cat-301 antigen, projects to these same cortical areas, with a retinotopic pattern. Pv also projects to a temporal anterior area, TA. The dorsal nucleus (Pd), which densely expresses AChE, projects to posterior and ventral areas of temporal extrastriate cortex, areas TP and TPI. A posterior nucleus, Pp, projects to anterior areas TAL and TI, of the temporal lobe, as well as TPI. Injections in different cortical areas as much as 6 mm apart labeled overlapping zones in Pp and double-labeled some cells. These results indicate that the visual pulvinar of tree shrews contains at least four functionally distinct subdivisions, or nuclei. In addition, the cortical injections revealed that the LGN projects topographically and densely to V1 and that a significant number of LGN neurons

  3. The importance of mangroves, mud and sand flats, and seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile fishes in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar : gut content and stable isotope analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugendo, B.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der; Mgaya, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    The relative importance of bay habitats, consisting of mangrove creeks and channel, seagrass beds, and mud and sand flats, as feeding grounds for a number of fish species was studied in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania, using gut content analysis and stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen. Gut

  4. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  5. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  6. Research, demonstration, and extension: the ARS area-wide ecologically based invasive plant management project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Area-wide project is a collaborative five year effort funded in 2008 by USDA-ARS that has brought together scientists with the USDA-ARS, universities, land managers, and policy makers throughout the Great Basin. A primary goal of the project is to develop and implement a comprehensive, regional...

  7. Research on Selecting Measurement for Landscaping Project in Salination Areas of Changzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-min; CHEN Ya-jun

    2004-01-01

    We had investigated about the situation about garden-making of Changzhou City twice where soil was serious saline and alkaline. We had also investigated the natural environment of the city. Based on these cases, we discussed the possible measurements about landscaping project under these conditions, so that we can give out the possible project measurements for the same area.

  8. Hydrogeologic monitoring of the Paraíba do Sul river floodplain area subject to sand mining in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and hydrobacterial aspects of the surface and groundwater in the floodplain of the Paraíba do Sul river in Tremembé municipality, the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer experimental site was monitored based on four wells and eight associated piezometers with daily measures of water levels in continuous operation since December 3, 2009. In addition, data from a modular weather station in operation since March 2010 and data from the quality of surface water and groundwater have been analyzed in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. The water balance between April 2010 and March 2011 was estimated to verify the periods of water deficiency and excess. Data loggers installed in the piezometers enabled daily groundwater levels monitoring to establish the influence of the Paraíba do Sul river in the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer and also they allowed the determination of the water loss to the atmosphere. A hydrogeological model with simplified equations, based on hydraulics parameters obtained in the wells pump tests, was implemented to calculate the amount of daily evapotranspiration and the average distance of the water loss from the wells to the atmosphere. An evaporation rate of 83.4 m3/h from the open-pit sand mine located at 212.2 m and of 89.2 m3/h for the one at 885.0 m average distance from the monitoring wells were observed. Chemical and bacteriological analysis involving multiple parameters were performed in the period from March 2010 to March 2011 in groundwater collected in wells, in the open-pit mines and in the waters of the Paraíba do Sul river. The results allowed to observe the influences of the Paraíba do Sul river as well as the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides from the agriculture practiced in the floodplain area on the quality of the groundwater.

  9. Life Cycle Management for an Investment Project in Cluj-Salaj Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Iuliu CIOMOŞ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. Authors’ experience in preparing and implementing investment projects in the water sector has led to several conclusions: there is first an identification phase, in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined, followed by a planning phase, characterized by breaking down the project into smaller tasks, an execution phase, in which the project plan is executed, and lastly a completion phase, that marks the closure and exit of the project. Investment project activities must be grouped into phases because by doing so, the project management and the core team can efficiently plan and organize resources for each activity, and also objectively measure achievement of the goals. This paper introduces several issues related to the Project Cycle Management for a large local infrastructure investment project in the Cluj- Sălaj area, Romania. Successfully managing the project cycle and making timely decisions at every stage (identification, planning, execution and sustainability require the Project Management Unit from the Cluj-Sălaj Water Company to constantly understand and adapt to strategic considerations, both external and internal.

  10. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  11. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  12. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  13. Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham

    2011-05-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) program requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) Sub-Project (hereafter the Sub-Project) activities. The requirements in this QAPP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). The QAPP Revision 0 supersedes DOE--341, Underground Test Area Quality Assurance Project Plan, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 4.

  14. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  15. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Špirutová; J. Beňo; V. Bednářová; J. Kříž; M. Kandrnál

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  16. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  17. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Areas of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, in the Municipality of Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I-Index of Abundance by Location and Type of Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, V R; Azevedo, A C R; Alves, J R C; Guimarães, A E; Aguiar, G M

    2015-09-01

    The description of the first and autochthonous case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brought the interest of this study. Sand flies were captured over a 3-yr period. Using manual suction tubes, sand flies were collected from the inner and outer walls of homes, in the living spaces of domestic animals, and in Shannon light traps, which were set up outside homes and in the forest. CDC light traps were installed inside homes, around the exterior of the houses, and along the divide and within the forest. A total of 102,937 sand flies were collected, representing 23 species--three from the genus Brumptomyia and 20 from the genus Lutzomyia. Of these, six species, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia fischeri, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia whitmani, and Lutzomyia pessoai have already been recorded as being naturally infected by Leishmania braziliensis, and one species, Lutzomyia ayrozai, by Leishmania naiffi. Lu. intermedia is the vector of Le. braziliensis in the study area, particularly inside the homes and on the exterior of the houses. Lu. fischeri can also act as vector of Le. braziliensis in domestic environments and particularly in the wild. The third-ranked Lu. migonei was the most abundant in kennels, suggesting its canine affinity. Lu. whitmani, ranked fourth, still has characteristics indicative of the wild, but with a significant number located on the edge of the forest, suggesting a selection process of adaptation to the anthropic environment.

  18. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  19. 富水隧道全风化花岗岩和蚀变大理岩段涌水涌砂加固治理技术%The Control of Sand-gushing and Water-bursting of Water-rich Tunnel Located in Area with Fully Weathered Granite and Alteration Marble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周运祥

    2015-01-01

    The section DK554+400 ~ +456 of Dongkeling tunnel on Guiyang-Guangzhou railway is located in the area with fully weathered granite and alteration marble. During the construction, sand-gushing and water-bursting often arise, not only increasing the difficulties but also posing long-term security risks. In view of the sand-gushing, water-bursting and other defects during the period of construction of the tunnel, it is effective to control sand-gushing and water-bursting through combination of plugging and drainage i. e. sleeve valve pipe grouting around the tunnel and steel pipe pile grouting at tunnel bottom, and setting-up drainage holes. The successful practices and technical parameters can be referred to similar project.%贵广铁路东科岭隧道DK554+400~+456段处于全风化花岗岩、蚀变大理岩区接触带,隧道施工遭遇了长期的涌水涌砂等病害。结合东科岭隧道施工期间的涌水、涌砂概况及病害成因,治理采用堵排结合,即洞身全风化花岗岩段采用袖阀管注浆、仰拱底部蚀变大理岩部位采用钢管桩注浆加固,同时设置泄水洞等措施,成功解决了涌水涌砂加固治理难题。

  20. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD42 Importation of Sand Pears From China AGENCY... and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States. As a condition of entry, sand pears from areas in China in which the Oriental...

  1. Facilitating telemedicine project sustainability in medically underserved areas: a healthcare provider participant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David L; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2016-04-26

    Very few telemedicine projects in medically underserved areas have been sustained over time. This research furthers understanding of telemedicine service sustainability by examining teleconsultation projects from the perspective of healthcare providers. Drivers influencing healthcare providers' continued participation in teleconsultation projects and how projects can be designed to effectively and efficiently address these drivers is examined. Case studies of fourteen teleconsultation projects that were part of two health sciences center (HSC) based telemedicine networks was utilized. Semi-structured interviews of 60 key informants (clinicians, administrators, and IT professionals) involved in teleconsultation projects were the primary data collection method. Two key drivers influenced providers' continued participation. First was severe time constraints. Second was remote site healthcare providers' (RSHCPs) sense of professional isolation. Two design steps to address these were identified. One involved implementing relatively simple technology and process solutions to make participation convenient. The more critical and difficult design step focused on designing teleconsultation projects for collaborative, active learning. This learning empowered participating RSHCPs by leveraging HSC specialists' expertise. In order to increase sustainability the fundamental purpose of teleconsultation projects needs to be re-conceptualized. Doing so requires HSC specialists and RSHCPs to assume new roles and highlights the importance of trust. By implementing these design steps, healthcare delivery in medically underserved areas can be positively impacted.

  2. Permeable reactive barriers for the remediation of groundwater in a mining area: results for a pilot-scale project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Lopez, Salvadora; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Gonzalez-Ciudad, Eva; Belen Martinez-Martinez, Lucia; Hernandez, Carmen; Molina-Ruiz, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union is located in the Region of Murcia, Southeast of Spain. This zone presents high levels of heavy metals due to natural, geogenic reasons. In addition, the prolonged mining activity, and subsequent abandonment of farms, has had consequences on the environment, including severe affectation of the groundwater in the area. To remediate this situation, the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) technology was assayed, which required in addition to the hydro-geological study of the zone, a careful optimization study for the design and construction of PRBs. For such a purpose a pilot-scale project was developed, and this communication reports some of the most relevant findings obtained after a four-years monitorization period. The selected reactive material for the PRBs was limestone filler. The filler is a waste material produced in many factories in the zone. These residues have good adsorption properties, high alkalinity, low cost and high availability, which make them suitable for use in remediation. The PRB was constituted by a 50% limestone filler and 50% sand, a proportion optimized by means of independent batch experiments. A layer of gravel was placed at the top, and on it a layer of natural soil. The barrier was designed in the form of a continuous trench, because the level of the contaminated groundwater was not very deep. In this way, the barrier could be prepared with standard excavation equipment. Parallel to the barrier, 6 wells where arranged downstream for sample collection. The pH and conductivity of the samples was measured directly in situ, and the content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb were analyzed in the laboratory. All the samples collected after the PRB was constructed had basic pH values between 7.5 and 8. The conductivity was between 5 and 11 mS / cm except for the well 4, which had a value of 3.70 mS / cm. The concentration values of trace elements were below the detection limit (atomic absorption measurement) in

  3. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  4. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  5. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies in the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thies region, Senegal: area of transmission of canine leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila W Senghor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal. However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be

  6. Using combinations of metal isotopes as tracers of tailings pond discharges to subsurface aquifers in the Athabasca Oil Sands area, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, P. R.; Savard, M. M.; Ahad, J. M.; Girard, I.

    2016-12-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) industry in Alberta, Canada deposits voluminous waste streams in Earth's largest tailings ponds (TPs). Detecting and tracing contaminant discharge from TPs to subsurface aquifers has proven difficult because tailings have the same composition as the surrounding environment of unmined oil sand. To trace pond discharge to the subsurface therefore relies on the waste stream hosting additions or alterations induced by mining or industrial processes. Inorganic element or contaminant concentration data have proven ineffective at tracing because there is insufficient alteration of the chemical constituents or their ratios. Metal isotopes have not generally been applied to tracing emissions even though isotopic fractionation is likely induced via the high temperature and pH industrial process. We have generated Mg, Li, Pb and Zn isotopic data for a range of groundwater wells and TPs. Mg isotopes are excellent for distinguishing deep saline brines that are pumped into the waste stream during mine dewatering. Li isotopes appear to be heavily fractionated during processing, which produces a heavy isotopic signature that is an excellent tracer of production water. Pb isotopes discriminate Pb derived from oil-sand versus bedrock carbonate. Juxtapositions of TPs, carbonates and near-surface aquifers are common and of significant regulatory concern, making Pb isotopes particularly useful. Zn isotopic data indicates similarities to Pb isotopes, but are difficult to obtain due to low concentrations. Combining the isotopic data with concentration data and hydrologic models will assist in determining the fluxes of discharges from the TPs to near-surface aquifers. The range of environmental contexts of AOS TPs is limited and thus monitoring discharges to nearby aquifers from TPs could feasibly be accomplished using tailored suites of metal isotopes.

  7. Tuberculosis in cattle: the results of the four-area project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin John M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The four-area project was undertaken to further assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. It was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in matched removal and reference areas in four counties, namely Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan, representing a wide range of Irish farming environments. In the removal areas, a proactive programme of badger removal was conducted, on two or three occasions each year, whereas in the reference areas, badger removal was entirely reactive following severe outbreaks of tuberculosis amongst cattle. A detailed statistical analysis of this study has already been presented by Griffin et al. 13; this paper presents further, mainly descriptive, findings from the study. In total, 2,360 badgers were captured in the removal areas of which 450 (19.5% were considered positive for tuberculosis and 258 badgers were captured in the reference areas, with 57 (26.1% positive for tuberculosis. The annual incidence of confirmed herd restrictions was lower in the removal area compared to the reference area in every year of the study period in each of the four counties. These empirical findings were consistent with the hazard ratios found by Griffin et al. 13. Further, the effect of proactive badger removal on cattle tuberculosis in the four-area project and in the earlier east-Offaly project, as measured using the number of reactors per 1,000 cattle tested, were very similar, providing compelling evidence of the role of badgers in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds. The validity of the four-area project was discussed in detail. Efforts to minimise badger-to-cattle transmission in Ireland must be undertaken in association with the current comprehensive control programme, which has effectively minimised opportunities for cattle-to-cattle transmission.

  8. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tony; Hansen, Andrew J; Piekielek, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs) lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and controlling

  9. Patterns and variability of projected bioclimatic habitat for Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Chang

    Full Text Available Projected climate change at a regional level is expected to shift vegetation habitat distributions over the next century. For the sub-alpine species whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, warming temperatures may indirectly result in loss of suitable bioclimatic habitat, reducing its distribution within its historic range. This research focuses on understanding the patterns of spatiotemporal variability for future projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA through a bioclimatic envelope approach. Since intermodel variability from General Circulation Models (GCMs lead to differing predictions regarding the magnitude and direction of modeled suitable habitat area, nine bias-corrected statistically down-scaled GCMs were utilized to understand the uncertainty associated with modeled projections. P.albicaulis was modeled using a Random Forests algorithm for the 1980-2010 climate period and showed strong presence/absence separations by summer maximum temperatures and springtime snowpack. Patterns of projected habitat change by the end of the century suggested a constant decrease in suitable climate area from the 2010 baseline for both Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 8.5 and 4.5 climate forcing scenarios. Percent suitable climate area estimates ranged from 2-29% and 0.04-10% by 2099 for RCP 8.5 and 4.5 respectively. Habitat projections between GCMs displayed a decrease of variability over the 2010-2099 time period related to consistent warming above the 1910-2010 temperature normal after 2070 for all GCMs. A decreasing pattern of projected P.albicaulis suitable habitat area change was consistent across GCMs, despite strong differences in magnitude. Future ecological research in species distribution modeling should consider a full suite of GCM projections in the analysis to reduce extreme range contractions/expansions predictions. The results suggest that restoration strageties such as planting of seedlings and

  10. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  11. Sand Dune Encroachment and Desertification Processes of the Rigboland Sand Sea, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Naseri, Hamidreza

    2017-05-08

    Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected. The study has trialed a change detection technique which uses a Cross-Tabulation module to compare two available LandsatTM images over the Rigboland sand sea. This indicates that within a ten-year span (from 1988 to 1998) more than 200 ha/yr were added to the Rigboland sand sea, from the alluvial fan landforms in the eastern upstream, outer margins of the Rigboland sand sea. Coupled with GIS techniques, this type of analysis of the remote sensing (RS) images provides an effective tool for the monitoring and prognostication of sand dune movement and sand sea change.

  12. 长距离胶带机在水电工程砂石料系统工程中的应用%Application of Long-distance Rubber Belt Conveyor in Aggregate & Sand Processing System of Hydropower Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    文章从长距离胶带机的设计、施工要求及在国内外各个工地的砂石料生产中的应用等方面,对长距离胶带机的使用进行综合性比较,论证了长距离胶机在水电工程中应用的推广意义。%Application of the long-distance rubber belt conveyor is comprehensively compared, and the development significance of the conveyor in the hydropower projects is demonstrated in terms of its design, construction requirements and its applications in the aggregate&sand processing operation on the hydropower projects site both at home and abroad.

  13. D-Area Drip Irrigation/Phytoremediation Project: SRTC Report on Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.

    2001-09-11

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate a novel drip irrigation-phytoremediation process for remediating volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), from groundwater in D-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is expected to be less expensive and more beneficial to the environment than alternative TCE remediation technologies.

