WorldWideScience

Sample records for sands national monument

  1. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (MCD) are consistent with the observed concentration of gypsum at dune crests. Density-driven differentiation in transport should not influence sediment fluxes of finer grains (<1 mm) as strongly on Earth, suggesting that the high ratio of fine gypsum grains to other minerals at WSNM is caused by a relatively

  2. The remarkable endemism of moths at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico, USA, with special emphasis on Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Metzler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The white sands formation, a snow-white gypsum dunes system, is the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument protects about 40% of the dunes; the dunes formation as it is known today was formed ca. 8,000 years BP. Prior to 8,000 years BP, the area covered by the dunes was a wet cool forest of the last glacial maximum in North America. The dunes were formed as a result of the hypsithermal, a warming and drying period which followed the most recent glacial maximum. The white sands formation is located in south central New Mexico in the Tularosa Basin of southwestern United States. A 10-year study of moths at the dunes was commissioned by the U. S. National Park Service in 2006. Almost immediately species new to science were detected. In the period of 6 years, 30 new species were discovered in the dunes. Several of the new species are white or very pale in color, and are endemic to the dunes. The focus of the 10 year project was modified to emphasize naming the undescribed species which helps the National Park Service catalog and manage the habitats. The data should encourage other researchers to explore the interactions of the animals with the plants and the harsh desert environment, to study DNA and evolution, and to study the rapid adaptation which seems to be occurring.

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  5. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  6. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument acoustical monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    During September 2010, The Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Casa Grande National Monument (CAGR), at one site for 28 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help park managers and planners estimate the effects of f...

  7. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Chiricahua National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of vascular plants and vertebrates at Chiricahua National Monument (NM) in Arizona. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Chiricahua NM to document the presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the monument. This report is also the first summary of previous research from the monument and therefore it provides an important overview of survey efforts to date. We used data from our inventory and previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. We recorded a total of 424 species, including 37 not previously found at the monument (Table 1). We found 10 species of non-native plants and one non-native mammal. Most non-native plants were found along the western boundary of the monument. Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the monument, there have been a total of 1,137 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. We believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network. The mammal community at the monument had the highest species richness (69 species) and the amphibian and reptile community was among the lowest species richness (33 species) of any park in the Sonoran Desert Network. Species richness of the plant and bird communities was intermediate. Among the important determinants of species richness for all groups is the geographic location of the monument

  8. A case study: Death Valley National Monument California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Hamson; Ristau Toni

    1979-01-01

    With passage of the Mining in the Parks Act (P.L. 94-429) in 1976, the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, was given the responsibility of preparing a report to Congress outlining the environmental consequences of mining on claims within Death Valley National Monument. In addition, the Secretary of the Interior is required to formulate a recommendation...

  9. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  10. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  11. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Drost, Charles A.; Halvorson, William Lee

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarize past inventory efforts for vascular plants and vertebrates at Montezuma Castle National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 784 species recorded at Montezuma Castle NM, of which 85 (11%) are non-native. In each taxon-specific chapter we highlight areas of resources that contributed to species richness or unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Montezuma Well and Beaver and Wet Beaver creeks and the surrounding riparian vegetation, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest numbers of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of park units. Beaver Creek is also home to populations of federally-listed fish species of concern. Other important resources include the cliffs along the creeks and around Montezuma Well (for cliff and cave roosting bats). Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventory for most taxa is nearly complete, though some rare or elusive species will be added with additional survey effort. We recommend additional inventory, monitoring and research studies.

  12. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tuzigoot National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, E.W.; Halvorson, William Lee; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, P.; Docherty, K.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary From 2002 to 2004, we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tuzigoot National Monument (NM) and adjacent areas in Arizona. This was the first effort of its kind in the area and was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In addition to our own surveys, we also compiled a complete list of species that have been found by previous studies. We found 330 species, including 142 that had not previously been recorded at the monument (Table 1). We found 39 species of non-native plants, 11 non-native fishes, three non-native birds, and one non-native species each of amphibian and mammal. Based on our work and that of others, there have been 597 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. The bird community at the monument had the highest species richness of any national park unit in central and southern Arizona. We found all other taxa to have intermediate species richness compared to other park units in the region. This extraordinary species richness observed for birds, as well as for some other taxa, is due primarily to Tavasci Marsh and the Verde River, two critical sources of perennial water, which provide habitat for many regionally rare or uncommon species. The location of the monument at the northern edge of the Sonoran Desert and at the southern edge of the Mogollon Rim also plays an important role in determining the distribution and community composition of the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our findings, we believe the high number of non-native species, especially fish and plants, should be of particular management concern. We detail other management challenges, most notably the rapid increase in housing and associated commercial development near the monument, which will continue to impact the plant and vertebrate communities. Based on our data and a review of past studies, we believe the

  13. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tonto National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Eric W.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first biological inventory of plants and vertebrates at Tonto National Monument (NM). From 2001 to 2003, we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Tonto NM to record species presence. We focused most of our efforts along the Cave Springs riparian area, but surveyed other areas as well. We recorded 149 species in the riparian area, and 369 species overall in the monument, including 65 plant species and four bird species that were previously unrecorded for the monument. We recorded 78 plant species in the riparian area that previous studies had not indicated were present there. Several species of each taxonomic group were found only in the riparian area, suggesting that because of their concentration in this small area these populations are vulnerable to disturbance and may be of management concern. Four of the bird species that we recorded (Bell's vireo, yellow warbler, summer tanager, and Abert's towhee) have been identified as riparian 'obligate' species by other sources. Bird species that are obligated to riparian areas are targets of conservation concern due to widespread degradation of riparian areas in the desert southwest over the last century. The flora and fauna of the riparian area would benefit from continued limited public access. The dependence of the riparian area on the spring and surface flow suggests monitoring of this resource per se would benefit management of the riparian area's flora and fauna as well. The monument would benefit from incorporating monitoring protocols developed by the Sonoran Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring program rather than initiating a separate program for the riparian area. Park managers can encourage the Inventory and Monitoring program to address the unique monitoring challenges presented by small spatial areas such as this riparian area, and can request specific monitoring recommendations. We suggest that repeat

  14. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics can...

  15. Selected caves and lava-tube systems in and near Lava Beds National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Aaron Clement; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Rogers, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Lava Beds National Monument (fig. 1) lies on the north slope of the huge Medicine Lake shield (fig. 2), a complex volcanic edifice of greater volume than the steep-sided Mount Shasta volcanic cone, which towers as a snowclad land mark 40 mi southwest of the monument (fig. 3).

  16. Investigation of the conservation-treatment methods of the Dutch National Monument : The role of microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  17. Microscopical examination of the effectiveness of conservation-treatment methods of the National Monument in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  18. Our National Monument of Art: Constructing and Debating the National Body at the Library of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    It is not surprising that the Library of Congress would be defined as our national monument of art given the scale of the project, its federal sponsorship, and its posture as a public library with access to all Americans. Paralleling the assumption of the Library of Congress as not merely a building for housing books but a ritualistic center of…

  19. BLM Colorado National Monument and National Conservation Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data set consists of digital data describing BLM National Conservation Lands or National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) in the State of...

  20. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  1. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  2. Pullman transportation plan : a transportation and access plan for Pullman National Monument and the surrounding neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Pullman Transportation Plan provides a holistic set of recommendations to improve access to and from Pullman National Monument and its surrounding neighborhoods for both visitors and residents. In this plan, we identify short-, medium-, and long-...

  3. EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  4. A preliminary population study of alcove bog orchid (Platanthera zothecina) at Navajo National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    This study on Platanthera zothecina (alcove bog orchid) was initiated by the National Park Service after a recent threatened and endangered species survey at Navajo National Monument. It is listed as Category 2 (species of special concern) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Category 3 (likely to become endangered) by the Navajo Nation. Because P. zothecina is a...

  5. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....241A] Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw... availability of the Record of Decision (ROD)/Approved Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Agua Fria National... of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria National Monument includes...

  6. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument (NM) in southern Arizona. Surveys at the monument were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2001 and 2002 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Casa Grande Ruins NM to document the presence, and in some cases relative abundance, of species. By using repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, which included quantified survey effort, we produced inventories that can serve as the basis for a biological monitoring program. Of the National Park Service units in the region, no other has experienced as much recent ecological change as Casa Grande Ruins NM. Once situated in a large and biologically diverse mesquite bosque near the perennially flowing Gila River, the monument is now a patch of sparse desert vegetation surrounded by urban and commercial development that is rapidly replacing agriculture as the dominant land use in the area. Roads, highways, and canals surround the monument. Development, and its associated impacts, has important implications for the plants and animals that live in the monument. The plant species list is small and the distribution and number of non-native plants appears to be increasing. Terrestrial vertebrates are also being impacted by the changing landscape, which is increasing the isolation of these populations from nearby natural areas and thereby reducing the number of species at the monument. These observations are alarming and are based on our review of previous studies, our research in the monument, and our knowledge of the biogeography and ecology of the Sonoran Desert. Together, these data suggest that the monument has lost a significant portion of its historic complement of species and these changes will likely intensify as

  7. Air Quality at Devils Postpile National Monument, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. Burley; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Monica Buhler; Barbara Zielinska; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Susan Schilling; Jennifer Chapman Varela; Mark McDaniel; Michelle Horn; Deanna Dulen

    2016-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NH3, NO, NO2, HNO3, SO2 and VOCs were measured at Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO) during the summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The measurements were impacted by the Aspen and Rim Fires in...

  8. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  9. Pecos National Monument, New Mexico: Its Geologic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ross Byron

    1969-01-01

    The ruins of the pueblos and missions of Pecos lie on the east bank of Glorieta Creek near its junction with the Pecos River at the south end of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north-central New Mexico. Here the Pecos River and Glorieta Creek have formed a broad rolling valley in which the red adobe walls of the mission church stand as a striking monument to a historic past. This is beautiful country; the bright hues of red rocks are complemented by the varied greens of the junipers, pi?ons, and ponderosa pines. Northward the Sangre de Cristo Mountains stretch for miles in a blue mist toward the Truchas Peaks and forests of the Pecos Wilderness. A few miles south of the ruins the steep high escarpment of Glorieta Mesa marks, in a general way, the southern termination of the Rocky Mountain System, which here is represented by the Sangre de Cristos. The escarpment of Glorieta Mesa has been formed largely by the Pecos River and its tributaries eroding the soft sedimentary layers. The Pecos flows southward from the high mountains in the north, parallels the mesa escarpment for 15 miles, and breaches the mesa near San Jose. About 1-1/2 miles southwest of the Pecos ruins at Cerro de Escobas is the highest point on Glorieta Mesa. It is the most conspicuous feature of the local landscape and rises to an elevation of 8,212 feet - 1,270 feet above the ruins. The slope of the escarpment here is very steep, rising 6 feet in every 10 horizontal feet. Along the north side of the Glorieta Mesa escarpment is a 30-mile-long natural pass around the south end of the Sangre de Cristos that extends from Canoncito on the west to Starvation Peak on the east (fig. 1). The elevation of the pass is greater than 6,000 feet at all places, and it reaches its summit of 7,432 feet near the village of Glorieta near the west end of the pass. This pass has been used as a major travel route for more than 800 years by the Indians, Spanish, and Americans. The famous Santa Fe Trail passed through

  10. 76 FR 68625 - Establishment of the Fort Monroe National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... period of slavery in the colonies and, later, this Nation. Two hundred and forty-two years later, Fort... 1863. Thus, Old Point Comfort marks both the beginning and end of slavery in our Nation. The Fort... North Beach area lies the only undeveloped shoreline remaining on Old Point Comfort, providing modern...

  11. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form

  12. The effects of wildfire on the peak streamflow magnitude and frequency, Frijoles and Capulin Canyons, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In June of 1977, the La Mesa fire burned 15,270 acres in and around Frijoles Canyon, Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. The Dome fire occurred in April of 1996 in Bandelier National Monument, burned 16,516 acres in Capulin Canyon and the surrounding Dome Wilderness area. Both canyons are characterized by extensive archeological artifacts, which could be threatened by increased runoff and accelerated rates of erosion after a wildfire. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the National Park Service monitored the fires' effects on streamflow in both canyons. Copyright 2004 ASCE.

  13. 76 FR 12714 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marianas Trench Marine National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... culturally significant subsistence, cultural and religious uses within the monument; a program to assess and promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic... and research, tourism, and recreational and commercial activities do not degrade the monument's coral...

  14. Participative restoration of the monument national Bosque de Piedra Isabel Rubio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarita Mijans Moreno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in four hectares of the «Monument National» Bosque Piedra Isabel Rubio, belonging to the Forest Company Macurije municipality Guane. Ecosystem that possesses national significance because it constitutes a valuable monumental example, it summarizes natural aspects as their calcareous formations of the Jurassic period, besides their intangible values associated to the rural traditions. The objective of the research is to propose a plan of action participative for the restoration of this ecosystem starting from the results obtained in diagnose participative. Among the used scientific methods, they are the research Action Participative and the participant observation, for the collection of information the interview was used in depth, and the meetings in groups. As important results the presence of a strong pressure antropic is obtained on the flora, fauna and rocks of the minimogotes, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and soil erosion, in consequence the degradation of the ecosystem and loss of the biodiversity. Another significant result constituted it the scarce level of the actors' knowledge regarding the category of this forest and the administrative juridical regulations that govern it. The removed evidences of these communities show that the necessity to diminish the antropics actions and to elevate the sensibility regarding the conservation, they impose a demand of knowledge to satisfy by means of training actions with the participation of the local actors and instrumentation of the regulative apparatus.

  15. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument 8337 Proclamation 8337 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009 Proc. 8337 Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National... 130 nautical miles east-southeast of Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa, lies Rose Atoll—the easternmost...

  16. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J. [Mycology Associates, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  17. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Stallings, E.A.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Bandelier National Monument were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Monument. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Foliage sulfur concentrations differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and among trees within sites; however, needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, approximately 12% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N,S,E,W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected

  18. Reducing visitor noise levels at Muir Woods National Monument using experimental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, David W; Peter, Newman; Manning, Robert E; Fristrup, Kurt M

    2011-03-01

    Noise impacts resources and visitor experience in many protected natural areas, and visitors can be the dominant source of noise. This experimental study tested the efficacy and acceptability of signs asking visitors to be quiet at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Signs declaring a "quiet zone" (at the park's Cathedral Grove) or a "quiet day" (throughout the park) were posted on a randomized schedule that included control days (no signs). Visitor surveys were conducted to measure the cognitive and behavioral responses of visitors to the signs and test the acceptability of these management practices to visitors. Visitors were highly supportive of these management practices and reported that they consciously limited the amount of noise they produced. Sound level measurements showed substantial decreases on days when signs were posted. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  19. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  20. Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Wilson, K.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved

  1. Water availability and flood hazards in the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Frank J.; Oster, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rock formations of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument area are aquifers that can be expected to yield less than 10 gallons of water per minute to wells. The most permeable of the geologic units is the alluvium that occurs at low elevations along the John Day River and most of the smaller streams. Wells in the alluvial deposits can be expected to yield adequate water supplies for recreational areas; also, wells completed in the underlying bedrock at depths ranging from 50 to 200 feet could yield as much as 10 gallons per minute. Pumping tests on two unused wells indicated yields of 8 gallons per minute and 2 gallons per minute. Nine of the ten springs measured in and near the monument area in late August of 1978 were flowing 0.2 to 30 gallons per minute. Only the Cant Ranch spring and the Johnny Kirk Spring near the Sheep Rock unit had flows exceeding 6 gallons per minute. Chemical analyses of selected constituents of the ground water indicated generally low concentrations of dissolved minerals. Although cloudbursts in the Painted Hills unit could generate a flood wave on the valley floors, flood danger can be reduced by locating recreational sites on high ground. The campground in Indian Canyon of the Clarno unit is vulnerable to cloudburst flooding. About 80 percent of the proposed campground on the John Day River in the Sheep Rock unit is above the estimated level of 1-percent chance flood (100-year flood) of the river. The 1-percent chance flood would extend about 120 feet from the riverbank into the upstream end of the campground. (USGS).

  2. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive..., related marine resources and species, and conservation efforts. Traditional access to the Monument by... activities do not degrade the Monument's coral reef ecosystem or related marine resources or species, or...

  3. Celebrating the Immigrant: An Administrative History of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, 1952-1982. Cultural Resource Management Study 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Barbara

    This book focuses on the history of the Statue of Liberty National Monument from 1952 through 1982. It describes how the monument has come to symbolize an expanding set of ideals, how the symbolism has produced responses in various groups of people ranging from celebrations to physical attacks upon the Statue, and the manner in which the monument…

  4. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  5. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  6. Water-resources investigations in Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, fiscal year 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    Water-resources data were acquired during fiscal year 1970 by the U.S. Geological Survey at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, for the U.S. National Park Service as part of a continuing project. The data provide a basis for planning the development, management, and use of the available water resources to provide adequate water supplies. Thirty-one springs, 19 in relatively inaccessible areas, were evaluated as sources of water supplies. Seven potential well sites were evaluated for drilling depths in specific aquifers. A well drilled in Echo Park near the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers was tested. The pumping test showed the well to yield 130 gallons per minute with a drawdown of 1.96 feet; specific capacity of the well at 130 gallons per minute is 66 gallons per minute per foot. Water samples for chemical analysis were - collected from nine springs and one well; all except that from Disappointment Spring, were of good chemical quality.

  7. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  8. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  9. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  10. Controls on dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Ersek, Vasile; Mix, Alan C.; Clark, Peter U.

    2018-02-01

    Cave dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument (OCNM) was studied, where the parameters pH, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium and barium were analyzed at quasi-monthly intervals from 2005 to 2007. Different statistical analyses have been used to investigate the variability of the chemical parameters in the different sites in the OCNM cave system. The dripwater varies in response to seasonal changes in rainfall. The drip rates range from zero in summer to continuous flow in winter, closely following the rainfall intensity. Spatial variations of dripwater chemistry, which is nonlinearly related to dripwater discharge likely, reflect the chemical composition of bedrock and overlying soil, and the residence time of the ground water within the aquifer. The residence time of infiltrated water in bedrock cracks control the dissolution carbonate bedrock, reprecipitation of calcium carbonate and the degree of saturation of dripwater with respect to calcium carbonate minerals. Spatiotemporal fluctuations of dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are controlled by dissolution of carbonate bedrock and the degree of calcite reprecipitation in bedrock cracks. This suggests that trace elements in speleothem deposits at the OCNM may serve as paleoclimatological proxies for precipitation, if interpreted within the context of understanding local bedrock chemistry.

  11. Ecology of juvenile hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Phillips, Brendalee; Mayor, Philippe A.; Roberson, Kimberly; Pemberton, Roy A.; Allen, Jason B.; Lundgren, Ian; Musick, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of juvenile hawksbills around Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands from 1994 to 1999 revealed distributional patterns and resulted in a total of 75 individual hawksbill captures from all years; turtles ranged from 23.2 to 77.7 cm curved carapace length (CCL; mean 42.1 ± 12.3 cm SD). Juveniles concentrated where Zoanthid cover was highest. Length of time between recaptures, or presumed minimum site residency, ranged from 59 to 1,396 days (mean 620.8 ± 402.4 days SD). Growth rates for 23 juveniles ranged from 0.0 to 9.5 cm year−1 (mean 4.1 ± 2.4 cm year−1SD). Annual mean growth rates were non-monotonic, with the largest mean growth rate occurring in the 30–39 cm CCL size class. Gastric lavages indicated that Zoanthids were the primary food source for hawksbills. These results contribute to our understanding of juvenile hawksbill ecology and serve as a baseline for future studies or inventories of hawksbills in the Caribbean.

  12. Lipid residues preserved in sheltered bedrock features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Buonasera

    2016-10-01

    Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.

  13. Understanding and managing experiential aspects of soundscapes at Muir woods national monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Ericka J; Newman, Peter; Manning, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Research has found that human-caused noise can detract from the quality of the visitor experience in national parks and related areas. Moreover, impacts to the visitor experience can be managed by formulating indicators and standards of quality as suggested in park and outdoor recreation management frameworks, such as Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), as developed by the U.S. National Park Service. The research reported in this article supports the formulation of indicators and standards of quality for human-caused noise at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Phase I identified potential indicators of quality for the soundscape of Muir Woods. A visitor "listening exercise" was conducted, where respondents identified natural and human-caused sounds heard in the park and rated the degree to which each sound was "pleasing" or "annoying." Certain visitor-caused sounds such as groups talking were heard by most respondents and were rated as annoying, suggesting that these sounds may be a good indicator of quality. Loud groups were heard by few people but were rated as highly annoying, whereas wind and water were heard by most visitors and were rated as highly pleasing. Phase II measured standards of quality for visitor-caused noise. Visitors were presented with a series of 30-second audio clips representing increasing amounts of visitor-caused sound in the park. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of each audio clip on a survey. Findings suggest a threshold at which visitor-caused sound is judged to be unacceptable, and is therefore considered as noise. A parallel program of sound monitoring in the park found that current levels of visitor-caused sound sometimes violate this threshold. Study findings provide an empirical basis to help formulate noise-related indicators and standards of quality in parks and related areas.

  14. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  15. 78 FR 18783 - Establishment of the R[iacute]o Grande del Norte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... protection of religious and cultural sites in the monument and provide access to the sites by members of... Indian Religious Freedom Act (92 Stat. 469, 42 U.S.C. 1996) and Executive Order 13007 of May 24, 1996 (Indian Sacred Sites). Laws, regulations, and policies followed by the BLM in issuing and administering...

  16. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  17. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Mora, Miguel A; May, Thomas W; Phalen, David N

    2010-11-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  18. Geophysical Exploration of Tyuonyi Pueblo in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, C.; Graham, D.; Peacock, E.; Suen, C.; Creighton, A.; Carchedi, C.; Feucht, D. W.; Civitello, J. A.; Jarret, J.; Martin, C.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D.; Pellerin, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) class of 2017 carried out near-surface geophysical investigations of the Tyuonyi Pueblo of Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico in order to aid trail planning and identification of archeological features that could potentially be impacted. Tyuonyi is located in Frijoles Canyon, carved by the Rito de los Frijoles, between the SE flank of the Jemez Mountains and the Rio Grande, and contains pueblo room blocks, kivas and cavates that were occupied by ancestral Puebloans between 1350 and 1550 CE. SAGE collected seismic refraction, magnetic, electromagnetic (EM) and GPR data along targeted profiles and grids north and east of Tyuonyi Pueblo. Two 30 X 30 m grids of GPR data were recorded along 1-m spaced lines using the 250 MHz Sensors and Software NOGGIN® 250 Smart Tow and processed using the EKKO Project V5 program. Seismic refraction data were collected using a 48-channel Geometrics Strataview recorder and seven spreads with 0.5 m geophone spacing, a 6 m shot point interval, and a hammer source. Shot point offsets between 0.5 m and 48 m provided overlapping subsurface coverage. Seismic data from SAGE 2016 and 2017 were merged into a 168 m-long profile. Magnetic data were collected along 1-m spaced N-S lines in two 30 X 30 m grids and along the seismic line using a Geometrics 858 cesium vapor magnetometer. In addition, EM data were collected using a Geonics, EM-31 system along the seismic line. A velocity model was created to fit the seismic travel times. The GPR images and seismic model can be used to interpret the Quaternary geology of the site. These data trace incision of the Rito de los Frijoles into the Bandelier Tuff over several stages of the canyon development. The seismic model indicates a number of narrow, shallow channels carved into a broader strath. Holocene alluvial terrace deposits overlie the Bandelier Tuff surface, and the Tyuonyi Pueblo was constructed on top of the highest terrace. On the north

  19. White Sands, New Mexico as seen from STS-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    White Sands National Monument (Park) is easily recognized in the center of this near-vertical color photograph. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field. It represents an alabaster sea that covers nearly 300 square miles. At the southwest corner of the White Sands is dry lake, Lucero. In terms of cultural features the city of Alamogordo and Holloman Air Force Base can be seen with great clarity on this photograph.