  14. Coupling interaction between biodiversity and aquatic habitat area in Western Route Project vicinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-min TIAN; Zhao-yin WANG; Xiang-jun LIU; Shi-kui LIANG

    2010-01-01

    The Western Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will divert water from the upper Yangtze River and its tributaries,the Dadu River and Yalong River,to the upper Yellow River.The project may ease the water shortage in the Yellow River Basin.However,it may also have some effects on the ecosystem in the upper Yangtze River Basin.Benthic invertebrates play an important role in the river ecosystem,particularly in the circulation of materials and nutrition.Benthic invertebrates are widely used to quickly assess river ecosystems because of their rapid response to changes in the water environment.The diversity of benthic invertebrates is closely associated with the aquatic habitat area.This study examined this interaction by sampling the benthic invertebrates in an expanding area.The conclusions are that the diversity of benthic invertebrates begins to decrease when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 45% of the original area,and decreases dramatically when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 10% of the original area.The aquatic habitat area should be kept at more than 45% of the original area in order to maintain the significant diversity of benthic invertebrates.

  15. Ways of Increasing Property Values in Degraded Urban Areas: Projects Implemented in Pécs, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szabó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Property prices are extremely low in extensive degraded urban areas. Enhancing property values in these areas is a foremost concern for both property owners and for the town as a whole. The aim is to transform isolated, disadvantaged urban areas; to increase property prices so that they reach the level of average property prices in the town, thus giving way to the development and revitalization of these deprived neighborhoods. The paper will describe the urban areas in question (housing estates, industrial areas, underused urban areas and the methods used by the local government. They include strategically located important public buildings, renewing public spaces and parks, regenerating derelict industrial sites. Most of these projects have been implemented within the Pécs 2010 European Capital of Culture programs.

  16. Concentration and grain-size distribution of aeolian sands in peat bogs as an indicator of past storminess in coastal areas of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandel, Egert; Vaasma, Tiit; Tõnisson, Hannes; Sugita, Shinya; Vilumaa, Kadri; Anderson, Agnes; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Kangur, Mihkel; Pensa, Margus; Küttim, Martin; Umbleja, Liisa; Puusepp, Liisa

    2016-04-01

    Storminess in the Baltic Sea region has significantly increased over the last 50 years. As we do not have meteorological data beyond 20th century, therefore the long-term changes in storminess (e.g., frequency and magnitude of the storms) and its impact on the coastal evolution are mostly unknown. This study aims to reconstruct the extreme storm events along the coast of Estonia in late Holocene, inferred from changes in grain-size distribution and concentration of aeolian sands preserved in peat deposits. Four cores in total were collected from bogs of coastal Estonia; three from west Estonian archipelago (Hiiumaa Island and Saaremaa Island); one from the northern coast of the mainland (Juminda Peninsula). Core from Saaremaa (166 cm) covers the last 2700 years, cores from Hiiumaa (171 cm and 330 cm) cover ca 4000 years, and core from Juminda (465 cm) covers ca 8500 years. All AMS dates (77) are converted to cal yrs BP. Analyses of LOI and grain size are carried out at every centimetre in order to obtain data for mineral matter content and concentration of sand particles. The Juminda core shows a consistently low content of mineral matter (LOI < 2%) without clear peaks over the last 8000 years. The LOI results at both Hiiumaa sites show that mineral matter content gradually decreases from 4000 to 1500 cal yrs BP and then becomes the lowest in the period of 1500-1000 cal yrs BP; since then, it becomes higher (up to 10%) with fluctuations and has a clear peak around 700 cal yrs BP. At Saaremaa, the overall trend of mineral matter content is similar to that at the Hiiumaa sites: gradual decline from 2700 to 1500 cal yrs BP, lowest in 1500-1000 cal yrs BP, and relatively high over the last millennium. Concentration of mineral particles reveal clear peaks of aeolian sands at each site. At northern Hiiumaa, concentration has peaks around 3500, 3000 and 2500 cal yrs BP and is relatively high over the last 700 years. At Saaremaa, concentration has peaked at 2100, 1600 and

  17. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  18. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  19. Experimental Research on Suitable Sand Thickness in Coal Gangue Waste Land in Sandy Area of Northern Shaanxi Province%陕北沙区煤矸石山适宜的覆沙厚度试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国平; 毕银丽; 李莹; 李军保; 张继平

    2016-01-01

    [目的]解决陕北沙区煤矸石废弃地占地面积大,植被恢复困难和治理造价高的问题。[方法]利用野外试验,设计半隐蔽沙蒿沙障(2 m ×2 m)下的3种覆沙厚度(30,50和70 cm)共3种类型的处理。4种乡土灌木树种沙地柏(Sabina chinensis )、长柄扁桃(A mygdalus pedunculata)、紫穗槐(A morpha f ruti‐cosa)和蒙古莸(Caryopteris mongholica)进行对比试验。[结果]成活率、保存率、新稍生长量和地径变化随着覆沙厚度的增加,其指标均有所提高;多因素方差分析表明种间存在极显著差异,在0.05的显著水平下,紫穗槐与其它植物种均存在显著差异,蒙古莸与沙地柏间存在显著差异;在0.01显著水平下,蒙古莸、长柄扁桃和沙地柏间差异性不显著;覆沙30 cm 与覆沙50 cm ,覆沙70 cm 间均存在显著差异,覆沙50 cm和覆沙70 cm 间差异性均达不到显著水平。[结论]综合因素条件下,覆沙50 cm是该区域煤矸石山土地复垦及生态恢复植被需要基质的最佳选择。%[Objective] To solve the issues of large coal gangue waste land area and high cost in vegetation res‐toration in sandy area of Northern Shaanxi Province .[Methods] Three sand thickness (30 ,50 and 70 cm) and a semi‐covered A rtemisia sand barrier(2 m × 2 m) were set .Four different kinds of native shrub species including Sabina chinensis ,A mygdalus pedunculata ,A morpha f ruticosa and Caryopteris mongholica were selected for the experiments .[Results] The survival rate ,saving rate ,the amount of new growth and diameter had improved due to the increase of sand thickness .Multi‐factor variance analysis showed that there were significant differences among different species .Significant differences were found between A . f ruticosa Linn and other types ,and between C .mongholica Bunge and S .vulgaris(p < 0 .05 ) .There were no significant difference between C .mongholicaBunge ,A

  20. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  1. Indoor Test Analysis of Seepage Deformation of Bedding Layer and Main Rockfill Area for Nazixia Concrete Facing Sand-gravel-fill Dam%纳子峡混凝土面板堆石坝垫层及主堆石区渗透变形室内试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莹; 沈振中; 杨旭东; 马小刚

    2011-01-01

    根据大通河纳子峡面板砂砾石坝的工程特点和料场情况,对纳子峡水电站下游C1料场B、F区及河床的天然砂砾石土科做了筛分试验,绘制了土料的颗粒级配曲线,得出C1料场B、F区土料满足垫层设计要求,且F区土料更优;同理天然砂砾石亦满足主堆石区料设计要求.根据设计要求的颗粒级配、砂土的相对密度、压实度等,对垫层2A1、砂砾石料区3B1土料做了渗透变形试验,发现土料渗透变形破坏均经历了土样保持原状、细颗粒浮动、形成渗漏通道及土样完全破坏4个阶段,绘制了流速-渗透坡降双对数曲线图,据此求得了垫层2A1、主堆石区3B1土料的临界坡降,再根据现行规范取安全系数2 0,从而求得垫层2A1、主堆石区3B1土料允许渗透坡降分别为0.463、0.163.%According to the characteristics of engineering project and the conditions of the quarry for concrete facing sand-gravel-fill dam of Nazixia in Datonghe River, screen analysis test of section B &? F at downstream Cl quarry and sand gravel soil material of river bed is implemented. And the grain gradation curves ot soil material are plotted. Then the soil materials of section B &- F in Cl quarry satisfy the requirements of the bedding layer but the section F is more perfect. Moreover, the sand gravel meets design requirement of main rockfill area quarry. According to the design requirements of grain gradation, relative density of sand soil, degree of compaction, the seepage deformation tests of 2Albedding layer, 3B1 soil materials of sand gravel quarry are carried out. It finds out that ihe seepage deformation damage of soil material has divided into four stages: soil sample keeping original state* fine grain floating, seepage path forming, soil sample damaging. At the same time, double logarithmic curve between velocity and seepage gradient is plotted. In view of the a-bove, the critical gradient of bedding layer 2Al and 3B1 soil

  2. Geological and hydrogeological aspects of PROHBEN area - Engenho Nogueira hydrogeological project, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Aspectos geologicos e hidrologicos da area do PROHBEN - Projeto Hidrogeologico da Bacia do Engenho Nogueira, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Filho, Carlos Alberto de; Aquino Branco, Otavio Eurico de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira Loureiro, Celso de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1996-08-01

    The Engenho Nogueira Hydrological Project, PROHBEN, was idealized with the goal to important an Experimental Hydrogeological Basin within its limits, in order to permit the development of hydrogeological studies and techniques, mainly in modeling the flux and transport of contaminants in saturated and unsatured porous media. The PROHBEN is located in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, performing a 5 km{sup 2} area. The lithologies that compound the study area were divided in four geological units. The Unit A is mainly composed by the unweathered gneiss of the Archean Belo Horizonte Regional Complex, and form the bedrock of the local aquifer. The Unit B is constituted by weathered products of the Unit A rocks. Alluvial and colluvial deposits compound the C and D Units, respectively. The local porous, water-table Engenho Nogueira Aquifer reaches the thickness of 40 meters and is mainly formed by the sand-clays lithologies of the B and D geological Units. First results of seven pumping tests performed in local wells are now been analysing, and they are showing a 10{sup -4} cm/s value for the aquifer hydraulic conductivity. Three master degree studies are being performed in the PROHBEN area and one hope is that more researchers come to use this experimental field site. (author) 6 refs.

  3. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raquel A; Burgess, Neil D; Cabeza, Mar; Rahbek, Carsten; Araújo, Miguel B

    2012-01-01

    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17 general circulation models, we introduce a consensus methodology that combines co-varying models. Thus, we quantify and map the relative contribution to uncertainty of seven bioclimatic envelope models, three multi-model climate projections and three emissions scenarios, and explore the resulting variability in species turnover estimates. We show that bioclimatic envelope models contribute most to variability, particularly in projected novel climatic conditions over Sahelian and southern Saharan Africa. To summarize agreements among projections from the bioclimatic envelope models we compare five consensus methodologies, which generally increase or retain projection accuracy and provide consistent estimates of species turnover. Variability from emissions scenarios increases towards late-century and affects southern regions of high species turnover centred in arid Namibia. Twofold differences in median species turnover across the study area emerge among alternative climate projections and emissions scenarios. Our ensemble of projections underscores the potential bias when using a single algorithm or climate projection for Africa, and provides a cautious first approximation of the potential exposure of sub-Saharan African vertebrates to climatic changes. The future use and further development of bioclimatic envelope modelling will hinge on the interpretation of results in the light

  4. Evolution of mammalian sensorimotor cortex: Thalamic projections to parietal cortical areas in Monodelphis domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clinton Dooley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current experiments build upon previous studies designed to reveal the network of parietal cortical areas present in the common mammalian ancestor. Understanding this ancestral network is essential for highlighting the basic somatosensory circuitry present in all mammals, and how this basic plan was modified to generate species specific behaviors. Our animal model, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica, is a South American marsupial that has been proposed to have a similar ecological niche and morphology to the earliest common mammalian ancestor. In this investigation, we injected retrograde neuroanatomical tracers into the face and body representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1, the rostral and caudal somatosensory fields (SR and SC, as well as a multimodal region (MM. Projections from different architectonically defined thalamic nuclei were then quantified. Our results provide further evidence to support the hypothesized basic mammalian plan of thalamic projections to S1, with the lateral and medial ventral posterior thalamic nuclei (VPl and VPm projecting to S1 body and S1 face, respectively. Additional strong projections are from the medial division of posterior nucleus (Pom. SR receives projections from several midline nuclei, including the medial dorsal, ventral medial nucleus, and Pom. SC and MM show similar patterns of connectivity, with projections from the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei, VPm and VPl, and the entire posterior nucleus (medial and lateral. Notably, MM is distinguished from SC by relatively dense projections from the dorsal division of the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. We discuss the finding that S1 of the short-tailed opossum has a similar pattern of projections as other marsupials and mammals, but also some distinct projections not present in other mammals. Further we provide additional support for a primitive posterior parietal cortex which receives input from multiple

  5. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  6. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  7. The 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a group of expert collaborators are using the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site 300 Area uranium plume within the footprint of the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit as a site for an Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC). The IFRC is entitled Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on the Hanford Site 300 Area Uranium Plume Project. The theme is investigation of multi-scale mass transfer processes. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research that relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements/approaches needed to characterize and model a mass transfer-dominated system. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the 300 Area IFRC Project. This plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  9. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Beaumont

    Full Text Available The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5. The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  10. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  11. Impact Analysis of Coastal Engineering Projects on Mangrove Wetland Area Change with Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past decades, two large scale coastal engineering projects have been carried out in the Deep Bay surrounded by Shenzhen City and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. One project is Shenzhen River channel regulation and the other is the sea reclamation along the seashore on the Shenzhen side. The two projects are very close to the two national nature reserves, specifically Futian in Shenzhen and Mai Po in Hong Kong, which are important wetland ecosystems worldwide. This paper aims to identify and monitor the mangrove wetland changes with time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper images pre and post to the two engineering projects being launched. Coupled analysis of the image interpretation results and tidal data acquired at the same time in the context of the two works reveals that the mangrove wetland area has increased from year 1989 to 1994, and has changed little from year 1994 to 2002. Binary coding is applied to reveal the distribution image of mangrove at each phase, and the coding image shows that the construction of the two coastal engineering projects has caused frequent changes in mangrove spatial distribution. The study also shows that the change is not significant regarding to the precision of the method and the natural evolution of mangrove wetland, and the projects do not cause apparently influences upon the two national mangrove conservation zones at least for the research time period.

  12. Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island Ashley E. Frey, P. E. Research Civil...GenCade Alternatives • Sand Management Alternatives and Plan • Beach Nourishment Project 2 Innovative solutions for a safer, better world...BUILDING STRONG® Problem Statement/Approach Recommend a long-term plan of actions to better manage sands on Galveston Island Initial Tasks

  13. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1992-01-01

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  15. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...

  16. Simulated water-level and water-quality changes in the bolson-fill aquifer, Post Headquarters area, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The quantity of freshwater available in the Post Headquarters well field, White Sand Missile Range, New Mexico, is limited and its quality is threatened by saltwater enroachment. A three-dimensional, finite-difference, groundwater flow model and a cross-sectional, density-dependent solute-transport model were constructed to simulate possible future water level declines and water quality changes in the Post Headquarters well field. A six-layer flow model was constructed using hydraulic-conductivity values in the upper 600 ft of saturated aquifer ranging from 0.1 to 10 ft/day, specific yield of 0.15, and average recharge of about 1,590 acre-ft/yr. Water levels simulated by the model closely matched measured water levels for 1948-82. Possible future water level changes for 1983-2017 were simulated using rates of groundwater withdrawal of 1,033 and 2 ,066 acre-ft/year and wastewater return flow of 0 or 30% of the groundwater withdrawal rate. The cross-sectional solute-transport model indicated that the freshwater zone is about 1,500 to 2,000 ft thick beneath the well field. Transient simulations show that solutes probably will move laterally toward the well field rather than from beneath the well field. (USGS)

  17. Ventral tegmental area GABA projections pause accumbal cholinergic interneurons to enhance associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew T C; Tan, Kelly R; O'Connor, Eoin C; Nikonenko, Irina; Muller, Dominique; Lüscher, Christian

    2012-12-20

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) are essential for learning about environmental stimuli associated with motivationally relevant outcomes. The task of signalling such events, both rewarding and aversive, from the VTA to the NAc has largely been ascribed to dopamine neurons. The VTA also contains GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing neurons, which provide local inhibition and also project to the NAc. However, the cellular targets and functional importance of this long-range inhibitory projection have not been ascertained. Here we show that GABA-releasing neurons of the VTA that project to the NAc (VTA GABA projection neurons) inhibit accumbal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) to enhance stimulus-outcome learning. Combining optogenetics with structural imaging and electrophysiology, we found that VTA GABA projection neurons selectively target NAc CINs, forming multiple symmetrical synaptic contacts that generated inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This is remarkable considering that CINs represent a very small population of all accumbal neurons, and provide the primary source of cholinergic tone in the NAc. Brief activation of this projection was sufficient to halt the spontaneous activity of NAc CINs, resembling the pause recorded in animals learning stimulus-outcome associations. Indeed, we found that forcing CINs to pause in behaving mice enhanced discrimination of a motivationally important stimulus that had been associated with an aversive outcome. Our results demonstrate that VTA GABA projection neurons, through their selective targeting of accumbal CINs, provide a novel route through which the VTA communicates saliency to the NAc. VTA GABA projection neurons thus emerge as orchestrators of dopaminergic and cholinergic modulation in the NAc.

  18. Geophysical and Geotechnical Determination of Sand Resources on the Florida Atlantic Continental Shelf: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkl, C. W.; Andrews, J. L.; Suthard, B. C.; Robertson, W.

    2007-12-01

    The State of Florida is committed to maintaining beaches to sustain beach width and protect coastal infrastructure. Nearshore sand resources must be identified and cataloged for potential beach nourishment projects in response to sea-level rise and increased tropical storm activity. Given the vast length of Florida coastline, application of a variety of remote sensing techniques are required for measuring large areas in a short amount of time. The study area encompasses a shelf area of about 2,053,220 ha (20,532 km2) from Miami to the Georgia State line (about 653 km shoreline length) and extends up to 27 km offshore to about the 45 m isobath offshore Jacksonville. The continental shelf along the east coast of the Florida peninsula contains a wide range of seafloor environments that lie above the Florida-Hatteras Slope on the shoreface and inner, middle, and outer shelf floors. This study used Airborne Laser Bathymetry (ALB), 3D digital terrain models based on reformatted NOAA bathymetric data, sidescan sonar, and seismic reflection profiling to map seafloor geomorphological conditions that range from coralline-algal reef systems to drowned karst, submerged paleo shorelines (drowned beach ridge plains), and buried paleo channels. Seatruthing of morphosedimentary features is achieved via jetprobe and vibracore surveys in the study of inter-reefal sand troughs, ebb-tidal deltas, transverse bars, shoals, sand waves, ridges, and banks. Preliminary results, which visualize seafloor topography as color-ramped morphoforms, indicate the presence of sedimentary deposits that may constitute viable sand resources for shore protection in the form of beach renourishment. Use of ALB and reformatted NOAA bathymetric data in the form of 3D terrain models permits classification of submarine landform topologies that was heretofore not possible using isobaths. The combination of multiple remote sensing methods showed the spatial distribution of morphosedimentary features and provided

  19. Camera Calibration for Water-Biota Research: The Projected Area of Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Wackrow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Imaging systems have an indisputable role in revealing vegetation posture under diverse flow conditions, image sequences being generated with off the shelf digital cameras. Such sensors are cheap but introduce a range of distortion effects, a trait only marginally tackled in hydraulic studies focusing on water-vegetation dependencies. This paper aims to bridge this gap by presenting a simple calibration method to remove both camera lens distortion and refractive effects of water. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated using the variable projected area, computed for both simple and complex shaped objects. Results demonstrate the significance of correcting images using a combined lens distortion and refraction model, prior to determining projected areas and further data analysis. Use of this technique is expected to increase data reliability for future work on vegetated channels.

  20. CanWEA regional issues and wind energy project siting : mountainous areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and permitting considerations for wind energy project siting in mountainous areas were discussed. Mountainous regions have a specific set of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Potential disruptions to wildlife, noise, and visual impacts are a primary concern in the assessment of potential wind farm projects. Alpine habitats are unique and often contain fragile and endangered species. Reclamation techniques for mountainous habitats have not been extensively tested, and the sites are not as resilient as sites located in other ecosystems. In addition, alpine habitats are often migratory corridors and breeding grounds for threatened or endangered birds. In the winter months, alpine habitats are used by caribou, grizzly bears, and wolverine dens. Bats are also present at high elevations. It is often difficult to conduct baseline and monitoring studies in mountainous areas since alpine habitat is subject to rapid weather changes, and has a very short construction period. tabs., figs.

  1. Primary surplus and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary surpluses for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate t...

  2. Primary balance and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary balances for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate th...

  3. Danger in the nursery : impact on birds of tar sands oil development in Canada's boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J. [Boreal Songbird Initiative, Seattle, WA (United States); Casey-Lefkowitz, S.; Chavarria, G. [Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY (United States); Dyer, S. [Pembina Institute, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This report discussed the impacts of tar sands oil development in Canada's boreal forest. The Canadian boreal forest is one of the world's most important breeding areas for migratory birds, with 1 billion to 3 billion individual birds from at least 300 species known to regularly breed there. Approximately 30 per cent of all shorebirds and 30 per cent of all landbirds that breed in the United States and Canada do so within the boreal. The section of the boreal forest that sits over the tar sands region of Alberta is rapidly being fragmented by oil development. As much as 34 to 66 per cent of the Canadian boreal forest, up to 438 million acres, may no longer be intact. In Alberta, 86 per cent of the boreal forest is no longer considered intact, thus putting valuable bird habitat at risk. This report first provided background information on Canada's boreal forest as North America's nesting bird destination. It then reviewed the dangers created by tar sands operations for boreal birds. It noted that tar sands mining destroys boreal bird habitat; tailings ponds trap birds in oil waste; tar sands drilling fragments bird habitat; tar sands water withdrawals harm wetlands and water habitats; and tar sands toxins weaken and kill boreal birds. The impacts of tar sands pipelines and refineries were also discussed along with global warming impacts on boreal birds and the path forward for habitat protection. It was recommended that Alberta should implement a moratorium on new tar sands lease sales, and that Alberta and Canada should halt project approvals until long-term mitigation strategies and conservation measures are in place. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  7. Shape and spin distributions of large object populations from random projection areas

    CERN Document Server

    Nortunen, Hari

    2016-01-01

    We model the shape and spin characteristics of an object population when there are not enough data to model its single members. The data are random projection areas of the members. We construct a mapping $f(x)\\rightarrow C(y)$, $x\\in\\mathbb{R}^2$, $y\\in\\mathbb{R}$, where $f(x)$ is the distribution function of the shape elongation and spin vector obliquity, and $C(y)$ is the cumulative distribution function of an observable $y$ describing the variation of the observed projection areas of one member, and show that the mapping is invertible. Using the projected area of an ellipsoid as our model, we obtain analytical basis functions for a function series of $C(y)$ and prove uniqueness and stability properties of the inverse problem. Even though the model error is considerably larger than the measurement noise for realistic cases of arbitrary shapes (such as asteroids), the main characteristics of $f(x)$ (such as the locations of peaks) are robustly recovered from the data.

  8. Area 5 Site Characterization Project: Report of hydraulic property analysis through August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.; Tyler, S.; Chapman, J.; Miller, M.

    1993-12-01

    The Area 5 Site Characterization Project is designed to determine the suitability of the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW) and transuranic waste (TRU). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) has supported the Area 5 Site Characterization Project for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (ERWM), Waste Operations Branch (WOB). The purpose of DRI`s Area 5 Site Characterization project is to characterize important properties of the upper vadose zone which influence infiltration and redistribution of water and transport of solutes as well as to characterize the water quality and hydrologic conditions of the uppermost aquifer. This report describes methods and presents a summary of all data and results from laboratory physical and chemical testing from Pilot Wells and Science Trench borehole samples through August 1993. DRI laboratories performed soil water content, soil water potential, soil bulk density, soil water extract isotope analyses and soil water chemistry analyses.

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  10. Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E

    2012-01-01

    We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107).

  11. The area acustico-vestibularis of Discoglossus pictus. II. The primary afferent projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A; Muñoz, M

    1988-01-01

    In the present report the primary projections to the dorsal rhombencephalic alar plate (area acustico-vestibularis, AAV) of the adult anuran amphibian Discoglossus pictus have been studied by means of the anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). As in Alytes cisternasii, other member of the family Discoglossidae, no primary afferent fibers to the AAV were found from nerves other than the VIIIth cranial nerve. No remanent of the lateral line system in the adult stage is present. The projections of the dorsal root of nerve VIIIth distribute over the dorsal nucleus and rostrally reach the aspect of the cerebellum. Caudally projects to the large cells of the ventral nucleus and terminate caudally, in the dorsolateral neuropil, at levels coincident with the IX motor nucleus. The projection of the ventral root also reaches the cerebellum in its lateral aspect but also fibers to the nucleus cerebelli were observed. The extensive projection to the ventral nucleus is also continued caudally to the caudal nucleus and ends around the solitary tract. Main terminal fields were located in two neuropils, one subventricular and other in an intermediate position. In addition, from both nerve branches, fibers leave the AAV and reach the reticular formation. Particularly, fibers from the posterior branch enter the superior olivary nucleus. Retrograde labeled neurons in the vicinity of the VII motor nucleus are interpreted as efferent cells to the labyrinth.

  12. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  13. Managing the environmental challenges of oil sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weagle, K. [Cumulative Environmental Management Association, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A brief overview of the development of the oil sand industry in Alberta was provided with reference to proposed projects, government revenue, and jobs in the industry between 1995 and 2002. The major environmental concerns facing the industry are: corporations and environmental risk; the process required by both the federal government and the government of Alberta to address cumulative effects; and, an increased interest in resource development. Self-regulation in the sector was discussed, examining who pays the bills, and the triad of self-regulation. The author described the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) as being a multi-shareholder group working to implement sustainable development strategies by promoting management and understanding of cumulative impacts. The 14 themes of CEMA were examined, its goals reviewed, and the corporate structure described. Other challenges facing the oil sands industry originate from the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and construction costs. The Alberta government fosters a climate that encourages continued development in Alberta's oil sands areas. figs.

  14. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  15. Observations of several characteristics of aeolian sand movement in the Taklimakan Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Zhiwen; DONG; Zhibao; WANG; Tao; CHEN; Guangting; YAN

    2004-01-01

    With both sides of the Taklimakan Desert highway line as the study area, three typical aeolian sand landforms, i.e. complex dune ridge, barchan dune and flat sand land, were selected as sand beds for the observation, analysis and research of the characteristics of aeolian sand movement such as aeolian sand stream structure, sand transport intensity, etc. in the Taklimakan Desert. The results show that there is a linear relation between the height and the log of sand transport rate over transverse dune chain, longitudinal dune ridge and flat sand land, i.e. the sand transport percentage decreases exponentially with increasing height. Sand transport rate within the 10 cm height above the bed surface accounts for 80%-95% of the total sand transport rate of the observed height (40 cm), while the sand transport rate in 20 cm occupies 98% of the total amount. Sand transport rate (g·cm-1·min-1) differs greatly with respect to different landform types and different topographic positions. Based on the investigation and analysis on aeolian sand landform origin, morphological type and distribution feature, the two typical landform assemblages, complex transverse dune chain-alluvial plain and huge longitudinal dune ridge-interridge lowland in the Taklimakan Desert were divided into several characteristic zones of aeolian sand movement states. From this one can qualitatively judge the types and severities of sand disasters at various topographic positions in the engineering installation region and further put forward concrete schemes and measures to control sand damages.

  16. Bright sand/dark dust: The identification of active sand surfaces on the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, H. G., II; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Arvidson, R.

    1987-05-01

    Field studies and analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data in the Gran Desierto, Mexico may shed light on a technique to distinguish active from inactive (relict) sand surfaces. Active sand bodies in the study area are consistently brighter (by an average of 20%) at visual and near infrared wavelengths and darker at thermal infrared wavelengths than compositionally similar inactive sands. The reasons for the albedo difference between active and inactive sands are reviewed and the mixing model of Johnson et al. is examined for tracing the provenance of sands based on albedo and spectral variations. Portions of the wavelengths covered by the Mars Orbiter correspond to the Thematic Mapper data. The identification of active sands on Earth, with a priori knowledge of bulk composition and grain size distribution, may allow the remote mapping of active sand surfaces on Mars. In conjuction with thermal infrared remote sensing for composition, it may also provide a method for the remote determination of grain size distributions within sand/silt mixtures.

  17. Geosphere-biosphere interactions in European Protected Areas: a view from the H2020 ECOPOTENTIAL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Karnieli, Arnon; Marangi, Carmela; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Imperio, Simona

    2017-04-01

    The large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, contributing to GEO and GEOSS - http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, adopting the view of ecosystems as one physical system with their environment, focusing on geosphere-biosphere interactions, Earth Critical Zone dynamics, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions, the effect of extreme events and using Essential (Climate, Biodiversity and Ocean) Variables as descriptors of change. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The project focuses on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance, that is representative of the range of environmental and biogeographical conditions characterizing Europe. Some of the activities of the project are devoted to detect and quantify the changes taking place in the Protected Areas, through the analysis of remote sensing observations, in-situ data and gridded climatic datasets. Likewise, the project aims at providing estimates of the future ecosystem conditions in different climate and environmental change scenarios. In all such endeavours, one is faced with cross-scale issues: downscaling of climate information to drive ecosystem response, and upscaling of local ecosystem changes to larger scales. So far, the analysis has been conducted mainly by using traditional methods, but there is wide room for improvement by using more refined approaches. In particular, a crucial question is how to upscale the information gained at single-site scale to larger, regional or continental scale, an issue that could benefit from using, for example, complex network analysis.

  18. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  19. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove

  20. Modeling Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits; A Focus on the U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Bolm, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Cape- and ridge-associated marine sand deposits, which accumulate on storm-dominated continental shelves that are undergoing Holocene marine transgression, are particularly notable in a segment of the U.S. Atlantic Continental Shelf that extends southward from the east tip of Long Island, N.Y., and eastward from Cape May at the south end of the New Jersey shoreline. These sand deposits commonly contain sand suitable for shore protection in the form of beach nourishment. Increasing demand for marine sand raises questions about both short- and long-term potential supply and the sustainability of beach nourishment with the prospects of accelerating sea-level rise and increasing storm activity. To address these important issues, quantitative assessments of the volume of marine sand resources are needed. Currently, the U.S. Geological Survey is undertaking these assessments through its national Marine Aggregates and Resources Program (URL http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/aggregates/). In this chapter, we present a hypothetical example of a quantitative assessment of cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in the study area, using proven tools of mineral-resource assessment. Applying these tools requires new models that summarize essential data on the quantity and quality of these deposits. Two representative types of model are descriptive models, which consist of a narrative that allows for a consistent recognition of cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits, and quantitative models, which consist of empirical statistical distributions that describe significant deposit characteristics, such as volume and grain-size distribution. Variables of the marine sand deposits considered for quantitative modeling in this study include area, thickness, mean grain size, grain sorting, volume, proportion of sand-dominated facies, and spatial density, of which spatial density is particularly helpful in estimating the number of undiscovered deposits within an

  1. First stage of INTRAMAP: INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRAMAP (INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project is an international effort to merge the magnetic data acquired throughout the "Ross Sea Antarctic Sector" (south of 60°S between 135°-255°E including the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM, the Ross Sea, Marie Byrd Land, and the Pacific coast, and also to begin the compilation efforts for new data over the Wilkes Basin. This project is a component of the continental scale Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP. The first stage of INTRAMAP addresses the analysis and merging of GITARA (1991-1994 and GANOVEX (1984 aeromagnetic surveys together with ground magnetic data (1984-1989. The combined data sets cover an area of approximately 30 km2 over Victoria Land and adjacent Ross Sea. Map and profile gridding were implemented to integrate the data sets. These approaches are studied for improving existing strategies to adopt for the whole magnetic compilation effort. The final microlevelled grid that we produce is a new tool for regional interpretation of the main tectonic and geologic features of this sector of Antarctica.

  2. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  3. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  4. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  5. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  6. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  7. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  8. Tackling five main problem areas found in science (ground segment) project developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, T.; Pérez-López, F.

    2014-08-01

    Science projects which require a large software development may use many scientists alongside a few professional software engineers. Such projects tend to show extreme cases of the general problems associated with software developments. After introducing an example of a large software development in a science project, the importance of a development management plan will be emphasised and sections of the plan highlighted and it is explained how these sections address and prepare for the expected problems throughout the life of the project. A positive, strongly proactive quality assurance, QA, approach is the common theme throughout. The role of QA is, therefore, more to guide, support and advise all members of the team rather than only to detect and react to problems. The top five problem areas addressed are: 1. Vague, late and missing requirements. 2. Few professional software engineers in a large software development. 3. A lack of testers with an appropriate test mentality. 4. Quality Assurance people cannot be everywhere, nor have in-depth skills in every subject. 5. Scientists will want to start coding and see writing documents as a waste of their time.