  20. 78 FR 12781 - Notice of Availability of the Ironwood Forest National Monument Record of Decision and Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... identified as Monument objects in the Proclamation. The Arizona State Director signed the ROD on February 19... motorized vehicle use. Guidance for management of the Monument access route network is provided, and a... of Monument objects while allowing authorized uses, recreation activities, and scientific studies...

  1. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near Tassi and Pakoon Springs, western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Tassi and Pakoon Springs are both in the Grand Wash Trough in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument on the Arizona Strip. The monument is jointly managed by the National Park Service (NPS) and the Bureau of Land Management. This study was in response to NPS’s need to better understand the influence from regional increases in groundwater withdrawals near Grand Canyon-Parashant on the groundwater discharge from Tassi and Pakoon Springs. The climate of the Arizona Strip is generally semiarid to arid, and springs in the monument provide the water for the fragile ecosystems that are commonly separated by large areas of dry washes in canyons with pinyon and juniper. Available hydrogeologic data from previous investigations included water levels from the few existing wells, location information for springs, water chemistry from springs, and geologic maps. Available groundwater-elevation data from the wells and springs in the monument indicate that groundwater in the Grand Wash Trough is moving from north to south, discharging to springs and into the Colorado River. Groundwater may also be moving from east to west from Paleozoic rocks in the Grand Wash Cliffs into sedimentary deposits in the Grand Wash Trough. Finally, groundwater may be moving from the northwest in the Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks of the Virgin Mountains into the northern part of the Grand Wash Trough. Water discharging from Tassi and Pakoon Springs has a major-ion chemistry similar to that of other springs in the western part of Grand Canyon-Parashant. Stable-isotopic signatures for oxygen-18 and hydrogen-2 are depleted in the water from both Tassi and Pakoon Springs in comparison to other springs on the Arizona Strip. Tassi Spring discharges from multiple seeps along the Wheeler Fault, and the depleted isotopic signatures suggest that water may be flowing from multiple places into Lake Mead and seems to have a higher elevation or an older climate source. Elevated water

  2. Basaltic caves at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve as analogs for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N. W.; Richardson, C. D.; McHenry, L.; Scott, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Basaltic caves and lava tubes offer stable physicochemical conditions for formation of secondary minerals. Such features, putatively observed on Mars, intercept groundwater to weather country rock, leading to formation of secondary minerals. Further, caves are stable environments to search for evidence of past life, as they could offer protection from the oxidizing martian atmosphere. Searching for signs of life in a cave that could protect bio/organic compounds would preclude the need for risky drilling on Mars. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) offers an opportunity to study caves in Holocene iron-rich basalt flows to characterize secondary mineral deposits and search for organic compounds associated with secondary minerals; COM basalts are a good analog for martian basalts because of their high iron but other elements are higher at COM than on Mars. The Blue Dragon flow (~2.1 ka) contains the majority of the accessible caves and lava tubes. Two types of secondary mineral deposits were observed in these caves: ceiling coatings and crack or floor precipitates. Hematite, silica, and calcite comprise ceiling coatings. The crack and floor precipitates are white, efflorescent deposits in cavities along cave walls and ceilings or in localized mounds on cave floors. The secondary minerals in crack and floor precipitates are mainly thenardite and mirabilite with some minor concentrations of trona and/or burkeite. Organic compounds were found associated with the efflorescent deposits. Formation of the deposits is likely due to chemical leaching of basalt by meteoritic water. To test this, fluids collected from the ceiling and walls of the caves were analyzed. Solutions were modeled with the geochemical code, PHREEQC. The model tracked composition as water evaporated. Selected minerals were allowed to precipitate as they became oversaturated. Among the first minerals to become oversaturated were quartz and calcite, which are observed in ceiling deposits. Iron

  3. Selected misdemeanors against monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Klimczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to present selected aspects misdemeanors against monuments and the possibility of counteracting them.The author has used: the method of legal analysis  and literature study.  It was moved, among others issues in which cases occur misconduct, when and  what measures can be taken to prevent it. The aim of this paper is to present the matter directly. Attention  also was paid to the role The Provincial Monuments Conservator  and the Minister of Culture and National Heritage.

  4. Shoalwater-Byfield: national estate built on sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Government's decision to allow sand mining at Shoalwater is strongly condemned. According to the CSIRO, local, state and national conservation groups, the Environmental Impact Statement (ESI) recently released does not provide an adequate and reliable basis for the assessment of the environmental impact. It is recommended that an independent scientific agency, such as CSIRO, carry out an extensive faunal and floral survey of the area, to provide publicly accessible information on its natural values and a baseline for meaningful environmental planning for the area as a hole. ills

  5. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  6. The Ecology of Coral Reef Top Predators in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef habitats in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM are characterized by abundant top-level predators such as sharks and jacks. The predator assemblage is dominated both numerically and in biomass by giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis. A lower diversity of predatory teleosts, particularly groupers and snappers, distinguishes the PMNM from other remote, unfished atolls in the Pacific. Most coral reef top predators are site attached to a “home” atoll, but move extensively within these atolls. Abundances of the most common sharks and jacks are highest in atoll fore reef habitats. Top predators within the PMNM forage on a diverse range of prey and exert top-down control over shallow-water reef fish assemblages. Ecological models suggest ecosystem processes may be most impacted by top predators through indirect effects of predation. Knowledge gaps are identified to guide future studies of top predators in the PMNM.

  7. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significant subsistence, cultural and religious uses within the monument; 4. a program to assess and promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic activities and... and enforcement necessary to ensure that scientific exploration and research, tourism, and...

  8. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  12. CReefs Biodiversity Census at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Personnel from the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  13. Delineation and hydrologic effects of a gasoline leak at Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, A.; Packard, Elaine M.

    1982-01-01

    Ground water is the only local source of water available to the Stovepipe Wells Hotel facilities of the Death Valley National Monument, California. A leak in a service station storage tank caused the formation of a gasoline layer overlying the water table, creating the potential for contamination of the water supply. The maximum horizontal extent of the gasoline layer was mathematically estimated to be 1,300 feet downgradient from the leaky gasoline tank. Exploratory drilling detected the gasoline layer between 900 and 1,400 feet downgradient and between 50 and 150 feet upgradient from the source. Traces of the soluble components of gasoline were also found in the aquifer 150 feet upgradient, and 250 feet distant from the source perpendicular to the direction of ground-water movement. The gasoline spill is not likely to have an effect on the supply wells located 0.4 mile south of the leak source, which is nearly perpendicular to the direction of ground-water movement and the primary direction of gasoline movement in the area. No effect on phreatophytes 2 miles downgradient from the layer is likely, but the potential effects of gasoline vapors within the unsaturated zone on local xerophytes are not known. (USGS)

  14. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  15. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  16. Benthic Habitat Maps for Rose Atoll Marine National Monument in American Samoa from 2004 to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps for Rose Atoll, American Samoa were derived from high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery for 2004, 2006, and 2010. The benthic habitat...

  17. 76 FR 59156 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Ironwood Forest National Monument Resource Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Chin Indian Community, Gila River Indian Community, Tohono O'odham Nation, Salt River Pima-Maricopa..., P.O. Box 71383, Washington, DC 20024-1383 Overnight Mail: BLM Director (210), Attention: Brenda...

  18. 78 FR 4872 - Minor Boundary Revision at Governors Island National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... revision and subsequent acquisition of Tract 01-106 will enable the National Park Service to manage and maintain a floating dock that has been installed to provide safe access to the island for ferry passengers...

  19. 77 FR 42758 - Notice of Availability of the Prehistoric Trackways National Monument Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the... prepared a Draft Resource Management Plan (RMP) and Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the...

  20. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Philippe A.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy M.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, declined dramatically throughout the Caribbean primarily due to white-band disease (WBD). In 2005, elkhorn coral was proposed for listing as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. WBD was first documented at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). Together with hurricanes WBD reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by probably over 90%. In the past decade some recovery has been observed at BIRNM. This study assessed the distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral and estimated the prevalence of WBD at the monument. Within an area of 795 ha, we estimated 97,232 134,371 (95% confidence limits) elkhorn coral colonies with any dimension of connected live tissue greater than one meter, about 3% of which were infected by WBD. Despite some recovery, the elkhorn coral density remains low and WBD may continue to present a threat to the elkhorn coral population.

  1. Rock paintings in Fern Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, California: Not the 1054 A.D. (Crab Nebula) Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    On July 4, 1054 A.D. a supernova brighter than Venus appeared in the sky, remaining visible for approximately 23 days and 650 nights. It was chronicled in five independent historic accounts, four in China and one in Japan. For at least 40 years investigators have attributed certain distinctive rock paintings and carvings in the western United States as recordings of the 1054 A.D. supernova. More than twenty such depictions (circle or star-like symbols and a crescent) have been located. Two panels of rock paintings in Lava Beds National Monument, California, one at Fern Cave and one at Symbol Bridge, were listed as recording the 1054 A.D. supernova. The only direct means of assessing the likelihood that a 'supernova' representation records the 1054 A.D. event is to date the rock painting or carving. At Texas A and M University, was developed a plasma-chemical extraction technique that permits to analyze the 14 C in rock paintings, whether the pigments used were charcoal or inorganic Fe- and Mn- oxides and hydroxides with organic binder/vehicles. This paper presents direct 14 C age estimates on a rock painting suggested to represent the 1054 A.D. supernova. Charcoal pigment samples were collected from three figures in proximity at Fern Cave: a crescent pointing downward and two nearby circles, one above and one below the crescent. The AMS 14 C analysis on each sample using this technique show that these images do not represent the 1054 A.D. supernova

  2. Engaging Canadians: national oil sands dialogues - A background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    It is expected that the world's energy demand will grow significantly between now and the year 2050. Hydrocarbons will have an important role to play in meeting this increasing demand and unconventional sources such as oil sands will become more and more important. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has been engaged in a dialogue process to examine the environmental, economic and social impacts of the oil sands industry and the aim of this background paper is to provide stakeholders with some context. The paper highlights the fact that although the oil sands industry gives rise to environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutants, land disturbance and water use, the environmental performance of the industry has been improving in recent years thanks to new technologies.

  3. Hydrologic data, 1974-77, Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles Edwin; Downing, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Ground-water levels in most wells did not change significantly from 1974 to 1977 in the Stovepipe Wells Hotel area, California. The average water-level decline was less than 0.10 foot between August 1974 and August 1977 in 10 observation wells. Water-level contours show a depression centered on the two pumping wells, but this depression existed before the National Park Service started pumping its well. The chemical quality of the ground water is poor. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples ranged from 2,730 to 6,490 milligrams per liter. Analyses of water samples from two wells showed large changes in some constituents from 1976 to 1977. Streamflow in Salt Creek has been monitored since February 1974. Base flow is seasonal, being 0.10 to 0.20 cubic foot per second during the summer and as much as three times that amount during the winter. Two chemical analyses of water from Salt Creek, representing summer and winter flow conditions, show large differences for many constituents. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. The alkaline volcanic rocks of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho and the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Idaho's Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is host to extensive expressions of basaltic volcanism dominated by non evolved olivine tholeiites (NEOT) with localized occurrences of evolved lavas. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) is a polygenetic lava field comprised of more than 60 lava flows emplaced during 8 eruptive periods spanning the last 15 kyrs. The most recent eruptive period (period A; 2500-2000 yr B.P.) produced flows with total alkali vs. silica classifications spanning basalt to trachyte. Coeval with the emplacement of the COTM period A volcanic pile was the emplacement of the Wapi and King's Bowl NEOT 70 km SSE of COTM along the Great Rift. Previous investigations have determined a genetic link between these two compositionally distinct volcanic centers where COTM compositions can be generated from NEOT melts through complex ascent paths and variable degrees of fractionation and assimilation of lower-middle crustal materials. The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, conducted a robotic investigation of Gusev crater from 2004-2010. Spirit was equipped with the Athena science payload enabling the determination of mineralogy (mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Pancam multispectral camera, and Mössbauer spectrometer), bulk chemistry (Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer) and context (Pancam and Microscopic Imager). During sol 32 Spirit investigated an olivine basalt named Adirondack, the type specimen for a class of rock that composes much of the plains material within Gusev Crater and embays the Columbia Hills. Following the characterization of the plains material, Spirit departed the plains targeting the Columbia Hills and ascending at Husband Hill. During Spirit's ascent of Husband Hill three additional classes of volcanic rock were identified as distinct by their mini-TES spectra; Wishstone, Backstay and Irvine. These rocks are classified as tephrite, trachy-basalt and basalt, respectively, and are the first alkaline rocks observed on Mars. These

  5. The Ecology of Parasite-Host Interactions at Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona - Appreciating the Importance of Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; van Riper, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Although parasites play important ecological roles through the direct interactions they have with their hosts, historically that fact has been underappreciated. Today, scientists have a growing appreciation of the scope of such impacts. Parasites have been reported to dominate food webs, alter predator-prey relationships, act as ecosystem engineers, and alter community structure. In spite of this growing awareness in the scientific community, parasites are still often neglected in the consideration of the management and conservation of resources and ecosystems. Given that at least half of the organisms on earth are probably parasitic, it should be evident that the ecological functions of parasites warrant greater attention. In this report, we explore different aspects of parasite-host relationships found at a desert spring pond within Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona. In three separate but related chapters, we explore interactions between a novel amphipod host and two parasites. First, we identify how host behavior responds to this association and how this association affects interactions with both invertebrate non-host predators and a vertebrate host predator. Second, we look at the human dimension, investigating how human recreation can indirectly affect patterns of disease by altering patterns of vertebrate host space use. Finally - because parasites and diseases are of increasing importance in the management of wildlife species, especially those that are imperiled or of management concern - the third chapter argues that research would benefit from increased attention to the statistical analysis of wildlife disease studies. This report also explores issues of statistical parasitology, providing information that may better inform those designing research projects and analyzing data from studies of wildlife disease. In investigating the nature of parasite-host interactions, the role that relationships play in ecological communities, and how human

  6. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Lambert, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a Refuge and provide long range guidance and management direction to achieve Refuge purposes. Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), located 27 miles northeast of Aberdeen, South Dakota, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for Sand Lake NWR must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed Refuge management strategies.

  7. Construction materials, monuments and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, R.; Siegesmund, S.; Török, A.; Brimblecombe, P.; Gomez-Heras, M.

    2012-04-01

    Construction materials (natural stone, aggregates, bricks, cement, lime, mortar, etc.) form a wide and heterogeneous group both from the genetic and technological point of view. These materials deserve attention from the scientific community due to their long-term use, importance for society and sensitivity to the environment. Most geomaterials have also been used in important monuments designated as a part of the World Cultural Heritage and/or make part of national monuments. Despite of the wide-ranges of studies and our rapidly increasing understanding of material behaviour, our knowledge is still rather limited in many aspects. This concerns the characterisation of traditional raw materials, the knowledge of their processing and use, and/or durability and compatibility assessment. The exploitation and sustainable use of these materials are also new and emerging challenges in the modern society. The use of local materials for monuments can be considered as a part of our cultural and technological heritage, which has, however, significantly deteriorated during the past several decades. This paper summarizes the general topics related to a modern analysis of traditional construction materials derived from the Earth, and on the characteristic aspects of the behaviour of these materials on selected monuments.

  8. Utilizing remote sensing to supplement ground monitoring of Diorhabda elongata as a control agent for Tamarix ramosissima in Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, V.; Auch, J.; Landy, J.; Rudy, G.; Seifert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The plant Tamarix ramosissima has invaded significant riparian habitat along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument. Commonly known as salt cedar or tamarisk, it was introduced from Eurasia to the Southwestern United States to prevent soil erosion along riverbanks and as an ornamental plant. It has since come to affect water resources, recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem services. Various methods used to control tamarisk's spread have had moderate success but have drained National Park Service of human and monetary resources. In June 2006, the salt cedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a biological control agent within the park to defoliate and ultimately eradicate the invasive species. This study examines the efficacy of using Landsat TM imagery to supplement ground monitoring of the beetle's spread and its effects on tamarisk in Dinosaur National Monument, and discusses the development of a GIS model to predict annual change in tamarisk cover and beetle populations. Through fieldwork, we determined four areas of interest with favorable attributes for satellite detection. A change detection model was created by layering 2005-2008 data and quantifying mean NDVI. Results show that intra-year NDVI trends may be more effective for accurate detection than single-image year-to-year comparisons largely because intra-year environmental variability is significantly smaller. Additionally, our GIS model predicted significant growth of beetle population, implying that defoliation will become more apparent in future years. However, challenges to detecting this defoliation include the year-to-year variability of environmental factors, low spatial resolution of Landsat TM data, low visibility into parts of the Green River canyon, and the spectral mixing of tamarisk and native vegetation.

  9. River flow and riparian vegetation dynamics - implications for management of the Yampa River through Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael L; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    This report addresses the relation between flow of the Yampa River and occurrence of herbaceous and woody riparian vegetation in Dinosaur National Monument (DINO) with the goal of informing management decisions related to potential future water development. The Yampa River in DINO flows through diverse valley settings, from the relatively broad restricted meanders of Deerlodge Park to narrower canyons, including debris fan-affected reaches in the upper Yampa Canyon and entrenched meanders in Harding Hole and Laddie Park. Analysis of occurrence of all plant species measured in 1470 quadrats by multiple authors over the last 24 years shows that riparian vegetation along the Yampa River is strongly related to valley setting and geomorphic surfaces, defined here as active channel, active floodplain, inactive floodplain, and upland. Principal Coordinates Ordination arrayed quadrats and species along gradients of overall cover and moisture availability, from upland and inactive floodplain quadrats and associated xeric species like western wheat grass (Pascopyrum smithii), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) to active channel and active floodplain quadrats supporting more mesic species including sandbar willow (Salix exigua), wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), and cordgrass (Spartina spp.). Indicator species analysis identified plants strongly correlated with geomorphic surfaces. These species indicate state changes in geomorphic surfaces, such as the conversion of active channel to floodplain during channel narrowing. The dominant woody riparian species along the Yampa River are invasive tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), and native Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii), box elder (Acer negundo L. var. interius), and sandbar willow (Salix exigua). These species differ in tolerance of drought, salinity, inundation, flood disturbance and shade, and in seed size, timing of seed dispersal and ability to form root sprouts. These

  10. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  11. Evaluation of the potential for debris and hyperconcentrated flows in Capulin Canyon as a result of the 1996 Dome fire, Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.

    1997-01-01

    The Dome fire of April 1996 burned 6684 ha in Bandelier National Monument and the adjacent Sante Fe National Forest. The potential for significant debris- and hyperconcentrated-flow activity in Capulin Canyon is evaluated through 1) a systematic consideration of geologic and geomorphic factors that characterize the condition of the hillslope materials and channels following the fire, 2) examination of sedimentologic evidence for past debris-flow activity in the canyon, and 3) evaluation of the response of the watershed through the 1996 summer monsoon season. The lack of accumulations of dry-ravel material on the hillslopes or in channels, the absence of a continuous hydrophobic layer, the relatively intact condition of the riparian vegetation and of the fibrous root mat on the hillslopes, and the lack of evidence of widespread past debris- and hyperconcentrated-flow activity, even with evidence of past fires, indicate a low potential for debris-flow activity in Capulin Canyon. In addition, thunderstorms during the summer monsoon of 1996 resulted in abundant surface overland flow on the hillslopes which transported low-density pumice, charcoal, ash and some mineral soil downslope as small-scale and non-erosive debris flows. In some places cobble- and boulder-sized material was moved short distances. A moderate potential for debris- and hyperconcentrated-flow activity is identified for the two major tributary canyons to Capulin Canyon based on evidence of both summer of 1996 and possible historic significant debris-flow activity.

  12. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  13. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  14. Araneofauna of the Křéby National Nature Monument (Eastern Moravia, Czech Republic with some notes to conservation management of the locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of spider composition in the xerothermic habitats of the Křéby National Nature Monument which is located in Kroměříž district, eastern Moravia. Spiders were collected by four different methods during 25 April–28 October 2013: pitfall traps, sweeping of herb vegetation, individual collecting and beating the branches of shrubs and trees. In total, 1070 individuals (865 adult spiders were collected and identified as 114 species of 19 families. The species diversity in the Křéby area is rather high, representing approximately 13% of Czech araneofauna. Of the identified species, five are listed in the Red List of Threatened Species in the Czech Republic. These included critically endangered Dysdera hungarica Kulczynski 1897, endangered Alopecosa solitaria (Herman, 1879, Cheiracanthium montanum (C. L. Koch, 1877 and vulnerable Lathys stigmatisata (Menge, 1869 and Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866. The findings of Alopecosa solitaria and Dysdera hungarica belong to the northernmost occurrence of these rare species in the Czech Republic. In general, the great richness of spider fauna and the occurrence of rare and threatened species for Czech region confirm the high biotic value of the investigated area. In addition, the author discussed management methods of the locality and suggest management conservation system for slowing down the succession rate on overgrown places.

  15. Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

  16. Merchant Seamen Monument

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of Merchant Seamen Monument. Printed description on reverse "This memorial was erected in remembrance of the merchant seamen from Limerick and the Shannon Estuary Seamen who lost their lives in the course of duty". 1991 Limerick Treaty 300 logo.

  17. Results of elemental analyses of water and waterborne sediment samples from areas of Alaska proposed for the Chukchi Imuruk National Reserve, Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.