  9. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  10. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  11. Large Area Projection Microstereolithography: Characterization and Optimization of 3D Printing Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Melissa R. [Ohlone College, Fremont, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Bryan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bekker, Logan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dudukovic, Nikola [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    Large Area Projection Microstereolithography (LAPμSL) is a new technology that allows the additive manufacture of parts that have feature sizes spanning from centimeters to tens of microns. Knowing the accuracy of builds from a system like this is a crucial step in development. This project explored the capabilities of the second and newest LAPμSL system that was built by comparing the features of actual builds to the desired structures. The system was then characterized in order to achieve the best results. The photo polymeric resins that were used were Autodesk PR48 and HDDA. Build parameters for Autodesk PR48 were found that allowed the prints to progress while using the full capacity of the system to print quality parts in a relatively short amount of time. One of the larger prints in particular had a print time that was nearly eighteen times faster than it would have been had printed in the first LAPμSL system. The characterization of HDDA resin helped the understanding that the flux of the light projected into the resin also affected the quality of the builds, rather than just the dose of light given. Future work for this project includes exploring the use of other resins in the LAPμSL systems, exploring the use of Raman Spectroscopy to analyze builds, and completing the characterization of the LAPμSL system.

  12. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  13. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  14. THE CONTEXT OF ESTABLISHING PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICES IN THE IT AREA: TWO CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giovanni Spelta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Completing strategic Information Technology (IT projects as planned is certainly an important objective for large firms. One of the measures adopted to reach this goal systematically is to create a Project Management Office in the IT area (PMO-IT. However, many firms consider the possibility of creating a PMO-IT, but decide not to do it. This paper presents the results of an exploratory research about the contextual drivers that determine the decision to create PMO-Its. Through two case studies of large Brazilian firms – one that created the entity and another which believes does not need it –, the drivers of the decision to create or not to create a PMO-IT were identified, and it was possible to confirm some of the drivers mentioned in the literature. This paper increases the undertstanding about this topic, which is important in the Management Information Systems field, as well as indicates paths for future research.

  15. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Klint, K.E. [GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  16. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)); Klint, Knud Erik (The National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark))

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  17. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed J.F. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

  18. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  19. Microwave processing of oil sands and contribution of clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    John P. Robinson; Binner, Eleanor; Saeid, Abdul; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study establishes the feasibility of microwave heating for extracting oil from Oil Sands in ex-situ processes. Previous studies in this area have shown some potential, but have not characterised the dielectric properties of the Oil Sands used, nor related them to the mineral composition, both of which are vital if successful scale up is to be achieved. In this work the fundamental interactions of microwave energy with Oil Sands are investigated and understood for the first time, and the ...

  20. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  1. Procedures and results of the measurements on large area photomultipliers for the NEMO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bellotti, R.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhdaef, B.; Cacopardo, G.; Calı, C.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Cassano, B.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; DeBonis, G.; DeRosa, G.; DeRuvo, G.; DeVita, R.; Distefano, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Lonardo, A.; LoPresti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Maugeri, F.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Spurio, M.; Stefani, F.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-03-01

    The selection of the photomultiplier plays a crucial role in the R&D activity related to a large-scale underwater neutrino telescope. This paper illustrates the main procedures and facilities used to characterize the performances of 72 large area photomultipliers, Hamamatsu model R7081 sel. The voltage to achieve a gain of 5×10 7, dark count rate and single photoelectron time and charge properties of the overall response were measured with a properly attenuated 410 nm pulsed laser. A dedicated study of the spurious pulses was also performed. The results prove that the photomultipliers comply with the general requirements imposed by the project.

  2. 砂砾石土筑堤技术在北汝河堤防治理工程中的应用%Application of Sand and Gravel Soil Embankment Technology in Beiru River Dike Governance Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美义; 金鑫

    2012-01-01

      堤防是世界上最早广为采用的一种重要防洪工程,筑堤是防御洪水泛滥、保护居民和工农业生产的主要措施。少占土地、就地取材是堤防工程设计的重要原则。对北汝河治理工程利用河床砂砾石筑堤技术进行了研究,提出了砂性土筑堤技术一般原则和应该注意的问题。%  Dike is an important flood control project adopted firstly and widely all over the world, and embankment is the main measure for defending flooding, protecting citizens, and industrial and agricultural production. Occupation of less land, and adoption of local resources are important principles in dike engineering design. The adoption of sand and gravel embankment technology on the riverbed of Beiru River governance project is studied, and the general principles and problems demanding attention of sandy soil embankment technique are proposed.

  3. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427) AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Record of Decision. SUMMARY: Western Area Power... proposed wind park would be built in one or more phases, dependent on one or more power sale contracts. The...

  4. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  5. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hole, David G; Willis, Stephen G; Pain, Deborah J;

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread concern, the continuing effectiveness of networks of protected areas under projected 21st century climate change is uncertain. Shifts in species' distributions could mean these resources will cease to afford protection to those species for which they were originally established......, despite the likelihood of significant community disruption, we demonstrate that rigorously defined networks of protected areas can play a key role in mitigating the worst impacts of climate change on biodiversity....... species). Persistence of suitable climate space across the network as a whole, however, is notably high, with 88-92% of priority species retaining suitable climate space in >or= 1 IBA(s) in which they are currently found. Only 7-8 priority species lose climatic representation from the network. Hence...

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  7. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2000 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L; Eaton, G F; Hakemi, N L; Hudson, G B; Hutcheon, I D; Lau, C A; Kersting, A B; Kenneally, J M; Moran, J E; Phinney, D L; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Sylwester, E R; Wang, L; Williams, R; Zavarin, M

    2001-07-01

    This report highlights the results of FY 2000 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. This is the latest in a series of annual reports published by LLNL-ANCD to document recent investigations of radionuclide migration and transport processes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The HRMP is sponsored by Defense Programs (DP) at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOENV), and supports DP operations at the NTS through studies of radiochemical and hydrologic processes that are relevant to the DP mission. Other organizations that support the HRMP include Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPS), and Bechtel Nevada (BN). The UGTA Project is sponsored by the Environmental Management (EM) program at DOENV; its goal is to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination in groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing at the NTS. The project strategy follows guidelines set forth in a Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Participating contractors include LLNL (both ANCD and the Energy and Environmental Sciences Directorate), LANL, USGS, DRI, BN, and IT Corporation (with subcontract support from Geotrans Inc.).

  8. Distribution of sand dunes and sand shifts along the southern fringe of the Mu Us Desert since the Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article takes the two segments of the Ming Great Walls, Dabian and Erbian, and their associated barracks and forts as geographical references. Based on a detailed scrutiny of historical records of the Ming and Qing dynasties, and on field surveys, the southern boundaries of the sand dunes and sand shifts of the Mu Us Desert in the Ming and Qing dynasties are carefully reconstructed. A comparison of the southern boundaries of the sand dunes and sand shifts of the Mu Us Desert in Ming and Qing with the modern boundary revealed in remote sensing imagery clearly shows that the southern boundary of dunes and shifts in the Mu us Desert has expanded only in a few areas and on a small scale. In the area to the south of Changle Fort, along the direction of annually prevailing winds, sand drifts have penetrated through the Jialu River valley into the loess region and have formed a sand strip of 32 km long and 3 km wide. To the east of Qingping Fort, sand drifts penetrated toward the eastern loess region through the Luhe River valley and have formed another sand strip of 8 km long and 2 km wide. Generally speaking, though the intensity of human activity has been increasing in this area since the Ming Dynasty, the Mu Us Desert has not significantly expanded toward the southeast or southwest. The sand-loess boundary in the southern fringe of the Mu Us Desert has been almost unchanged since the Ming Dynasty.

  9. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    geographic, economic, preemptive use, environmental, geologic and political factors. In addition, offshore sand resources should only be considered if the area is seaward of the active zone of significant nearshore sediment transport, about 10 to 12 m in depth, and in sufficiently shallow water so that sand can be extracted within U.S. dredging equipment limits, currently about 40 m in depth. If the material is to be used for beach nourishment, material must be of an appropriate sediment texture and character (grain size, sorting, shape, and color) to match the native beach and have mineralogical properties important to its use. Extraction of sand can disturb or alter the benthic habitat and seafloor ecology, so these factors and other site-specific effects will need to be evaluated for any intended use. These and other factors are not considered in this report but can be expected to reduce the total net volume of sand resources available for production. The purpose of this report is to describe and present results from a probabilistic mineral modeling technique previously applied to onshore mineral resources. This modeling and assessment procedure is being used for the first time to assess and estimate offshore aggregate resources; this study is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Marine Aggregates Resources and Processes Project (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/aggregates/).

  10. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  11. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal area CA1-subiculum projection: implications for theories of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, S M; Commins, S; Anderson, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews investigations of synaptic plasticity in the major, and underexplored, pathway from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum. This brain area is the major synaptic relay for the majority of hippocampal area CA1 neurons, making the subiculum the last relay of the hippocampal formation prior to the cortex. The subiculum thus has a very major role in mediating hippocampal-cortical interactions. We demonstrate that the projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains plasticity on a number of levels. We show that this pathway is capable of undergoing both long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF, a short-term plastic effect). Although we failed to induce long-term depression (LTD) of this pathway with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and two-pulse stimulation (TPS), both protocols can induce a "late-developing" potentiation of synaptic transmission. We further demonstrate that baseline synaptic transmission can be dissociated from paired-pulse stimulation of the same pathway; we also show that it is possible, using appropriate protocols, to change PPF to paired-pulse depression, thus revealing subtle and previously undescribed mechanisms which regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we successfully recorded from individual subicular units in the freely-moving animal, and provide a description of the characteristics of such neurons in a pellet-chasing task. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to theories of the biological consolidation of memory.

  13. Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1991-11-01

    More than 30 years of intensive and continual tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage at the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany. The Range 8C Rehabilitation Demonstration Project, followed by a three-year monitoring effort, was conducted to develop and evaluate the environmental and economic effectiveness of seven revegetation and four erosion control prescriptions implemented at a 16-ha site. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and the changes in the vegetative community during three years of military use on the seven areas treated with revegetation prescriptions. Field observations were made to determine the suitability and durability of four types of erosion control structures. Soil fertility and a source of seed appeared to be the most limiting factors in establishing vegetation, while seedbed preparation had only a minor influence. Grasses appeared to be more resistant to vehicle traffic than did other types of vegetation. Because grassed waterways were used as roads by military vehicles and a system of graded terraces was expensive, these erosion control prescriptions were unsuitable and uneconomical for use on training areas. Low-cost riprap waterbars and porous check dams slowed the velocity of runoff, trapped sediments, and were durable. Recommendations were formulated to improve the environmental and economic effectiveness of future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  14. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  15. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Areas, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains polygons depicting the geographic areas of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem...

  16. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  17. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...... test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and specimens with equal height and diameter....... Four series with Id equal to 0.92, 0.87 0.76 and 0.55 have been performed....

  18. Outcomes from the USDA/ARS area-wide project for management of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, became established in the continental US in 1985 and now infests 30 states. In 2007 the USDA Agricultural Research Service funded an “area-wide” project focused on the management of this species. The project was a unique federal, state, local collaborati...

  19. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The first part of the study has been reported in Rasmussen and Thorning (2012).The starting point of the study was a need for more knowledge on methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration in Danish onshore areas, as an alternative to seismic investigations, when these cannot be used for nature protecting reasons. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different non-seismic methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The optimum choice for a field test was an electromagnetic experiment with a galvanic controlled source (Rasmussen and Thorning, 2012). However, due to organisational issues and a limited timeframe of the project, the final choice of method for the field test was settled on using the magnetotelluric method (MT). Though MT does not utilise galvanic controlled sources, and hence does not serve as a tool for direct hydrocarbon exploration, MT has been used in the past in relation with hydrocarbon exploration onshore and has recently gained considerable interest in China. A contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The test was carried out August 2012 in an area around Toender, and is reported here as ALTKUL Project Report Part 2. In total 42 MT stations were measured in a 180 km{sup 2} area. The digital data are enclosed with the report and hereby released to the public. A 3D model of the electrical resistivity variations to a depth of 6 km constitutes, together with the actual measured data, the main results of part 2 of the ALTKUL project. The 3D model was derived from an unconstrained 3D inversion of the MT data. The MT data show that pronounced lateral resistivity variations exist at the depth of interest for

  1. UK Frac Sand Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    2015-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica san...

  2. New uses of gas in Canada : oil sands gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarta, N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The relationship between the price of natural gas and the development of oil sands in northern Alberta was discussed with reference to Shell Canada's Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), its resource base and plans for future expansion. Several graphs were presented, depicting world scale resources, Canadian oil production, and the North American oil market. Graphs depicting future projections for oil sands natural gas demand and cogeneration capacity showed that the trend for both demand and capacity is steadily increasing. The AOSP is a large high quality reserve with low overburden. The project utilizes advanced bitumen clean-up technology and the site is equipped with a highly integrated refinery that exploits infrastructure synergies. Some of the risk factors associated with oil sand development were described as being capital costs, operating costs, commodity prices, labour supply, and the Kyoto Protocol. 24 figs.

  3. Experimental Study on Mining Influence in Coal Mining Area with Loose Sand Bed%松散沙层煤矿区采动影响试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立忠; 李虎民; 姜升

    2015-01-01

    The development and sustainability of intensive coal mines are restricted seriously by the coal mining under villages,which needed to be addressed. The current method is to relocate the involved villages,but there are some disadvanta-ges such as high cost,lack of land and the residents′reluctance to move. Therefore,reconstruction of the villagers′houses be-fore mining in the would-be subsidence area serves as a new way to prevent the coal mining under villages. In Xiaojihan Coal Mine,the observation of building anti-deformation and surface movement are made respectively in the testing building and the observation stations in order to make experimental study on the mining effect and mining without relocation. The result shows that the villagers′houses with anti-deformation structure could be resistant to the mining influence. It is feasible to make mining without relocation in the mining area with good application value.%村庄压煤问题严重制约着村庄密集型煤矿的发展和生产接续,亟待解决。目前的解决方法是对涉及到的村庄进行搬迁,但这样做有成本高、用地指标紧张和农民不愿搬离原址等弊端。因此,充分利用拟沉陷区进行村庄采前就地重建为村庄压煤问题的解决提供了新思路。通过小纪汗煤矿抗变形结构试验房和地表移动变形观测站,进行建筑物变形观测和地表移动变形观测,开展采动区影响和不搬迁开采试验研究。结果表明:采取相应抗变形结构的民房可以抵抗该矿的采动影响,可以进行该地区的不搬迁开采推广,具有很好的应用价值。

  4. Development and Assessment of the Sand Dust Prediction Model by Utilizing Microwave-Based Satellite Soil Moisture and Reanalysis Datasets in East Asian Desert Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunglok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, satellite-based microwave sensors have provided valuable soil moisture monitoring in various surface conditions. We have first developed a modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD dataset by utilizing Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2, and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS soil moisture datasets in order to estimate dust outbreaks over desert areas of East Asia. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer- (MODIS- based AOD products were used as reference datasets to validate the modeled AOD (MA. The SMOS-based MA (SMOS-MA dataset showed good correspondence with observed AOD (R-value: 0.56 compared to AMSR2- and GLDAS-based MA datasets, and it overestimated AOD compared to observed AOD. The AMSR2-based MA dataset was found to underestimate AOD, and it showed a relatively low R-value (0.35 with respect to observed AOD. Furthermore, SMOS-MA products were able to simulate the short-term AOD trends, having a high R-value (0.65. The results of this study may allow us to acknowledge the utilization of microwave-based soil moisture datasets for investigation of near-real time dust outbreak predictions and short-term dust outbreak trend analysis.

  5. A potential recovery of a population of the sand lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 in an area within its range: a lizard endemic and threatened with extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae has a relatively small geographic range restricted to only 200 km of along the coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which are habitats under intensive anthropic disturbance. At the Barra da Tijuca beach, in Rio de Janeiro city an estimate of the population abundance made in 1991, compared to a previous estimate made in 1984, showed a considerable decrease (about 65%. Most of the decrease was attributed to anthropic disturbances that locally affected the beach vegetation, the species habitat. In this study we present estimates made in 2002 and in 2006 at the same area and compare them with the estimates of 1984 and 1991, using the same methodology in order to make comparable the data from different samplings years and to evaluate the present status of the local population. The estimated indexes of L. lutzae abundance in 2002 and in 2006 were higher than that of 1991. There was a significant increase in the mean number of recorded lizards in 2002 compared to 1991, but the mean number of lizards sighted in 2006 remained stable when compared with that of 2002. Our data based on the index of abundance recorded suggested that the number of L. lutzae at Barra da Tijuca beach recorded increased, which can be indicative of a potential recovery of the local population.

  6. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    Project ALTKUL was commissioned by DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden; the Danish Energy Agency followed the project closely. The first part of the study has been reported in Rasmussen and Thorning (2012).The starting point of the study was a need for more knowledge on methods that could be used for hydrocarbon exploration in Danish onshore areas, as an alternative to seismic investigations, when these cannot be used for nature protecting reasons. DONG E and P A/S and Nordsoefonden approached GEUS, suggesting a study of seven different non-seismic methods. The Danish Energy Agency was interested in the subject and requested that an actual test of a method be carried out as a part of the project. The optimum choice for a field test was an electromagnetic experiment with a galvanic controlled source (Rasmussen and Thorning, 2012). However, due to organisational issues and a limited timeframe of the project, the final choice of method for the field test was settled on using the magnetotelluric method (MT). Though MT does not utilise galvanic controlled sources, and hence does not serve as a tool for direct hydrocarbon exploration, MT has been used in the past in relation with hydrocarbon exploration onshore and has recently gained considerable interest in China. A contract was entered with Uppsala University for some initial tests of the magnetotelluric (MT) method. The test was carried out August 2012 in an area around Toender, and is reported here as ALTKUL Project Report Part 2. In total 42 MT stations were measured in a 180 km{sup 2} area. The digital data are enclosed with the report and hereby released to the public. A 3D model of the electrical resistivity variations to a depth of 6 km constitutes, together with the actual measured data, the main results of part 2 of the ALTKUL project. The 3D model was derived from an unconstrained 3D inversion of the MT data. The MT data show that pronounced lateral resistivity variations exist at the depth of interest for

  7. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  8. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  9. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY2005 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Hudson, G B; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Nimz, G J; Ramon, E C; Rose, T P; Shuller, L; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2007-03-23

    This report describes FY 2005 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  10. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Tests Area Project FY 2003 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J., B C; F., E G; K., E B; L., F D; J., H L; Max, H; Bryant, H G; B., K A; E., M J; A., P G; P., R T; K., S D; F.B., T A; W., W R; Mavrik, Z; Pihong, Z

    2004-08-17

    This report describes FY 2003 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The present report is organized on a topical basis and contains five chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-CBND during FY 2003. Although we have emphasized investigations that were led by CBND, we also participated in a variety of collaborative studies with other UGTA and HRMP contract organizations including the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and Bechtel Nevada (BN).

  11. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  12. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  13. 76 FR 56433 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... service under firm electric service contracts, project use, and special use contracts. Firm Electric... specified path that anticipates no planned interruption. Federal Entitlements: The energy and capacity delivered to Federal Customers under Firm Electric Service Contracts. FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory...

  14. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  15. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  16. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  17. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  18. TWENTIES Project. Wind power for wide-area control of the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Juan Carlos; Combarros, Clara; Veguillas, Roberto; Hermosa, Mikel Joseba [Iberdrola Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Rubio, David [Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion (Spain); Egido, Ignacio [Comillas Univ. (ES). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT)

    2011-07-01

    Europe faces a great challenge with the 2020 scenario in which the renewable energy installed capacity in Europe should increase from its present value of approximately 80 GW to 230 GW in 2020. The future high penetration levels of wind and other renewable energies in the power system require decision makers and stakeholders of the electrical sector to work together to develop new ancillary services and to make the necessary changes to the grid infrastructure in Europe. This background is in line with the SYSERWIND demonstration lead by Iberdrola Renovables and included in the TWENTIES project, with three more partners taking part in this package: Red Electrica de Espana (REE), IIT and Gamesa Eolica. This paper introduces a first phase of preliminary work to define, install and test a Secondary Frequency Control and a Voltage Management System in a wide area, along a transport line. (orig.)

  19. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  20. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  1. Faraday, Jets, and Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    When a 6-mm layer of fine sand with an average grain size of 40 µm is poured into a cylindrical container and shaken vertically, thin jets are seen to emerge from an airy cloud of grains, almost like protuberances from the corona of the sun. A quasi two-dimensional setup reveals the jet-formation

  2. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  3. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  4. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  5. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  6. Sand supply to beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  7. Evaluation of functioning of ICDS project areas under Indore and Ujjain divisions of the state of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Dixit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS is recognized worldwide as one of the most efficient community based programmes promoting early childhood care. Regular evaluations of the programme have been conducted to make it more effective and adequate for the beneficiaries. Objectives: To evaluate the functioning of the Anganwadi Centers under different project areas of Indore and Ujjain Divisions. Methods: Under the present evaluation system one ICDS project and five Anganwadi Centers under the project area (AWCs were visited on a monthly basis and services provided reviewed. Findings reported are from nine project areas under Indore and Ujjain Divisions in the state of Madhya Pradesh from October 2008 – June 2009. Results: A total of 45 centers were evaluated. 29 centers were operating from rented buildings and storage facilities were lacking at 19 of the centers. Though the quality of food was acceptable to the beneficiaries shortage of food was a problem at the centers. Absence of Pre-School Education (PSE and Nutrition and Health Education (NHED Kits compromised PSE and NHED activities at the centers. Unavailability of medicine kits, lack of regular visits by the ANMs to the centers and absence of routine health check up of beneficiaries were other problems encountered under the project areas surveyed. Availability of a doctor under each project area was stated as a major need by the workers. Conclusion: Coordinated steps catering to different services provided at the centers are needed to optimize the functioning of the ICDS scheme.

  8. Erosion phenomena in sand moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

  9. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  10. Traceability of optical length measurements on sand surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohaghegh, Kamran; Yazdanbakhsh, Seyed Alireza; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns traceable measurements on moulds used in automatic casting lines made of green sand, which has a very low strength against the force of a contact probe. A metrological set-up was made based on the use of calibrated workpieces following ISO 15530-3 to determine the uncertainty...... of optical measurements on a sand surface. A new customised sand sample was developed using a hard binder to withstand the contact force of a touch probe, while keeping optical cooperativeness similar to that of green sand. The length of the sample was calibrated using a dial gauge set-up. An optical 3D...... scanner with fringe pattern projection was used to measure the length of a green sand sample (soft sample) with traceability transfer through the hard sample. Results confirm that the uncertainty of the optical scanner on the substituted hard sample is similar to that of the soft sample, so the hard...

  11. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  12. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  13. Planet-wide sand motion on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  14. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  15. Influence of Organ Pathology on the Electrical Parameters in Organ Projection Areas of the Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Z.Szopinski; Georg P. Lochner; Desmond Pantanowitz

    2006-01-01

    Pathology of an internal organ causes significant rectification of electrical currents (diode phenomenon)in related skin areas - organ projection areas (OPAs), once the resistance 'breakthrough effect' has been induced in the skin. Also, the impedance of the diseased organ's projection areas is increased. The aim of this double-blind study was to confirm these phenomena statistically using a broad spectrum of measuring parameters. Skin impedance vs. Measurement frequency, skin impedance vs. Applied voltage,and skin resistance vs. Voltage were evaluated at 335 auricular OPAs related to the healthy internal organs and 203 auricular OPAs related to the diseased organs. These measurements confn-med that the skin electrical characteristics of specific locations are dependent on the health state of the corresponding internal organs. It was found that the impedance of OPAs corresponding to the healthy internal organs equals 185 ± 291 kΩ at 10Hz and decreases to 64 ± 49 kΩ at 10kHz; and that the impedance of OPAs related to the diseased organs equals 7.5 ± 2.2 MΩ at 10Hz and 99 ± 50kΩ at 10kHz. The disparity of the impedances between the healthy and diseased organs related OPAs is greater at higher potentials. The skin resistance, when measured with a negatively polarized point electrode, undergoes a rapid resistance decrease of approximately two orders of magnitude, if the applied current is sufficient. After this reversible 'breakthrough effect' is obtained the skin exhibits rectification. The degree of rectification is low for OPAs related to the healthy organs. For OPAs related to the diseased organs, the resistance measured with a positive polarisation of measuring electrode could be five times greater than the resistance measured at the same voltage with the same but negatively polarised electrode. The disparity between the resistance measured with a negatively and with a positively polarised electrode at OPAs related to the diseased organs was greater at

  16. Investing in our future : responding to the rapid growth of oil sands development : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-29

    This action plan addressed current challenges facing communities in the Fort McMurray region as a result of the rapid growth of the oil sands industry, with particular reference to the impacts of oil sands development over the next 5-year period. Current and anticipated gaps in local services were identified for housing; transportation; municipal infrastructure; health care; education; social services; policing; and the environment. The report demonstrated that the population of Fort McMurray will continue to grow at approximately 8 per cent over the next 5 years. The housing shortage in Fort McMurray has compounded the challenge of retaining workforces needed to expand the oil sands industry. The regional municipality is no longer able to fund critical infrastructure projects for water treatment and solid waste. Health services are also inadequate, and transportation issues are becoming a major concern. The report determined that planning is needed to ensure the equal allocation of resources among different communities. Coordination between the province and governmental agencies is also needed. Recommendations include investment in infrastructure; the development of policies and research to promote enhanced oil recovery; sustainable development; and business planning for high growth areas. Industry should continue to contribute to the community in substantial ways, and increases in manpower should be provided to Alberta Environment to focus on the cumulative effects of oil sands mining in the region. Further specific recommendations were provided to address infrastructure gaps in the region. 25 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. Study on Key Technology of Using Shell Sand as Backfill for Sea Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Neng-hui; QU Yi-rong; HE Wen-qin; CHEN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The results of a study on the key technology of using shell sand, a kind of sea sand, as backfill for sea reclamation are described briefly. Laboratory tests show that the physical and mechanical properties of shell sand are as good as normal quartz sand. Based on the chemical test and durability test of shell sand it could be concluded that the influence of corrosion of shell sand by acid rain and sea water might be ignored in the evaluation of the safety and durability of the engineering project. The results of field improvement tests show that the bearing capacity of shell sand backfill foundation is more than 200 kPa after vibroflotation improvement or dynamic compaction improvement. The shell sand is a good backfill material for sea reclamation.

  18. 76 FR 61183 - Loveland Area Projects-Western Area Colorado Missouri Balancing Authority-Rate Order No. WAPA-155

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... service under firm electric service contracts, project use, and special use contracts. Firm Electric... anticipates no planned interruption. Federal Entitlements: The energy and capacity delivered to Federal Customers under Firm Electric Service Contracts. FERC: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Fry-Ark...

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschke, Stephen F. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  1. Somatotopic direct projections from orofacial areas of secondary somatosensory cortex to trigeminal sensory nuclear complex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, T; Akhter, F; Kato, T; Sato, F; Takeda, R; Higashiyama, K; Moritani, M; Bae, Y-C; Sessle, B J; Yoshida, A

    2012-09-06

    Little is known about the projections from the orofacial areas of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) to the pons and medulla including the second-order somatosensory neuron pools. To address this in rats, we first examined the distribution of S2 neurons projecting to the trigeminal principal nucleus (Vp) or oral subnucleus (Vo) of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) after injections of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), into five regions in the Vp/Vo which were responsive to stimulation of trigeminal nerves innervating the orofacial tissues. A large number of FG-labeled neurons were found with a somatotopic arrangement in the dorsal areas of S2 (orofacial S2 area). This somatotopic arrangement in the orofacial S2 area was shown to closely match that of the orofacial afferent inputs by recording cortical surface potentials evoked by stimulation of the trigeminal nerves. We then examined the morphology of descending projections from these electrophysiologically defined areas of the orofacial S2 to the pons and medulla after injections of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine (BDA), into the areas. A large number of BDA-labeled axon fibers and terminals were seen only in some of the second-order somatosensory neuron pools, most notably in the contralateral TSNC, although the labeled terminals were not seen in certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC including the rostrocaudal middle level of the trigeminal interpolar subnucleus. The projections to the TSNC showed somatotopic arrangements in dorsoventral, superficial-deep and rostrocaudal directions. The somatotopic arrangements in the Vp/Vo closely matched those of the electrophysiologically defined central projection sites of the orofacial trigeminal afferents in the TSNC. The present results suggest that the orofacial S2 projects selectively to certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC, and the projections may allow the orofacial S2 to accurately modulate

  2. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  3. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  4. experimental investigation of sand minimum transport velocity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    minimum transport velocity models in pipelines, the analytical and empirical methods. Because of the ... identified two niche areas of research such as sand transport in .... operational conditions the limit deposit velocity passes through a ...

  5. Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D. M.; Keiser, K.; Graves, S. J.; Conover, H.; Ebersole, S.

    2009-12-01

    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The recently awarded Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support will generate decision support products using NASA satellite observations from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments to support resource management, planning, and decision making activities in the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, SANDS will generate decision support products that address the impacts of tropical storms

  6. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  7. Phase I Marine Archeological Remote Sensing Survey of the Proposed Mississippi River Sand Borrow Sites for the Louisiana Coastal Area Barrier Shoreline Restoration Project, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    artificial levees. Natural levee deposits vary in thickness from 10.0 ft (3.0 m) to less than 5.0 ft (1.5 m) and typically overlie marsh deposits measuring...are absent from the Early Archaic Period assemblages (Chapman 1977; Lentz 1986). Living floors associated with hearths , shallow pit features, and

  8. Wind-blown sand movement periods on the Nyírség alluvial fan, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buró, Botond; Lóki, József; Sipos, György; Négyesi, Gábor; Andrási, Bence; Jakab, Attila; Félegyházi, Enikő; Molnár, Mihály

    2017-04-01

    Wind-blown sand movement periods on the Nyírség alluvial fan, Hungary The Nyírség is an alluvial fan, was built by rivers, which were flown down from the NE Carpathians. When the weather was dry, wind-blown sand was blowed out and the wind started to develop the aeolian landforms. The first significant sand movements in the Nyírség was in the Upper plenniglacial and the Late glacial. The main landforms of the Nyírség were developed at this time. The aeolic transformation of the land was not completed in the Nyírség at the end of the Pleistocene. In the Holocene the sand moved within small area, mainly by anthropogenic impact. Our aim is clarify the age of the wind-blown sand movements period, with different absolute (Radiocarbon dating method, OSL), and relative (Archaeological finds, Pollen analyses) dating methods. We have collected for the age determining charcoal from many sand quarry (Gégény, Kántorjánosi, Nyíradony, Nagyvarsány, Máriapócs and Lövőpetri) which contain fossil soil layer. For the OSL measurements samples were collected from Baktalórántháza, Gégény and Kántorjánosi sand quarries. We collected samples from 5 places for the pollen analyses (Nyírtanya, Máriapócs, Nyírbéltek-Nyírlúgos, Nyírábrány, Vámospércs), and also from an archaeological excavation (Nyíregyháza- Oros). The new age dates show us, that in the Nyírség the first significant sand movements were in the cold and drier period of the Upper pleniglacial and Late glacial (Baktalórántháza, Nyírtanya, Vámospércs). At the end of the Pleistocene the sand movements not competed in the Nyírség (Gégény, Kántorjánosi, Nyírábrány). In the Holocene there were many little sand movement periods, mainly caused by anthropogenic impact (Nyíradony, Nyíregyháza-Oros). The research was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund in the project of GINOP-2.3.2.-15-2016-00009 'ICER

  9. Geologic and paleoecologic studies of the Nebraska Sand Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Fryberger, S.G.; Hanley, John H.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1980-01-01

    PART A: The Nebraska Sand Hills are an inactive, late Quaternary, most probably Holocene, dune field (covering 57,000 km 2 ) that have been eroded along streams and in blowouts, resulting in excellent lateral and vertical exposures of the stratification of dune and interdune sediments. This paper presents new data on the geometry, primary sedimentary structures, modification of sedimentary structures, direction of sand movement, and petrography of these eolian deposits. Eolian deposits of the Sand Hills occur as relatively thin (9-24 m) 'blanket' sands, composed of a complex of dune and discontinuous, diachronous interdune deposits unconformably overlying fluviolacustrine sediments. The internal stratification of large dunes in the Sand Hills (as high as 100 m), is similar to the internal stratification of smaller dunes of the same type in the Sand Hills, differing only in scale. Studies of laminae orientation in the Sand Hills indicate that transverse, barchan, and blowout dunes can be differentiated in rocks of eolian origin using both the mean dip angle of laminae and the mean angular deviation of dip direction. A variety of secondary structures modify or replace primary eolian stratification in the Sand Hills, the more common of which are dissipation structures and bioturbation. Dissipation structures in the Sand Hills may develop when infiltrating water deposits clay adjacent to less permeable layers in the sand, or along the upper margins of frozen layers that form in the sands during winter. Cross-bed measurements from dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills necessitate a new interpretation of the past sand transport directions. The data from these measurements indicate a general northwest-to-southeast drift of sand, with a more southerly drift in the southeast part of the Sand Hills. A large area of small dunes Sand Hills was interpreted by him on the basis of morphology only. We interpret these as transverse-ridge dunes that were generally moving to the south

  10. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  11. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  12. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  13. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mohamadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and medial preoptic area (MPOA via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we hypothesized damage to the nuclei of this circuit can cause reproductive dysfunctions. Therefore in this project we assessed diabetic effect on these nuclei. For this purpose neuron tracing technique and TUNEL assay were used. We injected HRP in the MPOA and counted labeled cells in the Me and BNST to evaluate the reduction of neurons in diabetic animals. Also, coronal sections were analyzed with the TMB histochemistry method. Animals in this study were adult male Wistar rats (230 ± 8g divided to control and 10-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups. After data analysis by SPSS 16 software, a significant reduction of HRP-labeled neurons was shown in both Me and BNST nuclei in the diabetic group. Moreover, apoptotic cells were significantly observed in diabetic animals in contrast to control the group. In conclusion, these alterations of the circuit as a result of diabetes might be one of the reasons for reproductive dysfunctions.