    1978-10-01

    During July--August 1976, waters and sediments were collected from streams and lakes over an area of 100,000 km 2 around Kotzebue, Alaska, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance. The work provides multielement results for 949 waters and 886 sediments from 979 locations. Of these, 492 waters and 452 sediments are from 517 locations in the proposed Chukchi Imuruk Reserve; 447 waters and 423 sediments are from 451 locations in the proposed Selawik Wildlife Refuge; and 10 waters and 11 sediments are from 11 locations in the proposed Cape Krusenstern Monument. The field data, with concentrations of 13 elements in the waters and 43 in the sediments, are presented, and the sample locations are shown on accompanying plates. The waters were analyzed for uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting and calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, and zinc by plasma-source emission spectrography. The sediment samples were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting, beryllium and lithium by arc-source emission spectrography, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, niobium, silver, tin, and tungsten by x-ray fluorescence, and aluminum, antimony, barium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, thorium, titanium, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc by neutron activation. Uranium to thorium ratios in each sediment are also provided

  18. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  19. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Courtney S; Burns, John H R; Liu, Gang; Steward, Kanoelani; Gutlay, Tiffany Nicole; Kenyon, Jean; Eakin, C Mark; Kosaki, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll) showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth), and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies), depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting the increasing

  20. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  1. Episodic Late Holocene dune movements on the sand-sheet area, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S. L.; Spaeth, M.; Marín, L.; Pierson, J.; Gómez, J.; Bunch, F.; Valdez, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSDNPP) in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, contains a variety of eolian landforms that reflect Holocene drought variability. The most spectacular is a dune mass banked against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which is fronted by an extensive sand sheet with stabilized parabolic dunes. Stratigraphic exposures of parabolic dunes and associated luminescence dating of quartz grains by single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols indicate eolian deposition of unknown magnitude occurred ca. 1290-940, 715 ± 80, 320 ± 30, and 200-120 yr ago and in the 20th century. There are 11 drought intervals inferred from the tree-ring record in the past 1300 yr at GSDNPP potentially associated with dune movement, though only five eolian depositional events are currently recognized in the stratigraphic record. There is evidence for eolian transport associated with dune movement in the 13th century, which may coincide with the "Great Drought", a 26-yr-long dry interval identified in the tree ring record, and associated with migration of Anasazi people from the Four Corners areas to wetter areas in southern New Mexico. This nascent chronology indicates that the transport of eolian sand across San Luis Valley was episodic in the late Holocene with appreciable dune migration in the 8th, 10-13th, and 19th centuries, which ultimately nourished the dune mass against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  2. Pathways for First Nation and Metis youth in the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.; Friedel, T.L.; Edge, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Educational Policy Studies

    2009-04-15

    This paper investigated the political, social, and economic influences on First Nation and Metis youth attitudes towards further education in the municipality of Wood Buffalo, Alberta. The region is the site of rapid industrial development related to the oil sands industry. Institutional and policy structures that support or inhibit the ability of First Nation and Metis youth to find sustained, well-paid employment and careers were also evaluated. The study included a historical overview of government-Aboriginal relations in the region, as well as a review of statistics related to the training and education of the Aboriginal identity population in Canada and Alberta. A review of recent literature focused on Aboriginal youth was conducted, and details of relevant education and training policies were presented. The final sections of the report provided an analysis of 65 interviews and focus groups that involved 91 individuals that were conducted in 2008. Participants consisted of educators, government representatives, Aboriginal community members and youths aged between 15 to 30 years. The study showed that an increased reliance on industry partners has fostered inequities within and across communities, and has resulted in a fragmented approach to education and training in the region. The paper emphasized that there is a greater need to address the individual, systemic, and institutional bias faced by First Nation and Metis youth in the region. 56 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Monument avalikule hetkele = Monument to a public moment / raumlaborberlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Saksamaa arhitektide projekt "Monument avalikule hetkele" tekitas Tallinnas asuva Välisministeeriumi ette massiivne monumendi aluse, mis mõne minuti suitsu välja ajas ja mis seejärel lammutati. Fotokujutist levitati postkaardil

  4. Architecture and monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Oosterman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between architectural history and heritage is ambiguous. Both domains are confronted with rapid changes in scale and complexity, leaving practitioners in both fields with the challenging task to provide new methods and a new vocabulary to enable research and communication. 70 years ago Nicolaus Pevsner could write about Lincoln cathedral and the bicycle shed to discern between architecture and building. These days not only housing and urban development have been accepted as ‘objects’ of research, in fact all material manifestation of human occupation, at least as far as design is involved, is considered worth studying. On the heritage side, developments are comparable: horizontally and vertically the domain has been enlarged tremendously: from a collection of ‘diamonds’ to complete cities, to landscapes and structures. This is not only true for scale and layers, but also for cultural norms of quality. Cultural relativism requires that ‘beauty’ and ‘quality’ are defined in relation to the social group or culture they refer to. The logic that an elite determines what is good and what is right is challenged by the notion that popular taste is in principle equal. So what does this do to our museum collections and lists of protected monuments? The consequences for architectural history are not yet clear. Including new realities like digital design and new fields of practice like the virtual, the knowledge base and toolbox of the architectural historian has to expand beyond the Renaissance ideal of the ‘uomo universale’.

  5. Transient Electromagnetic Soundings Near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado (2006 Field Season)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; de Sozua Filho, Oderson A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to obtain subsurface information of use to hydrologic modeling. Seventeen soundings were made to the east and north of the sand dunes. Using a small loop TEM system, maximum exploration depths of about 75 to 150 m were obtained. In general, layered earth interpretations of the data found that resistivity decreases with depth. Comparison of soundings with geologic logs from nearby wells found that zones logged as having increased clay content usually corresponded with a significant resistivity decrease in the TEM determined model. This result supports the use of TEM soundings to map the location of the top of the clay unit deposited at the bottom of the ancient Lake Alamosa that filled the San Luis Valley from Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time.

  6. Social Interest in The Polish Doctrine of Monument Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses a controversy surrounding the latest amendment to the text of the Polish Parliament Act Conservation and the Care of Monuments (2015). It is a common dictum that any edifice cannot exist without good foundations. In this particular case of the mentioned above Act, definition of monument appears to be such a basis. A social interest is one of the constituent elements of the definition mentioned above. In the first part of the paper the notion of the social interest expression has been discussed, particularly from national and international points of view. The second part of the paper comprises some examples from the Polish monument preservation experience with the use of comparison method supported by case study. Only three big Polish cities: Warsaw, Wroclaw and Szczecin are involved in the presented case study but it must be emphasized that many other places on Polish territory experienced the same. Basing on the faith of these cities, the results and discussion chapter proves fundamental discrepancy in social interest notion between national and international scopes using some analytical methods. Finally, in the discussion chapter some proposals for the future amendment of monument definition in the Act of Conservation and the Care of Monuments have been provided.

  7. Three-Dimensional Recording of Bastion Middleburg Monument Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  8. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  9. SANDS: an architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2007-10-11

    A new architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support) is introduced and its performance evaluated. The architecture provides a method for performing clinical decision support across a network, as in a health information exchange. Using the prototype we demonstrated that, first, a number of useful types of decision support can be carried out using our architecture; and, second, that the architecture exhibits desirable reliability and performance characteristics.

  10. Modeling elk and bison carrying capacity for Great Sand Dunes National Park, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, and The Nature Conservancy's Medano Ranch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wockner, Gary; Boone, Randall; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the neighboring Baca National Wildlife Refuge constitute an extraordinary setting that offers a variety of opportunities for outdoor recreation and natural resource preservation in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Adjacent to these federal lands, the Nature Conservancy (TNC) manages the historic Medano Ranch. The total land area of these three conservation properties is roughly 121,500 hectares (ha). It is a remote and rugged area in which resource managers must balance the protection of natural resources with recreation and neighboring land uses. The management of wild ungulates in this setting presents challenges, as wild ungulates move freely across public and private landscapes.

  11. Buck Island National Monument Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  12. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20021002-20021003 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030729-20030808 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080916-20080917 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080920-20080920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060911-20060911 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040926-20040930 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Gardner Pinnacle, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040920-20040920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040917-20040919 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030730-20030802 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080928-20080929 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100923-20100924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20041006-20041007 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030716-20030719 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020916-20020916 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020913-20020914 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020917-20020920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080919-20080920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030804-20030805 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060919-20060919 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100908-20100910 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Gardner Pinnacle, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030719-20030720 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060913-20060923 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060921-20060922 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030726-20030726 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100914-20100916 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060907-20060909 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030720-20030723 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020922-20020924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080922-20081004 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20041001-20041004 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20041009-20041011 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0501, Data Date Range: 20050410-20050410 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030723-20030724 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100919-20100920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040921-20040923 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020925-20020926 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060930-20061001 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040924-20040924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20081005-20081006 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060926-20060926 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. The Monument as Ruin: Natality, Spectrality, and the History of the Image in the Tirana Independence Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raino Isto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture

  13. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takian Amirhossein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR systems now constitutes a core part of many governments’ healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Methods Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England’s National Health Service’s Care Records Service (NHS CRS. Results/discussion We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome. Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. Summary New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within

  14. Building a house on shifting sand: methodological considerations when evaluating the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takian, Amirhossein; Petrakaki, Dimitra; Cornford, Tony; Sheikh, Aziz; Barber, Nicholas

    2012-04-30

    A commitment to Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems now constitutes a core part of many governments' healthcare reform strategies. The resulting politically-initiated large-scale or national EHR endeavors are challenging because of their ambitious agendas of change, the scale of resources needed to make them work, the (relatively) short timescales set, and the large number of stakeholders involved, all of whom pursue somewhat different interests. These initiatives need to be evaluated to establish if they improve care and represent value for money. Critical reflections on these complexities in the light of experience of undertaking the first national, longitudinal, and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of England's National Health Service's Care Records Service (NHS CRS). We advance two key arguments. First, national programs for EHR implementations are likely to take place in the shifting sands of evolving sociopolitical and sociotechnical and contexts, which are likely to shape them in significant ways. This poses challenges to conventional evaluation approaches which draw on a model of baseline operations → intervention → changed operations (outcome). Second, evaluation of such programs must account for this changing context by adapting to it. This requires careful and creative choice of ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions. New and significant challenges are faced in evaluating national EHR implementation endeavors. Based on experiences from this national evaluation of the implementation and adoption of the NHS CRS in England, we argue for an approach to these evaluations which moves away from seeing EHR systems as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) projects requiring an essentially outcome-centred assessment towards a more interpretive approach that reflects the situated and evolving nature of EHR seen within multiple specific settings and reflecting a constantly changing milieu of policies

  15. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  16. (Non-Monumental Layers of Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Székely

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The two books reviewed in this article, Hsiu-Ling Kuos’s Monumentality and Modernity in Hitler’s Berlin (2013 and Janet Ward’s Post-Wall Berlin (2011, focus on the structural, political, social and aesthetic transformation of Berlin, from the first half of the twentieth century to the ‘post-wall’ era. Since both authors strongly emphasize the former and present status of monumental architecture and monumental memory, this book review pays particular attention to a critical discussion of the (non-monumental layers of Berlin.

  17. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  18. Geology along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Klein, Terry L.; Valdez, Andrew; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates the Sangre de Cristo Range from the San Luis Valley. The valley is part of the Rio Grande rift, a series of fault basins extending from southern New Mexico to central Colorado, wherein the Earth's crust has been pulled apart during the last 30 million years. Thousands of feet of sediment, brought by streams mostly from the Sangre de Cristo Range, fill the San Luis Valley beneath the Great Sand Dunes. The trail ends at Mosca Pass overlooking Huerfano Park. The park is part of the larger Raton Basin, formed by compression of the Earth's crust during the Laramide orogeny, which occurred 70–40 million years ago. Massive highlands, the remnants of which are preserved in the Sangre de Cristo Range, were uplifted and pushed over the western side of the Raton Basin. Streams eroded the highland as it rose and filled the Raton Basin with sediment. After the sediment was compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rock, the Huerfano River and other streams began to excavate the basin. Over an unknown but long timespan that probably lasted millions of years, relatively soft sedimentary rocks were removed by the river to form the valley we call "Huerfano Park." Between the ends of the trail, the hiker walks through an erosional "window," or opening, into red sedimentary rocks overridden by gneiss, a metamorphic rock, during the Laramide orogeny. This window gives the hiker a glimpse into the Laramide highland of 70–40 million years ago that preceded the present-day Sangre de Cristo Range. The window is the focus of this trail guide. At the east end of the trail, near Mosca Pass, another trail follows the ridgeline south to Carbonate Mountain. Immediately after reaching the first summit above tree line, this trail crosses a

  19. Molecular Identification of Leishmania spp. in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Filho, Adalberto Alves; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2018-02-20

    Sand flies are very common in the region of Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important tourist attraction in Brazil. However, the role of some species and their relative importance locally in Leishmania Ross 1903 transmission is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify Leishmania infection in phlebotomine sand flies collected around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, an important conservation area and popular international/national tourist destination with a high incidence of leishmaniasis. Sand flies were collected in peridomiciliary areas on the tourist route from September 2012 to August 2013. The captured females were subjected to molecular analyses for the detection of Leishmania DNA. Sand flies were infected with four Leishmania species: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) was found in Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes and Coutinho, 1939) (2.1%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) (1.7%); Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (Nicole, 1908) infected Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw, and Lainson, 1971) (20%), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon and Del Ponte, 1927) (4.3%), Lu. longipalpis (3.7%), and Lu. whitmani (0.8%); Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (Lainson & Shaw, 1972) was found in Lu. whitmani (0.58%), while Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni infected Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936) (3.4%), Lu. longipalpis (1.06%), and Lu. whitmani (0.29%). The occurrence of these parasites requires control measures to reduce the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis and to contain a possible epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease.

  20. Elephant (Loxodonta africana home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Thomas

    Full Text Available During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR and Kruger National Park (KNP we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  1. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges.

  2. Classification and recognition of the heritage values of the monuments of Tlemcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first classification of historic monuments of Tlemcen dates from 1900 and the last from 2010. The 82 monuments date back to the Berber, Muslim and Roman eras. After the independence of Algeria, the French colonial heritage is not concerned by the rankings. They were removed from the list of monuments that was established by the French before 1962. The historic city of Tlemcen dates from the year 201 AD and features many old buildings. The latest ranking list does not reflect the architectural richness of this city. We then asked about the possibility of classifying the other historic buildings. From this questioning, we first identified all cultural goods which could be classified. Then we have evaluated these buildings following a grid of 20 heritage values. They are mentioned in the national and international legislation. It turns out that only 1.57 % of monuments of this city are classified.

  3. Stability of GNSS Monumentation: Analysis of Co-Located Monuments in the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, F.; Herring, T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Walls, C. P.; Austin, K. E.; Dittmann, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic-quality permanent GNSS stations have used a number of different monument styles for the purpose of ensuring that the motions of the GNSS antenna reflect those of the Earth's crust while minimizing non-tectonic motions near the surface. Monuments range from simple masts mounted on buildings or drilled into bedrock, costing a few hundred dollars to machine-drilled-braced monuments in soil costing tens of thousands. The stability of an individual monument will depend on its design, the construction techniques used to install it, and the local surface geology where it is installed. Previous studies have separately investigated pairs of identical monuments at a single site, monument type performance using global statistical analysis, and multiple monument styles at a single site, yet the stability of different monument types in similar geologic conditions has not been adequately determined. To better characterize the stability of various monument styles in diverse geologic conditions UNAVCO constructed two additional monuments at five existing PBO stations in 2013. Deep drilled-braced, short drilled-braced, and single mast type monuments were installed at sites with bedrock at the surface; deep drilled-braced, short driven-braced and pillar type monuments were installed at sites with alluvium or soil at the surface. The sites include a variety of geographic, hydrologic, and geologic conditions. Data collected from the PBO Multi-Monument Experiment have been analyzed using a variety of methods. Each site is characterized using quality-control parameters such as multipath, signal-to-noise and previously determined seasonal variations. High-precision processing by PBO Analysis Centers with GAMIT and GIPSY use regional and global schemes and yield time-series with millimeter-level that determine noise content, overall site stability relative to other PBO sites and differential motions between the individual monuments. Sub-millimeter results from single

  4. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  5. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  6. Lower Monumental Spillway Hydraulic Model Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilhelms, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 1:40 Froudian Scale model was used to investigate the hydraulic performance of the Lower Monumental Dam spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace for dissolved gas reduction and stilling basin apron scour...

  7. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1987-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep

  8. Regional transport of a chemically distinctive dust: Gypsum from White Sands, New Mexico (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren H.; Hyslop, Nicole P.; Trzepla, Krystyna; Yatkin, Sinan; Rarig, Randy S.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jin, Lixin

    2015-03-01

    The White Sands complex, a National Monument and adjoining Missile Range in southern New Mexico, occupies the dry bed of an ice-age lake where an active gypsum dunefield abuts erodible playa sediments. Aerosols entrained from White Sands are sometimes visible on satellite images as distinct, light-colored plumes crossing the Sacramento Mountains to the east and northeast. The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) operates long-term aerosol samplers at two sites east of the Sacramento range. In recent years a spring pulse of sulfate aerosol has appeared at these sites, eclipsing the regional summer peak resulting from atmospheric reactions of sulfur dioxide emissions. A significant fraction of this spring sulfate is contributed by gypsum and other salts from White Sands, with much of the sulfur in coarse particles and concentrations of calcium and strontium above regional levels. The increase in these gypsiferous species coincides with a drought following a period of above-average precipitation. White Sands and the IMPROVE samplers together provide a natural laboratory: a climatically sensitive dust source that is both well characterized and chemically distinct from its surroundings, with a signature that remains identifiable at long-term observatories 100-200 km downwind.

  9. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  10. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  11. Monumentality and public space in Lourenço Marques in the 1930 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbert Verheij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lourenço Marques, actual Maputo (Mozambique, is subjected to a series of aesthetic interventions in its public space during the 1930s e 1940s. These seek to “monumentalize” and “portugalize” the city, responding to its recently acquired status as capital of the Colony. Two monuments appear as especially important and exemplary: the Padrão de Guerra, a lately built First War memorial (1935, and the monument to the hero of the “pacification campaigns” of the 1890s, Mouzinho de Albuquerque (1940. Around these monuments, a large number of commemorative and celebrative practices are developed. Such practices posit the monument as a “national allegory” and reproduce, in the context of a modern city, auratic and cult values. As such, they add an important dimension to the monument’s role in the authoritarian reformulation of the city’s public space as an “imperial” space, as well as in the putative hegemonization of the representations of the community imagined as a “Nation”. They allow, therefore, to approach the political-ideological use and utility of the monument within the organization of public space.

  12. Soil-vegetation relationships and community structure in a "terra-firme"-white-sand vegetation gradient in Viruá National Park, northern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bruno A F DE; Fernandes, Elpídio I; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Mendonça, Júlia G F DE; Vasconcelos, Bruno N F

    2017-01-01

    Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The vegetation of the Campinaranas types and Forest differed in biomass and species density. Ten species, endemic to Brazil, were particularly well-represented. PC and CCA indicated a clear distinction between the studied plots, based on measured soil variables, especially base sum and clay, which were the most differentiating properties between Campinarana and Forest; For the separation of the Campinarana types, the main distinguishing variable was organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher similarity of Campinaranas was associated to a monodominant species and the lower similarity of Forest was related to the high occurrence of locally rare species.

  13. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  14. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  15. Permanent Transiency, Tele-visual Spectacle, and the Slum as Postcolonial Monument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasgupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    With their makeshift structures and seemingly itinerant inhabitants, slums suggest transiency. Yet, like monuments, they acquire a paradoxical permanency in the context of continual social upheaval, the historical ebbs and flows of the nation-state, and the economic transformations engendered by

  16. Convergent evolution and divergent selection: lizards at the White Sands ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2006-01-01

    Ecological transition zones, where organismal phenotypes result from a delicate balance between selection and migration, highlight the interplay of local adaptation and gene flow. Here, I study the response of an entire species assemblage to natural selection across a common ecotone. Three lizard species, distributed along a dramatic environmental gradient in substrate color, display convergent adaptation of blanched coloration on the gypsum dunes of White Sands National Monument. I investigate the role of gene flow in modulating phenotypic response to selection by quantifying color variation and genetic variation across the ecotone. I find species differences in degree of background matching and in genetic connectivity of populations across the ecotone. Differences among species in phenotypic response to selection scale precisely to levels of genetic isolation. Species with higher levels of gene flow across the ecotone exhibit less dramatic responses to selection. Results also reveal a strong signal of ecologically mediated divergence for White Sands lizards. For all species, phenotypic variation is better explained by habitat similarity than genetic similarity. Convergent evolution of blanched coloration at White Sands clearly reflects the action of strong divergent selection; however, adaptive response appears to be modulated by gene flow and demographic history and can be predicted by divergence-with-gene-flow models.

  17. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  18. MONUMENTS TO THE PATRIOTIC WAR OF 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a relevant historical and cultural problem of elaboration and maintenance of monuments of the military glory of 1812. The author considers various architectural and sculptural monuments illustrating heroic events of Patriotic war of 1812, built in the two Russian capitals - Moscow and Saint Petersburg in different historical periods, and also in primordial Russian towns, such as Smolensk, Vyazma, and Maloyaroslavets. Architectural and composition-related features of this or that monument erected against the background of historic events of the war of 1812 are analyzed in detail. The author demonstrates the links between architecture and sculpture within the framework of town-planning solutions implemented in the pieces that have found their places in the towns enlisted above. The value of symbols of the Victory and Glory of the Russian army and the Russian people is marked. The names of the most famous heroes of this war, starting from a field marshal and ending with a soldier are inscribed. By addressing the historical and cultural heritage of Russia, the author informs readers about the most significant events of the war. The author mentions an acute problem of the modernity, that is, preservation and restoration of monuments, and shares his view point. The value of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia for military and patriotic education is emphasized. The article is prepared within the framework of the year of the Russian history.

  19. Ocatilla : del paisaje monumental al monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Este artículo aborda el campamento Ocatilla, construido en el  desierto de Arizona por Frank Lloyd Wright como una estación  experimental de arquitectura en 1929. Se propone este campamento como un prototipo que tendría dos vectores  temporales por lo que se refiere a una posible genealogía y a un posible desarrollo futuro. Hacía el pasado habría que  rastrearlo en la Casa para la Familia Cristiana propuesta por  Catherine Beecher en 1869, mientras que hacia el futuro podría establecerse un posible epígono en la Burbuja Ambiental de  Reyner Banham y François Dallegret de 1965. El texto explora  las posibilidades de un ideal de arquitectura para el paisaje monumental, perfectamente ejemplarizado en los tres casos, frente a la arquitectura como monumento ante el paisaje, que ejemplificaría Taliesin West, su monumental contrafigura.

    Palabras clave

    campamento, prototipo, paisaje, ambiental, monumental

    Abstract

    This article discusses the Ocatilla camp, built in the Arizona  desert by Frank Lloyd Wright as an experimental architecture in  1929. This camp is proposed as a prototype with two temporary vectors, one would be to a possible genealogy and the other a  possible future development. Going to the past should be traced in the House for the Christian Family by Catherine Beecher proposed in 1869, while that to the future could be made a epigone in the Environmental Bubble of Reyner Banham and of François Dallegret in 1965. The text explores the possibilities of an ideal architecture for the monumental landscape, perfectly  exemplified in the three cases, compared to architecture as a monument to the landscape, which exemplify Taliesin West, his monumental counterpart.

    Key words

    camp, prototype, landscape, environment, monumental

  20. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  1. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  2. Gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoir systems in the offshore of India: Results of the India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Collett, Timothy S.; Vishwanath, K.; Shukla, K.M.; Nagalingam, J.; Lall, M.V.; Yamada, Y; Schultheiss, P.; Holland, M.

    2016-01-01

    The India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 (NGHP-02) was conducted from 3-March-2015 to 28-July-2015 off the eastern coast of India using the deepwater drilling vessel Chikyu. The primary goal of this expedition was to explore for highly saturated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs that would become targets for future production tests. The first two months of the expedition were dedicated to logging-whiledrilling (LWD) operations, with a total of 25 holes drilled and logged. The next three months were dedicated to coring operations at 10 of the most promising sites. With a total of five months of continuous field operations, the expedition was the most comprehensive dedicated gas hydrate investigation ever undertaken.

  3. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  4. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  5. Milleks monumenti = Why a monument? / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    2006. a. toimunud Jüri Lotmani mälestusmärgi konkursist, Mati Karmini ja Andres Lunge võidutööst. Monumentide positiivseid näiteid: Tubina plats Tartus (Aili Vahtrapuu, Veronika Valk, Louis Dandrel), ideekavandid: Estonia teatri juubelimonument Tallinnas (Tiiu Kirsipuu, Üla Koppel) ja Eesti iseseisvuse monument Pärnus Rüütli platsil (Mart Aas, Kaarel Eelma, Mikk Mutso). Bibl. lk. 73

  6. EPISODIC EOLIAN SAND DEPOSITION IN THE PAST 4000 YEARS IN CAPE COD NATIONAL SEASHORE, MASSACHUSETTS, USA IN RESPONSE TO POSSIBLE HURRICANE/STORM AND ANTHROPOGENIC DISTURBANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Forman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The eolian sand depositional record for a dune field within Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts is posit as a sensitive indicator of environmental disturbances in the late Holocene from a combination of factors such as hurricane/storm and forest fire occurrence, and anthropogenic activity. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic observations, particularly the burial of spodosol-like soils, and associated 14C and OSL ages that are concordant indicate at least six eolian depositional events at ca. 3750, 2500, 1800, 960, 430 and <250 years ago. The two oldest events are documented at just one locality and thus, the pervasiveness of this eolian activity is unknown. However, the four younger events are identified in three or more sites and show evidence for dune migration and sand sheet accretion. The timing of eolian deposition, particularly the initiation age, corresponds to documented periods of increased storminess/hurricane activity in the North Atlantic Ocean at ca. 2.0 to 1.6, and 1.0 ka and also a wetter coastal climate, which suppressed the occurrence of forest fire. Thus, local droughts are not associated with periods of dune movement in this mesic environment. Latest eolian activity on outer Cape Cod commenced in the past 300 to 500 years and may reflect multiple factors including broad-scale landscape disturbance with European colonization, an increased incidence of forest fires and heightened storminess. Eolian systems of Cape Cod appear to be sensitive to landscape disturbance and prior to European settlement may reflect predominantly hurricane/storm disturbance, despite generally mesic conditions in past 4 ka.

  7. Transient electromagnetic soundings in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, near the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge (field seasons 2007, 2009, and 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.

    2017-06-13

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, to map the location of a blue clay unit as well as to investigate the presence of suspected faults. A total of 147 soundings were made near and in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and an additional 6 soundings were made near Hansen Bluff on the eastern edge of the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. The blue clay is a significant hydrologic feature in the area that separates an unconfined surface aquifer from a deeper confined aquifer. Knowledge of its location is important to regional hydrological models. Previous analysis of well logs has shown that the blue clay has a resistivity of 10 ohm-meters or less, which is in contrast to the higher resistivity of sand, gravel, and other clay units found in the area, making it a very good target for TEM soundings. The top of the blue clay was found to have considerable relief, suggesting the possibility of deformation of the clay during or after deposition. Because of rift activity, deformation is to be expected. Of the TEM profiles made across faults identified by aeromagnetic data, some showed resistivity variations and (or) subsurface elevation relief of resistivity units, suggestive of faulting. Such patterns were not associated with all suspected faults. The Hansen Bluff profile showed variations in resistivity and depth to conductor that coincide with a scarp between the highlands to the east and the floodplain of the Rio Grande to the west.

  8. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Anna Haines; Emily Usher; Paul Gobster; Mike. Dockry

    2018-01-01

    This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their...

  9. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The BP-3-USGS well was drilled at the southwestern corner of Great Sand Dunes National Park in the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado, 68 feet (ft, 20.7 meters [m]) southwest of the National Park Service’s boundary-piezometer (BP) well 3. BP-3-USGS is located at latitude 37°43ʹ18.06ʺN. and longitude 105°43ʹ39.30ʺW., at an elevation of 7,549 ft (2,301 m). The well was drilled through poorly consolidated sediments to a depth of 326 ft (99.4 m) in September 2009. Water began flowing from the well after penetrating a clay-rich layer that was first intercepted at a depth of 119 ft (36.3 m). The base of this layer, at an elevation of 7,415 ft (2,260 m) above sea level, likely marks the top of a regional confined aquifer recognized throughout much of the San Luis Valley. Approximately 69 ft (21 m) of core was recovered (about 21 percent), almost exclusively from clay-rich zones. Coarser grained fractions were collected from mud extruded from the core barrel or captured from upwelling drilling fluids. Natural gamma-ray, full waveform sonic, density, neutron, resistivity, spontaneous potential, and induction logs were acquired. The well is now plugged and abandoned.

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  12. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  13. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  14. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Offshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  15. Monumentality on space and cultural democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a reflection on the idea of monumentality in political and religious power, and its reconversion of a democratic society. There are 3+1 types of cultural exhibition space that are analyzed: the traditional palace or the church, which contain great works of classical art, inside of the historic centers; the art galleries associated with market economy, tend to stimulate the city centre area, and the autonomy of the architectural object in the vicinity of the traditional city. Lastly it is referred the case study - Silo Cultural Space - inside the Norteshopping, but arranged in a peripheral form, which is distinguished by an apparent proximity to multiple public.

  16. Applications of ionizing radiation for monuments conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyzewski, M.; Galant, S.; Perkowski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used for conservation of monuments and old art objects. The irradiation of wooden and cellulose objects for disinfestation has been described. The irradiation conditions and lethal doses in respect to different species have been discussed. The different technique is the radiation consolidation of historical objects made of various materials. The method consists in radiation polymerization. The object undergoing conservation is saturated with monomer prior irradiation. The radiation polymerization results in consolidation of the object pieces and reinforcement of its material. 3 figs

  17. GEOLOGICAL ANDGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF MOUNTAIN ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of geological and geomorphological mapping of archaeological monument, mainly Paleolithic age, the location of which is confined to low-mountain spaces of the Mountain Altai. Using this mapping would greatly clarify the sequence of relief habitat of ancient people and more objectively determine the age characteristics of archaeological monument

  18. Episodic Eolian Sand Deposition in the Past 4000 Years in Cape COD National Seashore, Massachusetts, USA in Response to Possible Hurricane/storm and Anthropogenic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven

    2015-02-01

    The eolian sand depositional record for a dune field within Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts is posit as a sensitive indicator of environmental disturbances in the late Holocene from a combination of factors such as hurricane/storm and forest fire occurrence, and anthropogenic activity. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic observations, particularly the burial of spodosol-like soils, and associated 14C and OSL ages that are concordant indicate at least six eolian depositional events at ca. 3750, 2500, 1800, 960, 430 and Atlantic Ocean at ca. 2.0 to 1.6, and 1.0 ka and also a wetter coastal climate, which suppressed the occurrence of forest fire. Thus, local droughts are not associated with periods of dune movement in this mesic environment. Latest eolian activity on outer Cape Cod commenced in the past 300 to 500 years and may reflect multiple factors including broad-scale landscape disturbance with European colonization, an increased incidence of forest fires and heightened storminess. Eolian systems of Cape Cod appear to be sensitive to landscape disturbance and prior to European settlement may reflect predominantly hurricane/storm disturbance, despite generally mesic conditions in past 4 ka.

  19. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Mexican Hat, Utah -- Monument Valley, Arizona, sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and QA remedial action close-out inspections performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC); on-site construction reviews (OSCR) performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and a surveillance performed by the Navajo Nation. This report refers to remedial action activities performed at the Mexican Hat, Utah--Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites

  20. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  1. WATER TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, and others collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ, main Hawaiian Islands, and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-26 (NCEI Accession 0156000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID: SE 10-08). During legs...

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, and others collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2013-05-08 to 2013-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0155997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID SE 13-03). CTD casts...

  3. WATER TEMPERATURE and DEPTH - SENSOR collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2013-05-08 to 2013-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0156421)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID SE 13-03). XBT casts...

  4. CHLOROPHYLL A CONCENTRATION collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2013-05-08 to 2013-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0155964)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples were collected from the ocean surface using a bucket and from below the surface using bottles attached to the CTD during a Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  5. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be more than $500/lb of U 3 O 8 by heap leach or conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  6. 78 FR 50089 - Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Monument Advisory Committee; Meeting/Conference Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS... a land health subcommittee to assist with the development of the MMP amendment, future meeting dates...

  7. 75 FR 51477 - Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Monument Advisory Committee: Call for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... financial disclosure requirements in the Ethics in Government Act and 5 CFR 2634. Travel reimbursement is... expertise: Archaeology; Botany; Geology; Paleontology; Social science; Systems ecology; and Wildlife biology...

  8. 76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... issues during public scoping. Climate change impacts and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive species prevention and control. Other potential threats to the ecosystem (e.g., trespass; illegal...

  9. IMPLEMENTING TQM IN RURAL MONUMENTAL BAROQUE SCULPTURE IN THE BANAT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural patrimony preserves the memory and identity of the Banat’s rural area, defining the personality specific to each locality depending on the colonizing ethnic group after the liberation from the Turkish yoke. Steadily degrading, this baroque sculptural patrimony must be saved and integrated into a tourist circuit through the development of a managerial strategy and the implementation of a total quality management that cover the widest area possible of issues related to the intact preservation of monuments and to their conservation. The valorisation of monumental baroque sculpture in the rural area must be done together with the development of a managerial strategy of sustainable development thus contributing to the making up of an emblematic image specific to the Banat village and to the inclusion into regional, national, and international tourist circuits through such modern forms of tourism as cultural tourism, rural tourism, heritage tourism, interethnic tourism, religious tourism, and business tourism.

  10. Casa do Alambique, estrutura rara e monumental

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, João Luís

    2014-01-01

    Uma intervenção arqueológica realizada em 2009 na Casa do Alambique, localizada na Quinta do Marquês de Pombal, em Oeiras, evidenciou a importância da produção de aguardente a partir da destilação do bagaço ou do vinho naquela quinta setecentista. O seu estudo, através da escavação e do registo, revelou assinaláveis cuidados técnicos, viabilizados por um já desenvolvido conhecimento científico, alicerçado no empirismo, conforme era usual na época. Trata-se de uma rara e monumental estru...

  11. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  12. Mountains, Monuments, and other Matter: Environmental Affects at Manzanar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladino, Jennifer K.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the natural landscapes and built structures at the Manzanar National Historic Site, the first of ten incarceration camps to open in 1941 and a temporary home for over 11,000 Japanese Americans. Using former incarceree Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston’s writing as a touchstone, my essay foregrounds the environmental features of the (relocation: the extreme desert weather, the mountain vistas, the incarceree-created rock gardens, the reconstructed barracks, guard tower, and barbed wire fence, and the cemetery/monument. I bring together concepts from ecocriticism and from affect theory—particularly Ben Anderson’s “affective atmospheres,” Sianne Ngai’s “tone,” and Sara Ahmed’s characterization of affect as “sticky”—and develop the notion of affective agency to describe the impacts generated by environments and objects at this national memory site. I assess how the visual and written rhetoric at the site addresses what I call an implied tourist, and I show how powerful emotions of shame, anger, grief, and compassion—and sometimes, mixed, even contradictory, affects—are not only represented in visual and written rhetoric but are also, in a sense, communicated by the environment itself. More broadly, I suggest that ecocritical theory brings a useful lens to discussions of public memory, and that affect theory helps account for the less tangible, visceral, experiences visitors have at Manzanar and other fraught historical sites, as well as within our everyday environments.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: intermediate-grade uranium resource assessment project for part of the Maybell District, Sand Wash Basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.

    1983-04-01

    Intermediate-grade uranium resources in the Miocene Browns Park Formation were assessed for part of the Maybell district in the Sand Wash Basin, Colorado, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. Two sites, each 2 mi 2 (5 km 2 ) in size, in the district were selected to be assessed. Site selection was based on evaluation of geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data that were collected from a larger project area known to contain uranium enrichment. The assessment of the sites was accomplished primarily by drilling 19 holes through the Browns Park Formation and by using the geophysical and geochemical data from those holes and from a larger number of industry-drilled holes. Analytical results of samples from uranium prospects, mainly along faults in the sites, were also used for the assessment. Data from surface samples and from drill-hole samples and logs of the site south of Lay Creek indicate that no intermediate-grade uranium resources are present. However, similar data from the site north of Lay Creek verify that approximately 25 million lb (11.2 million kg) of intermediate-grade uranium resources may be present. This assessment assumes that an average uranium-enriched thickness of 10 ft (3 m) at a grade of 0.017% U 3 O 8 is present in at least two thirds of the northern site. Uranium enrichment in this site occurs mainly in the lower 150 ft (45 m) of the Browns Park Formation in fine- to medium-grained sandstone that contains abundant clay in its matrix. Facies variations within the Browns Park preclude correlation of individual beds or zones of uranium enrichment between closely spaced drill holes

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  15. Commercial Function as a Treat to the Monument - 25 Years of Experience in the Commercialization of Monuments in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk – Piatkowska, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The principles of the market economy adopted in Poland in the nineties have significantly touched the resources of immovable monuments. As a result, monuments have become a product of culture subject to the rules of the free market; and state ownership, patronage and decision-making practice has now been replaced by private interest. Practical monument use has also changed with the shift in ownership of objects after privatization and further advances in technology and the economy. Accordingly, the subject of this research addresses the issue of ensuring protection as well as the profitability of monumental objects of heritage under private investment in association with municipal and state ownership. The nineties of the twentieth century in Poland marked a period of rapid revival in trade based on market principles and openness to contemporary global trends in the design of commercial facilities. Thus, commercial function as a new use has been used for the commercialization of the monument. After 25 years of experience, it turns out that this new use may pose a threat to the conditions of monument preservation. The spatial and location specifics of the monument are poorly matched to the organizational form of trade and product range, despite the huge variety of these forms; the result is bankruptcy of the commercial operation and the consequent loss of use for the monument. Unused objects will eventually be destroyed. Studies have shown that functions supporting the creation of culture, especially museums, are optimal for the use of monuments. The museum function provides sufficiently high prestige and spatial stability, and allows for the maximum preservation of authentic elements, thus performing an additional role as museum piece.

  16. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, T.

    1994-01-01

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km 2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  17. Restoring and structurally reinforcing historic monuments by glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Karron, Kaisa; Groot, C.J.W.P.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Zingoni, Alphose

    In this paper a pioneering, transparent restoration methodology is presented, introducing structural glass elements to substitute missing components of damaged monuments and simultaneously reinforce the original structure. To prove the feasibility of the concept, a damaged medieval tower in Toolse,

  18. Comprehensive aerodynamic and dynamic study of independence of ukraine monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lebedich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive approach for solution the engineering problems o f creation the high-rise extended pillartype Monument in Kiyv is described. The results o f dynamic tests o f 1:25 scale model and aerodynamictests o f 1:8 scale model o f the Monument in TAD-2 wind tunnel are given. The procedures fordetermination o f actual dynamic characteristics and assurance the efficiency o f damping on the siteare described

  19. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  20. Sanitation of cultural monuments - Energy conervation. Energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments; Kulturdenkmale sanieren - Energie sparen. Energetische Verbesserung denkmalgeschuetzter Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on an energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments. Substantial aspects are designated which absolutely have to be considered in the energetic sanitation. Depending upon plant (solar thermal power or photovoltaics), dimensions and other design (cell type, colour, reflection) solutions can be found which only insignificantly impair the appearance of the architectural monument. Partners for buildings listed as monument are monument protection authorities. The contribution under consideration also presents an overview of public funding programs.

  1. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  2. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  3. THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE TOURISTIC VALUE OF PORTUGUESE OVERSEAS MONUMENTS: THE CASE OF ANGOLA (1959-1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mariz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the understanding of the touristic value of Portuguese overseas monuments during Estado Novo, having as case-study the then colony of Angola between 1959 and 1974, years marked by the creation of the Information and Tourism Centre and the fall of the regime. Thus, considering the reality of the metropolis, we aimed to identify and analyse the evolution of tourism in this territory, as well the understanding and use of historic monuments by a nationalist regime as points of touristic interest and legitimisers of the national colonialism. We argue that during two different but totally complementary moments devoted to the relation between tourism and historic monuments of Angola, there was a real understanding of their touristic value. Besides that we claim that the believers of the touristic value of those monuments were very often advocates of the preservation or restoration of their pristine characteristics, an idea that we can affiliate to the thought of António Ferro to whom the success of tourism was extremely dependent on preserving and emphasizing the picturesque and idiosyncratic characteristics of those tourist destinations. To achieve our goals we have identified and analysed some tourism-related periodicals, thematic studies and legislation.

  4. Accessibility improvement interventions realised in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotelis Naniopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Access to culture is a fundamental right of people with disabilities and a significant aspect in the development of accessible tourism. A visit to a monument provides an authentic experience which cannot be substituted by any representation. However, any interventions to improve accessibility should be made carefully, so as not to alter the monument�s character, or damage it visually or structurally. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical approach model was defined in the PROSPELASIS project for the improvement of accessibility in monuments which was applied in Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki. This approach contains the following steps: evaluation of existing accessibility level; definition of alternative solutions; creation of final studies, approval by archaeological authorities and implementation of interventions. Findings – In six major Byzantine monuments significant improvements were realized which include: installation of two lifts and creation of a new staircase at Acheiropoietos; creation of a metal bridge, a new staircase and installation of a lift at Rotunda; opening of the secondary gate and creation of a ramp at the Heptapyrgion fortress; creation of an accessible toilet at the Saint Demetrios church; installation in the six monuments of a WiFi system providing text and audible information as well as information in Greek and International Sign Language; creation of two tactile models; creation of a �cultural route� connecting three major Byzantine monuments. Originality/value – For the first time, to the knowledge, a set of interventions has been realized in Byzantine monuments focusing on various categories of people with disabilities, i.e. motor, visual, hearing and cognitive.

  5. Oceanographic data and ROV dive-related multimedia and information collected during the EX1504L4 Campaign to Address Pacific monument Science, Technology, and Ocean NEeds (CAPSTONE) Leg IV on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-07 to 2015-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0131887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep waters in and around Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  6. GPR identification of an early monument at Los Morteros in the Peruvian coastal desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Kelley, Alice R.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Rademaker, Kurt; Reid, David A.

    2010-05-01

    Los Morteros (8˚39'54″S, 78˚42 '00″W) is located in coastal, northern Peru, one of the six original centers of world civilization. The site consists of a large, sand-covered, isolated prominence situated on a Mid-Holocene shoreline, ˜ 5 km from the present coast. Preceramic archaeological deposits (4040 ± 75 to 4656 ± 60 14C yr BP or ˜ 3600-5500 cal yr BP) cap this feature, which has been identified by prior researchers as a sand-draped, bedrock-cored landform or a relict dune deposit. Because neither explanation is geomorphologically probable, we used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and high-resolution mapping to assess the mound's interior structure. Our results indicate an anthropogenic origin for Los Morteros, potentially placing it among the earliest monumental structures in prehistoric South America. The extremely arid setting raises new questions about the purpose and the logistics of early mound construction in this region. This work demonstrates the value of an integrated Quaternary sciences approach to assess long-term landscape change and to understand the interaction between humans and the environment.

  7. Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

    2013-12-01

    The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized

  8. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markhasi Rupilu Moshe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren’t written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  9. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupilu, Moshe Markhasi; Suyoto; Santoso, Albertus Joko

    2018-02-01

    Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren't written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service) method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  10. 78 FR 18769 - Establishment of the First State National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... New Castle Court House built in 1732. To gain access to the Atlantic Ocean for his new Quaker Colony... the same as when he purchased them: farm fields and forest predominate, dotted with old farmsteads...

  11. The Water Supply of El Morro National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samuel Wilson; Baldwin, Helene Louise

    1964-01-01

    In the land of enchantment, between Gallup and Grants, N. Mex., near the Zuni Mountains, a huge sandstone bluff rises abruptly 200 feet above the plain. The Spaniards called it 'El Morro,' which means 'the headland' or 'bluff.' Around it are other mesas and canyons and stands of pinon and ponderosa pine. Other great rocks are nearby, but none are as popular as El Morro, and none have been as important to the traveler. For at El Morro there is water. In that country, water is scarce and precious. In the old days, travelers from Santa Fe would tell each other about the pool of clear, refreshing water at the base of the huge rock. This is the story of the great bluff, its water supply, and the rocks around it. In the late summer of 1849, an American lieutenant of the Topographical Engineers, James H. Simpson, accompanied infantry and artillery troops on a reconnaissance march from Santa Fe into the Navajo Country. On September 18, at the urging of one Mr. Lewis, an Indian trader, Lieutenant Simpson left the main party in order to see 'half an acre of inscriptions' upon a huge rock (fig. 1) . Although somewhat dubious, the Lieutenant had allowed himself to be persuaded by Lewis that the trip was worthwhile. Taking with him an artist named R. H. Kern, another man by the name of Bird, and Mr. Lewis as guide, he set off through miles of desert country, filled with huge red and white sandstone rocks, 'some of them looking like steamboats, and others presenting very much the appearance of facades of heavy Egyptian architecture'.

  12. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ..., political, and religious interdependence centered in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, about 100 miles south of... areas near and far, these lands support a growing travel and tourism sector that is a source of economic...

  13. 36 CFR 7.63 - Dinosaur National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the Bureau of Land Management on designated grazing allotments adjacent to the Artesia Entrance... Superintendent. (5) Grazing fees shall be the same as those approved for the Bureau of Land Management and will... file with the Superintendent a copy of his stock brand or other mark. (v) The permittee shall, upon...

  14. Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve: Geologic resources inventory report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, Chad P.; Neal, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This GRI report is a companion document to previously completed GRI digital geologic map data. It was written for resource managers to support science-informed decision making. It may also be useful for interpretation. The report was prepared using available geologic information, and the NPS Geologic Resources Division conducted no new fieldwork in association with its preparation. Sections of the report discuss distinctive geologic features and processes within the park, highlight geologic issues facing resource managers, describe the geologic history leading to the present-day landscape, and provide information about the GRI geologic map data. A poster illustrates these data. The Map Unit Properties Table summarizes report content for each geologic map unit.

  15. 77 FR 24579 - Establishment of the Fort Ord National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... 1775-1776, Anza established the first overland route from ``New Spain,'' as Mexico was then known, to..., approximately 6 miles of which pass through the Fort Ord area. Although much of the historic route currently... tourists and recreationalists from near and far, and enhance its unique natural resources, for the...

  16. 36 CFR 7.73 - Buck Island Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be cast or dragged or placed, so as to strike or otherwise cause damage to any underwater features... Islands. (e) Fishing. (1) All forms of fishing are prohibited including, but not limited to, spearfishing..., seine, and long-line. (2) The use or possession of any type of fishing equipment or any of the items...

  17. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  18. Attacks on South African monuments: Mediating heritage in post-conflict society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntsikelelo B. Breakfast

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The controversy surrounding the notion of national heritage and what constitutes a proper heritage in post-apartheid South Africa intersects with issues of identity and identity formation in a post-conflict society. That it impinges powerfully on social cohesion has been thrust into the spotlight in view of recent protest action related to colonial and apartheid era monuments. We have made the point elsewhere that conflict resolution in South Africa through negotiations, the National Peace Accord and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has, at best, been partial, that it has not always been taken sufficiently seriously to engage with the fault-lines of protracted social conflict in the country. This article has employed a qualitative methodology because it is both descriptive and explorative in nature. The main aim of this article is to provide a critique on how issues of intersectionality (race, class and gender coincide with the attacks of the monuments by university students in South Africa. This article utilises two theoretical frameworks, namely, classical Marxism and Black Consciousness, simply because both the psychological and class analysis were invoked by the student bodies to diagnose and prognose the challenges of black South Africans within the context of higher education in South Africa. The central thesis of this article is that the attacks on monuments in South African universities were instigated by a group of young people who claim to be revolutionary in thinking and are calling for transformation, free education, dismantling gender oppression and doing away with institutionalisation of racism.

  19. 32 CFR 553.21 - Monuments and inscriptions at private expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of simple design, dignified, and appropriate to a military cemetery. The name of the person(s) or the... maintenance of or damage of the monument. (b) Where a monument has been erected to an individual interred in...

  20. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded......, the images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...

  1. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  2. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  3. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  4. Pärnus avati monument süütusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Andrus Joonase Pootsi paepäevade raames valminud monument süütusele avati Academia Non Grata teise aastapäeva puhul Lepa kaubamaja ja karja tänava vahelisel alal; autori arvates on hingeline süütus kunstnikule väga tähtis ja Academia Non Grata ainus õppeasutus, kus õpilased seda hoida saavad.

  5. COMPUTER ASSISTED LOOM IN THE REVIVAL OF CONTEMPORARY MONUMENTAL TAPESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTILIE Anca-Aurelia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The art of tapestry has its basics back in time, probably in the decorations of tent, the house of the nomad. Tapestry in its beginnings is the first wall of the nomad’s home and the decorative wall and canopy in the ancient Greek houses as architect Gottfried Semper stated in the nineteen century. The architectural approach is not unusual even in the next centuries. Tapestry becomes popular as a form of monumental art during the Middle Ages when it is used as decorative architectural element, coating the walls of medieval castles. During the next centuries dominated by decadent styles of baroque, rococo, the tapestry will lose its monumental spirit and architectural quality but at the middle of the XXth century a new approach will sustain the revival of the tapestry as monumental art. Later, in the XXIst century, renowned multimedia artists will approach this medium and will use computer assisted looms in ambitious tapestry projects. This technique will allow them to realize complex and exquisite tapestries, sustaining in this way the revival of the tapestry in the contemporary art world. The paper presents the importance of the architectural side of tapestry and the great achievement that computer assisted loom represents for this form of art. The research activity is willing to inform Romanian textile designers about the possibilities to create tapestries on computer assisted looms. The research was made during the initial stage of a doctoral thesis consisting in a documentary study on monumental aspects of contemporary tapestry.