  14. Optimal pipe size design for looped irrigation water supply system using harmony search: Saemangeum project area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  15. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  16. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  17. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2006 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culham, H W; Eaton, G F; Genetti, V; Hu, Q; Kersting, A B; Lindvall, R E; Moran, J E; Blasiyh Nuno, G A; Powell, B A; Rose, T P; Singleton, M J; Williams, R W; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-04-08

    This report describes FY 2006 technical studies conducted by the Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division (CBND) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area Project (UGTA). These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work is directed toward the responsible management of the natural resources at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), enabling its continued use as a staging area for strategic operations in support of national security. UGTA-funded work emphasizes the development of an integrated set of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models to predict the extent of radionuclide migration from underground nuclear testing areas at the NTS. The report is organized on a topical basis and contains four chapters that highlight technical work products produced by CBND. However, it is important to recognize that most of this work involves collaborative partnerships with the other HRMP and UGTA contract organizations. These groups include the Energy and Environment Directorate at LLNL (LLNL-E&E), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), and National Security Technologies (NSTec). Chapter 1 is a summary of FY 2006 sampling efforts at near-field 'hot' wells at the NTS, and presents new chemical and isotopic data for groundwater samples from four near-field wells. These include PM-2 and U-20n PS 1DDh (CHESHIRE), UE-7ns (BOURBON), and U-19v PS No.1ds (ALMENDRO). Chapter 2 is a summary of the results of chemical and isotopic measurements of groundwater samples from three UGTA environmental monitoring wells. These wells are: ER-12-4 and U12S located in Area 12 on Rainier

  18. Project Management Meets Change Management - A Success Story. Focus Area: Tech Perspectives TI012SN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the concepts and terminology from Project Management, the process of planning and executing a Change Management (CM) Infrastructure improvement project is described. The primary audience for this presentation includes both experienced and relatively new CM administrators and their managers. It also includes anyone with an interest in the application of project management knowledge to CM administration. There are several benefits: the complexity of the CM tool technology is more manageable, CM administrators get to use project management knowledge to complete a project (not "firefighting"), improve relations with your customers (that means developers and managers), and get the opportunity to do it again.

  19. Variable exchange between a stream and an aquifer in the Rio Grande Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Z.; Abudu, S.; Michelsen, A.; King, P.

    2016-12-01

    Both surface water and groundwater in the Rio Grande Project area in southern New Mexico and Far West Texas have been stressed by natural conditions such as droughts and human activities, including urban development and agricultural irrigation. In some area pumping stress in the aquifer becomes so great that it depletes the river flow especially during the irrigation season, typically from March through October. Therefore understanding such relationship between surface water and groundwater becomes more important in regional water resources planning and management. In this area, stream flows are highly regulated by the upstream reservoirs during the irrigation season and greatly influenced by return flows during non-irrigation season. During a drought additional groundwater pumping to supplement surface water shortage further complicates the surface water and groundwater interaction. In this paper the authors will use observation data and results of numerical models (MODFLOW) to characterize and quantify hydrological exchange fluxes between groundwater in the aquifers and surface water as well as impacts of groundwater pumping. The interaction shows a very interesting seasonal variation (irrigation vs. non-irrigation) as well as impact of a drought. Groundwater has been pumped for both municipal supplies and agricultural irrigation, which has imposed stresses toward both stream flows and aquifer storage. The results clearly show that historic groundwater pumping has caused some reaches of the river change from gaining stream to losing stream. Beyond the exchange between surface water and groundwater in the shallow aquifer, groundwater pumping in a deep aquifer could also enhance the exchanges between different aquifers through leaky confining layers. In the earlier history of pumping, pumping from the shallow aquifer is compensated by simple depletion of surface water, while deep aquifer tends to use the aquifer storage. With continued pumping, the cumulative

  20. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  1. Environmental Assessment for Small- and Medium-Scale Road Projects Implemented in Local Authority Areas: A Case Study from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparb Trethanya

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Thailand, an Environmental Assessment (EA is conducted only for projects prescribed by environmental legislation. Numerous projects, especially those that are small- and medium-scale in size and scope, are implemented in areas by a local authority without any type of EA. Based on a comparative analysis of the environmental status of large-, medium- and small-scale road development projects implemented by a local authority in Thailand, this paper attempts to justify the enforcement of EAs for medium- and small-scale projects. The justification is mainly based on theperceptions of people affected by these projects. Environmental impact scores, computed on the basis of people’s perceptions, reveal that, irrespective of the size of a project, the impacts caused by different sized projects are perceived as similar. Since every development project is implemented for the purpose of human development, this paper proposes to integrate environmental screening and initial EAs into the existing development control measures enforced by urban planning regulations and laws.

  2. 77 FR 24980 - Record of Decision for Authorizing the Use of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand Resources in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... (OCS) Sand Resources in the Martin County, Florida Hurricane Storm Damage Reduction Project AGENCY... Decision. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a Record of Decision (ROD) to authorize the use of OCS sand resources by... agreement for the purpose of making sand available from a shoal on the OCS for placement on the beach...

  3. Afferent projections from the brainstem to the area hypothalamica dorsalis: a horseradish peroxidase study in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J A; Coveñas, R; Alonso, J R; Lara, J M; Aijón, J

    1989-06-01

    Experiments using the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase were performed in order to identify the cells of origin the ascending projections from different brainstem regions to the area hypothalamica dorsalis (aHd) in the cat. The afferent inputs to this area originate mainly from the midbrain and medulla oblongata regions. The main afferent source of the area hypothalamica dorsalis arises from the substantia grisea centralis, where a large number of labeled cells were observed bilaterally, although more abundant on the ipsilateral side. Substantial afferents reach the aHd from the nuclei vestibularis medialis and inferior and the formatio reticularis mesencephali. A modest number of peroxidase-labeled neurons were observed in the nuclei ruber, interpeduncularis, substantia nigra, reticularis gigantocellularis, vestibularis lateralis, cuneatus and gracilis. From the pons, the nucleus raphe magnus sends a weak projection to the aHd. These anatomical data suggest that such area could be involved in visceral, sexual, nociceptive somatosensorial, sleep-waking and motor mechanisms.

  4. Providing floating capabilities in latest-generation sand screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, E.G.; Coronado, M.P. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Alternative production methods are needed for the massive reserves located in the bitumen region of Canada's tar sands. The area has over 100 installations of sand screens/slotted liners in both injection and production legs using steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology. Multiple wells must be drilled from a single pad because of the sensitive nature of the environment. With significant depths of these wells, a floating sand screen provides assurance that the sand screen will reach the desired depth. Paraffin is generally used to plug the flow access of the screen during installation. This paper discussed a new technology that has been developed to allow for sand screen installations without relying on paraffin wax to withstand differential pressure. The new technology uses a hydro-mechanical valving system incorporated into the screen design to temporarily close off the screen while being run in the hole. The paper described how the technology could provide a reliable, time-saving solution for SAGD installations when floating sand control screens are needed. The paper discussed current technology and its limitations, sand screen installation, screen design for floating applications, and additional applications. It was concluded that this technology solution provides a unique alternative to the methods currently used to install sand screens with SAGD technology in the fast growing Canadian market for bitumen recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  5. A global climate model based, Bayesian climate projection for northern extra-tropical land areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Eliseev, Alexey V.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2012-04-01

    Projections with contemporary global climate models (GCMs) still markedly deviate from each other on magnitude of climate changes, in particular, in middle to subpolar latitudes. In this work, a climate projection based on the ensemble of 18 CMIP3 GCM models forced by SRES A1B scenario is performed for the northern extra-tropical land. To assess the change of soil state, off-line simulations are performed with the Deep Soil Simulator (DSS) developed at the A.M.Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). This model is forced by output of the above-mentioned GCM simulations. Ensemble mean and ensemble standard deviation for any variable are calculated by using Bayesian averaging which allows to enhance a contribution from more realistic models and diminish that from less realistic models. As a result, uncertainty for soil and permafrost variables become substantially narrower. The Bayesian weights for each model are calculated based on their performance for the present-day surface air temperature (SAT) and permafrost distributions, and for SAT trend during the 20th century. The results, except for intra-ensemble standard deviations, are not very sensitive to particular choice of Bayesian traits. Averaged over the northern extra-tropical land, annual mean surface air temperature in the ensemble increases by 3.1 ± 1.4 K (ensemble mean±intra-ensemble standard deviation) during the 21st century. Precipitation robustly increases in the pan-Arctic and decreases in the Mediterranean/Black Sea region. The models agree on near-surface permafrost degradation during the 21st century. The area underlain by near-surface permafrost decreases from the contemporary value 20 ± 3 mln sq. km to 14 ± 3 mln sq. km in the late 21st century. This leads to risk for geocryological hazard due to soil subsidence. This risk is classified as moderate to high in the southern and western parts of Siberia and Tibet in Eurasia, and in the region from Alaska

  6. 半干旱区城镇周边防沙——以内蒙古乌审旗达布察克镇为例%Protecting Cities and Towns from Blown-sand Disasters in Semi-arid Area of China —A case study of Dabqig Town in Uxin Banner of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓旭; 邹学勇; 张艺磊

    2013-01-01

    Sand-blown disasters frequently occur in semi-arid area of China where cities and towns are relatively densely located. It is imperative to protect cities and towns from sand-blown disasters in semi-arid Area. Based on field survey of sand source and vegetation cover, as well as wind-tunnel measurement of independent vegetation and mechanical windbreaks, a configuration model for sand-blown prevention and control measures are proposed. Based on principles of sand-control engineering system and sand-control measures construction for different underlying surfaces around the towns in semi-arid area, a sand-control model for protecting Dabqig Town of the Uxin Banner from sand-blown disasters can be outlined as a " three-ring" model. The innermost ring is landscape greenbelt zone with Dabqig Town at the core. This zone is located around Dabqig Town with the maximum distance of 600 - 900 m from the town. The second ring is sand dune enclosure and agriculture-stock production zone, including two sub-zones. The facility agriculture sub-zone has a width of about 1 km. The exurb sub-zone of sand dune/land enclosure and individual agriculture-stock production covers a larger area, and an outstanding feature of this sub-zone is that its main area is used for ecological environment construction as well protection, and a relatively small area is used for agriculture-stock production. The outermost ring is sand dune/land enclosure and protection zone. This zone is located in northwest of the Uxin Banner. It mainly includes mobile and semi-mobile dune chains and flat drifting sand-land, thus is the main sand/dust source for Dabqig Town. Therefore this zone should be enclosed and protected using corresponding sand-control measures.%中国半干旱区城镇众多,风沙灾害频发,开展城镇风沙灾害防治研究势在必行.以毛乌素沙地的乌审旗达布察克镇为例,对其周边沙尘源地和植被进行实地调查;在此基础上,结合单项植物、机械沙

  7. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  8. Life Cycle Management for an Investment Project in Cluj-Salaj Area, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Iuliu CIOMOŞ; Dorin Marcel CIATARÂŞ; Ilie VLAICU

    2011-01-01

    The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. Authors’ experience in preparing and implementing investment projects in the water sector has led to several conclusions: there is first an identification phase, in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined, followed by a planning phase, characterized by breaking down ...

  9. Sand Storms Trigger Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ After an unusually humid winter with at least 10 snowfalls in Beijing, a severe andstorm blown by strong winds bringing with it thousands of tons of desert sand took many residents of the city by surprise.On the morning of March 20, Beijingers woke up to see clouds of yellow dust in the air and a sky that was an ominous orange in color.The loose soil and dust that had traveled htmdreds of miles from deserts in Mongolia and China's northwest blanketed Beijing's streets, covering parked vehicles, bikes, roofs and even plant life,as well as making its way into people's homes.

  10. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  11. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion

  12. THE "CARTA DELLA NATURA" MAPPING PROJECT IN THE SUPRAMONTE AREA (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BRUNDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the Italian framework law on protected areas, has been calling for the editing of a national Nature Map, an instrument for the assessment of the state of the environment in Italy. The methodology applied in Sardinia is comparable with those applied in the other regions of Italy, with the necessary modifications, generalizations and integrations. Satellite imagery represents the fundamental informative layer to provide a synoptic view of the whole territory. In a second proceeding step, supervised classification is thematically enhanced by using logical niche models of species and habitats derived from assessed relationships between species-habitats known distributions patterns and available predictors, i.e. GIS thematic layers. This has resulted in the production of a habitat map with 24 habitat and land use classes. The environmental assessment procedure delivered four maps, the ecological value, the environmental sensitivity, the anthropic pressure and the land vulnerability (fragility. A reduction from 70 to 24 habitat/land use types, is coherent with the aims of the projects and planned deliverables. These 24 classes have been detected with semi-automatic procedures and with a high level of reliability. It is a reasonable compromise between thematic resolution and the possibility to record a synoptic view of the whole land in an acceptable lap of time. Various stakeholders will benefit from knowing the current condition of habitats distribution. Described deliverables are powerful tools for monitoring at regional level future land-use and habitat changes on a solid quantitative basis, for environmental conservation and habitat management.

  13. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  14. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  15. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  16. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  17. A family of sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

  18. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Břuska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  19. Nevada Test Site Area 25, Radiological Survey and Cleanup Project, 1974-1983 (a revised final report). Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.G.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the radiological survey, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 facilities and land areas incorporated in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS). Buildings, facilities and support systems used after 1959 for nuclear reactor and engine testing were surveyed for the presence of radioactive contamination. The radiological survey portion of the project encompassed portable instrument surveys and removable contamination surveys (swipe) for beta plus gamma and alpha radioactive contamination of facilities, equipment and land areas. Soil sampling was also accomplished. The majority of Area 25 facilities and land areas have been returned to unrestricted use. Remaining radiologically contaminated areas are posted with warning signs and barricades. 9 references, 23 figures.

  20. [An automatic extraction algorithm for individual tree crown projection area and volume based on 3D point cloud data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Heng; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Su, Zhi-Fang; Xu, Hui; Jiao, You-Quan; Deng, Ou

    2014-02-01

    Tree crown projection area and crown volume are the important parameters for the estimation of biomass, tridimensional green biomass and other forestry science applications. Using conventional measurements of tree crown projection area and crown volume will produce a large area of errors in the view of practical situations referring to complicated tree crown structures or different morphological characteristics. However, it is difficult to measure and validate their accuracy through conventional measurement methods. In view of practical problems which include complicated tree crown structure, different morphological characteristics, so as to implement the objective that tree crown projection and crown volume can be extracted by computer program automatically. This paper proposes an automatic untouched measurement based on terrestrial three-dimensional laser scanner named FARO Photon120 using plane scattered data point convex hull algorithm and slice segmentation and accumulation algorithm to calculate the tree crown projection area. It is exploited on VC+6.0 and Matlab7.0. The experiments are exploited on 22 common tree species of Beijing, China. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the crown projection between Av calculated by new method and conventional method A4 reaches 0.964 (p3D LIDAR point cloud data of individual tree, tree crown structure was reconstructed at a high rate of speed with high accuracy, and crown projection and volume of individual tree were extracted by this automatical untouched method, which can provide a reference for tree crown structure studies and be worth to popularize in the field of precision forestry.

  1. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

  2. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note that the tes......The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...... that the testing procedure and the data processing were carried out according to the specifications of ETCS-F1.97....