  6. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  7. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  8. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  9. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  10. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  11. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  12. 76 FR 7232 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Dinosaur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    .... Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Dinosaur National Monument, Dinosaur, CO AGENCY: National... Service, Dinosaur National Monument, Dinosaur, CO, has completed an inventory of human remains and... Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact Dinosaur...

  13. Stakeholder relations in the oil sands : managing uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Alberta's oil sands are now at the crossroads of a series of significant and complex global issues that will require careful negotiation by all stakeholders involved in the oil sands industry. This paper discussed methods of managing uncertainty and risk related to the oil sands industry's agenda for the future. Oil sands developers must continue to secure permission from communities and other key stakeholders in order to develop oil sand projects. Stakeholder relations between oil sands operators, First Nations, and Metis Nation communities must ensure that respect is maintained while environmental impacts are minimized and long-term economic benefits are secured for all parties. Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) must ensure that oil sands resources are developed responsibly, and that environmental standards are maintained. Seven key shifts in stakeholder relations resulting from the recent economic crisis were identified. These included (1) withdrawal from the multi-stakeholder process, (2) increased focus on government to demonstrate policy leadership, (3) a stronger push from ENGOs to express environmental concerns, (4) global lobby and public relations efforts from ENGOs, (5) companies retreating to local community stakeholders, (6) more active demands from First Nations and Metis Nations groups, and (7) companies challenging ENGO campaigns. The study concluded by suggesting that government leadership is needed to clear policy and regulatory frameworks for Canada's oil sands.

  14. Last of the Monumental Book Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the National Union Catalog and the publication of the Pre-1956 Imprints. The roles of the ALA and Mansell Publishing in the completion of what is probably the last large-scale nonautomated bibliographic project, editorial problems, and the role of automation in future projects are discussed. (JL)

  15. Neolithic Ground Axe-heads and Monuments in Wessex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Field

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While central southern England is well known for its extant Neolithic monuments and for the fine artefacts recovered from some of its Bronze Age barrows, Neolithic artefacts from the region have received relatively little attention. This might be considered surprising, as the area not only witnessed some of the earliest investigations into the source of materials, notably the Stonehenge bluestones, but it also harbours some of the earliest dated ground axes in the country. This article examines the occurrence and distribution of ground axes found in Wessex when compared to other artefact types, but, more importantly, comparison with the location of extant monuments allows a rather different view of Wessex to emerge. The article will consider the influence of local resources, of flint mines such as those at Durrington, Easton Down and Porton Down in Wiltshire, and the extent and processes by which axes of non-local materials may have been introduced and dispersed across the landscape.

  16. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  18. DOCUMENTING LIVING MONUMENTS IN INDONESIA: METHODOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Suryaningsih

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778 and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913 by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture – Indonesia (PDA, has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments, to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  19. Documenting Living Monuments in Indonesia: Methodology for Sustainable Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, F.; Purwestri, N.

    2013-07-01

    The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778) and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913) by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture) with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture - Indonesia (PDA), has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments), to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  20. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  1. Reef community structure, Sand Island, Oahu HI, (NODC Accession 0000177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These reports provide the results of nine years (1990-98) of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean...

  2. Sand Point, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sand Point, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  3. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  4. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  5. Monumentality vs. everyday life: architecture's public role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Manoel Guedes Sobrinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Conference held in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, on March 18, 2006. Thoughts about architecture and the nation." Architecture is everything dealing with construction." (ARGAN, c. 1992. An object's cultural and ethical value is measured by how well it addresses demand, which in turn is related to the planet Earth, to scarce resources, and to people's survival. Architecture, its craft, and its teaching are studied from the perspective of the act, which is the art of building, to meet social, public and private demands through historical processes of power games, at a given place and time. Architecture is reduced to its essence to unveil the roots of its emergence and understand the architect's responsibilities in the new mass society, when we enter this" new popular period in history" (SANTOS; SOUZA, c1998. We suggest the following sequence of procedures as a path of knowledge and to support the free development of invention: 1 Initially assess the prospective problem to choose and study the location and the tasks of the architect, the client, society, and government; 2 identify and understand building plans for that location; 3 study the activities, flows, quantity, quality and combination of spaces resulting from the conflicting yearnings of people, in line with social needs and translated into private and public building plans; 4 graphically analyze the sectorial subsystems of areas associated according to affinities, considering their arrangement and organization in the site; 5 work on the rigorous construction of architecture, which in final analysis is matter and form; It should be pointed out that it is necessary to: 6 expand the supply of information on specific architectural problems to be addressed, and to organize the actual and effective involvement of people in the discussion of projects and works of their interest, unlike assembly and participative meetings; 7 expand opportunities to allow a greater number of architects to take part

  6. Crushed and River-Origin Sands Used as Aggregates in Repair Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stefanidou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The systematic analysis of mortars from monuments or historic buildings and the simultaneous study of the construction environment show that it was common practice to use naturally occurring sand from local rivers or streams for the production of the mortars. There are cases though, mainly on islands, where sands of natural origin were limited, and marine or crushed sands were used possibly after elaboration. In all cases the particle size analysis of old mortar confirms the presence of even distribution of the granules. As regards the design of the repair mortars, there are criteria that should be taken into consideration in order to produce materials with compatible properties. The main properties concerning sands are the grain distribution and maximum size, the color, the content of fines, and soluble salts. The objective of this research is the study of the physical characteristics of the sands such as the sand equivalent, the gradation, the apparent density, the morphology of the grains, their mineralogical composition and the influence of these properties on the behavior of lime mortars, notably the mechanical and physical properties acquired.

  7. Pacific Islands Regional Office — National Marine Fisheries Service -

    Science.gov (United States)

    ? Report Marine Animals State-Wide Hotline 888-256-9840 Report sea turtle, monk seal, dolphin and whales (ESA) Marine Mammal Response and Rescue Protected Resources Outreach and Education Volunteer PRGC Contacts Marine National Monument Program About the Marine National Monument Program Frequently

  8. Changes in vegetation and biological soil crust communities on sand dunes stabilizing after a century of grazing on San Miguel Island, Channel Island National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    San Miguel Island is the westernmost of the California Channel Islands and one of the windiest areas on the west coast of North America. The majority of the island is covered by coastal sand dunes, which were stripped of vegetation and subsequently mobilized due to droughts and sheep ranching during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Since the removal of grazing animals, vegetation and biological soil crusts have once again stabilized many of the island's dunes. In this study, historical aerial photographs and field surveys were used to develop a chronosequence of the pattern of change in vegetation communities and biological soil crust levels of development (LOD) along a gradient of dune stabilization. Historical aerial photographs from 1929, 1954, 1977, and 2009 were georeferenced and used to delineate changes in vegetation canopy cover and active (unvegetated) dune extent among 5 historical periods (pre-1929, 1929–1954, 1954–1977, 1977–2009, and 2009–2011). During fieldwork, vegetation and biological soil crust communities were mapped along transects distributed throughout San Miguel Island's central dune field on land forms that had stabilized during the 5 time periods of interest. Analyses in a geographic information system (GIS) quantified the pattern of changes that vegetation and biological soil crust communities have exhibited on the San Miguel Island dunes over the past 80 years. Results revealed that a continuing increase in total vegetation cover and a complex pattern of change in vegetation communities have taken place on the San Miguel Island dunes since the removal of grazing animals. The highly specialized native vascular vegetation (sea rocket, dunedelion, beach-bur, and locoweed) are the pioneer stabilizers of the dunes. This pioneer community is replaced in later stages by communities that are dominated by native shrubs (coastal goldenbush, silver lupine, coyote-brush, and giant coreopsis), with apparently overlapping or

  9. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  10. 3D Modelling of Kizildag Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karauguz, Güngör; Kalayci, İbrahim; Öğütcü, Sermet

    2016-10-01

    The most important cultural property that the nations possess is their historical accumulation, and bringing these to light, taking measures to preserve them or at least maintain the continuity of transferring them to next generations by means of recent technic and technology, ought to be the business of present generations. Although, nowadays, intensive documentation and archiving studies are done by means of classical techniques, besides studies towards preserving historical objects, modelling one-to-one or scaled modelling were not possible until recently. Computing devices and the on-going reflection of this, which is acknowledged as digital technology, is widely used in many areas and makes it possible to document and archive historical works. Even virtual forms in quantitative environments can be transferred to next generations in a scaled and one-to-one modelled way. Within this scope, every single artefact categorization belonging to any era or civilization present in our country can be considered in separate study areas. Furthermore, any work or likewise can be evaluated in separate categories. Also, it is possible to construct travelable virtual 3D museums that make it possible to visit these artefacts. Under the auspices of these technologies, it is quite possible to construct single virtual indoor museums or also, at the final stage, a 3D travelable open-air museum, a platform or more precisely, to establish a data system that spreads all over the country on a broad spectrum. With a long-termed, significant and extensive study and a substantial organization, such a data system can be established, which also serves as a serious infrastructure for alternative tourism possibilities. Located beside a stepped altar and right above the Kizildag IV inscription, the offering pot is destructed and rolled away a few meters to the south slope of the mould. Every time visiting these artefacts with our undergraduate students, unfortunately, we observe more

  11. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  12. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  13. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  14. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  15. Le Case Dureranno Meno di Noi : on the paradox of a monumental futurist cityscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.; van der Westerlaken, M.F.A.

    This essay, accompanying the reprint of J.J.P. Oud's 'The Monumental Cityscape', briefly assesses the lasting value of this small ‘manifesto’, by reflecting upon Oud’s idea of monumentality and by placing his thoughts in the wider context of early twentieth-century architectural avant-garde in

  16. Chronological studies of the Arzhan-2 Scythian monument in Tuva (Russia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaitseva, GI; Chugunov, KV; Dergachev, VA; Nagler, A; Parzinger, G; Scott, EM; Sementsov, AA; Vasiliev, S; van Geel, B; van der Plicht, J; Lebedeva, LM

    2004-01-01

    The first radiocarbon dates from the unique early Scythian monument Arzhan-2, discovered in 2001, are presented. The monument contained a royal burial (grave nr 5). Unfortunately, precise dating is hampered by the Hallstatt plateau in the calibration curve. However, using both accelerator mass

  17. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  18. X-ray analysis of pigments on ancient Egyptian monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M.; Sassa, S.; Yoshioka, T. [Waseda Univ., Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tokyo (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Ancient pigments were analyzed using PIXE and XRD methods in the laboratory, which were painted on ancient Egyptian monuments. On the other hand, those on monuments remaining with entire shape were investigated using the hand-held type of an XRF spectrometer and an X-ray diffractometer in the field. For the laboratory experiment, several wall fragments of the Malqata palace in ancient Egypt (18th Dynasty, ca. 1390 B.C.) were investigated. In the field experiment, the block of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty, ca. 1270 B.C.), the Wooden Coffin of Neb-sny (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.), the Funerary Stele of Amenemhat (11th Dynasty, ca. 2000 B.C.), and the painted walls of the Tomb of Userhat (18th Dynasty, ca. 1400 B.C.) were investigated. From white and blue colored parts, huntite and Egyptian blue were found, respectively, which are a very rare mineral and an artificial pigment prepared only in ancient Egypt, respectively. (author)

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  20. Monumental and domestic architecture in Contestania | Arquitectura monumental y arquitectura doméstica en la Contestania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciana Sala Sellés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a group of buildings whose dimensions, internal distribution and constructive characteristics allow their qualification as privileged residences, with a possible palatial function. Their domestic character is joined by that of social representation in the framework of the Iberian urban layout, so we could find the Contestan examples of a monumental domestic architecture. Finally, this analysis leads us to several social and political considerations that explain the appearance of these buildings in the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the VI Century BC. | En este trabajo se toma en consideración un conjunto de edificios cuyas dimensiones, distribución interna y características constructivas permiten su calificación como residencias privilegiadas, con una posible función palacial. A su condición doméstico se añade la de representación social en el marco de la trama urbana ibérica, de manera que se podría ver en ellos los ejemplos contestanos de una arquitectura monumental doméstica. Finalmente, dicho análisis nos conduce a una serie de consideraciones sociales y políticas que explican la aparición de estos edificios en el Sureste peninsular a fines del s. VI a.C.

  1. Oil sands: Strategies for future development - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources developed a Task Force in 1993 to promote oil sands development, and to identify and publicize the social and economic benefits of oil sands operations. Formation, mission of the National Task Force, impediments and opportunities for development were summarized. Attributes of oil sands, benefits of their development, impediments to development, strategic development and potential growth scenarios were discussed. Cooperation between government and industry was deemed essential. Recommendations included development of a bitumen pipeline network, provision of incentives to encourage development, encouragement of risk and reward sharing between bitumen producers and up graders, and diversification of products and by-products. 7 figs., 12 refs

  2. The oil sands: A new energy vision for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Canada's oil sands deposits were considered to offer huge potential for wealth generation and enduring social benefits. This report showed that putting in action the plan developed by the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies would help unlock this potential and realize the benefits; the forecast called for a doubling or tripling of oil sands production over the next 25 years. The plan should also predicted an increase in investments in oil sands since the fiscal regime would be stable and the product would be in increasing demand. New capital investment should generate significant environmental, social and economic benefits. The real outcome would be increased national prosperity, since further growth in investment would translate into thousands of skilled jobs across Canada, expansion of government revenues, and improvements to Canada's trade balance. 1 ill

  3. The oil sands: A new energy vision for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Canada`s oil sands deposits were considered to offer huge potential for wealth generation and enduring social benefits. This report showed that putting in action the plan developed by the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies would help unlock this potential and realize the benefits; the forecast called for a doubling or tripling of oil sands production over the next 25 years. The plan should also predicted an increase in investments in oil sands since the fiscal regime would be stable and the product would be in increasing demand. New capital investment should generate significant environmental, social and economic benefits. The real outcome would be increased national prosperity, since further growth in investment would translate into thousands of skilled jobs across Canada, expansion of government revenues, and improvements to Canada`s trade balance. 1 ill.

  4. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  5. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  6. The «discorso per immagini» of Superstudio: from Continuous Monument to Supersurface, 1968-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lampariello

    2016-06-01

    With a Christmas card from 1968 in the form of a poster, Superstudio inaugurated the production of photomontages which were to bring fame to the group. It is, however, for the competition dedicated to the theme of Architecture and Freedom, launched in 1969 by the Tri-National Biennial of Graz, that photomontage became the preferred graphical tool for the construction of a «discorso per immagini» for Superstudio, a narrative in which project descriptions and traditional forms of architectural representation are replaced by images representing enigmatic volumes, seemingly devoid of function and open to multiple interpretations. Compared to similar and contemporary images produced, amonst others, by Archigram and Yona Friedman, the photomontages of Superstudio do not intend to give veracity to futuristic urban and territorial visions. The impenetrable volumes, designed beyond any program or structural logic, are an expression of absolute rationality and order which Superstudio has been searching for its founding to ward off the crisis and to ward for uncertainty of contemporary era. Graphic techniques used by the group for their representations evolved over the years, and were adapted to achieve different effects, all still oriented to building a strong environmental realism, as far away as possible from comic and surprising effects. Through the «discorso per immagini» the theory of the group became eloquent: after having imagined a new form of land occupation designed as a monumental infinite linear structure that crosses cities and virgin landscapes – the Continuous Monument – Superstudio staged the dissolution of conventional boundaries of architecture, to move towards its «non-physical» re-foundation. After all, the «happy death of architecture should not frighten anybody: we have been preparing for long, increasingly distancing ourselves from the physicality of the construction», as revealed by one of the members of the group in 1971. Key words

  7. Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    national monument as control points. Rapid dune migration rates, particularly at the upwind margin of the field ~6m/yr, result in significant decorrelation between data sets over longer time ranges, which limits the effectiveness of comparing these data sets.

  8. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work

  9. Public works: Building a Monument to Modern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayvelyse Allen-Mossman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the project of modernity and urbanism has been key to understanding the city of Buenos Aires’ material transformations throughout the 20th century. This paper considers how thinking about the issues of modernity and urbanism from the perspective of monuments--namely, the Obelisk of Buenos Aires--sheds new light on how elements of this modernizing project were undertaken and how its material markers have been used and manipulated, and modified through their representation in cultural discourse on the city. Rethinking Buenos Aires from the Obelisk implies literally thinking from underground, from the subway lines that form its base and transform it into a popular symbol of mobility.

  10. Monuments deterioration evaluation, using digited images. A methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel, María C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a methodology is proposed for data processing, integrating the techniques of digital images processing and the analytical capacity of graphical referencing systems and relational databases, in relation with the monuments. The images are generated using the digital image processing and they are included into a graphical data processing systems associated with a database containing the characteristics of the ashars or constituent elements. By combination of the images with the database induced properties the information is processed. The results are thematic maps that we save such as images. These maps are layers of new information (deduced levels. The elaboration of these maps allows attacking the problems of the restoration, renovation or treatment of the different monumental spaces on a global way, paying special attention on the most gravely affected areas.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para el tratamiento de la información, integrando las técnicas de proceso digital de imágenes, la capacidad de análisis de los sistemas de referenciación gráfica y las bases de datos relacionales, referidas a monumentos. Para ello se elaboran las imágenes base por algoritmos propios del proceso digital, incluyendo aquellas en una aplicación especifica que asocia cada capa a una base de datos con las propiedades petrofísicas, hídricas, etc., o bien entre si, dando lugar a mapas temáticos. La generación de estos mapas permite abordar los problemas de restauración, rehabilitación o tratamiento de los diferentes espacios monumentales de forma global, con incidencia especial en las zonas más afectadas.

  11. 36 CFR 401.6 - Approval by National Commission of Fine Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission of Fine Arts. 401.6 Section 401.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.6 Approval by National Commission of Fine Arts. A design for a... Commission of Fine Arts before the Commission can accept it. ...

  12. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantif...

  13. Canada's oil sands : opportunities and challenges to 2015 : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This report updated an energy market assessment compiled and published by the National Energy Board (NEB) in 2004. Major changes resulting from recent developments in the oil sands industry were presented. The report was compiled from a series of informal meetings and discussions with a cross-section of oil sands stakeholders. Influences on recent oil sands development and production growth included market development and pipelines; rising capital and labour costs; operating costs; environmental impact management; high crude oil prices; rising global energy demand; technology innovations; and a more stable investment climate. A comparison of key assumptions between the current analysis and the 2004 report was presented, along with estimates of operating and supply costs for various types of oil sands recovery methods. Potential markets for oil sands production were reviewed. Environmental and socio-economic impacts on the industry included the larger than anticipated water withdrawals from the Athabasca River for mining operations; and uncertainties over land reclamation methods. The industry has also been impacted by a limited supply of skilled workers in Alberta. It was observed that the potential for building cogeneration capacity has decreased since the 2004 report. It was concluded that the oil sands industry will continue to grow rapidly, but the rate of development will depend on the balance that is reached between the opposing forces that affect the oil sands. Natural gas costs, high oil prices, air emissions management issues and water usage will continue to be of concern. 6 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Sand, jams and jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago (United States)]. E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu

    2005-12-01

    Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

  15. Riddle of the sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolheiser, P

    1998-09-01

    A geological model of the Alberta landscape during the period stretching from about 110 million to 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth, was sketched. Today, the region contains the Cold Lake oil sands deposit. Imperial Oil began large-scale production at Cold Lake in 1985. The formations within the area are the source of almost half of Imperial Oil`s daily crude oil production and account for one in every 20 barrels of oil produced daily in Canada. The bitumen is produced using cyclic steam stimulation where steam is injected at high pressure into the underground reservoir, fracturing the sandstone and heating the bitumen it holds to thin it so that it can then flow through well bores to the surface. Conventional geological theory suggested that the Cold Lake reservoir was the remains of a prehistoric river delta. In 1994, Imperial Oil established a Cold Lake sequence stratigraphy project to verify this theory. This highly complex project involves volumes of geophysical well-log data from the 2,500 wells at Cold Lake, core samples cut from more than 600 of these wells and microscopic fossilized remains of 100-million-year-old flora extracted from the core samples, and seismic information. The interpreted data helps to create a three-dimensional model of the reservoir`s structure and help define its boundaries. Results have shown that the Cold Lake deposit was created from at least 13 intersecting river beds. Each of the rivers flowed for a few hundred thousand years and deposited sands of varying quality in different layers and patterns. The oil came about 40 million years later after the plant and animal materials containing hydrogen and carbon were broken down by heat and pressure to form oil. 1 fig.

  16. Ecology and identification of environmental fungi and metabolic processes involved in the biodeterioration of Brazilian soapstone historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, D; de Castro Mendes, I; Paiva, C A O; de Paula Lana, U G; Dos Santos, A F B; de Resende Stoianoff, M A

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids. The acids produced by each of these fungal species were analysed quantitatively by chromatographic methods, revealing potential biodeterioration by the action of acidic metabolites excreted in the stone. Minas Gerais, Brazil, is vulnerable to the activities of mineral extraction industries, posing an imminent risk to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized cities, e.g. Congonhas. Many of these municipalities hold many soapstone religious sculptures and historical monuments. Consequently, soapstone is susceptible to filamentous fungi attack causing irreversible biodeterioration. Despite the concern related to nondestructive sampling of 18th century sculptures, in this study, we have discussed the factors that lead to biodeterioration of soapstone due to organic acid excretion by the fungi that damage the stone, thereby providing an insight in conserving and preserving the soapstone monuments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  19. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.; Zelicourt, Axel de; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, Rene; Hirt, Heribert; DuBow, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  20. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.

    2016-04-08

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 1985-03-30 to 1985-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0143395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143395 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National...

  2. 75 FR 61415 - Admiralty National Monument: Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Expansion of Tailings Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Greens Creek Mine to allow for continuous site operations in a safe, environmentally sound, technically... CFR 1501.7 and 1508.22; 36 CFR 220.5; also Forest Service Handbook 1909.15, Section 21). Comments...

  3. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Time, Monday through Friday..., as well as objects of deep cultural and educational value. The plan will also provide for continued... Supervisor. Scoping Process This notice of intent initiates the scoping process, which guides the development...

  4. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  5. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  6. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  7. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  8. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  9. Microchemical identification of macael white marble in some spanish monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, M. A.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The white marble from Macael quarries (Almería, Spain has been identified in some monuments of the Southern of Spain; the use of other white marble types has also been confirmed. The microchemical identification has been carried out by means a previously described graphical method (Bello and Martín,1991. Fourteen trace elements have been analyzed from both quarry and building material samples by using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry in order to apply the enrichment diagrams for trace elements (EDTE for identification purposes.

    Ha sido confirmado el empleo del mármol blanco procedente de las canteras de Macael (Almería en varios monumentos del Sur de España; también se ha constatado el empleo de otros tipos de mármol blanco. La identificación del mármol de Macael mediante técnicas microquícas ha sido realizada mediante un método gráfico propuesto por los autores (1. Han sido analizados catorce elementos traza en las muestras de cantera y de los edificios mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y de emisión de llama, al objeto de construir los diagramas de enriquecimiento de elementos traza (EDTE, con fines de identificación.

  10. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained.

  11. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G.; Douvika, Maria G.; Apostolopoulou, Maria; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical) representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained. PMID:28767073

  12. A sand budget for Marble Canyon, Arizona: implications for long-term monitoring of sand storage change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent U.S. Geological Survey research is providing important insights into how best to monitor changes in the amount of tributary-derived sand stored on the bed of the Colorado River and in eddies in Marble Canyon, Arizona. Before the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams upstream, sandbars in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons were replenished each year by sediment-rich floods. Sand input into the Colorado River is crucial to protecting endangered native fish, animals, and plants and cultural and recreational resources along the river in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park.