  4. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  6. Archaeological Investigation in the Perry Lake Project Area, Northeastern Kansas National Register Evaluation of 17 Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    University of Kansas ( lithic analysis ), Ms. Michelle Dunlap, Museum of Anthropology, University of Kansas (ceramic analysis; historic assemblages). I...address relevant research goals of the Perry Lake Project. In the past, lithic analysis primarily consisted of classification schemes. From these...the methods of lithic analysis employed here will follow procedures established for the recent Clinton Lake Archaeological Project by Ritterbush

  7. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Raquel A.; Burgess, Neil David; Cabeza, Mar

    2012-01-01

    projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17...

  8. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. A summary of the evidence for the change in European distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Hansford, Kayleigh M; Van Bortel, Wim; Zeller, Herve; Alten, Bulent

    2014-06-01

    The phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) are vectors of several infectious pathogens. The presence of a sand fly vector is considered to be a risk factor for the emergence of leishmaniasis in temperate Europe. Hence, the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies and any changes in their distribution is important in determining the potential change in distribution of leishmaniasis in Europe. Therefore, published evidence for a changing distribution of the important phlebotomine sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis and phlebovirus infection in Europe is reviewed. This paper presents evidence of an increasing risk of establishment by sand fly species, especially for the Atlantic Coast and inland parts of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. In addition to detection in potentially appropriate areas, the findings show areas of potential future establishment of the species. The most important and urgent necessity within the community of entomologists working on phlebotomines is the need to record the extremes of distribution of each species and obtain data on their regional presence/absence along with increased sharing of the data throughout European projects. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Localization of Auricular Projection Area of the Liver and Its Use in the Monitoring of Viral Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Z. Szopinski; Xiao Hong Teng; Georg P. Lochner; Tomasz Macura; Iwona Karcz-Socha; Anna Kasprzyk-Minkner; Krzysztof Kielan; Barbara Krupa-Jezierska; Dariusz J. Nasiek; Piotr Warakomski

    2006-01-01

    Background:Localization of auricular projection area of the liver and evaluation of its usefulness in the monitoring of viral hepatitis. Design, Patients and Setting: Comparative study of the degree of electrical rectification measured at various spots in the auricular concha region, in 19 inpatients with hepatitis B and 15 clinically healthy volunteers, at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Provincial Teaching Hospital,Tychy, Poland. Intervention: Evaluation of electrical rectification at various spots on the auricular concha using a "rectification ratio" that quantifies the degree of rectification (normal range:0-60%). Main outcome measure: The location of the skin area where a statistically significant difference existed between the rectification ratios was observed in patients (82±12% at the time of the 'peak period') versus controls (42±8%). Results: A location was identified on the ear auricle where the electrical rectification phenomenon demonstrated a dependence on the presence of hepatitis. Conclusions: Liver projection area exists on the ear auricle which is located within the region of cymba conchae, next to anthelix and the cavity of concha. The existence of viral hepatitis causes this skin area to show a higher degree of electrical rectification once the skin resistance 'breakthrough effect' has been induced. Evaluation of the rectification phenomenon of the liver projection area provides a method of non-invasive monitoring of viral hepatitis.

  12. Projected temperature-related deaths in ten large U.S. metropolitan areas under different climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Kate R; Haykin, Leah; Eliot, Melissa N; Schwartz, Joel D; Gasparrini, Antonio; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-10-01

    There is an established U-shaped association between daily temperature and mortality. Temperature changes projected through the end of century are expected to lead to higher rates of heat-related mortality but also lower rates of cold-related mortality, such that the net change in temperature-related mortality will depend on location. We quantified the change in heat-, cold-, and temperature-related mortality rates through the end of the century across 10 large US metropolitan areas. We applied location-specific projections of future temperature from over 40 downscaled climate models to exposure-response functions relating daily temperature and mortality in 10 US metropolitan areas to estimate the change in temperature-related mortality rates in 2045-2055 and 2085-2095 compared to 1992-2002, under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We further calculated the total number of deaths attributable to temperature in 1997, 2050, and 2090 in each metropolitan area, either assuming constant population or accounting for projected population growth. In each of the 10 metropolitan areas, projected future temperatures were associated with lower rates of cold-related deaths and higher rates of heat-related deaths. Under the higher-emission RCP 8.5 scenario, 8 of the 10 metropolitan areas are projected to experience a net increase in annual temperature-related deaths per million people by 2086-2095, ranging from a net increase of 627 (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 239, 1018) deaths per million in Los Angeles to a net decrease of 59 (95% eCI: -485, 314) deaths per million in Boston. Applying these projected temperature-related mortality rates to projected population size underscores the large public health burden of temperature. Increases in the heat-related death rate are projected to outweigh decreases in the cold-related death rate in 8 out of 10 cities studied under a high emissions scenario. Adhering to a lower greenhouse gas emissions

  13. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  14. Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsly, Mikhail A.; Bondarenko, Nataliya V.

    2017-06-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus' conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the

  15. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  16. 山东济宁杨营煤矿工业广场新近系砂层水井回灌量分析%Yangying Coalmine Surface Installation Area Neogene Sand Layer Wells Recharge Rate Analysis in Jining, Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立强; 范士彦; 许京丰; 王红梅

    2015-01-01

    The Yangying coalmine is intended to use water-source heat pump air-conditioning system to substitute traditional heating and air-conditioning facilities. To satisfy water-source heat pump air-conditioning system outdoor ground source heat exchange design requirements, need to determine hydrostatic and hydrodynamic unpressurized recharging effects, number of pumping and recharging wells and intervals between them. Through Yangying coalmine surface installation area Neogene sand layer water-bearing characteris-tics and Neogene deep well pumping and recharging tests, carried out hydrostatic and hydrodynamic unpressurized recharging compari-son have found that the effect of hydrodynamic unpressurized recharging is better with larger recharge rate and recharging ratio can be 67%as high. Thus determined the total recharging wells layout:according to system required water amount, using proportion of pump-ing, recharging wells 1:2 or 2:3 to set well numbers, and interval between wells not less than 75m.%杨营煤矿拟采用水源热泵空调系统替代传统的取暖、空调设施.为满足水源热泵空调系统室外地能换热系统设计的需要,需确定静水和动水无压回灌的效果,抽水井、回灌井的数量和间距.通过对杨营煤矿工业广场新生界砂层含水特征及新近系深水井的抽水和回灌试验,进行了静水和动水无压回灌的比较,发现动水无压回灌的效果较好,回灌量较大,回灌比达67%,从而确定了实现全部回灌的井群布置方式:根据系统需水量大小,采用抽水井、回灌井为1:2或2:3的比例设置水井数量,井间距不小于75 m.

  17. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  18. Linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ziyin; JIN Xianglong; LI Jiabiao; ZHENG Yulong; WANG Xiaobo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the latest full-coverage high-resolu- tion multi-beam sounding data, the distribution of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) is studied with quantitative statistical analysis. The study area can be divided into the northeastern part and the southwestern part. Sand ridges in the northeastern area, trending 116°N, show obvious linear character and shrink to the inner shelf. Sand ridges in the southwestern area, trending 120°N-146°N, tend to have net form. Sand ridges gradually become sand sheets in the center part of study area. Sand ridges are distributed landward to the isobath of 60m, distributed seaward to the water depth of 120 m in the northeast and 150 m in the southwest. Immature sand ridges are observed at water depth of 130-180 m in the southwestern depressions. The acoustic reflection properties of the internal high-angle inclined beddings of the sand ridges are analyzed based on the typical seismic profiles close to the research area. Lithological analysis and dating of 4 boreholes and 12 cores indicate that the widely distributed transgressive sand layer with high content of shell debris which was formed in the early-middle Holocene is the main composition of the linear sand ridges on the outer shelf of the ECS. The dominating factor in formation, developing and burying of the sand ridges is the variation of water depth caused by sea- level change and the rate of sediment supply. In 12400 aBP the cotidal lines of the M2 tidal component were closely perpendicular to the strike-directions of the sand ridges in the study area, and the tidal wave system during 12000-8000 aBP might play a key role in the formation of the linear sand ridges which are widely distributed on the outer shelf of the ECS.

  19. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  20. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  1. 民勤防沙治沙新技术和新材料试验研究%New Technology and Material Experiment Research of Preventing and Controlling Sand in Minqin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安富博; 张锦春; 纪永福; 刘淑娟; 孙涛; 何芳兰

    2013-01-01

    通过固沙植物材料选育和新型机械沙障的研制开展民勤防沙治沙新技术、新材料研究,结果表明:①民勤梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)种源种子质量好,育苗造林成活率高,生长良好,苗木耐盐性较强,可作为民勤沙区固沙造林首选的种源梭梭材料;②固沙小灌木沙蒿(Artemisia arenaria)种子萌发期抗旱性较强,沙土出苗率最高,是沙区飞播造林较为理想的固沙伴生植物新材料;③研发的棉杆沙障具有良好的防风固沙效果,且沙障就地取材、无污染,设置形式灵活多样,可根据需要制成不同结构和规格的沙障进行设置.因此,棉杆沙障以其独有的特性成为干旱区工程治沙措施的有力补充.%Through the selection of sand-fixation plants and the research of a new type mechanical sand-barrier,new material and technology of sand preventing and controlling were developed.It showed that:Haloxylon Ammodendron could be the first choice to fix sand in Minqin,as the seeds of Minqin's H.ammodendron had a good quality with high survival rate,growing well,and a strong salt resistance; Artemisia arenaria was selected as small shrubs of sand-fixation,since the seeds had a strong drought resistance,the highest germination rate from sand,it was the effective material of sand-fixation for air sowing in desert area; The cotton stalk sand barrier provided a good effectiveness of wind prevention and sand-fixation.The sand barrier could be obtained in local area,with no pollution,and flexible type.It could be made different structure and qualification sand barrier according to requirements.Therefore,the cotton stalk sand barrier is powerful as the supplements for desert control project in arid area.

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. Automated Extraction of Crop Area Statistics from Medium-Resolution Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is focusing on the strategic, routine incorporation of medium-resolution satellite imagery into operational agricultural assessments for the global crop...

  4. Automated Extraction of Crop Area Statistics from Medium-Resolution Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will focus on the strategic, routine incorporation of medium-resolution satellite imagery into operational agricultural assessments for the global crop...

  5. South Bay Salt Pond initial stewardship plan & related Bay Area restoration projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Initial Stewardship Plan for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project outlines a process to reduce the salinity of the existing salt ponds and to manage the...

  6. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... for training purposes.Finally, some methodological thoughts based on our practical experiences will be presented and our future work will be briefly discussed....

  7. A sand wave simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, A.A.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Damme, van R.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sand waves form a prominent regular pattern in the offshore seabeds of sandy shallow seas. A two dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of these sand waves has been developed. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water su

  8. Regeneration of dredged sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Knaapen, Michiel; Scholl, Olaf; Scholl, O.; Trenteseaux., A.; Garlan, T.

    2000-01-01

    Sand waves form a wavy pattern in the offshore sandy seabed. Since their crests reduce the navigability, it is important to know their evolution. A simple model is presented to estimate the recovery of sand wave amplitudes. This model is partially based on the similarity with sea ripples and

  9. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 11. Surry Mountain Lake Project Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    examines possible solutions; and it does not include the methodologies for deter- mining and monitoring social and resource capacity. For these reasons...Point Overcrowding observed and o Determine social capac- Picnic Areas reported during the User Survey. ity of these areas. o Place only the...area. r Consider the potential for site hardening and provide agressive maintenancce and restiration. 40 Possible Area/Subject Problem/Situation

  10. Assessment of Sea Area Usage Rights about Sea Sand Mining from the View of Sea Area Real Right%以海域物权视角探讨海砂开采海域使用权价格评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡灯进; 郭晓峰; 杨顺良

    2016-01-01

    在海砂开采海域使用权价格评估中,因对海域使用权与采矿权权利边界认识模糊,不同评估人员对采矿权价款采取不同的计算处理,导致评估结果相差甚大。文章从海域物权的视角分析海域使用权和采矿权的法律属性,研究两者权利标的物的不同法律性质,从而明确海域使用权的海域是由三维空间(水面、水体、海床和底土)、地貌、水深地形、地质条件、潮流、波浪、生态环境、景观等不可分割的固有自然条件要素组成的立体空间,本质上为海域空间资源,是海砂等其他海洋自然资源的载体;海域使用权和采矿权之间的相互独立性,决定了海域使用权价格与采矿权价款间的非包含关系;因此,采用收益法评估海砂开采海域使用权价格时,采矿权价款宜以成本列入计算。%Due to the inkling recognition of the connotation between the sea area usage right and the mining right,different evaluators had diverse treatments at mining right cost in assessing the sea area usage right about sea sand mining,which had led to a widely results.The paper analyzed the legal attribute of the sea area usage right and the mining right,studied the different legal char-acteristics of their subject-matters on the perspective of the Real Right of Sea Area.As a conclu-sion,based on the constitution of stereoscopic space by indivisible inherent natural elements,the sea area,which is made up of three-dimensional space (i.e.sea surface,water volume,seabed and subsoil),physiognomy,marine topography,geological conditions,tide,wave,ecotope,landscape etc.,is the sea area spatial resources in nature.It’ s the carrier of sea sand and other natural ma-rine resources.The exclusive relation of the value of the sea area usage right and the mining right cost is determined by the mutual independence between the sea area usage right and the mining right.Therefore,mining right cost should

  11. Using Large-Scale Roughness Elements to Control Sand and Dust Flux at the Keeler Dunes, Keeler, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, John; McCarley-Holder, Grace

    2014-05-01

    Controlling dust emission from areas that subsequently degrade air quality and threaten human and animal health and reduce the quality of life for people residing in proximity to such sources is necessary, but also challenging. Recent research has indicated that arrays of large roughness elements (height >0.3 m) can be used effectively to modulate sand transport and the associated dust emissions. Prediction of the rate of sand flux reduction as a function of downwind distance upon entering an array of roughness elements, and the equilibrium flux reduction in the interior of the array is possible using the known geometric properties of the roughness elements, their number, and published relationships. Air quality in the town of Keeler, CA (36 deg 29' 17.92" N, 117 deg 52' 24.62" W) is degraded by levels of particulate matter elements composed of solid elements and managed vegetation to meet sand and dust flux reduction criteria. This project has two major goals: 1) to demonstrate that solid roughness elements placed on areas of the Keeler Dunes immediately arrest sand movement to specified levels (target of 85% reduction), and 2) to assess whether native plant species, planted in the sheltered area of the solid roughness elements can effectively thrive and subsequently replace the solid roughness to achieve the desired sand flux reduction control efficiency. This poster describes the results related mostly to objective one, as considerable time has to pass before sufficient data will be obtained to evaluate the success of the planted and managed vegetation to achieve a control level provided by the solid element roughness array.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  14. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 5. Lake Shelbyville Project Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    the short-term V or selectively to problem areas are favored (particularly if done in a crisis setting). Techniques which call for reductions in...stricter enforcement of rules 73 9 18 Close areas when natural resource " - destruction reaches critica oint 7 Close areas when they become "too full" 64

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  16. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  17. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    percentage is 50%. The best water cement ratio for mix proportion is 0.45. It was observed that the available amount of dune sand can be extracted to meet the demand for sand in construction industry. However, the extraction of dune sand from the areas close to the sea will cause several social, environmental and legal problems. Therefore sand mining from dunes must be commenced after making a detailed Environmental Impact Assessment.

  18. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  19. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  20. Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research targets the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (HCRI) Priority Area A: Kahekili, Maui: Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). The project goal was to...

  1. The Impact an Oratory Project generates to Primary School Students who live in Rural Areas of Cartago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Amador-Solano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at showing the development and relevance of an extension project in seven rural schools located in “circuito 05” in the central area of Cartago. The main goal is to enhance oral commu­nication in elementary school students. The project was designed as a training workshop for the teach­ers in the chosen schools in order to be taught to students by implementing an oratory club. In each student´s dissertation, the researchers observed the enthusiasm that the project caused in the schools. Objectives, contents, activities, assessment and observations were designed in a didactic plan to be used upon needs of institutions.

  2. Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G. (eds.)