  13. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...... of two CID, isotropically consolidated, drained triaxial tests carried out according to the instructions in DG1 letter dated 13 March 1998....

  14. sand_point.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  15. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  16. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ORKHON INSCRIPTIONS IN TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN TERMS OF VALUE TRANSFER I: TUNYUQUQ MONUMENT - ORHUN ABİDELERİNİN TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE DEĞER AKTARIMI AÇISINDAN ÖNEMİ I: TONYUKUK ABİDESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri KARDAŞ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Orkhon Inscriptions is one of the largest cultural heritages of the Turkish nation. These cultural assets are the property of being the memory of the nation they were born through. Indeed since these monuments transfer the values they contain to the future, they have a characteristic that is the masterpiece of the Turkish nation which plays a significant role. What a nation keeps alive is its values. In this sense, for the Turkish nation, it is important that these monuments is examined in terms of the transfer value and is used in educational activities. The aim of this study is to identify the values in Tunyuquq Monument which is the first of Orkhon Inscriptions and to determine the importance of these values in Turkish value transfer. In the study, the descriptive analysis, one of the qualitative research techniques, has been used. By the researcher, values form was prepared in consultation with experts and the value elements in Tunyuquq Monument were determined and then with the problem of the study, the following conclusions were reached: ?\tIn Tunyuquq Monument, about 179 value elements have been identified, directly or indirectly, including 25 different values of the Turkish nation. These values and their handling frequencies in the Monument are given as follows: Bravery - bravery value (f = 24, Leadership value (f = 21, Nation-family unity value (f = 15, Homeland - the nation benefit (f = 15, Taking responsibility value (f = 12, Freedom and independence value (f = 11, Diligence value (f = 9; Farsightedness value (f = 9, belief in God value (f = 9; Sacrifice value (f = 7, Integrity value (f = 5, Sensitivity-kindness value (f = 5, Respect value (f = 5, Solidarity value (f = 4, Loyalty value (f = 4, Tradition-customs value (f = 4, Wisdom value (f = 4, Peace value (f = 3, comply with laws-law of value (f = 3, Protect the language value (f = 3, Patriotism value (f = 2, Esteeming Elder’s sayings value (f= 2, faithfulness value (f=1

  18. Reconnaissance Report of Damage to Historic Monuments in Cairo, Egypt Following the October 12, 1992 Dahshur Earthquake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sykora, D

    1993-01-01

    .... Damage to historic monuments can be generally described as having resulted from the continuous degradation of foundation and structural masonry from environmental effects, especially groundwater...

  19. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.R.; LeBlanc, N.; Walden, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  20. A Study on Silica Sand Quality in Yazaram and Mugulbu Deposits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of silica sand deposits of Yazaram and Mugulbu in Mubi South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria for commercial glass production were assessed based on the chemical and physical properties of the silica sand samples collected along the river side's. Test was carried out at the National ...

  1. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  2. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  3. Water depth and acoustic backscatter data collected from NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in Caribbean Sea, Buck Island Reef and Virgin Islands National Coral Reef Monuments, U.S. Virgin Islands from 2006-03-21 to 2006-04-02 (NCEI Accession 0131851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA) conducted the third year of an ongoing scientific research mission on board NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER. The...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the KA'IMIKAI-O-KANALOA, KILO MOANA and ROGER REVELLE in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2002-07-01 to 2003-08-21 (NODC Accession 0108077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108077 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KA'IMIKAI-O-KANALOA, KILO MOANA and ROGER REVELLE in the North...

  5. Activities of the Volgograd Branch of All-Russian Society for Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments on the Protection of Labour Glory Monuments of the Soviet People in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Dmitriy N.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the causes and origins of the all-Russian society for protection of monuments of history and culture. On the basis of archival documents the author shows the appearance of the Volgograd branch of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The author describes its activities on studying, preserving and promoting the monuments of history and culture of the Volgograd region in the 1970s. The author discusses the causes of establishing in 1974 the section of the regional Department for the protection and promotion of monuments of labour glory of the Soviet people. He indicates that its appearance in the structure of all-Russian society of protection of monuments of history and culture was associated with an increased conducted by the then government work on military-Patriotic education of youth. Under this policy, the section has been considered from the point of view of propaganda of Soviet history and focused on the identification, promotion and protection of monuments of history of Soviet society. The article studies its activities related to the identification, research, description, and preservation of monuments of labour achievements of the Soviet period. The author indicates the difficulties encountered after the adoption in 1976 of the USSR Law “On the protection and use of monuments of history and culture”, where the monuments of labour glory in a separate category werenot distinguished and were classified as historical monuments. The author describes the closure of the section of monuments to the labour of fame in 1979 and evaluates the results of the section, its contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Volgograd region.

  6. A Monument as a Text, or The Message of the Brothers Dostoevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zakharov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the circumstances of the creation of a monument to the writer's mother Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya. Mikhail Andreevich, father of the brothers Dostoevsky, asked Mikhail and Fyodor to compose the text for the monument. In March and April of 1837 the brothers worked out the idea and conception of the monument, wrote the text of the first and fourth epigraphs, chose evangelic verses and an epitaph of N.M. Karamzin. This was their first collective act of creative work embodied in stone. The monument is not only a symbol of love and sorrow for their mother’s death but also hope for her salvation and future resurrection. The brothers’ words and those chosen from the Gospel as well as the Karamzin’s ones have one more meaning. These convey a sense of beingness and an Easter idea of individual creative work. It is necessary to renew the tomb of Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya and bring the monument back to Lazarevskoye cemetery in Moscow.

  7. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  8. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwalt, C.; Kotecha, P.; Aumann, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  9. In-situ diagnosis of stone monuments; the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Török, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    Székesfehérvár is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. In the Middle Ages (11th and 12th centuries), the city was a Royal residence and until the Turkish occupation in 1543, one of the most important cities of Hungary. The Ruin Garden of Székesfehérvár is a unique assemblage of monuments belonging to the cultural heritage of Hungary due to its important role in the Middle Ages as the coronation church for the kings of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom and the burial place for fifteen kings and other members of the royal families and the high nobility. It was also the home of the royal treasury and relics. It is comprised of a provostal church dedicated to Virgin Mary, so called today "Royal Basilica", royal tombs and related ecclesial and lay buildings. Since it has been nominated for "National Memorial Place", its present and future protection is required. Its several reconstructions and expansions throughout Hungarian history introduce another aspect of the importance of the historical site. By a quick overview of the current state of the monument, the presence of several lithotypes could be found among the remained building and decorative stones. Therefore, the research related to the materials in order to understand their composition, structure, origin and behavior was crucial not only for the conservation of that specific monument but also for a series of other historic structures in the Hungarian territory. In order to help the study of the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár, a series of maps was created based on in-situ investigations. Five wall sections were selected for the sake of the different lithotypes distribution and the different construction periods were the ruins belong to. The total mapped area covers about 30 m2 of the existing walls surfaces. Three different kinds of maps were designed for each wall section. The first series of maps depicts the different construction periods of the selected section of the

  10. Bison and the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude's Mildred Lake oil sands development project is located within the central boreal mixed wood forest in an area supporting traditional land uses, including trapping and harvesting of wildlife and plant materials by Fort McKay First Nation residents, in a community within 10 km of the Syncrude development. Reclamation requirements and standards in Alberta specify that the reclamation process must restore a landscape capability equivalent to, or better than that existing before disturbance. Syncrude is committed to complying with all provincial requirements and guidelines in all aspects of its business, including land reclamation. A five year research program has been established to determine the feasibility of reclaiming a portion of the landscape to support wood bison and bison subspecies once indigenous to this area. The current project may be expanded as a pilot commercial ranching venture to explore its commercial viability as a business venture by the Fort McKay First nations

  11. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  12. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures. 644.551 Section 644.551 National Defense Department of Defense...

  13. Monumental Masonry Buildings Pre-Assessment Method Based on Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem VATAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the construction period, geometrical typology, construction and organization of the structure, element size and construction material of historic monumental structures; constructed with bricks, stones, adobe and mortar, are diverse and very complicated. Structural safety is guaranteed by the codes, guidelines, and specifications for recently constructed concrete and steel buildings, but there is no specific criterion for evaluating the historic monumental buildings. This study presents a scoring system method for classifying the risk level of the historic monumental structures based on visual information. This method is based on the acquisition of visual data of the building by using the developed building inspection form, storage of the acquired data on the web database and evaluation of the risk score of the inspected building automatically by the computer database system.

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-06 to 1994-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  15. The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Zapponi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancient trees present structural and functional characteristics fundamental for sustaining complex and unique assemblages of species. They are a resource globally threatened by both intensive land uses and lack of recruitment. Their disappearance would involve not only the loss of majestic organisms with high intrinsic value, but may also result in the disappearance of rare and endangered species. Italy is currently implementing a new list of noteworthy ancient trees (i.e. monumental trees and the preliminary results of this new inventory have been analysed as a case study of a national initiative. The provisional list included 950 complete records, corresponding to 65 genera and 118 species. The most abundant species was Quercus pubescens Willd while the most common genera were Quercus, Larix, Cedrus, Fagus and Platanus. Age and size were the most used criteria for inclusion of trees in the census. The fundamental novelty of the new inventory is that it is based on a set of well-defined criteria of monumentality and that it clearly recognised the ecological value of ancient trees. Preserving a tree for its ecological role requires a profound cultural shift. The value of microhabitats, structures that have historically been considered defects, should be recognised and managed accordingly. Ancient trees are often part of disappearing cultural landscapes: to preserve the richness and diversity of these habitats, new policies and regulations are needed. The preservation of landscapes, where there is still a high density of ancient trees, should be a priority for all European countries in order to conserve their unique associated fauna and for their irreplaceable functional value for biodiversity conservation.

  16. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  17. A new era of opportunity for Canada's oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The enormous potential for wealth that is offered by Canada's oil sands deposits was discussed. Alberta's oil sands contain more recoverable oil than all the reserves of Saudi Arabia - but they have barely been developed. They are a natural resource of sufficient size, scale and competitive advantage to be of great benefit to the economy. The National Oil Sands Task Force has invested billions of dollars in the project and believes that the industry can triple production over the next 25 years. Benefits to Canadians will include an estimated 44,000 new jobs across the country, $97 billion increase in revenue for all levels of government, and $100 billion increase in consumer disposable incomes. In order to realize these socio-economic benefits, some important improvements were recommended to insure industry efficiency and growth. Some of the recommendations included increased investment in science and technology, as a key component of development. 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. The Culture of Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    transformation into tools of the extremist nationalist state applies, at least in its broad strokes, to such other art forms as music , theater, or opera. A...monuments were an effective part of the liturgy of public festivals which the Nazis adopted and extended. This development played a key role in the...an area that provided space for festivals and celebrations. A sort of pilgrimage to these sites of national significance was carried out to worship

  19. SEDIMENT ANALYSIS NETWORK FOR DECISION SUPPORT (SANDS) LANDSAT GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF AL (GSA) ANALYSIS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS) Landsat Geological Survey of AL (GSA) Analysis dataset analyzed changes in the coastal shoreline and...

  20. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover and sand along camera tow tracks in west Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral and sand overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery northwest...

  1. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  2. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  3. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  4. Tidal dynamics in the sand motor lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Radermacher, M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a mega-nourishment characterized by a very large sand volume of around 20 million m3 placed along the Dutch coast. The Sand Motor is a pilot project to evaluate the performance of an alternative nourishment strategy with respect to different functions of the coastal system. Within

  5. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  6. Gravity-induced stress as a factor reducing decay of sandstone monuments in Petra, Jordan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řihošek, J.; Bruthans, J.; Mašín, D.; Filippi, Michal; Carling, G. T.; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1 May (2016), s. 415-425 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Decay * Petra * sandstone monument * stability * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016

  7. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate control of a monumental church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Neilen, D.; Schellen, H.L.; Aarle, van M.A.P.; Carmeliet, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  8. Optimal setpoint operation of the climate controle of a monumental church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the Walloon Church in Delft (Netherlands) and a description of constraints for the indoor climate, giving criteria for the indoor air temperature and relative humidity with the focus on the preservation of the monumental organ. The setpoint operation of the

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.455 - May historic monuments be used for revenue-producing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., rehabilitation, restoration, and maintenance of the property; (c) Approves the grantee's plan for financing the... connection with the management, operation, or development of the property for revenue producing activities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May historic monuments...

  10. Monuments and energy efficiency between conservation and modernization; Denkmal und Energieeffizienz zwischen Konservierung und Anpassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Roswitha [LWL - Amt fuer Denkmalpflege, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Protection of monuments does not necessarily mean conservation of buildings in their original state, but modernization with a view to energy conservation should be an important goal as well. The contribution shows how the two goals can be combined. (orig./AKB)

  11. Pages of the phytomorphology history in the monuments of material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Barshteyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reviewed Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome sources of plants morphology, plant morphology knowledge in Renaissance age – scientific works of Andrea Cesalpino, Joachim Jungius, Marcello Malpighi and plant morphology formation as the separate branch of science due to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific works and its reflection in the monuments of material culture.

  12. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a

  13. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Lony, R.J.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study on the performance based design for the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia

  14. Indoor climate design for a monumental building with incidental high indoor moisture loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the indoor climate of a monumental building with periodic high indoor moisture loads. Several scenarios of the past performance and new control classes are simulated and evaluated. The results include the influence of hygric inertia on the indoor climate and

  15. Historical floods in central Europe and their documentation by means of floodmarks and other epigraphical monuments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munzar, Jan; Deutsch, M.; Elleder, L.; Ondráček, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Hrádek, Mojmír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 26-44 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : historical floods * floodmarks * epigraphical monuments * Central Europe Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  17. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  18. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  19. The Places of Memory in a Square of Monuments: Conceptions of Past, Freedom and History at Szabadság Tér

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Thorstensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to approach contemporary Hungarian political culture through an analysis of the history of changing monuments at Szabadság Tér in Budapest. The paper has as its point of origin a protest/irredentist monument facing the present Soviet liberation monument. In order to understand this irredentist monument, I look into the meaning of the earlier irredentist monuments under Horthy and try to see what monuments were torn down under Communism and which ones remained. I further argue that changes in the other monuments also affect the meaning of the others. From this background I enter into a brief interpretation of changes in memory culture in relation to changes in political culture. The conclusions point toward the fact that Hungary is actively pursuing a cleansing of its past in public spaces, and that this process is reflected in an increased acceptance of political authoritarianism.

  20. Title: Vision of the Reconstruction of Destructed Monuments of Palmyra (3D) as a Step to Rehabiliate and Preserve the Wholesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkawi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Syria is one of the world's most impressive Cultural Heritages in terms of the number and historical significance of its monuments. Palmyra lies in the heart of Syria, an oasis in the midst of the arid desert.it could be considered as a part of this human heritage. In1980 was registered on the world and national heritage list for its huge historical importance. In addition, it was the focus of many studies and researches in the fields of restoration. Then the disaster happened, many monuments were demolished, temple of Ba'al, temple of Bael-shameen, Arch of triumph and the Castle. Lately the Tetrapylon and the Stag. Every Syrian was hurt, the whole world was hurt. The destruction of the city caused its people to become homeless and Palmyra was no longer the oasis we know. We felt pain, so we wanted to make a move, a step forward, to present a work that expresses our love for Palmyra, we organized Palmyra workshop to provide a vision for the reconstruction and revival of the historic site importance. Visions with using new idea & new technology. Palmyra historical areas are considered a large open museum for heritage through history, which is the reason to treat these area as a historical protection precinct and give a vision, ideas, suggestions to the future of Palmary as a first step to preserve the historical buildings& the archeological park.

  1. TITLE: VISION OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF DESTRUCTED MONUMENTS OF PALMYRA (3D AS A STEP TO REHABILIATE AND PRESERVE THE WHOLESITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arkawi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syria is one of the world’s most impressive Cultural Heritages in terms of the number and historical significance of its monuments. Palmyra lies in the heart of Syria, an oasis in the midst of the arid desert.it could be considered as a part of this human heritage. In1980 was registered on the world and national heritage list for its huge historical importance. In addition, it was the focus of many studies and researches in the fields of restoration. Then the disaster happened, many monuments were demolished, temple of Ba’al, temple of Bael-shameen, Arch of triumph and the Castle. Lately the Tetrapylon and the Stag. Every Syrian was hurt, the whole world was hurt. The destruction of the city caused its people to become homeless and Palmyra was no longer the oasis we know. We felt pain, so we wanted to make a move, a step forward, to present a work that expresses our love for Palmyra, we organized Palmyra workshop to provide a vision for the reconstruction and revival of the historic site importance. Visions with using new idea & new technology. Palmyra historical areas are considered a large open museum for heritage through history, which is the reason to treat these area as a historical protection precinct and give a vision, ideas, suggestions to the future of Palmary as a first step to preserve the historical buildings& the archeological park.

  2. NORM exposure to workers at a zircon sand processing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, T.; Israelson, C.

    2003-01-01

    The National Institute of Radiation Hygiene (NIRH) has estimated doses to workers at a Danish zircon-processing industry. Calculations of internal doses were made after measuring dust concentrations in the working area and content of radium-226 and thorium-232 in the zircon sand. The total effective dose from internal and external irradiation was calculated to approximately 0,75 mSv/y. (orig.)

  3. From oil sands to transportation fuels, to electricity, to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources programs and initiatives on oil sands and heavy oil, and strategies for revitalizing oilsands development in Alberta are described. The regional upgrader and satellite production facilities concept, and technology requirements for mineable oil sands by the year 2010 are discussed. Strategic alliances in furtherence of oil sands research and development and the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies are described. Changes in requirements for transportation fuels due to stricter regulations and environmental initiatives will cause a trend to lighter fuels with more hydrogen content, less aromatics, nitrogen, sulfur and metals. A preferred refinery configuration will be able to process heavier crudes and synthetic crudes, have no heavy fuel oil product, low sulfur products, low aromatics with high octane, and low operating cost. A regional or central facility that combines the processing capabilities of a bitumen upgrader with the process units of a refinery is preferred. Advantages of this concept are: value addition to the feedstock is maximized; dependence on refineries is eliminated; restriction on synthetic crude oil volumes due to capacity limitations at refineries is eliminated; directly marketable finished products are produced; more stringent quality specifications are satisfied; and the synergies between upgrading and refining improve overall economics of processing. It is recommended that the concept of regional upgraders be adopted for Alberta, strategic alliances be encouraged, incentives for bitumen production be provided, and a bitumen pipeline network be developed. 12 refs

  4. Beyond the chalice: monuments manifesting utraquist religious identity in the Bohemian urban context in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horníčková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 137-152 ISSN 1350-7486 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : utraquism * Bohemia * religious history * religious symbolism * denominational culture * denominational monuments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  6. Cultural monuments from exceptional importance in Serbia as anthropogenic tourist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Sanja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural monuments mark historical past. They are included in anthropogenic tourist values. They present rare copies of creativity and they have exceptional artistic and esthetic values. The most numerous group are sacral objects. The largest attention deserve objects assigned in World cultural inheritance - monastery Studenica and monastery Sopoćani with old town Ras. It is necessary to build caterer capacities, parking lots and sanitary devices in encirclement. Manifestations and presentations on domestic and foreign market contribute to cultural affirmation. Tourist valorization is impeded with that there are no evidence about number of visitors. In separating priorities we must consider uniqueness, rarity and fame. That’s the reason why Čele kula has tourist importance. Cultural monuments increase stay and serve as complementary tourist values. That’s why is necessary synthesis access in their learn and tourist presentation.

  7. Christian interpretation of the Ancient monuments in Rome Sixtus V (1585-1590

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Verdugo Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The view of the counter reformation on the ancient monuments was very different from the thought of Renaissance men. The pagan world was conquered by Christianity, and therefore had the remains of one reason only be based on the exaltation of the glory of Christ and his Church. According to this belief Sixtus V acts on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius; statues on the Capitol or Coliseum, transforming them into monuments to the victory of Christianity. Other operations will be moving the Vatican obelisk located on the spina of the circus of Caligula. A challenge for the technology of the time, which was used in propagandize by the pope. The obelisk had an archaeological and symbolic value, for tradition stated that circus as the place where early Christians were martyred.

  8. Creating/Curating Cultural Capital: Monuments and Museums for Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first democratic elections in 1994, South Africa has faced the challenge of creating new cultural capital to replace old racist paradigms, and monuments and museums have been deployed as part of this agenda of transformation. Monuments have been inscribed with new meanings, and acquisition and collecting policies have changed at existing museums to embrace a wider definition of culture. In addition, a series of new museums, often with a memorial purpose, has provided opportunities to acknowledge previously marginalized histories, and honor those who opposed apartheid, many of whom died in the Struggle. Lacking extensive collections, these museums have relied on innovative concepts, not only the use of audio-visual materials, but also the metaphoric deployment of sites and the architecture itself, to create affective audience experiences and recount South Africa’s tragic history under apartheid.

  9. The Catholic of Stilo. Survey and analysis of a Byzantine monument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Arena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattolica di Stilo, one of the greatest monu-ments of Calabria, is the most important example of the secular Byzantine influence on this region. The Greek cross inscribed in a square, with its five domes, denounces his connection with an archi-tectural style of oriental origin. Although built in a remote province of the Empire, the Catho-lic is not the expression of a poor art; all poetics typical of Byzantine architecture are manifested with originality. The first paragraph, written by Domenico Mediati, analyzes the geometries and correlates with contemporary buildings (X-XI cen-tury and similar in size and shape. The second paragraph, written by Marinella Arena, highlights the differences of construction compared to the theoretical form. The third paragraph, written by Daniele Colistra, reviews some representations of the monument trying to identify those who most influenced the collective imagination.

  10. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial purposes is prohibited in the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of the monument between east end of Arch Rock 119°21′-34°01′ and west end of island, 119°27′-34°01... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a...

  11. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    billion m3 of beach quality sand . However, Texas projects to date have not utilized these sources because of transportation costs. The lack of nearby...estimate that the San Luis Pass flood shoal contains approximately 11.8 million yd3 of beach quality sand . However, it is expected that if permits...a source of beach- quality sand . 2. Sand could be intercepted before it reaches the present dry beach. ERDC/CHL TR-16-13 55 3. The volume of

  12. The research of contamination regularities of historical buildings and architectural monuments by methods of computer modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmichev Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the active step of urbanization and rapid development of industry the external appearance of buildings and architectural monuments of urban environment from visual ecology position requires special attention. Dust deposition by polluted atmospheric air is one of the key aspects of degradation of the facades of buildings. With the help of modern computer modeling methods it is possible to evaluate the impact of polluted atmospheric air on the external facades of the buildings in order to save them.

  13. Enhancing the Durability of Calcareous Stone Monuments of Ancient Egypt Using CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aldoasri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The unwanted changes in valuable historic calcareous stone monuments due to exposure to many physical and chemical effects may lead to its deterioration. The growing interest in the field of conservation of stone monuments encourages the development of consolidation and water-repellent materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a consolidation and protection material for calcareous stone monuments, when those nanoparticles used are dispersed in acrylic copolymer; polyethylmethacrylate (EMA/methylacrylate (MA (70/30, respectively. Samples were subjected to artificial aging by relative humidity/temperature to show the optimum conditions of durability and the effectiveness of the nano-mixture in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The synthesis process of CaCO3 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite has been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposites with 0.15 g CaCO3 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and good protection properties. Some tests were performed in order to estimate the superficial consolidating and protective effect of the treatment. The obtained nanocomposites have been characterized by TEM, while the surface morphology before and after treatment and homogeneous distribution of used consolidation materials on stone surface were examined by SEM. Improvement of stone mechanical properties was evaluated by compressive strength tests. Change in water-interaction properties was evaluated by water absorption capillarity measurements, and colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. Taken together, the results indicate that CaCO3/polymer nanocomposite is a completely compatible, efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural limestone monuments capable of enhancing the

  14. METRIC SURVEY OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN ELISENDA'S TOMB IN THE MONASTERY OF PEDRALBES, BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Núñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When an urban development is planned the cartography of this territory is necessary, in the same way before starting a project to rehabilitate a monument the graphic information about it has to be available. At present, different techniques are available which allow to obtain three-dimensional models with a different accuracy level and runtimes.This paper shows the work carried out to obtain the graphic information and three-dimensional models that are necessary for the rehabilitation project of the tomb of Queen Elisenda in the Monastery of Pedralbes, Barcelona (Spain. This monument has the peculiarity of being symmetrical about the wall separating monastery church and the cloister. To do this, different techniques have been used that allow us to obtain an accurate model and as complete as possible, for the analysis of the construction process of the monument. In order to achieve the complete architectural survey the integration of laser scanning and photogrammetric data, and CAD models has been necessary. Due to the detail of the sculptures and the Queen’s sarcophagus two sensors, with different resolution, range and accuracy, have been used to obtain the laser scanning data. Stereo pairs have been taken to obtain the 3D model of these elements to complete the model and obtain an ortophotography.In this way, a comparative analysis of both techniques has been carried out, in order to decide which one is the suitable for certain application. This investigation has been restricted to the tomb, in the two symmetrical parts of the monument.