    1984-01-15

    The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

  3. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Response Law of Wind-blown Sand Flow around Wind-break Wall in Gobi Area%风沙流对戈壁地区挡风墙响应规律的数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军; 蒋富强

    2016-01-01

    Numerical Simulation of the motion characteristics of wind-blown sand flow around the existing wind-break wall along Lanzhou-Urumqi Railway based on FLUENT eulerian two-fluid model is conducted to identify the distribution features of the flow field and accumulated sand at the leeward side of wind-break. The results show that, wind profile change law shows an exponential increasing tendency at the leeward side of wind-break wall, the changes at the height of 0. 5 m to wind-break wall itself are complex and tend to decrease and then increase;the airflow velocity on near-surface at the leeward side of wind-break wall is increased in the reserve direction, reduced to 0 along the direction of the initial velocity, continued to increase to the initial velocity, and the maximum wind speed increase rate remains at about 50%, the higher the wind speed, the more obvious the airflow of weakening effect; when the initial velocity is small, less sand is accumulated on the line, and sand accumulation is concentrated at the corner of the leeward side of wind-break wall; with the increase of wind speed, more sand passes through the windbreak in unit time and even more sand is deposited along the line due to the reduction of flow cross-section and diffusion of air; in strong wind areas, the surface conditions affecting wind direction should be investigated before wind-break wall is located, engineering measures should be taken where sand source is rich to reduce sand flow density and prevent sand invasion.%基于FLUENT欧拉双流体模型,对兰新铁路沿线既有挡风墙周围风沙两相流运动特性进行数值模拟,得到挡风墙背风侧的流场分布特点以及积沙情况。结果表明:挡风墙背风侧风速廓线变化规律呈指数增长趋势,在0.5 m至挡风墙自身高度区间内变化较为复杂,呈先减小后增加的趋势;挡风墙背风侧近地表气流速度反向增大后沿着初始速度的方向减小为0且继续增大至初

  4. LeaseAreas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  5. Economic evaluation of investment project in the area of sheet metal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trebuňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is oriented on the process modelling in selected company. The aim of the process modelling is a possibility to prevent the formation of future risks as a consequence of a wrong decision concerning a capital project. The analysis of actual state in society with the focus on the means of processing the lamination using computer numeric control technology is also a part of article. Based on the analysis mentioned above, the selection and the definition of the capital project have already been carried out. Final section evaluates the capital project using methodology of economic indicators by means of economic indicators of effectiveness and brings a decision whether to accept or refuse given investment.

  6. Impact on Mountainous Agricultural Development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area forced by Migrants of the Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baolei

    2008-01-01

    The Three Gorges Project attracts worldwide attention because of the Three Gorges migrants, and the agriculture of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area is a foundation for the development of the Three Gorges migrants. The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is situated at the mountainous area with bad agricultural development conditions and relatively low levels of development. As a result, the large-scale migration has special influence on its agricultural development, which has attracted much attention. The paper analyzes influence that the migrants have forced on its agricultural development based on the scientific data, and makes some explorations on the models that are suitable for the development of mountainous agriculture in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

  7. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides

  8. Athabasca oil sands development : lessening the footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the oil sands development footprint from the perspectives of industry, environmental associations and regulatory agencies. A map of regional oil sands developments was presented along with details of land disturbance to date. Industry strategies for lessening the impact of land disturbance include compact space-efficient mining operations; good planning; and effective, progressive reclamation. A closure and reclamation model was presented, along with key reclamation challenges such as overburden. Issues concerning tailings sands were examined. Details of Syncrude's closure vision were presented, including details of the Mildred Lake site. Details of the Fort McMurray Environmental Association were presented as well as various regional multi-stakeholder initiatives. A background of Syncrude and Suncor operations was presented as well as development projection forecasts. Impacts to the Boreal region were examined. Details of land reclamation by Syncrude were provided, as well as a chart of cumulative disturbances. It was noted that recent applications have indicated numerous reclamation uncertainties, including long-term performance of landforms and the feasibility of developing trafficable tailings landforms. It was suggested that the ecosystem dynamics of the Boreal are poorly understood. Exacerbating factors include the degraded state of soils; viability of end pit lakes; and climate change. It was suggested that operators are proposing to deal with landscape and technology uncertainty using adaptive management strategies. Government responses to the oil sand development footprint include the encouragement of more research into tailings technologies, end pit lake viability and reclamation; and the identification of regional landscape ecological thresholds by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). It was concluded that uncertainty needs to be addressed via a variety of policy and management options

  9. Recent seasonal variations in arid landscape cover and aeolian sand mobility, Navajo Nation, southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Amoroso, Lee; Giosan, Liviu; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Nicoll, Kathleen; Flad, Rowan K.; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The socioeconomic impacts of climate change pose problems not only in devel- oping countries but also to residents of arid lands in the United States among marginalized societies with limited economic means. In the Navajo Nation, warming temperatures and recent drought have increased aeolian sediment mobility such that large, migrating sand dunes affect grazing lands, housing, and road access. Dust derived from this region also affects albedo and longevity of the Rocky Mountains snowpack, located downwind. We present initial results from a study that monitors sand transport and vegetation within a 0.2 km2 site in the Navajo lands, measuring the effects of drought on landscape stability since 2009. Sand mobility decreased substantially as 1 year with near-normal monsoon rainfall (2010) somewhat abated a decade-long drought, temporarily doubling vegetation cover. Vegetation that grew during 2010, with adequate rain, died off rapidly during dry conditions in 2011. Short-term increases in rainfall that promote annual, but not perennial, plant growth will not improve landscape stability in the long term. Climate projections suggest that a warmer, drier climate and potentially enhanced sediment supply from ephem- eral washes will further increase aeolian sand transport and dune activity, worsening the present challenges to people living in this region. Connections among climate, vegetation, and aeolian sediment erodibility in this region are highly relevant to other areas of the world with similar environmental problems.

  10. 78 FR 36568 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Approved Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Approved Imperial Sand... Management (BLM) announces the availability of the Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area Record of Decision... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Imperial Sand...

  11. Effect of Different Forcing Processes on the Longshore Sediment Transport at the Sand Motor, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaji, A.O.; Luijendijk, A.P.; van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a pilot project of a ‘mega-nourishment’ built in the Dutch coast in 2011. In order to understand which conditions reshape those mega-nourishments the influence of different types of forcing on the longshore sediment transport along the Sand Motor has been assessed in this paper usi

  12. Effect of Different Forcing Processes on the Longshore Sediment Transport at the Sand Motor, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaji, A.O.; Luijendijk, A.P.; van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a pilot project of a ‘mega-nourishment’ built in the Dutch coast in 2011. In order to understand which conditions reshape those mega-nourishments the influence of different types of forcing on the longshore sediment transport along the Sand Motor has been assessed in this paper

  13. Wind erosion in a semiarid agricultural area of Spain: the WELSONS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, L.; Arrue, J.L.; Lopez, M.V.; Sterk, G.; Richard, D.; Gracia, R.; Sabre, M.; Gaudichet, A.; Frangi, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-ordinated European research project Wind Erosion and Loss of SOil Nutrients in semiarid Spain (WELSONS) was carried out from 1996 to 1999 to understand and predict the potential impacts of land-use change and management on soil degradation by wind erosion on agricultural land in Central Arago

  14. Savannah River Plant, Project 8980: Engineering and design history of No. 400 Area. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The description and development, selection and descriptions of processes, design, and specialized design problems are presented for the 400-D Area at the Savannah River Plant. These facilities were used for the production of high purity heavy water for use as a moderator and coolant in the 100 Areas. Also, deuterium gas and hydrogen sulfide were produced here.

  15. Crisis Communication in the Area of Risk Management: The CriCoRM Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcella, Carmelo; Antonelli, Laura; Orizio, Grazia; Rossmann, Costanze; Ziegler, Lena; Meyer, Lisa; Garcia-Jimenez, Leonarda; Losada, Jose Carlos; Correia, Joao; Soares, Joana; Covolo, Loredana; Lirangi, Enrico; Gelatti, Umberto

    2013-09-02

    During the last H1N1 pandemic has emerged the importance of crisis communication as an essential part of health crisis management. The Project aims specifically to improve the understanding of crisis communication dynamics and effective tools and to allow public health institutions to communicate better with the public during health emergencies. THE PROJECT WILL PERFORM DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES: i) state of the art review; ii) identification of key stakeholders; iii) communicational analysis performed using data collected on stakeholder communication activities and their outcomes considering the lessons learnt from the analysis of the reasons for differing public reactions during pandemics; iv) improvement of the existing guidelines; v) development of Web 2.0 tools as web-platform and feed service and implementation of impact assessment algorithms; vi) organization of exercises and training on this issues. In the context of health security policies at an EU level, the project aims to find a common and innovative approach to health crisis communication that was displayed by differing reactions to the H1N1 pandemic policies. The focus on new social media tools aims to enhance the role of e-health, and the project aims to use these tools in the specific field of health institutions and citizens. The development of Web 2.0 tools for health crisis communication will allow an effective two-way exchange of information between public health institutions and citizens. An effective communication strategy will increase population compliance with public health recommendations. Significance for public healthThe specific aim of the project is to develop a European strategy approach on how to communicate with the population and with different stakeholders groups involved in the crisis management process, based on an analysis of the communication process during the H1N1 pandemic (content analysis of press releases, press coverage and forum discussions) and on interviews with key

  16. Dendrogeomorphology - a new tool to study drift-sand dynamics Netherlands Journal of Geosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den J.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Copini, P.

    2007-01-01

    dendrogeomorphological approach is presented, using wood characteristics of native oak (Quercus robur L.) to infer dynamics of aeolian sediment transport in drift-sand areas. Wood samples, taken from oaks in two drift-sand areas, were analysed to study changes in tree-ring pattern and wood anatomy a

  17. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  18. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  19. Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi-Ershadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus pa­patasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leish­maniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was per­formed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leish­maniasis, Phlebotomus. Sand fly control in Iran began in 1966 by Iranian researchers, and long-term evaluation of its effects was completed in the study areas of the country. Herein, a review of vector control strategies in Iran to com­bat leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, application of chemicals in rodent burrows, impregnation of bed nets and curtains with insecticides, the use of insect repellents, impregnation of dog collars and the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to various insecticides has been summarized thus far. The investigation of the behavioral patterns of the adults of different sand fly species, introduction of biological insecticide agents, the use of insecticidal plants and other novel strategies for the control of sand fly populations have received much attention in the areas of studies, hence should be recommended and improved since they provide optimistic results.

  20. Evaluating sand and clay models: do rheological differences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Gloria; Sims, Darrell

    2005-08-01

    Dry sand and wet clay are the most frequently used materials for physical modeling of brittle deformation. We present a series of experiments that shows when the two materials can be used interchangeably, document the differences in deformation patterns and discuss how best to evaluate and apply results of physical models. Extension and shortening produce similar large-scale deformation patterns in dry sand and wet clay models, indicating that the two materials can be used interchangeably for analysis of gross deformation geometries. There are subtle deformation features that are significantly different: (1) fault propagation and fault linkage; (2) fault width, spacing and displacement; (3) extent of deformation zone; and (4) amount of folding vs. faulting. These differences are primarily due to the lower cohesion of sand and its larger grain size. If these features are of interest, the best practice would be to repeat the experiments with more than one material to ensure that rheological differences are not biasing results. Dry sand and wet clay produce very different results in inversion models; almost all faults are reactivated in wet clay, and few, if any, are significantly reactivated in sand models. Fault reactivation is attributed to high fluid pressure along the fault zone in the wet clay, a situation that may be analogous to many rocks. Sand inversion models may be best applied to areas where most faults experience little to no reactivation, while clay models best fit areas where most pre-existing normal faults are reactivated.

  1. Coastal Sand Deposits 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The supplemental information lists the geology data files, by county, and the name of the ESRI shapefile used in the creation of this dataset. All data was projected...

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  3. Dredging of sand from a creek adjacent to a sand-spit for reclamation: Its impact on spit stability and coastal zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajagopal, M.D.; Vethamony, P.; Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Sudheesh, K.; Murty, K.S.R.

    . Mangroves are not present in the study area; patches of casuarina and cashew trees are observed towards land as well as on the sand spit (Anonymous, 1999). September 8, 2007 5:43 RPS mtec07_new Dredging of Sand from a Creek Adjacent to a Sand...-Spit for Reclamation 465 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Estimation of quantum of sand that can be obtained from zones-I and II The post-dredging bathymetry of 2000 (Fig. 1) when compared with the bathymetry of 2005 shows that the deposition is in the range of 0.4–1.2 m...

  4. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  5. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  6. Aeolian sediment flux derived from a natural sand trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van der A.J.; Wijnberg, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, a mega-nourishment (the ‘Sand Motor’) was constructed along the Dutch Coast. Since it is a pilot project, its evolution is closely monitored. This paper presents first results on the temporal variation in aeolian sediment transport across the nourishment, based on (a) the rate of infill ove

  7. Laboratory investigation of the loading rate effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.; Van Tol, A.F.; Hölscher, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the interpretation of the quasi-static (e.g. Statnamic) pile load tests, a research project has been started to investigate effects of the loading rate on the bearing capacity of a pile in sand. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out. The testing program consists of a

  8. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  9. Field Plot Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots use to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this data set,...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gateway National Recreation Area provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation Classification System...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Whiskeytown National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. These data describe vegetation for the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area through the...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  13. A Compact, Wide Area Surveillance 3D Imaging LIDAR Providing UAS Sense and Avoid Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eye safe 3D Imaging LIDARS when combined with advanced very high sensitivity, large format receivers can provide a robust wide area search capability in a very...

  14. Large-Area, UV-Optimized, Back-Illuminated Silicon Photomultiplier Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large-area (3m2), UV-sensitive focal plane arrays are needed for observation of air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays (JEM-EUSO) as well as for...

  15. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  16. Crisis communication in the area of risk management: the CriCoRM project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Scarcella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. During the last H1N1 pandemic has emerged the importance of crisis communication as an essential part of health crisis management. The Project aims specifically to improve the understanding of crisis communication dynamics and effective tools and to allow public health institutions to communicate better with the public during health emergencies.Design and Methods. The Project will perform different activities: i state of the art review; ii identification of key stakeholders; iii communicational analysis performed using data collected on stakeholder communication activities and their outcomes considering the lessons learnt from the analysis of the reasons for differing public reactions during pandemics; iv improvement of the existing guidelines; v development of Web 2.0 tools as web-platform and feed service and implementation of impact assessment algorithms; vi organization of exercises and training on this issues.Expected impact of the study for public health. In the context of health security policies at an EU level, the project aims to find a common and innovative approach to health crisis communication that was displayed by differing reactions to the H1N1 pandemic policies. The focus on new social media tools aims to enhance the role of e-health, and the project aims to use these tools in the specific field of health institutions and citizens. The development of Web 2.0 tools for health crisis communication will allow an effective two-way exchange of information between public health institutions and citizens. An effective communication strategy will increase population compliance with public health recommendations.

  17. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    n voyageurs may have visited the area. -L 1 The period between 1650 and 1700 saw a more intensive French effort in this area and Erie County was...waterborne commerce . These developments did not occur without competition from rivals, especially from shipping interests centered in Black Rock, a village...Buffalo Harbor is a success story in American commerce and in the history of Corps of Engineer contributions to the public. Prior to 1818, the entrance to

  18. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  19. Simple stochastic cellular automaton model for starved beds and implications about formation of sand topographic features in terms of sand flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Noritaka

    2016-12-01

    A simple stochastic cellular automaton model is proposed for simulating bedload transport, especially for cases with a low transport rate and where available sediments are very sparse on substrates in a subaqueous system. Numerical simulations show that the bed type changes from sheet flow through sand patches to ripples as the amount of sand increases; this is consistent with observations in flume experiments and in the field. Without changes in external conditions, the sand flux calculated for a given amount of sand decreases over time as bedforms develop from a flat bed. This appears to be inconsistent with the general understanding that sand flux remains unchanged under the constant-fluid condition, but it is consistent with the previous experimental data. For areas of low sand abundance, the sand flux versus sand amount (flux-density relation) in the simulation shows a single peak with an abrupt decrease, followed by a long tail; this is very similar to the flux-density relation seen in automobile traffic flow. This pattern (the relation between segments of the curve and the corresponding bed states) suggests that sand sheets, sand patches, and sand ripples correspond respectively to the free-flow phase, congested phase, and jam phase of traffic flows. This implies that sand topographic features on starved beds are determined by the degree of interference between sand particles. Although the present study deals with simple cases only, this can provide a simplified but effective modeling of the more complicated sediment transport processes controlled by interference due to contact between grains, such as the pulsatory migration of grain-size bimodal mixtures with repetition of clustering and scattering.

  20. Sand Wave Migrations Within Monterey Submarine Canyon, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Wong, F. L.

    2006-12-01

    Repeated high-resolution multi-beam surveys revealed the existence of a sand wave field along the axis of the Monterey submarine canyon between 20 and 300 m water depth. These sand waves range in wave length from 20 to 70 m and 2 to 5 m in height. Comparison of sequential multi-beam grid data