  15. Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains the geochemical data and the methods of data collection from the former tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Data are from a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. Selected solid samples are water extracted to remove easily soluble salts. The waters and extracts of solid samples were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Een monument voor het land. Overheidsstatistiek in België, 1795-1870

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, Nele

    2008-01-01

    In A monument to the country. Official statistics in Belgium, 1795-1870, Nele Bracke unravels why and how the Belgian state and its predecessors organized and developed an official statistical apparatus in order to collect numerical information. The study captures the underlying objectives and structures, as well as the methods to compile statistics. Nele Bracke investigates the meaning and significance of government statistics in the 19th-century State and society. In Belgium, early social s...

  17. Monumental Misjudgements? Early Conservative Interventions and their Impact on Orcadian Neolithic Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Georgina

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary experience of visiting many Neolithic sites in Orkney is dominated by the physical manifestations of early conservative interventions; the most striking of these being a series of cover-houses, installed over chambered tombs to ensure their protection from the elements. These shelters range in scale from small concrete domes enclosing the interior of the monuments (such as that over the Knowe of Yarso, depicted in the cover image), to a vast free-standing steel enclosure (see...

  18. The use of nuclear analytical methods in the investigation of objects of art and historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2006-01-01

    Special nuclear analytical methods contribute significantly to the identification of the origin, manufacturing technology and/or authenticity of objects of art and historical monuments, Such methods primarily include variants of X-ray fluorescence analysis and activation analysis. The former enables non/destructive testing of materials, the latter features a high sensitivity. The article presents numerous examples of use of such methods especially in the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia). (author)

  19. MONITORING OF NATURAL MONUMENTS IN THE PARK ZAMKOWY IN ŻYWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elżbieta Salachna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of monitoring of trees monumenst of Park Zamkowy in Żywiec, which is a one of most valuable dendrological collection in the Silesia region. It was found that among the 27 studied monuments of nature, most (76% is in a satisfactory state of health and requires only care intervention. Of the remaining group 13% presented of good condition and for 11% it is necessary to take immediate treatments.

  20. Neutron-activation analysis of wall soils of ancient architectural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatamov, Sh.; Zhumamuratov, A.; Ibragimov, T.; Tillyaev, T.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Rakhmanova, T.P.; Pulatov, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The simplified, relatively inexpensive, and productive multielemental neutron activation techniques for analysis of solid of the architectural monuments of Karakalpakstan have been elaborated. A comparison of the elemental composition of the wall soils of the ancient buildings, constructed at different historical periods, with the composition of the agricultural soils allows us to estimate the present ecological and agrogeochemical states of the agricultural soils and to trace changing the dynamics of about 30 chemical elements. (author)

  1. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  2. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0052882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  3. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Benthic Data from Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0000881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  4. 78 FR 18789 - Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... tribe. The Secretary shall, in consultation with Indian tribes, ensure the protection of religious and... cultural and customary uses, consistent with the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (42 U.S.C. 1996) and Executive Order 13007 of May 24, 1996 (Indian Sacred Sites). Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to...

  5. 77 FR 59221 - Information Collection Activities: Timpanogos Cave National Monument Visitor and Community Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... of how each of the above management issue affects their overall quality of visit experience. Visitors... collect visitors and local community members' perceptions and evaluations of four management issues (1... management issues: (1) Cave tour size and frequency. (2) Ticketing process and fees. (3) Concession service...

  6. 78 FR 18763 - Establishment of the Harriet TubmanUnderground Railroad National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... out of the house of bondage, and whose heartfelt ``God bless you'' has been your only reward. The... for the Union cause, for the rights of enslaved people, for the rights of women, and for the rights of all. She was a leader in the struggle for civil rights who was forever motivated by her love of family...

  7. 77 FR 62413 - Establishment of the Cesar E. Chavez National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... was facing, celebrated victories and mourned losses, and watched the union endure and modernize. The..., recognize the contributions of many people, cultures, and organizations to the farm worker movement, such as...

  8. 78 FR 19291 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Billings and Pompeys Pillar National Monument Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carolyn Sherve-Bybee, RMP Team Lead, 406-896-5234 or Jim Sparks... product sales, closed to cremains scattering, and closed to land disposals. Bridger Fossil Area ACEC (577... fuel wood cutting/wood product sales, closed to animal trapping/traplines; closed to recreational...

  9. Facade renovation - replacement and restoration of the panels in a monument protected object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Michal

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with problems of reconstruction of the facade and the associated problem of replacement or repair of the panels. In conventional buildings it is a smooth operation, but it is problematic in monument-protected objects. In the case of a common building, it is possible to choose any modern panels and simply replace them, but for historical objects we have to follow the claims and the rules of monument protection. In practice, it usually means the impossibility of use of modern panels, but at least a combination of old and modern technologies. Another possible solution to the problem is renovation, or repairs to the original state of the existing panels, of course with respect to the functionality of such panels. The implementation of such repairs must always be based on the technical and historical survey of the condition of the object and the repairs must be professionally designed. Subsequently, corrections are made, during which it is necessary to pay particular attention to observance of the technological procedures, rules and instructions particularly in terms of monument protection. However, the functionality of the works or elements made with regard to the quality of the environment within the building is not negligible. A common problem is the lack of control of technical requirements and functional requirements. Underestimation of the problems then leads to difficult repairs. The article points to the mistakes and problems of one such construction project on a historically protected chateau building.

  10. Bacterial bio-mediated calcite precipitation for monumental stones conservation: methods of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, P; Biagiotti, L; Mastromei, G

    1999-05-01

    The weathering of monumental stones is a complex process inserted in the more general 'matter transformation cycle' operated by physical, chemical and biological factors. The consequence of these combined actions is a loss of cohesion with dwindling and scaling of stone material and the induction of a progressive mineral matrix dissolution. In the case of calcareous stones, calcite leaching increases the material porosity and decreases its mechanical features with a general weakening of the superficial structural strength. Attempts to stop, or at least to slow down, deterioration of monumental stones has been made by conservative treatments with both inorganic or organic products. More recent studies show a new approach to hinder these phenomena by inducing a bio-mediated precipitation of calcite directly inside the stone porosity. This can be achieved either through the application of organic matrix macromolecules extracted from sea shells or of living bacteria. The effectiveness of the treatment using calcinogenic bacteria has been evaluated with laboratory tests specifically developed to evaluate the parameters such as : porosity, superficial strength and chromatic changes, influenced by the treatment itself. The results obtained seem to indicate that this type of treatment might not be suitable for monumental stone conservation.

  11. Technical Limitations in Merging Secular and Sacred Functions in Monumental Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Ksenia

    2017-10-01

    The abandonment of churches and their adaptation for secular purposes is a current subject in Europe and worldwide. Most cases involve objects that were desacralized and then rebuilt as a whole object for alternative functions. Thus far, the merging of secular and sacred functions in one monumental Catholic church has not raised any issues. The paper describes the case of St. Catherine’s Church in Gdansk, Poland, where sacred function exists parallel to the new secular function being implemented. The study is based on the authentic, professional experience of the author. It describes the technical limitations arising from the need to ensure destinies for the optimal conditions of both sacred and secular function, while avoiding undesirable interference between them. The author further identifies architectural solutions most relevant to current requirements for protection of sacred zones in the church, for preservation of the monument, and for optimal function of a modern science museum. Significant design issues include: the inviolability of the sacred zone, preservation of the historical value of the monument, proper operation of new secular zones in compliance with contemporary standards of safety, performance of the assumed mission and profitability. The research indicates specific areas where the highest probability of collision exists between the sacred and profane and where technical problems are likely to occur.

  12. Biodiversity of cyanobacteria and green algae on monuments in the Mediterranean Basin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maria Filomena; Miller, Ana Zélia; Dionísio, Amélia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-11-01

    The presence and deteriorating action of micro-organisms on monuments and stone works of art have received considerable attention in the last few years. Knowledge of the microbial populations living on stone materials is the starting point for successful conservation treatment and control. This paper reviews the literature on cyanobacteria and chlorophyta that cause deterioration of stone cultural heritage (outdoor monuments and stone works of art) in European countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Some 45 case studies from 32 scientific papers published between 1976 and 2009 were analysed. Six lithotypes were considered: marble, limestone, travertine, dolomite, sandstone and granite. A wide range of stone monuments in the Mediterranean Basin support considerable colonization of cyanobacteria and chlorophyta, showing notable biodiversity. About 172 taxa have been described by different authors, including 37 genera of cyanobacteria and 48 genera of chlorophyta. The most widespread and commonly reported taxa on the stone cultural heritage in the Mediterranean Basin are, among cyanobacteria, Gloeocapsa, Phormidium and Chroococcus and, among chlorophyta, Chlorella, Stichococcus and Chlorococcum. The results suggest that cyanobacteria and chlorophyta colonize a wide variety of substrata and that this is related primarily to the physical characteristics of the stone surface, microclimate and environmental conditions and secondarily to the lithotype.

  13. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  14. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  15. Time–frequency analysis of GPR data to investigate the damage of monumental buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leucci, Giovanni; Persico, Raffaele; Masini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The presence of particular microclimatic conditions inside monumental buildings is responsible for bio-deterioration processes. In many cases, efflorescence and moulds are visible on the facades of several monuments of historical importance. In many other cases, the effects of decay processes are not visible, thus making difficult the diagnosis and the consequent setup of effective rehabilitation and preservation interventions, especially in the presence of a complex geometry and/or a large variability of construction materials. In such cases, a valuable contribution could be provided by geophysical methods (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), etc), which have been proved to be successful tools for sub-surface investigation and characterization of historical buildings. In old monumental buildings, the masonry structures frequently exhibit cracks, voids, detachments and high moisture contrasts that can give rise to reflection events in radar signals. However, the complexity of the geometry and the structural heterogeneity that characterize these old structures often make the GPR results difficult to analyse and interpret. In particular, the spatial variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information about the electrical properties of the investigated materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical parameters associated with damage. In this paper, we propose an approach that analyses the data in the form of ‘frequency maps’ to evidence absorption losses probably linked to higher moisture content. Two real case histories back up the proposed method. (paper)

  16. Acoustical features of two Mayan monuments at Chichen Itza: Accident or design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    Chichen Itza dominated the early postclassic Maya world, ca. 900-1200 C.E. Two of its colossal monuments, the Great Ball Court and the temple of Kukulkan, reflect the sophisticated, hybrid culture of a Mexicanized Maya civilization. The architecture seems intended for ceremony and ritual drama. Deducing ritual practices will advance the understanding of a lost civilization, but what took place there is largely unknown. Perhaps acoustical science can add value. Unexpected and unusual acoustical features can be interpreted as intriguing clues or irrelevant accidents. Acoustical advocates believe that, when combined with an understanding of the Maya worldview, acoustical features can provide unique insights into how the Maya designed and used theater spaces. At Chichen Itza's monuments, sound reinforcement features improve rulers and priests ability to address large crowds, and Ball Court whispering galleries permit speech communication over unexpectedly large distances. Handclaps at Kukulkan stimulate chirps that mimic a revered bird (''Kukul''), thus reinforcing cultic beliefs. A ball striking playing field wall stimulates flutter echoes at the Great Ball Court; their strength and duration arguably had dramatic, mythic, and practical significance. Interpretations of the possible mythic, magic, and political significance of sound phenomena at these Maya monuments strongly suggests intentional design.

  17. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  18. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  19. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  20. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  1. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  2. Community structure of fish and macrobenthos at selected sites fronting Sand Island, Oahu, Hawaii in relation to the Sand Island Deep Ocean Sewage Outfall, 1990 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0000177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of nine years of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean Outfall, Oahu,...

  3. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  4. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  5. Use of coal ash in production of concrete containing contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeldin, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    There are between 2 to 3.5 million underground storage tanks located throughout the nation. Most of these tanks, which store oils and gasolines, are leaking making them one of the primary sources of soil contamination. Adding coal ash or cement to contaminated soil has been used to obtain stationary and inert wastecrete. By using this procedure, stabilization (limiting the solubility and mobility of the contaminants) and solidification (producing a solid waste block) of contaminated soils are successfully achieved. This paper investigates another re-use option of coal ash and contaminated soils. An experimental study evaluating the effectiveness of using coal ash with oil contaminated sand in concrete production is presented. A control mix made of clean sand was designed to yield 500 psi of compressive strength. Sand, artificially contaminated with 3% by weight of motor oil, was used as clean sand replacement. Six concrete mixtures were tested in compression and flexure. The six mixtures were obtained by increasing the ratio of contaminated sand to clean sand, namely; 10%, 20% and 40% and by introducing coal ash to the concrete mixture, namely; 20% of the cement weight. The test results indicate that the inclusion of oil contaminated sand in concrete reduces the compressive and flexural strengths. However, this decrease in strength is compensated by introducing coal ash in the mixture. Regaining that strength offers the possibility of using such concrete as a construction material in special structural applications. More research is required to establish better understanding of that composite and suggest feasible applications

  6. Non-aqueous heavy oil extraction from oil sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George [National Nuclear Security Administration (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Kansas City plant operated by Honeywell has a long history of working with DOE NNSA on engineering and manufacturing services supporting national security requirements. The plant has developed a non-aqueous method for heavy oil extraction from oil sands. This method is environmentally friendly as it does not use any external body of water, which would normally be contaminated in the conventional method. It is a 2 phase process consisting of terpene, limonene or alpha pinene, and carbon dioxide. The CO2 and terpene phases are both closed loop systems which minimizes material loss. The limonene and alpha pinene are both naturally derived solvents that come from citrus sources or pine trees respectively. Carbon dioxide is an excellent co-solvent with terpene. There is also a possibility for heat loss recovery during the distillation phase. This process produces clean dry sand. Laboratory tests have concluded that this using non-aqueous liquids process works effectively.

  7. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S.

    2016-01-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  8. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  9. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  10. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  11. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  12. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  13. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  14. Loodusmonumendid kui rahvuse monumendid : Eesti rändrahnude tähendusest = Monuments of Nature as Monuments of Nation / Robert W Smurr ; tõlk. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smurr, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Rahvaluule- ja loodusteadlastele viidates analüüsib autor eesti rahvusliku identiteedi konstrueerimist loodusmonumendi mõiste abil. Artikkel on lühendatud versioon uurimistööst "Loodustaju ja selle rahvuslik avaldumine : Eesti keskkondlik ajalugu"

  15. Benthic faunal sampling adjacent to the Sand Island ocean outfall, Oahu, Hawaii, 1986-2010 (NODC Accession 9900088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic fauna in the vicinity of the Sand Island ocean outfall were sampled from 1986-2010. To assess the environmental quality, sediment grain size and sediment...

  16. Map of percent scleractinian coral cover and sand along camera tows and ROV tracks of West Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral and sand overlaid on bathymetry and landsat imagery. Optical...

  17. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  18. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  19. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  20. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin

    2004-01-01

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  1. Astronomy, Illumination and Heritage: the Arles-Fontvieille megalithic monuments and their implications for archaeoastronomy and world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling Saletta, Morgan

    2015-08-01

    Recent archaeoastronomical research at the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has important implications for establishing potential Outstanding Universal Value of megalithic monuments and establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites. My discovery of seasonal light and shadow hierophanies within the Arles-Fontvieille monuments has interpretive and heritage value implications not only for these sites but for late prehistoric European monuments more generally.While horizon astronomy was very likely used for time-reckoning in the Neolithic, I argue the ‘seasonal illumination hypothesis’ is more appropriate than the ‘celestial targeting paradigm’ not only for the interpretation of the role of astronomy and cosmological symbolism in the construction of the Arles-Fontvieille monuments but also for late prehistoric European tombs with chambers and passages more generally.Multiple lines of evidence suggest a cosmologically symbolic link between houses of the living and houses of the dead in late prehistoric Europe. I will suggest that this practice originated not only in symbolic aspects of domestic dwellings, but also in functional solar orientation.If seasonal illumination was a major impetus for the orientation signatures of late prehistoric European monuments, how best to establish this? Time-lapse photography or video, while not unproblematic, is a powerful method of establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites- one which has been used to great effect at monuments such as Newgrange and Stonehenge. In the past, this method was limited by the cost of equipment and the time needed to visit sites and at specific periods of time. Both of these limitations have been significantly lessened in recent years. Digital cameras have become ubiquitous. More importantly, examples of “crowd-sourcing” research problems in science provide a strategy for field documentation of sites whose level of preservation is sufficient to reveal seasonal illumination

  2. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a revision of the original Mexiacan Hat Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. This RAP has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents. Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3. 0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 presents the water resources protection strategy. Section 6.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring health and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on- site workers. Section 7.0 lists the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 8.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan

  3. 3 CFR 8362 - Proclamation 8362 of April 17, 2009. National Park Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurred over the long course of our history. Our system of National Parks is entrusted to each generation... Lincoln Memorial and Ellis Island to the Great Smoky Mountains and Yellowstone, National Parks attract... shared history. From the Prehistoric Trackways National Monument to the Civil War battlefield at...

  4. Monuments in the Structure of an Urban Environment: The Source of Social Memory and the Marker of the Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, N.; Grunt, E.; Merenkov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The major research objective was to analyze the role of monuments in the formation of local residents’ and guests’ representations about the city, its history and traditions. The authors consider the system of monuments’ location in the urban space as a way of its social construction, as the system of influence on citizens’ aesthetic feelings, as the formation of their attitudes towards maintaining of continuity in the activities of different generations for the improvement of the territory of their permanent residence. Methodology. An urban monument is considered in two ways: as a transfer of historical memory and as a social memory transfer, which includes the experience of previous generations. One of the main provisions of the study is the idea that monuments can lose their former social value, transforming into “simple” objects of a public place. The study was conducted in the city of Yekaterinburg, one of the largest, cultural, scientific and industrial Russian megalopolises in 2015. The primary data was collected using standardized interviews. Four hundred and twenty respondents at the age of and above 18 were questioned on the basis of quota sampling. Interviews with respondents were conducted in order to identify key problems involved and reasons for shaping respondents’ representations of monuments in the urban environment typical for the population of Russian megalopolises. The standardized interview guide included 15 questions. Findings and discussion. Our investigation has revealed that different monuments fulfil various functions in an urban environment (ideological, aesthetic, transferring, valuable, etc.). The study has unequivocally confirmed that objects in the urban space have a different emotional colour background: people paint them in accordance with the feelings that arise in their perception. Hence, some monuments effectively fulfil the functions of social memory transfer: they are remembered, they tell us about the events to

  5. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  6. A model for evaluating effects of climate, water availability, and water management on wetland impoundments--a case study on Bowdoin, Long Lake, and Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.; Stamm, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Many wetland impoundments managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System throughout the northern Great Plains rely on rivers as a primary water source. A large number of these impoundments currently are being stressed from changes in water supplies and quality, and these problems are forecast to worsen because of projected changes to climate and land use. For example, many managed wetlands in arid regions have become degraded owing to the long-term accumulation of salts and increased salinity associated with evapotranspiration. A primary goal of the USFWS is to provide aquatic habitats for a diversity of waterbirds; thus, wetland managers would benefit from a tool that facilitates evaluation of wetland habitat quality in response to current and anticipated impacts of altered hydrology and salt balances caused by factors such as climate change, water availability, and management actions. A spreadsheet model that simulates the overall water and salinity balance (WSB model) of managed wetland impoundments is presented. The WSB model depicts various habitat metrics, such as water depth, salinity, and surface areas (inundated, dry), which can be used to evaluate alternative management actions under various water-availability and climate scenarios. The WSB model uses widely available spreadsheet software, is relatively simple to use, relies on widely available inputs, and is readily adaptable to specific locations. The WSB model was validated using data from three National Wildlife Refuges with direct and indirect connections to water resources associated with rivers, and common data limitations are highlighted. The WSB model also was used to conduct simulations based on hypothetical climate and management scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model for evaluating alternative management strategies and climate futures. The WSB model worked well across a range of National Wildlife Refuges and could be a valuable tool for USFWS

  7. Main Features of a 3d GIS for a Monumental Complex with AN Historical-Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.

    2017-05-01

    The last achievements of technologies in geomatics especially in survey and restitution of 3D models (UAV/drones and laser scanner technologies) generated new procedures and higher standards of quality in representation of archaeological sites. Together with Geomatics, the recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) strongly contribute to document and the Cultural Heritage (CH). The representation and documentation of CH using these new technologies has became necessary in order to satisfy different needs: - for restorers in order to acquire a deep knowledge of the cultural good and to define possible strategies of restoration; - for the conservation of information, allowing to preserve the 3D geometry of the monumental complex with the integration of descriptions about architectural elements; - for touristic aims, giving the opportunity of sharing CH information on web, allowing users to visit and explore, in a virtual way, monumental complexes, acquiring information details about architectural elements or the history of monumental complex. Looking through these new scenarios, the development of a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to a cultural good could be, today, an added value of fundamental importance for full description and data management of monumental complexes. In this work, the main features necessary for the correct construction of a 3D GIS of a monumental complex will be analyzed, with a particular focus on the possibilities for creating a standardized procedure to follow.

  8. MONUMENTO JEROGLÍFICO MAYA DE XKOMBEC, CAMPECHE: UNA REVISIÓN (Maya Hieroglyphic Monument from Xkombec, Campeche: A Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Galeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El reanálisis del Monumento 1 de Xkombec (Campeche, México, basado sobre su nueva documentación realizada en 2014 por los colaboradores del Proyecto Atlas Epigráfico de Yucatán, permite descartar la datación de esta inscripción en 866 d. C. y ubicarla a mediados del siglo VIII d. C., contemporánea de los monumentos de Xcalumkín y otros sitios cercanos del Puuc campechano. De acuerdo con el texto, la organización política de Xkombec era parecida a otros centros de Puuc. La ciudad contaba con su propia casa noble, cuyos miembros Xok Tun y B’ahlam eran de rango secundario y llevaban el título de b’ahkab y, probablemente, estaban relacionados con Xcalumkín. ENGLISH: Recent analysis of the epigraphy on Monument 1 from Xkombec indicates that the monument can be dated to A.D. 866, not to the mid-8th century as was previously argued. This new date marks Monument 1 as contemporary to the monuments at Xcalumkin and other neighboring Puuc sites. According to the text contained on Monument 1, political organization of Xkombec was similar to that of other Puuc centers. The association between these two centers may indicate that members of the noble house at Xkombec (Xok Tun and his son B’ahlam may have been related to the nobility of Xcalumkin.

  9. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  10. A study of bat populations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: FY95--97 report to Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M.A.; O`Shea, T.J.; Cryan, P.M.; Ditto, A.M.; Schaedla, W.H.; Valdez, E.W.; Castle, K.T.; Ellison, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1995, a three-year study was initiated to assess the current status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites of bats. The authors captured and released 1532 bats of 15 species (Myotis californicus, M. ciliolabrum, M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Corynorhinus townsendii, Antrozous pallidus, Tadarida brasiliensis, and Nyctinomops macrotis) and followed 32 bats of eight species (M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, E. fuscus, E. maculatum, C. townsendii, A. pallidus, and N. macrotis) to 51 active diurnal roosts. The most abundant species were L. noctivagans, E. fuscus, L. cinereus, M. evotis, M. volans, and M. ciliolabrum. Most of these species are typical inhabitants of ponderosa pine-mixed coniferous forests.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of sand dune morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team

    2015-11-01

    Sand dunes are natural features that form under complex interaction between turbulent flow and bed morphodynamics. We employ a fully-coupled 3D numerical model (Khosronejad and Sotiropoulos, 2014, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216) to perform high-resolution large-eddy simulations of turbulence and bed morphodynamics in a laboratory scale mobile-bed channel to investigate initiation, evolution and quasi-equilibrium of sand dunes (Venditti and Church, 2005, J. Geophysical Research, 110:F01009). We employ a curvilinear immersed boundary method along with convection-diffusion and bed-morphodynamics modules to simulate the suspended sediment and the bed-load transports respectively. The coupled simulation were carried out on a grid with more than 100 million grid nodes and simulated about 3 hours of physical time of dune evolution. The simulations provide the first complete description of sand dune formation and long-term evolution. The geometric characteristics of the simulated dunes are shown to be in excellent agreement with observed data obtained across a broad range of scales. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  12. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  13. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  14. Biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi on two historic monuments in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm on the sandstone substrata of the bridge 'Brankov most' and on the granite substrata of the 'Monument of the Unknown Hero' contains a complex consortia of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. Coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms make up the photosynthetic part of the biofilm while hyphal fragments, chlamydospores, fruiting bodies and spores take part as fungal components. These structures make a dense layer by intertwining and overlapping the stone surface. Five cyanobacterial, 11 algal and 23 fungal taxa were found. The interaction of the biofilm's constituents results in the bioweathering of the stone substrata through mechanical penetration, acid corrosion and the production of secondary mycogenic biominerals. .

  15. Non-destructive analysis for the inspection and control of metalic monuments and historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Heissler, S.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Willin, E.

    2003-01-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage of historical bronze monuments exposed to atmospheric corrosion as well as historical books and manuscripts non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of novel non-destructive analytical methods based on the photoacoustic and photothermal deflection spectroscopy allowed to investigate the state of bronze patina as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. (orig.)

  16. Architectonic context and technological implements for Teodoro Ansagasti’s Monumental Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the economical crisis that Spain suffered in the twentieth century allowed to build more edifices and made possible to follow the concepts of modern European movement. Cinemas were one of the best examples of this attempt of modernity. There are few examples of real quality architecture, and majority of them were built in Madrid or Barcelona. In this context, one of that years’ greatest works has to be put in value: Teodoro Anasagasti’s Monumental Cinema, providing additional architectonic and technological data to the existing historiography.

  17. The laboratory of quantitative methods in historic monument research at the CTU Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Cechak, T.; Kubelik, M.; Pavelka, K.; Pavlik, M.

    2001-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Historic Monument Research' has been established at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation of the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be, investigated. In the first phase, one investigative method was established for each of the above groups: X-ray fluorescence as the analytic method, thermoluminescence for dating and photogrammetry for surveying. The first results demonstrate the need and usefulness of these methods for investigations in the rich architectural heritage of the Czech Republic.

  18. Sand to Root Transfer of PAHs and PCBs by Carrots Grown on Sand with Pure Substances and Biosolids Amended Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Patria, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    A study on behaviour of trace organic compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, PCB) in a sand-plant system has been carried out, with the reclamation of wastewater treatment plant biosolids for agriculture in mind. Carrot plants (Daucus carota) were grown on soilless culture (sand), to provide optimal transfer conditions, in plant containers inside a temperature regulated greenhouse. There were two types of experiment. The trace organic compounds have i...

  19. Sand Waves in Environmental Flows: Insights gained by LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    In fluvial and coastal environments, sediment transport processes induced by near-bed coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer developing over a mobile sediment bed result in the formation of dynamically rich sand waves, or bed forms, which grow and migrate continuously. Bed form migration alters streambed roughness and provides the primary mechanism for transporting large amounts of sediment through riverine systems impacting the morphology, streambank stability, and ecology of waterways. I will present recent computational advances, which have enabled coupled, hydro-morphodynamic large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow in mobile-bed open channels. Numerical simulations: 1) elucidate the role of near-bed sweeps in the turbulent boundary layer as the mechanism for initiating the instability of the initially flat sand bed; 2) show how near-bed processes give rise to aperiodic eruptions of suspended sediment at the free surface; and 3) clarify the mechanism via which sand waves migrate. Furthermore, in agreement with recent experimental observations, the computed spectra of the resolved velocity fluctuations above the bed exhibit a distinct spectral gap whose width increases with distance from the bed. The spectral gap delineates the spectrum of turbulence from that of slowly evolving coherent structures associated with sand wave migration. The talk will also present computational results demonstrating the feasibility of carrying out coupled, hydro-morphodynamic LES of large dunes migrating in meandering streams and rivers with embedded hydraulic structures and discuss future challenges and opportunities. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 and EAR-0738726, and National Cooperative Highway Research Program Grant NCHRP-HR 24-33.

  20. Peyzaj Mimarlığında Heykel Kullanımı: Trabzon Kenti Örneği / Monument Usage in Landscape Architecture: Example of Trabzon City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Düzenli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monuments play a key role in the formation of a common memory and community consciousness by symbolizing important events or situations in the lives of people and societies and establish diverse dialogues with their surroundings in this context. The monument-art works to be placed in open spaces are important in terms of shaping social life and fulfill functions such as warning and activating society. For this reason, the use of monuments in open spaces is a matter for landscape architects to explore. The aim of the study is to determine the purposes and functions of monuments in urban open spaces. In this context, monuments in the city center of Trabzon are photographed and their usage types are classified. As a result, the monuments in urban open spaces in Trabzon are mostly composed of Atatürk and the persons in the history of the city (Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Yavuz Sultan Selim, Mimar Sinan Etc. And secondly the figures and events reflecting the culture of the city (horon/dancing figures, kamancha playing figures, anchovy, Trabzonspor etc. Finally, it is seen that the expressions (military, martyr, etc. reflect the national spirit. So in the monuments; it has been determined that the historical, cultural and social characteristics of the city are gaining more importance.   Öz Toplum ve bireylerin yaşamında yer alan önemli olayları simgeleyen, ortak toplumsal bilinç ve hafıza oluşturan heykeller çevreleriyle ilişki kurarlar. Açık mekanlarda yeralan heykeller, toplumun yaşantısında, sanatsal, estetik, kültürel öneme sahiptir. Bu nedenle heykellerin açık alanlardaki kullanım amaçları peyzaj mimarları için araştırılması gereken bir konudur. Çalışmada amaç kentsel açık mekanlardaki heykellerin kullanım amaçlarını belirlemektir. Bu bağlamda Trabzon kent merkezideki heykeller fotoğraflanarak kullanım türleri sınıflandırılmıştır. Sonuçta Trabzon’da kentsel açık mekanlardaki

  1. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. bDepartment of Petroleum ... as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have lead to the ...

  2. A study of global sand seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin D.

    1979-01-01

    The birth of the idea that led to this publication on "Global Sand Seas" dates back to the late 1920's. At that time I was engaged in a study of the Coconino Sandstone of Arizona's Grand Canyon. Considerable controversy existed then as to whether this sandstone was a subaqueous deposit or was composed of wind-formed dunes. It became apparent that definitive literature was sparse or lacking on types of dunes, global distribution of these types, the mechanics of their development, the precise nature of their internal structure of cross-stratificiation, and the relation of wind systems to these sand forms. Especially lacking were data on criteria that could confidently be used in the recognition of ancient dunes. The common denominator in this publication is eolian sand bodies. Although the book is concerned primarily with desert sand seas, the subject matter is not restricted to deserts; it includes many references to deposits of coastal sand and to sand bodies in humid climates. Nor does the book deal exclusively with dunes, which, according to most definitions, involve mounds or hills. Many references are made to sand sheets, sand stringers, and other types of sand deposits that have no prominent topographic expression. All sand bodies accumulated by the action of wind are discussed. Chapters A-J of this publication are primarily topical. Chapters cover the grain texture, the color, and the structure of modern dunes and other eolian sands. Special treatment is given to the relation of wind data to dune interpretation, the evolution of form in current-deposited sand bodies as determined from experimental studies, and the discriminant analysis technique for differentiating between coastal and inland desert sands. This topical part of the publication also includes an analysis of criteria used in ancient deposits to interpret their eolian genesis and a consideration of economic application of the principles described, including a discussion of potentials and problems

  3. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...... MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...

  4. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  5. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  6. Conservarea şi restaurarea monumentelor istorice: unele obiective şi principii (probleme inginereşti la monumente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Constantin Diaconu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when large parts of the original substance were lost throughout its existence, the monument should be regarded as a spatial structure, participating to the reality around them. Precepts governing the conservation and rehabilitation of historical monuments have to be applied individually to each monument, according to his personality, his past or future function, conservation status, in the way that the rehabilitation concept results from obligations balance to not harm the monument - Primum non Nocera (Carta de la Veneţia even to act for the future generation’s heritage. Monument to be seen through all the three attributes: FIRMITAS (solid, technical achievement, UTILITAS (functionality, the purpose for which it was made, PULCHRITAS (beauty, aesthetic expression. The historical monument’s components are: the land – cadastral lot, constructions, exterior arrangements, other elements, cultural mobile goods. The actions of historical monuments should consider the following objectives and principles: maintenance, rehabilitation, consolidation, security, social, economic and cultural lifeof the local community. The principles underlying these goals:building’s state expertise from all points of view, the building’sconsolidation solution must not affect the architectural appearance, to maintain authenticity, the level of response and earthquake insurance, as a matter of urgency execution of building works, reversible methods applied in conservation and / or rehabilitation, compatible materials used in conservation and / or rehabilitation, the loads resulting from new building elements should not exceed the capable strength of materials of (blocks of masonry, mortar, etc.., the resulting structure after consolidation should lead to good seismic behavior of the assemble "old structure - new structural elements," reintegration cultural and social, etc.

  7. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  8. Canada's oil sands, opportunities and challenges to 2015 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the current state of the oil sands industry and the potential for growth. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's oil sands, one of the world's largest hydrocarbon resources. Initial production of Canada's oil sands began in 1967. The resource has become more economic to develop in recent years due to higher energy prices and new technologies. The economic potential of Canada's oil sands has been recognized internationally. Canadian oil sands production in 2004 will surpass 160,000 cubic metres per day. By 2015, production is expected to more than double to meet market demands. The challenges facing the industry include higher natural gas prices, capital cost overruns and environmental impacts. The major factors that affect the rate of oil sands development include natural gas supply, energy demand, oil and gas pricing, markets and pipelines, environmental considerations, emerging technologies, geopolitical issues, and labour. This report includes key findings for the following four key components: economic potential and development of the resource base; markets and pipelines; environmental and socio-economic impacts; and, potential spin-off developments in the electricity and petrochemical industries. 26 tabs., 53 figs

  9. A Canadian perspective on the supply costs, production and economic impacts from oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.; Masri, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article provided a synopsis of oil sands research recently conducted at the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The production profiles and capital expenditures that CERI has projected for oil sands projects were explored along with the macroeconomic benefits associated with oil sands development. In addition to rising capital and operating costs, bitumen producers are challenged by labour shortages and environmental concerns. However, CERI warrants continued growth in production from the oil sands industry, given the current high price state of the global oil market and security of supply concerns from oil importing countries. This article also provided background information and analysis to assess the implications of future development. The projected growth in the oil sands industry creates demands for infrastructure, housing, health care, education, and business services. The economic impacts were measured at the local, provincial, national and global levels in terms of changes in gross domestic product; changes in employment; and, changes in government revenues. It was concluded that with continued investment and development, Alberta's oil sands resource is expected to continue to produce oil for decades, and would eventually achieve 6 MMbpd production. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  10. SURVEY, HBIM AND CONSERVATION PLAN OF A MONUMENTAL BUILDING DAMAGED BY EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oreni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building’ knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 – 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates, which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027, financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica

  11. Survey, Hbim and Conservation Plan of a Monumental Building Damaged by Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Della Torre, S.; Banfi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building' knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 - 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates), which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027), financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica to a safe and full use

  12. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  13. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  14. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoudis, P [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, S [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karapanagiotis, I [' Ormylia' Art Diagnosis Centre, Ormylia, Chalkidiki, 63071 (Greece); Tsakalof, A [Medical Department, University of Thessaly, Larissa, 41222 (Greece); Zuburtikudis, I [Department of Industrial Design Engineering, TEI of Western Macedonia, Kozani, 50100 (Greece); Panayiotou, C [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale.

  15. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoudis, P; Papadopoulou, S; Karapanagiotis, I; Tsakalof, A; Zuburtikudis, I; Panayiotou, C

    2007-01-01

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale

  16. CONTESTED HERITAGE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION OF DERRY/LONDONDERRY’S SIEGE MONUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Selim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of Derry/Londonderry’s medieval city walls during the twentieth century have shaped an urbanism of segregated settlements within a city of religious confrontation. The heritage of military blockades, peace lines and watchtowers imposed upon the city’s Walls has influenced the disintegration of public space and created areas of no man’s land around the peripheries of the monument. The aim of this paper is to examine physical transformation and trace the consequences of urban planning regarding the historic city Walls. This change includes the shifting of residential settlements in the Bogside/Fountain areas and the movement of Protestant settlements towards the Waterside of Derry/Londonderry. The history and heritage of the Walls are analysed by focusing on four periods: 1600, when the first medieval walls were constructed; the housing crisis of 1948; the 1968 urban area plan and the beginning of the ‘Troubles’; and the present day. This analysis offers an understanding of the spatial relationships between enclaves and the monument over key moments of conflict and political change. The paper reveals that the manifestations of the Walls have aided in the further division of religiously segregated communities in Derry/Londonderry.

  17. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low 226 Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings

  18. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  19. The tercentennial of 'Don Quijote' in 1905 and Spanish nationalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Analysing the commemorations which were held in Spain, and the monuments and representative buildings that were constructed in Madrid in the years before 1900, it seems clear that, in contrast with most of the other European countries, no consistent cultural policy was developed by the national

  20. Theatre Review: Shakespeare at the National Arts Festival 2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is today the National Arts Festival began, in 1974, with a Shakespeare Festival organised by Professor Guy Butler and colleagues to inaugurate the Monument complex on Signal Hill overlooking Grahamstown. Though no longer the main offering, Shakespeare is still on the festival menu; there are no fewer than five ...

  1. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    The Mughrabi Bridge leading to Haram al-Sharif/Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem was built in 2005 with the intent of being a temporary infrastructural solution while a new and permanent bridge was on the drawing table. But the natural forces that had led the old stone ramp to collapse...

  2. Monumentalizing Landscape: from present perceptions to the original meanings of Galician Megalithism (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Boado, Felipe

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Landscape as social construction implies considering its economic and territorial dimensions, as much as its symbolic ones. A major topic in such kind of studies is to reconstruct the ways as natural and social space was perceived by past societies. We ought approach the project of building an Archaeology of Perception. One of the aims of such research programme would be to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial landscape features on past human observers. This paper will argue that a possible strategy for studying these dimensions of past landscapes could be based on the systematic analysis of visual features of the prehistoric monuments and in the characterization of the escenic effects and vistas related to them. A detailed analysis of the pattern of location of megalithic monuments, of their visibility and visibilization conditions, allow us to recognize certain regularities what display an intentional will to remark on the existence of the monument and provoke dramatic artificial effects. In such way we could approach a phenomenology of prehistoric perception without falling in mere subjetive solutions. This study is based in a systematic review of the megalithic monuments from Sierra de Barbanza (NW Iberia. Its final scope is proposing theoretical and methodological standpoints to approach these phenomena, but as well producing a case-study to reconstruct monumental strategies to shape cultural landscapes in Neolithic Europe and observe the diacrony (ie, continuities and changes of these traditions.

    El estudio del paisaje como construcción social implica considerar sus dimensiones económicas, territoriales y simbólicas. Sería importante reconstruir cómo fue percibido el espacio natural y social, para lo que se debería construir una Arqueología de la Percepción que tendría entre sus objetivos evaluar el efecto de los rasgos naturales y artificiales del paisaje sobre sus observadores pretéritos. Aquí se

  3. Effect of manufactured sand on the durability characteristics of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. SARAVANAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most sought after material due to increase in construction activities and infrastructural developments. Availability of natural sand is decreasing thereby increase in the cost of construction. In the present work undertaken, an attempt has been made to give an alternative to natural sand. Optimization of replacement of natural sand with manufactured sand in concrete, durability studies such as water absorption, rapid chloride permeability test, sorptivity, acid resistance, alkaline resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance of M40 and M50 grades of concrete have been studied with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and compared the results with the conventional sand concrete. The results shows that there is an increase in the durability properties up to 70 % level of replacements of sand with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and for 100 % use of manufactured sand also gives the better durability than the conventional sand concrete.

  4. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  5. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  6. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and others from 1998-01-31 to 2003-02-12 (NODC Accession 0080986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080986 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  10. Comparison between predicted and observed sand waves and sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Brink, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time a prediction model of regular morphological patterns on the seabed was tested against observations of sand wave and sand bank occurrence in the entire North Sea. The model, which originates from first physical principles, predicts this occurrence via two dimensionless parameters

  11. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  12. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  13. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present

  14. Combination of three-dimensional laser scanning and digital photogrammetric shoot for fixing and measurement of architectural monuments

    OpenAIRE

    S.V. Tiurin; S.G. Tihonov

    2010-01-01

    Several variants of architectural monument fixing using photogrammetric method are considered: black-and-white and colour three-dimensional point models; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in format SPO; black-and-white and colour orthophotomaps in standard raster formats. For different aims authors recommend corresponding data formats.

  15. Monument et espace urbain. Pour une Sémiotique des parcours et des structures de la ville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Ragonese

    2012-11-01

    Cependant, partant de cet exigu corpus bibliographique, on peut chercher des bases pour commencer un travail sur le texte architectural, à partir de l'étude de monuments, capable de décrire le processus de transformation urbaine et les formes de l'espace construit.

  16. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Monuments and Sites in Greece and Turkey: A Value-Based Approach to Anastylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Vacharopoulou

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage management and monument conservation play a significant role in the preservation of archaeological heritage. Anastylosis, a process with a long history in the Mediterranean region, is discussed with relevance to current debates concentrating on concepts of value-based approaches. Examination of the diverse values that may be attributed to monuments provides an insight into the evolution of ideas in heritage management, conservation and restoration practices. In the current theoretical framework the concept of values, as attributed by all stakeholders, and its application when preserving archaeological heritage, are constantly debated. The participation of stakeholders in the process of value identification is considered fundamental by heritage management experts. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to collect the opinions of anastylosis and restoration professionals, with reference to case studies on a number of monuments subjected to anastylosis in Greece and Turkey, highlighting the importance of assessing values in order to establish the appropriate type and extent of intervention. The paper concludes that a value-based approach to decision-making and planning for anastylosis, or any other form of architectural conservation, is crucial for preserving monuments in a way that satisfies those who want to experience and benefit from heritage.

  17. De lo inmaterial literario al monumento arquitectónico: la casa museo de Ricardo Rojas / From the literary immateriality to the architectural monument: the House Museum of Ricardo Rojas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Salvioni

    2015-02-01

    The House Museum of Ricardo Rojas, built in 1927 by the architect Angel Guido in Buenos Aires, is an ideal starting point for a reflection on the social uses of cultural heritage in Twentieth Century Argentina. The House reflects an aesthetic program that intended to reinvent the national tradition as a fusion between indigenous and Hispanic elements. Nonetheless, the national tradition codified by Rojas and Guido was the result of an arbitrary selection of heterogeneous elements that excluded immigrants and did not guarantee access to cultural heritage of all sectors of society. The project of the House was directly related to the emergence of cultural and politic nationalism that took place in Argentina from the Centenary of Independence in 1910 to the beginning of Second World War. This essay focuses on the contradictions of monumentalization of intangible cultural heritage in a multicultural society.

  18. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. A Improved Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In marine geology research it is necessary to obtain a suf fcient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also en- suring that the samples are in their original state. Currently,there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but we fnd it is very diffcult to obtain sand samples using these devices, particularly when dealing with fne sand. Machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are also available, but generally unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of seabed surface sand samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve upon sampling devices,but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results, in our opinion.To resolve this issue, we have designed an improved andhighly effective seabed surface sand sampling device that incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices. It is capable of diving into deepwater to obtain fne sand samples and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of depth (up to 100 m). This device can be used for geological mapping, underwater prospecting, geological engineering and ecological, environmental studies in both marine and terrestrial waters.

  20. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  1. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  2. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  4. NURE and the National Park Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE data have been made public for the majority of the area in the combined Mt. McKinley National Park and Denali National Monument. Besides indicating potential raw material deposits, these data are also useful for geologic mapping, water quality, pollution and othe geological, biological, and environmental studies in the park

  5. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ( 60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  7. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  9. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  10. Isolation and characterisation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in monument crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Perez-Rodriguez, Jose; Carmen Jimenez de Haro, Maria del; Maqueda, Celia

    2004-10-25

    Black crusts from historical ornamental materials contain Ba and Ti. These elements are in low proportion, making their determination difficult and especially the characterisation of the phases in which they are present. For this reason, works on the mineralogical composition of the two elements in black crusts is scarce. Thus the isolation, previous to their characterisation, is important for the study of the surface layer in altered monuments. An acid attack for the isolation of barium sulphate and titanium oxides in black crusts from polluted areas has been used. The acid employed is a mixture of HF, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}. The residue isolated by acid attack was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. It was characterised, and the percentages of barite (barium sulphate), anatase (titanium oxide), and rutile (titanium oxide) phases present in the surface layers were calculated.

  11. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  12. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  13. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  15. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  16. NIPGAT: new tool for investigating the deterioration of monuments and historic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Lahasen Norman Shah Dahing; Susan Maria Sipaun; Md Fakaruddin Abdul Rahman; Ismail Mustapha

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of some building materials such as brick and mortar is a major problem for the preservation of monuments or historic structures, especially where it is desirable to preserve the original fabric of the building. Such degradation often arises from the presence of contaminants in the constituent materials. Knowledge of the presence and distribution of contaminants is needed for effective treatment and preservation. In building materials, water and soluble salt are considered two unwanted contaminants. Their concentrations and distribution in these materials are very important factor in estimating the degree of building deterioration. Water is a major course of deterioration, both by acting as a solvent for various building materials components and by exerting stresses on the structure during thermal cycle. The soluble salts, notably chlorides, damage the structure either by periodically dissolving and recrystallising within the pores or by promoting corrosion. Neutrons are useful as probes for non-destructive examination of extended media because neutrons can travel relatively long distances before interacting with the nuclei of the media. Depending on the type of material, neutrons can have a mean free path of tens of centimeters to meters. It is for this reason that neutrons in conjunction with gamma-ray spectroscopy have been used extensively in oil-well logging and mineral exploration. For the same reason, a new method, called neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray technique, NIPGAT is being developed at MINT for preservation of monuments and historic buildings. NIPGAT can be used for in-situ quantitative determination and location of contaminants, particularly water and soluble salt in building materials. This paper presents a brief overview and gives preliminary results of NIPGAT research activities at MINT. It is hoped that it may raise awareness and promote further opportunities for the collaboration of the nuclear research scientists with the museum

  17. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out......-distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean...

  18. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  19. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.P.; Spurlock, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  20. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)